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A C-BAND WIDEBAND 360 ANALOG

PHASE SHIFTER DESIGN


M. X. Xiao, S. W. Cheung, and T. I. Yuk
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University
of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Corresponding author:
mxxiao@eee.hku.hk
Received 21 May 2009
ABSTRACT: This article proposes a reection-type wideband 360
analogue phase shifter in microstrip form. It employs a 3-dB branch-line
coupler circuit to achieve a wideband operation and two varactor-diode
circuits to achieve 360 phase shift. Formulas are derived to optimize
the dimensions of the microstrip lines in the coupler and the varactordiode circuits for wideband operation and minimizing frequency
dependency of the output phase. Experimental results show that the
design has a 360 phase-shift range and 1 dB insertion loss, with a
500-MHz operation bandwidth at the center frequency of 6.5 GHz.
C 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 355
V
359, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.
wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.24938
Key words: branch-line coupler; wideband phase shifter; reflection
type; varactor diodes
1. INTRODUCTION

Analogue phase shifters are widely used in communication systems, antenna arrays, radar systems, and microwave automatic
control systems [1]. In designing phase shifters, compromises
have often to be made among bandwidth, phase-shift range, and
fabrication complexity. For example, using coplanar waveguide
(CPW) technology [2] or exploiting the broadside coupling
between the top and bottom layers of the microstrip patches via
a mid-layer elliptical slot can achieve ultra wide bandwidths [3];
however, the phase-shift ranges obtained are quite limited. In
Ref. [4], a microstrip transmission line lter with loaded varactor diodes in short-circuited stubs was used to achieve a 360
phase shift, but it required a wide pass-band lter and multi-section stubs. In Ref. [5], a varactor diode with series inductance
was used to obtain a phase-shift range of less than 180 , so a
multi-stage phase shifter was needed to produce a 360 phase
shift. The authors in Ref. [6] described a 360 reection-type
phase shifter by optimizing the impedance matching to the reective load, but it only worked at a given centre frequency.
In this article, we propose the design of a reection-type
360 analogue phase shifter in microstrip form, with an operation bandwidth of 500 MHz at the center frequency of 6.5 GHz.
The phase shifter consists of a wideband 3-dB branch-line coupler and two identical varactor-diode circuits connected to the
through and coupled ports. The design of the phase shifter can
be easily optimized by adjusting the dimensions of the microstrip lines, which determine the characteristics of the coupler
and two identical varactor diode circuits. This article is organized as follows. The designs of a wideband 3-dB coupler and
our proposed 360 phase shifter are described in Sections 2 and
3, respectively. The measured and simulated performances of
the wideband coupler and the phase shifter are given in Section
4. Section 5 is the conclusions.
2. DESIGN OF WIDEBAND COUPLER

In a reection-type phase shifter, a 3-dB 90 branch-line coupler


is usually employed to divide the input signal into two signals,
which are then reected and combined to produce the output
signal [1]. Here we describe the design of a 3-dB 90 wideband

DOI 10.1002/mop

Figure 1 (a) Conventional 3-dB branch-line coupler and (b) wideband


3-dB branch-line coupler

branch-line coupler. Figure 1(a) shows a typical 3-dB branchline coupler in microstrip form. It is a four-port device formed
by two main k/4-long transmission
lines (L1 and L3) with charp
acteristic impedance Z0 = 2 shunt-connected by two secondary
k/4-long transmission lines (L2 and L4) with characteristic
impedances Z0 [1]. The input signal to port #1 is equally divided
into two signals with 90 out of phase at ports #2 and #3. This
type of couplers can be easily implemented using microstrip
transmission lines and so is low cost, but the major drawback is
its narrow bandwidth. In addition, if very low characteristic impedance Z0 is required in the design, the widths of the microstrip lines will need to be very large, making the coupler impossible to be implemented in practice. For example, it is not
possible to have the widths of the microstrip lines, L1, L2, L3,
and L4 in Figure 1(a), to be larger than k/4, or else they will
overlap with each other. Adding open stubs to the symmetryplanes of a conventional coupler can have convenient line impedances [7]. However, this results in reduction of the couplers
bandwidth [8].
It has been suggested to add a matched network in series to
the couplers four ports to increase the bandwidth [8]. A wideband coupler employing this technique is shown in Figure 1(b)
where a matching network, composing of a series transmission
line L5 and a parallel open stub L6, is added in series to each
of the four ports. Analysis based on eigen-admittances was performed to determine the parameters of these lines to achieve a
wide bandwidth [8]. Since the analysis considered only the amplitude aspect of the coupling coefcients and did not take into
account of the phase, it is not suitable for the design of phase
shifters. Here, we propose a new design using a different
approach as follows.
An ideal 3-dB branch-line coupler should have its S-parameters S21 and S31 equal in amplitude and 90 difference in phase.
Based on these criteria, we dene a discrepancy function as:
Z
D1

fupper

flower



2
2



2
 S21 f j  jS31 f  df S21 f j  0:5

2 


jS31 f j2 0:5 df
Z
D2

fupper




 S21 f  S31 f j90df

1a
(1b)

flower

where |()| and Z() are the amplitude and phase, respectively, of
(), and flower and fupper are the lowest and highest operating frequencies, respectively. An ideal 3-dB branch-line coupler should
have the discrepancy function of Eq. (1) equals to zero across
the operating bandwidth. Thus, in optimizing the design of the
coupler, we should attempt to minimize this discrepancy function in the operating frequency band. It is difficult to obtain an
analytical solution for Eq. (1), and so we propose to use

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 52, No. 2 February 2010

355

numerical evaluation instead. To do this, we modify the discrepancy function of Eq. (1) to:
D01

1
N

X
2 X 
2




2
jS21 f j  jS31 f j
jS21 f j  0:5
fi

fi

2 
X 

2

jS31 f j  0:5

fi

D02


1 X 

jS21 f  S31 f j90
N f
i

where fi is a frequency in the range from flower to fupper, N is the


number of frequency points used for numerical evaluation. Now,
we can minimize the functions D01 and D02 by varying the widths
and lengths of the transmission lines L3, L4, L5, and L6 using
numerical evaluation. In the minimization process, constraints
must be imposed to avoid the microstrip transmission lines having too low or too high impedances so that the coupler could be
implemented in practice.
3. DESIGN OF WIDEBAND 3608 PHASE SHIFTER

In the branch-line couplers shown in Figure 1, the input signal


to port #1 is equally divided into two signals with 90 out of
phase at ports #2 and #3. So if these two ports are terminated
with identical loads of purely reactive impedances, the two
reected signals will combine in phase to produce the output
signal at port #4, but cancel each other (i.e., having 180 out of
phase) at port #1. The bandwidth of the phase shifter to a large
extent is therefore determined by the bandwidth of the coupler.
To have a large phase shift range, the reective loads terminated
at ports #3 and #4 can be implemented using two series-tuned
varactor-diode circuits connected in parallel [1]. In Ref. [6], a
circuit using two parallel branches, each containing a varactor
diode in series with a short-circuited microstrip line, as shown
in Figure 2(a), was proposed to achieve a 360 phase shift. The
k/4-long transformer was used to connect the two resonant circuits with impedance of j(Xdi Xsi), for i 1,2. The phase
shifter has a phase shift range of 360 , but it is narrowband [6].
Since the values of Xsi in the circuit are xed and used to
achieve the required resonances, there is not much freedom of
adjustment in the design. Thus, here we propose to use two
additional series microstrip transmission lines, TL1 and TL2, in
each of the resonant circuits as shown in Figure 2(b) to give
more freedom of adjustment in our design.
From transmission line theory, it can be shown easily that
the impedances of the varactor-diode circuits in the two
branches as shown in Figure 2(b) are purely imaginary jXi, for i
1,2, with Xi given by:
X1 Zt1

Xd1 Xs1 Zt1 tan h1


Zt1  Xd1 Xs1 tan h1

(3)

X2 Zt2

Xd2 Xs2 Zt2 tan h2


Zt2  Xd2 Xs2 tan h2

(4)

356

X1 X2
X1 X2

The reection coefcient is:


C

jX  Z0 jX  1
jCjej/

jX Z0 jX 1

(6)

where

/ p  2 tan1 X

(7)

X
X
Z0

(8)

and

with Z0 being the characteristic impedance of the input and output arms of the coupler.
From Eq. (7), it can be seen that, for a 360 phase-shift
range, the variable X needs to be varied from negative innity
to positive innity. This could be approximately implemented
by tuning one series microstrip transmission line to resonance at
the minimum reverse bias and the other series microstrip transmission line to resonance at the maximum reverse bias [6].
To minimize the dependence of the phase shift on frequency,
we take partial differentiation of Eq. (7):
2 @X2
1
X22 @X
@/
1
@ X
1
@f X1 @f



 2 @f
 2 X1 X2 2 Z0
@f
1 X
1 X

(9)

where

@Xi
Zti Xdi Xsi Zti2 tan hi @Zti @Xdi Xsi
tan hi


@f
@f
Zti  Xdi Xsi tan hi 2 @f
 @Zti
@hi
@hi
@f
@f Xdi Xsi 2Zti tan hi @f

; for i 1; 2

Zti  Xdi Xsi tan hi


1 hi 2
(10)

where Zt1 and Zt2 are the characteristic impedances, h1 and h2


are the electrical lengths of the series transmission lines, Xd1
and Xd2 are the reactances of the varactor diodes, and Xs1 and
Xs2 are the reactances of the shorted-stubs. The input impedance
presented to ports #3 and #4 of the coupler is:
X

Figure 2 Reective load using (a) two series-tuned varactor-diode circuits in parallel and (b) two additional transmission lines added to varactor-diode circuits in (a)

(5)

The phase shift will be independent of frequency if Eq. (9) is


made to be zero within the operating frequency band. We therefore dene a phase deviation function as:
X @/2
 
F
 @f 

(11)

fi

where fi is a frequency in the operating frequency band. The


design process is to find the characteristic impedances for

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 52, No. 2 February 2010

DOI 10.1002/mop

Figure 3 Schematic of proposed wideband phase shifter

transmission lines, TL1, TL2, TL3, and TL4, and their corresponding line lengths that give a minimum value of F in Eq.
(11).
The schematic of our proposed reection-type phase shifter
employing the 3-dB wideband coupler of Figure 1(b), with ports
#2 and #3 being terminated by two identical reective varactordiode circuits, is shown in Figure 3. The input signal to port #1
is equally divided into two signals with equal amplitude and 90
out of phase at ports #2 and #3. At port #4, the reected signals
are combined in phase. While at port #1, the reected signals,
having 180 out of phase, cancel off with each other [9]. A
reverse-biased DC voltage VDC is used to control the capacitance of the varactor diodes. The DC voltage is applied to the
diodes via an open radial stub in series with a 3k/4-long transmission line to isolate the high frequency signals from the biased DC circuit. The VDC in turn controls the impedance of the
varactor diode circuits and hence the amplitude and phase shift
of the reected signals. In our study, we have designed a phase
shifter with 360 phase shift and an operation bandwidth of
500 MHz at the center frequency of 6.5 GHz.
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1. Wideband Coupler


In the design of the wideband 3-dB branch-line coupler, the
computer aided design tool, ADS 2008A, has been used to optimize the dimensions of the transmission lines L3, L4, L5, and
L6 with the objective to minimize the discrepancy functions in
Eq. (2). Since the nal design would be fabricated using a Rogers PCB, RO4305B, having a dielectric constant of 3.48, loss
tangent of 0.0037, and depth of 30 mil (0.76 mm), the range of
the line impedances used for minimization was set to 30100 X
for ease of implementation. In the minimization process, the

characteristic impedances of L5 and L6 were initially set to


50 X with electrical lengths of k/2 at the center frequency of 6.5
GHz to make the matching network L5 and L6 wideband [8].
The characteristic impedances of L3 and L4 were set to 35.4
and 50 X, respectively, same as those used in a conventional
coupler in Figure 1(a), with electrical lengths of k/4 at the
centre frequency of 6.5 GHz. Finally, the targets of minimization were set to have D01 in Eq. (2) to be less than 0.5 dB and
then D02 in Eq. (2) to be less than 0.5 across the frequency
band of 5.67.6 GHz. Results have shown that the optimum
characteristic impedances for transmission lines L3, L4, L5, and
L6 are 38.5, 53.5, 93.8, and 55.7 X, with their corresponding
electrical lengths of 35.9 , 88.6 , 177.2 , and 191 , respectively.
The prototypes of the wideband coupler using these parameters
and the conventional coupler are shown in Figure 4.
The measured and simulated results on S21 and S31 of the
wideband coupler and conventional coupler are shown in Figure
5. The measured results in Figures 5(a) and 5(b) show that, in the
frequency band of 5.27.2 GHz, the wideband and conventional
couplers have |S21  S31|  0.8 and |S21  S31|  2.8 dB, respectively. Clearly, the wideband coupler has a much wider bandwidth than that of the conventional one. The simulated results
agree well with the measured results and have |S21  S31|  0.5
and |S21  S31|  2.1 dB for the wideband coupler and the conventional coupler, respectively. Figure 5(c) shows that the measured phase difference of the signals at ports #2 and #3 is between
88 and 93 for the wideband coupler, and between 85 and 110
for the conventional coupler in the frequency band from 6.0 to
8.0 GHz. The simulated phase difference is between 89 and 91
for the wideband coupler, and between 88 and 110 for the conventional coupler in the frequency band of 5.28.2 GHz.
4.2. 360 Phase Shifter
The proposed phase shifter of Figure 3 has also been fabricated
on a Rogers PCB, RO4350B, (30 mil), as shown in Figure 6.
The wideband coupler used is the one shown in Figure 1(b),
with an identical varactor-diode circuit of Figure 2(b) terminated
at ports #A and #B. The varactor diodes used are Skyworksincs
SMV1405-079. The biased voltage is applied via an open radial
stub (with a radius of k/3 at 6.5 GHz and angle of 75 ) in series
with a 3k/4-long transmission line at 6.5 GHz. The ADS 2008A
has been used to optimize the parameters for the microstrip
transmission lines with the objective to minimize the phase
deviation in Eq. (11). The optimized characteristic impedances
are 12.5, 16.6, 17.5, and 27.5 X, and the electrical lengths are

Figure 4 Prototype of (a) wideband coupler and (b) conventional coupler. [Color gure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at
www.interscience.wiley.com]

DOI 10.1002/mop

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 52, No. 2 February 2010

357

Figure 7 Phase shifter performances: (a) phase shift at different frequencies and (b) insertion loss at difference frequencies

Figure 5 Performances of wideband and conventional couplers: (a)


amplitudes of coupling coefcients S21 and S31, (b) amplitude difference,
and (c) phase difference between ports #2 and #3

39.9 , 103.6 , 176.3 , and 175.9 for TL1, TL2, TL3, and TL4,
respectively.
The measured and simulated performances of the proposed
phase shifter at different frequencies are shown in Figure 7. The
phase shifter has a phase-shift range of 360 for reverse biased
voltage of 010 V in the varactor diodes. The measured phase
errors at the edge frequencies of 6.3 and 6.8 GHz and the centre
frequency of 6.5 GHz are less than 10 while the simulated
phase errors are less than 7 . The measured and simulated insertion losses are between 1.5 and 1 dB and between 0.8 and 1 dB,
respectively, at frequencies from 6.3 to 7.2 GHz. Although the
results in Ref. [6] using the reective load of Figure 2(a) could
also achieve a 360 phase shift at the frequency of 10 GHz, the
phase shifter however had only a narrow bandwidth. Our proposed phase shifter has a wide bandwidth of 500 MHz.
5. CONCLUSIONS

Figure 6 Prototype of wideband 360 phase shifter. [Color gure can


be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.
wiley.com]

358

The design of a wideband 360 phase shifter employing a wideband coupler circuit and two varactor-diode circuits using
microstrip technology has been presented. The bandwidth and
phase-shift range are determined by the dimensions of the transmission lines. The formulas for optimizing the performance, in
terms of maximizing the bandwidth and minimizing the ripple
across the frequency band, have been derived and studied.
Measured results have shown that the proposed phase shifter can
achieve a phase-shift range of 360 from 6.3 to 6.8 GHz. At the
band edges of 6.3 and 6.8 GHz, the phase derivations are less
than 10 . The insertion loss is between 1.5 and 1 dB from 6.3 to
7.2 GHz.

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 52, No. 2 February 2010

DOI 10.1002/mop

REFERENCES
1. S.K. Koul and B. Bhat, Microwave and millimeter wave phase
shifters, Vol. 2, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1991.
2. A.A. Eldek, Design of ultra wideband microstrip 180 degree phase
shifter, Microwave Opt Technol Lett 50 (2008), 18411844.
3. A.M. Abbosh, Ultra-wideband phase shifters, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 55 (2007), 19351941.
4. D. Morikawa, H. Deguchi, M. Tsuji, and H. Shigesawa, A microstrip-line phase shifter constructed by a tunable lter, Electron
Commun Jpn 90 (2007), 10491056.
5. B. Ulriksson, Continuous varactor diode phase shifter with optimum frequency response, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 27
(1979), 650654.
6. T.W. Yoo, J.H. Song, and M.S. Park, 360 Reection-type analogue phase shifter implemented with a single 90 branch-line coupler, Electron Lett 33 (1997), 224226.
7. H. Ashoka, New type of branch-line hybrids, In: 18th European
Microwave Conference, 1988, pp. 785790.
8. B. Mayer and R. Knochel, Brach-line-couplers with improved
design exibility and broad bandwidth, In: International Microwave
Symposium, Dallas, TX, 1990, pp. 391394.
9. Skyworks, Inc., Varactor controlled phase shifter for PCS base station applications, APN 1099 (2005), Available at: http://www.
skyworksinc.com, 18.
C 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
V

COUPLED MONOPOLE ANTENNA


DESIGN FOR MULTIBAND
HANDSET DEVICES
S. Risco,1 J. Anguera,1,2 A. Andujar,1 A. Perez,2
and C. Puente1,3
1
Department of Technology and Intellectual Property, Fractus,
Barcelona, Spain; Corresponding author:
jaume.anguera@fractus.com
2
Department of Electronics and Communications, Universitat
Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain
3
Department of Signal Theory and Communication, Universitat
Polite`cnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
Received 26 May 2009
ABSTRACT: A low prole planar antenna, comprising a driven
element coupled with one or more parasitic elements is proposed. The
design is suitable to be used into a handheld device due to the antenna
reduced dimensions (33  15  1 mm3). To facilitate the integration of
other components, such as cameras or speakers, a ground plane area at
the right side of the antenna is provided. The study carried out reveals
the relevance of the arms location over the performance of the antenna.
The theoretic analysis is reinforced using a network model and a
parametric study. The coupling between elements controls the behavior
of the antenna. In this sense, a weak coupling between the driven
element and at least one parasitic element enhances the bandwidth,
whereas a multiband behavior is achieved by a tight coupling. Finally,
the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) inuence has also been analyzed.
C 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 359
V
364, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.
wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.24893
Key words: monopole; handset antenna; circuit model; multiband
1. INTRODUCTION

The use of monopole antenna in wireless portable devices has


increased in the recent years due to the integration facilities that
entail its characteristic low prole. Many designs have appeared

DOI 10.1002/mop

in the literature with the aim of covering the largest number of


frequency bands as possible without reducing the antenna performance [14]. In Ref. [1], a multiband monopole (GSM850/
GSM900/DCS/PCS and UMTS) with a very low prole (12 
30 mm2) is presented. The disadvantage encountered is the
microstrip line needed to feed the antenna, which crosses the
PCB longitudinally, in such a way that the component integration, such as camera, battery or display, becomes difcult since
the available space is limited. In Ref. [2] a monopole with many
parasitic elements located at the centre of a groundplane at a
certain height is presented. It has a wideband performance
(20%, VSWR < 3) which is not enough to cover the bands
mentioned before. The behavior of a loaded wideband monopole
with a low prole is studied in Ref. [3]. Again, this design is
wideband (22% at VSWR < 3).
The proposed design in this research obtains a multiband
behavior (GSM850/900, DCS, PCS, and UMTS) because of the
coupling effect between elements. At the same time the proposal
maximizes the space on the PCB to integrate other cellular components (Fig. 1).
The article is divided as follows. Firstly, a theoretic explanation about the design elements and its subsequent verication,
from a current simulation, has been carried out. Secondly, an
electrical RLC model is proposed to have a qualitative point of
view of the antenna behavior. A parametric analysis using numerical simulations (MoM) is done to conrm the electrical
model. Then, the results obtained from the manufacture of some
prototypes are presented with their corresponding measurements.
Finally, conclusions are exposed.

2. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

Figure 1 shows one of the antenna geometry proposals and its


location on the PCB [6]. The driven element is located closer to
the groundplane, separated at a distance (dgap) from the parasitic
element. The groundplane area located at the right side of the
antenna provides a useful space to integrate some typical elements of these kinds of devices, such as the camera or the
speaker. On the other hand, the design takes into account the
most critical variables when dening the operation frequency
ranges. These variables are the element lengths and the gap
between them, which determines their coupling effect. Furthermore, the elements location determines the correct behavior,
especially at low operation bands (GSM850/GSM900).
From the impedance matrix, a general expression can be
found considering the parasitic element short-circuited to the
groundplane (Fig. 2).
V1 I1  Z11 I2  Z12

(1)

0 I1  Z21 I2  Z22

(2)

From Eqs. (1) and (2):


ZIN

V1
Z21  Z12
Z11 
I1
Z22

(3)

Considering the distance (dgap) much smaller than k:


I2 I1

(4)

ZIN 0

(5)

From Eqs. (4) and (5) two important conclusions can be


determined:

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 52, No. 2 February 2010

359