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M. X. Xiao, S. W. Cheung, and T. I. Yuk

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University

of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Corresponding author:

mxxiao@eee.hku.hk

Received 21 May 2009

ABSTRACT: This article proposes a reection-type wideband 360

analogue phase shifter in microstrip form. It employs a 3-dB branch-line

coupler circuit to achieve a wideband operation and two varactor-diode

circuits to achieve 360 phase shift. Formulas are derived to optimize

the dimensions of the microstrip lines in the coupler and the varactordiode circuits for wideband operation and minimizing frequency

dependency of the output phase. Experimental results show that the

design has a 360 phase-shift range and 1 dB insertion loss, with a

500-MHz operation bandwidth at the center frequency of 6.5 GHz.

C 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 355

V

359, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.

wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.24938

Key words: branch-line coupler; wideband phase shifter; reflection

type; varactor diodes

1. INTRODUCTION

Analogue phase shifters are widely used in communication systems, antenna arrays, radar systems, and microwave automatic

control systems [1]. In designing phase shifters, compromises

have often to be made among bandwidth, phase-shift range, and

fabrication complexity. For example, using coplanar waveguide

(CPW) technology [2] or exploiting the broadside coupling

between the top and bottom layers of the microstrip patches via

a mid-layer elliptical slot can achieve ultra wide bandwidths [3];

however, the phase-shift ranges obtained are quite limited. In

Ref. [4], a microstrip transmission line lter with loaded varactor diodes in short-circuited stubs was used to achieve a 360

phase shift, but it required a wide pass-band lter and multi-section stubs. In Ref. [5], a varactor diode with series inductance

was used to obtain a phase-shift range of less than 180 , so a

multi-stage phase shifter was needed to produce a 360 phase

shift. The authors in Ref. [6] described a 360 reection-type

phase shifter by optimizing the impedance matching to the reective load, but it only worked at a given centre frequency.

In this article, we propose the design of a reection-type

360 analogue phase shifter in microstrip form, with an operation bandwidth of 500 MHz at the center frequency of 6.5 GHz.

The phase shifter consists of a wideband 3-dB branch-line coupler and two identical varactor-diode circuits connected to the

through and coupled ports. The design of the phase shifter can

be easily optimized by adjusting the dimensions of the microstrip lines, which determine the characteristics of the coupler

and two identical varactor diode circuits. This article is organized as follows. The designs of a wideband 3-dB coupler and

our proposed 360 phase shifter are described in Sections 2 and

3, respectively. The measured and simulated performances of

the wideband coupler and the phase shifter are given in Section

4. Section 5 is the conclusions.

2. DESIGN OF WIDEBAND COUPLER

is usually employed to divide the input signal into two signals,

which are then reected and combined to produce the output

signal [1]. Here we describe the design of a 3-dB 90 wideband

DOI 10.1002/mop

3-dB branch-line coupler

branch-line coupler. Figure 1(a) shows a typical 3-dB branchline coupler in microstrip form. It is a four-port device formed

by two main k/4-long transmission

lines (L1 and L3) with charp

acteristic impedance Z0 = 2 shunt-connected by two secondary

k/4-long transmission lines (L2 and L4) with characteristic

impedances Z0 [1]. The input signal to port #1 is equally divided

into two signals with 90 out of phase at ports #2 and #3. This

type of couplers can be easily implemented using microstrip

transmission lines and so is low cost, but the major drawback is

its narrow bandwidth. In addition, if very low characteristic impedance Z0 is required in the design, the widths of the microstrip lines will need to be very large, making the coupler impossible to be implemented in practice. For example, it is not

possible to have the widths of the microstrip lines, L1, L2, L3,

and L4 in Figure 1(a), to be larger than k/4, or else they will

overlap with each other. Adding open stubs to the symmetryplanes of a conventional coupler can have convenient line impedances [7]. However, this results in reduction of the couplers

bandwidth [8].

It has been suggested to add a matched network in series to

the couplers four ports to increase the bandwidth [8]. A wideband coupler employing this technique is shown in Figure 1(b)

where a matching network, composing of a series transmission

line L5 and a parallel open stub L6, is added in series to each

of the four ports. Analysis based on eigen-admittances was performed to determine the parameters of these lines to achieve a

wide bandwidth [8]. Since the analysis considered only the amplitude aspect of the coupling coefcients and did not take into

account of the phase, it is not suitable for the design of phase

shifters. Here, we propose a new design using a different

approach as follows.

An ideal 3-dB branch-line coupler should have its S-parameters S21 and S31 equal in amplitude and 90 difference in phase.

Based on these criteria, we dene a discrepancy function as:

Z

D1

fupper

flower

2

2

2

S21 f j jS31 f df S21 f j 0:5

2

jS31 f j2 0:5 df

Z

D2

fupper

S21 f S31 f j90df

1a

(1b)

flower

where |()| and Z() are the amplitude and phase, respectively, of

(), and flower and fupper are the lowest and highest operating frequencies, respectively. An ideal 3-dB branch-line coupler should

have the discrepancy function of Eq. (1) equals to zero across

the operating bandwidth. Thus, in optimizing the design of the

coupler, we should attempt to minimize this discrepancy function in the operating frequency band. It is difficult to obtain an

analytical solution for Eq. (1), and so we propose to use

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 52, No. 2 February 2010

355

numerical evaluation instead. To do this, we modify the discrepancy function of Eq. (1) to:

D01

1

N

X

2 X

2

2

jS21 f j jS31 f j

jS21 f j 0:5

fi

fi

2

X

2

jS31 f j 0:5

fi

D02

1 X

jS21 f S31 f j90

N f

i

number of frequency points used for numerical evaluation. Now,

we can minimize the functions D01 and D02 by varying the widths

and lengths of the transmission lines L3, L4, L5, and L6 using

numerical evaluation. In the minimization process, constraints

must be imposed to avoid the microstrip transmission lines having too low or too high impedances so that the coupler could be

implemented in practice.

3. DESIGN OF WIDEBAND 3608 PHASE SHIFTER

to port #1 is equally divided into two signals with 90 out of

phase at ports #2 and #3. So if these two ports are terminated

with identical loads of purely reactive impedances, the two

reected signals will combine in phase to produce the output

signal at port #4, but cancel each other (i.e., having 180 out of

phase) at port #1. The bandwidth of the phase shifter to a large

extent is therefore determined by the bandwidth of the coupler.

To have a large phase shift range, the reective loads terminated

at ports #3 and #4 can be implemented using two series-tuned

varactor-diode circuits connected in parallel [1]. In Ref. [6], a

circuit using two parallel branches, each containing a varactor

diode in series with a short-circuited microstrip line, as shown

in Figure 2(a), was proposed to achieve a 360 phase shift. The

k/4-long transformer was used to connect the two resonant circuits with impedance of j(Xdi Xsi), for i 1,2. The phase

shifter has a phase shift range of 360 , but it is narrowband [6].

Since the values of Xsi in the circuit are xed and used to

achieve the required resonances, there is not much freedom of

adjustment in the design. Thus, here we propose to use two

additional series microstrip transmission lines, TL1 and TL2, in

each of the resonant circuits as shown in Figure 2(b) to give

more freedom of adjustment in our design.

From transmission line theory, it can be shown easily that

the impedances of the varactor-diode circuits in the two

branches as shown in Figure 2(b) are purely imaginary jXi, for i

1,2, with Xi given by:

X1 Zt1

Zt1 Xd1 Xs1 tan h1

(3)

X2 Zt2

Zt2 Xd2 Xs2 tan h2

(4)

356

X1 X2

X1 X2

C

jX Z0 jX 1

jCjej/

jX Z0 jX 1

(6)

where

/ p 2 tan1 X

(7)

X

X

Z0

(8)

and

with Z0 being the characteristic impedance of the input and output arms of the coupler.

From Eq. (7), it can be seen that, for a 360 phase-shift

range, the variable X needs to be varied from negative innity

to positive innity. This could be approximately implemented

by tuning one series microstrip transmission line to resonance at

the minimum reverse bias and the other series microstrip transmission line to resonance at the maximum reverse bias [6].

To minimize the dependence of the phase shift on frequency,

we take partial differentiation of Eq. (7):

2 @X2

1

X22 @X

@/

1

@ X

1

@f X1 @f

2 @f

2 X1 X2 2 Z0

@f

1 X

1 X

(9)

where

@Xi

Zti Xdi Xsi Zti2 tan hi @Zti @Xdi Xsi

tan hi

@f

@f

Zti Xdi Xsi tan hi 2 @f

@Zti

@hi

@hi

@f

@f Xdi Xsi 2Zti tan hi @f

; for i 1; 2

1 hi 2

(10)

are the electrical lengths of the series transmission lines, Xd1

and Xd2 are the reactances of the varactor diodes, and Xs1 and

Xs2 are the reactances of the shorted-stubs. The input impedance

presented to ports #3 and #4 of the coupler is:

X

Figure 2 Reective load using (a) two series-tuned varactor-diode circuits in parallel and (b) two additional transmission lines added to varactor-diode circuits in (a)

(5)

made to be zero within the operating frequency band. We therefore dene a phase deviation function as:

X @/2

F

@f

(11)

fi

design process is to find the characteristic impedances for

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 52, No. 2 February 2010

DOI 10.1002/mop

transmission lines, TL1, TL2, TL3, and TL4, and their corresponding line lengths that give a minimum value of F in Eq.

(11).

The schematic of our proposed reection-type phase shifter

employing the 3-dB wideband coupler of Figure 1(b), with ports

#2 and #3 being terminated by two identical reective varactordiode circuits, is shown in Figure 3. The input signal to port #1

is equally divided into two signals with equal amplitude and 90

out of phase at ports #2 and #3. At port #4, the reected signals

are combined in phase. While at port #1, the reected signals,

having 180 out of phase, cancel off with each other [9]. A

reverse-biased DC voltage VDC is used to control the capacitance of the varactor diodes. The DC voltage is applied to the

diodes via an open radial stub in series with a 3k/4-long transmission line to isolate the high frequency signals from the biased DC circuit. The VDC in turn controls the impedance of the

varactor diode circuits and hence the amplitude and phase shift

of the reected signals. In our study, we have designed a phase

shifter with 360 phase shift and an operation bandwidth of

500 MHz at the center frequency of 6.5 GHz.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

In the design of the wideband 3-dB branch-line coupler, the

computer aided design tool, ADS 2008A, has been used to optimize the dimensions of the transmission lines L3, L4, L5, and

L6 with the objective to minimize the discrepancy functions in

Eq. (2). Since the nal design would be fabricated using a Rogers PCB, RO4305B, having a dielectric constant of 3.48, loss

tangent of 0.0037, and depth of 30 mil (0.76 mm), the range of

the line impedances used for minimization was set to 30100 X

for ease of implementation. In the minimization process, the

50 X with electrical lengths of k/2 at the center frequency of 6.5

GHz to make the matching network L5 and L6 wideband [8].

The characteristic impedances of L3 and L4 were set to 35.4

and 50 X, respectively, same as those used in a conventional

coupler in Figure 1(a), with electrical lengths of k/4 at the

centre frequency of 6.5 GHz. Finally, the targets of minimization were set to have D01 in Eq. (2) to be less than 0.5 dB and

then D02 in Eq. (2) to be less than 0.5 across the frequency

band of 5.67.6 GHz. Results have shown that the optimum

characteristic impedances for transmission lines L3, L4, L5, and

L6 are 38.5, 53.5, 93.8, and 55.7 X, with their corresponding

electrical lengths of 35.9 , 88.6 , 177.2 , and 191 , respectively.

The prototypes of the wideband coupler using these parameters

and the conventional coupler are shown in Figure 4.

The measured and simulated results on S21 and S31 of the

wideband coupler and conventional coupler are shown in Figure

5. The measured results in Figures 5(a) and 5(b) show that, in the

frequency band of 5.27.2 GHz, the wideband and conventional

couplers have |S21 S31| 0.8 and |S21 S31| 2.8 dB, respectively. Clearly, the wideband coupler has a much wider bandwidth than that of the conventional one. The simulated results

agree well with the measured results and have |S21 S31| 0.5

and |S21 S31| 2.1 dB for the wideband coupler and the conventional coupler, respectively. Figure 5(c) shows that the measured phase difference of the signals at ports #2 and #3 is between

88 and 93 for the wideband coupler, and between 85 and 110

for the conventional coupler in the frequency band from 6.0 to

8.0 GHz. The simulated phase difference is between 89 and 91

for the wideband coupler, and between 88 and 110 for the conventional coupler in the frequency band of 5.28.2 GHz.

4.2. 360 Phase Shifter

The proposed phase shifter of Figure 3 has also been fabricated

on a Rogers PCB, RO4350B, (30 mil), as shown in Figure 6.

The wideband coupler used is the one shown in Figure 1(b),

with an identical varactor-diode circuit of Figure 2(b) terminated

at ports #A and #B. The varactor diodes used are Skyworksincs

SMV1405-079. The biased voltage is applied via an open radial

stub (with a radius of k/3 at 6.5 GHz and angle of 75 ) in series

with a 3k/4-long transmission line at 6.5 GHz. The ADS 2008A

has been used to optimize the parameters for the microstrip

transmission lines with the objective to minimize the phase

deviation in Eq. (11). The optimized characteristic impedances

are 12.5, 16.6, 17.5, and 27.5 X, and the electrical lengths are

Figure 4 Prototype of (a) wideband coupler and (b) conventional coupler. [Color gure can be viewed in the online issue, which is available at

www.interscience.wiley.com]

DOI 10.1002/mop

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 52, No. 2 February 2010

357

Figure 7 Phase shifter performances: (a) phase shift at different frequencies and (b) insertion loss at difference frequencies

amplitudes of coupling coefcients S21 and S31, (b) amplitude difference,

and (c) phase difference between ports #2 and #3

39.9 , 103.6 , 176.3 , and 175.9 for TL1, TL2, TL3, and TL4,

respectively.

The measured and simulated performances of the proposed

phase shifter at different frequencies are shown in Figure 7. The

phase shifter has a phase-shift range of 360 for reverse biased

voltage of 010 V in the varactor diodes. The measured phase

errors at the edge frequencies of 6.3 and 6.8 GHz and the centre

frequency of 6.5 GHz are less than 10 while the simulated

phase errors are less than 7 . The measured and simulated insertion losses are between 1.5 and 1 dB and between 0.8 and 1 dB,

respectively, at frequencies from 6.3 to 7.2 GHz. Although the

results in Ref. [6] using the reective load of Figure 2(a) could

also achieve a 360 phase shift at the frequency of 10 GHz, the

phase shifter however had only a narrow bandwidth. Our proposed phase shifter has a wide bandwidth of 500 MHz.

5. CONCLUSIONS

be viewed in the online issue, which is available at www.interscience.

wiley.com]

358

The design of a wideband 360 phase shifter employing a wideband coupler circuit and two varactor-diode circuits using

microstrip technology has been presented. The bandwidth and

phase-shift range are determined by the dimensions of the transmission lines. The formulas for optimizing the performance, in

terms of maximizing the bandwidth and minimizing the ripple

across the frequency band, have been derived and studied.

Measured results have shown that the proposed phase shifter can

achieve a phase-shift range of 360 from 6.3 to 6.8 GHz. At the

band edges of 6.3 and 6.8 GHz, the phase derivations are less

than 10 . The insertion loss is between 1.5 and 1 dB from 6.3 to

7.2 GHz.

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 52, No. 2 February 2010

DOI 10.1002/mop

REFERENCES

1. S.K. Koul and B. Bhat, Microwave and millimeter wave phase

shifters, Vol. 2, Artech House, Norwood, MA, 1991.

2. A.A. Eldek, Design of ultra wideband microstrip 180 degree phase

shifter, Microwave Opt Technol Lett 50 (2008), 18411844.

3. A.M. Abbosh, Ultra-wideband phase shifters, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 55 (2007), 19351941.

4. D. Morikawa, H. Deguchi, M. Tsuji, and H. Shigesawa, A microstrip-line phase shifter constructed by a tunable lter, Electron

Commun Jpn 90 (2007), 10491056.

5. B. Ulriksson, Continuous varactor diode phase shifter with optimum frequency response, IEEE Trans Microwave Theory Tech 27

(1979), 650654.

6. T.W. Yoo, J.H. Song, and M.S. Park, 360 Reection-type analogue phase shifter implemented with a single 90 branch-line coupler, Electron Lett 33 (1997), 224226.

7. H. Ashoka, New type of branch-line hybrids, In: 18th European

Microwave Conference, 1988, pp. 785790.

8. B. Mayer and R. Knochel, Brach-line-couplers with improved

design exibility and broad bandwidth, In: International Microwave

Symposium, Dallas, TX, 1990, pp. 391394.

9. Skyworks, Inc., Varactor controlled phase shifter for PCS base station applications, APN 1099 (2005), Available at: http://www.

skyworksinc.com, 18.

C 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

V

DESIGN FOR MULTIBAND

HANDSET DEVICES

S. Risco,1 J. Anguera,1,2 A. Andujar,1 A. Perez,2

and C. Puente1,3

1

Department of Technology and Intellectual Property, Fractus,

Barcelona, Spain; Corresponding author:

jaume.anguera@fractus.com

2

Department of Electronics and Communications, Universitat

Ramon Llull, Barcelona, Spain

3

Department of Signal Theory and Communication, Universitat

Polite`cnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain

Received 26 May 2009

ABSTRACT: A low prole planar antenna, comprising a driven

element coupled with one or more parasitic elements is proposed. The

design is suitable to be used into a handheld device due to the antenna

reduced dimensions (33 15 1 mm3). To facilitate the integration of

other components, such as cameras or speakers, a ground plane area at

the right side of the antenna is provided. The study carried out reveals

the relevance of the arms location over the performance of the antenna.

The theoretic analysis is reinforced using a network model and a

parametric study. The coupling between elements controls the behavior

of the antenna. In this sense, a weak coupling between the driven

element and at least one parasitic element enhances the bandwidth,

whereas a multiband behavior is achieved by a tight coupling. Finally,

the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) inuence has also been analyzed.

C 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 52: 359

V

364, 2010; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.

wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/mop.24893

Key words: monopole; handset antenna; circuit model; multiband

1. INTRODUCTION

increased in the recent years due to the integration facilities that

entail its characteristic low prole. Many designs have appeared

DOI 10.1002/mop

frequency bands as possible without reducing the antenna performance [14]. In Ref. [1], a multiband monopole (GSM850/

GSM900/DCS/PCS and UMTS) with a very low prole (12

30 mm2) is presented. The disadvantage encountered is the

microstrip line needed to feed the antenna, which crosses the

PCB longitudinally, in such a way that the component integration, such as camera, battery or display, becomes difcult since

the available space is limited. In Ref. [2] a monopole with many

parasitic elements located at the centre of a groundplane at a

certain height is presented. It has a wideband performance

(20%, VSWR < 3) which is not enough to cover the bands

mentioned before. The behavior of a loaded wideband monopole

with a low prole is studied in Ref. [3]. Again, this design is

wideband (22% at VSWR < 3).

The proposed design in this research obtains a multiband

behavior (GSM850/900, DCS, PCS, and UMTS) because of the

coupling effect between elements. At the same time the proposal

maximizes the space on the PCB to integrate other cellular components (Fig. 1).

The article is divided as follows. Firstly, a theoretic explanation about the design elements and its subsequent verication,

from a current simulation, has been carried out. Secondly, an

electrical RLC model is proposed to have a qualitative point of

view of the antenna behavior. A parametric analysis using numerical simulations (MoM) is done to conrm the electrical

model. Then, the results obtained from the manufacture of some

prototypes are presented with their corresponding measurements.

Finally, conclusions are exposed.

2. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

location on the PCB [6]. The driven element is located closer to

the groundplane, separated at a distance (dgap) from the parasitic

element. The groundplane area located at the right side of the

antenna provides a useful space to integrate some typical elements of these kinds of devices, such as the camera or the

speaker. On the other hand, the design takes into account the

most critical variables when dening the operation frequency

ranges. These variables are the element lengths and the gap

between them, which determines their coupling effect. Furthermore, the elements location determines the correct behavior,

especially at low operation bands (GSM850/GSM900).

From the impedance matrix, a general expression can be

found considering the parasitic element short-circuited to the

groundplane (Fig. 2).

V1 I1 Z11 I2 Z12

(1)

0 I1 Z21 I2 Z22

(2)

ZIN

V1

Z21 Z12

Z11

I1

Z22

(3)

I2 I1

(4)

ZIN 0

(5)

determined:

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 52, No. 2 February 2010

359

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