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BEST WATER MANAGEMENT AND

CLEANER PRODUCTION PRACTICES FOR


INDUSTRIES IN PAKISTAN

DRAFT
JUNE 20113

CIT
TYWIDE
E PARTNE
ERSHIPE
E FOR SU
USTAINA
ABLE WA
ATER USE
E AND
W
WATER
ST
TEWARD
DSHIP IN
N SMEs IN LAHOR
RE, PAKIISTAN - WSP

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

TABLEOFCONTENTS
TABLEOFCONTENTS.....................................................................................................................................2
LISTOFTABLES..............................................................................................................................................6
LISTOFFIGURES............................................................................................................................................7
LISTOFABBREVIATIONSANDACRONYMS...................................................................................................8
INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................10
1.1

BACKGROUND.............................................................................................................................10

1.2

THEPROJECT...............................................................................................................................11

1.3

OBJECTIVES.................................................................................................................................11
1.3.1 Overallobjective......................................................................................................................11
1.3.2 Specificobjectives...................................................................................................................11

1.4

STRUCTUREOFTHESTUDY.........................................................................................................12

INDUSTRIAL WATER CONSUMPTION AND EXPECTED WATER RISKS...13


2.1

WATERUSEININDUSTRIALSECTOR...........................................................................................13

2.2

WATERUSEEFFICIENCY..............................................................................................................14

2.3

WASTEWATERDISCHARGES.......................................................................................................14

2.4

EXPECTEDWATERRISKSTOINDUSTRIALSECTOR......................................................................15

LEATHER SECTOR........................................................................................................................17
3.1

GEOGRAPHICALLOCATION.........................................................................................................17

3.2

LEATHERSECTORPRODUCTION.................................................................................................18

3.3

WATERCONSUMPTION..............................................................................................................19

3.4

WASTEWATERPOLLUTION.........................................................................................................20
3.4.1 Wastewatercharacteristics.....................................................................................................20
3.4.2 Wastewaterquantities............................................................................................................20

3.5

BESTAVAILABLERESOURCECONSERVATIONTECHNIQUES.......................................................20
3.5.1 Efficientuseofwater..............................................................................................................21
3.5.2 Usedrumsinsteadofpitsandpuddles...................................................................................21
3.5.3 Batchwashingindrums..........................................................................................................22
3.5.4 Modifyingexistingequipmentsforshortfloatsshortfloattechnique................................22
3.5.5 Modernequipmentforshortfloats........................................................................................22
3.5.6 Maintenanceofequipments...................................................................................................22
3.5.7 Reuseofwastewaterforlesscriticalprocesses......................................................................22
3.5.8 Partialsaltelimination.............................................................................................................23
3.5.9 Hairsavingunhairinglimingmethods....................................................................................23
3.5.10Directrecyclingoflimeliquors................................................................................................23
3.5.11CO2deliming...........................................................................................................................23
3.5.12Recyclingofpicklingliquor......................................................................................................24
2

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

3.5.13Recyclingofchrometanningfloats.........................................................................................24
3.5.14Chromerecoverythroughprecipitationandseparation........................................................25
3.6

FEASIBLETECHNIQUESFORLOCALINDUSTRIES........................................................................25

PULP AND PAPER SECTOR......................................................................................................27


4.1

GEOGRAPHICALLOCATION.........................................................................................................27

4.2

PRODUCTIONPROCESS..............................................................................................................27

4.3

PAPERSECTORPRODUCTION.....................................................................................................28

4.4

WASTEWATERPOLLUTION.........................................................................................................29
4.4.1 Sources....................................................................................................................................29
4.4.2 Wastewatercharacteristics.....................................................................................................30

4.5

BESTAVAILABLERESOURCECONSERVATIONTECHNIQUES.......................................................30
4.5.1 Goodhousekeepingmeasures(GHM)....................................................................................30
4.5.2 Useofbetterpulpwashingtechnology..................................................................................31
4.5.3 Carbondioxidebrownstockwashing.....................................................................................32
4.5.4 Alternativebleachingtechniques............................................................................................32
4.5.5 Optimumuseofcoolingwastewater......................................................................................33
4.5.6 Recoveryandrecyclingofcleanwaterfromvacuumpumps................................................33
4.5.7 Replacementofwatersealsinprocesspumps.......................................................................34
4.5.8 Installationofwaterefficientshowersatpapermachines.....................................................34
4.5.9 Useofefficientdeckerthickener/vacuumdrumsshowers....................................................34
4.5.10Useofhighpressurelowvolumeshowers..............................................................................35
4.5.11Useofselfcleaningshowersinpapermachinesection.........................................................35
4.5.12Improvingwhitewaterquality................................................................................................35
4.5.13Installationofmediumconsistencypulpscreeningequipment.............................................36
4.5.14Recyclingofchlorinewashbackwatercompletelyintothesystem.......................................36
4.5.15Drycleaningofwheatstraw...................................................................................................36
4.5.16Reuseofwetcleaningwastewater.........................................................................................37
4.5.17Dryandwetcleaningofstraw.................................................................................................37
4.5.18Disccutterforremovalofnoncellulosicmaterialfromstraws..............................................37
4.5.19Fiberrecoverybydissolvedairfloatation...............................................................................37
4.5.20Extractionofblackliquorusingscrewpress...........................................................................38
4.5.21Oxygendelignificationforagrobasedpulp............................................................................38
4.5.22Defiberisationofagrobasedpulpasalkalinehotstockrefining...........................................38

4.6

FEASIBLETECHNIQUESFORLOCALINDUSTRIES........................................................................38

TEXTILE PROCESSING SECTOR.........................................................................................40


5.1

GEOGRAPHICALLOCATION.........................................................................................................40

5.2

TEXTILEPROCESSINGSECTORPRODUCTION.............................................................................42

5.3

WATERCONSUMPTION..............................................................................................................42
3

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

5.4

WASTEWATERPOLLUTION.........................................................................................................43
5.4.1 Wastewaterpollutioncharacteristicsatunitlevel.................................................................43
5.4.2 Wastewaterquantities............................................................................................................44

5.5

BESTAVAILABLERESOURCECONSERVATIONTECHNIQUES.......................................................44
5.5.1 Goodhousekeepingandmanagementmeasures...................................................................45
5.5.2 Countercurrentwashing/rinsing............................................................................................45
5.5.3 Reuseofprocesswater...........................................................................................................45
5.5.4 Reuseofnoncontactcoolingwater.......................................................................................45
5.5.5 Reuseofcondensatewater.....................................................................................................46
5.5.6 Processmodifications..............................................................................................................46
5.5.7 Automaticcontrolsystems......................................................................................................46
5.5.8 Rawmaterialscontrol.............................................................................................................47
5.5.9 Chemicaloptimizationandsubstitution.................................................................................47
5.5.10Dyefixationimprovement.......................................................................................................48
5.5.11Printingprocessmodification..................................................................................................48
5.5.12Reuserecyclerecovery...........................................................................................................48
5.5.13Reuseofhotwastewater........................................................................................................48

5.6

FEASIBLETECHNIQUESFORLOCALINDUSTRIES........................................................................48

SUGAR SECTOR...............................................................................................................................51
6.1

GEOGRAPHICALLOCATION.........................................................................................................51

6.2

SUGARSECTORPRODUCTION....................................................................................................53

6.3

WATERCONSUMPTION..............................................................................................................53

6.4

WASTEWATERPOLLUTION.........................................................................................................54
6.4.1 Wastewatercharacteristics.....................................................................................................54
6.4.2 Wastewaterquantities............................................................................................................54

6.5

BESTAVAILABLERESOURCECONSERVATIONTECHNIQUES.......................................................55
6.5.1 Floorwashingandcleaningwithlowqualitywater................................................................55
6.5.2 Reducewaterconsumptionforcoolingofevaporators.........................................................55
6.5.3 Reducewaterconsumptionatsprayponds............................................................................56
6.5.4 Closedwatercircuitsystem....................................................................................................56
6.5.5 GeneralhousekeepingandCPmeasures................................................................................57
6.5.6 Propermonitoringandtimelymaintenance...........................................................................57
6.5.7 Operationaloptimizationandwaterreuse.............................................................................57
6.5.8 Condensationprocessinnovation...........................................................................................58
6.5.9 Substitutionofleadacetate....................................................................................................58
6.5.10DischargereductionandrecoveryofNaOHduringwashing&cleaning................................58
6.5.11ControlledBlowdowns............................................................................................................59

6.6

FEASIBLETECHNIQUESFORLOCALINDUSTRIES........................................................................59
4

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

REFERENCES................................................................................................................................................61

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

LISTOFTABLES
TABLE 2.1: ESTIMATED INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER POLLUTION LOADS IN PAKISTAN
TABLE 2.2: EXPECTED WATER RISKS
TABLE 2.3: INDUSTRY AND BASIN RELATED RISKS

TABLE 3.1: PRODUCTION LEVELS OF LEATHER INDUSTRY


TABLE 3.2: LEATHER SECTOR PRODUCTION
TABLE 3.3: LEATHER SECTOR PRODUCTION
TABLE 3.4: PROCESS WISE WATER CONSUMPTION CONTRIBUTION
TABLE 3.5: POLLUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TANNERY EFFLUENT

TABLE 4.1: PAKISTAN PAPER AND PAPERBOARD PRODUCTION


TABLE 4.2: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD PRODUCTION
TABLE 4.3: WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTIC
TABLE 4.4: WASTEWATER GENERATION RATE

15
15
16

TABLE 5.1: INTRA CITY DISTRIBUTION OF TEXTILE PROCESSING UNITS


TABLE 5.2: WATER CONSUMPTION IN TEXTILE INDUSTRIES
TABLE 5.3: CHARACTERISTICS OF WOVEN TEXTILE PROCESSING WASTEWATER
TABLE 5.4: CHARACTERISTICS OF KNITWEAR PROCESSING WASTEWATER
TABLE 5.5: UNIT WASTEWATER GENERATION
TABLE 5.6: REDUCING BOD AT SOURCE BY POSSIBLE CHEMICAL SUBSTITUTIONS

TABLE 6.1: SUGAR MILLS IN PAKISTAN


TABLE 6.2: PAKISTAN SUGAR INDUSTRY SIZE
TABLE 6.3: SUGARCANE CRUSHED AND SUGAR RECOVERY IN PAKISTAN
TABLE 6.4: PROVINCE WISE PRODUCTION OF SUGAR IN PAKISTAN
TABLE 6.5: WASTEWATER SOURCES IN SUGAR MILLS
TABLE 6.6: WASTEWATER CHARACTERISTICS

42
43
43
44
44
47

18
18
19
19
20
29
29
30
30

51
53
53
53
54
54

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

LISTOFFIGURES
FIGURE 3.1: LOCATION OF LEATHER UNITS
FIGURE 3.2: DISTRICT WISE DISTRIBUTION OF UNITS IN PUNJAB

17
18

FIGURE 4.1: LOCATION OF PULP & PAPER MILLS IN PUNJAB


FIGURE 4.2: DISTRICT WISE DISTRIBUTION OF 14 UNITS IN PUNJAB

FIGURE 5.1: PRESENCE OF TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRIES IN PUNJAB


FIGURE 5.2: LOCATION OF TEXTILE PROCESSING INDUSTRIES IN PUNJAB

28
28

FIGURE 6.1: LOCATION OF SUGAR MILLS IN PUNJAB


FIGURE 6.2: DISTRICT WISE LOCATION OF SUGAR INDUSTRIES

52
52

41
41

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

LISTOFABBREVIATIONSANDACRONYMS

C
AOX
APTPMA
BCM
BLC
BOD
CO2
COD
CPI
CTP-KT
DAF
ECF
ETPI
g/l
GDP
H2SO4
HMC
ICPT
ICTP
IFC
LCCI
m3
m3/ton
MAF
mg/l
MIGA
Mm3/d
Mm3/y
MNCs
MT/y
MT/y
NaOH
NEQS
NSSC
PEPA 1997
PHMA
PISD
PPPBMA
PSMA
PSST
RSI
SCP
SMEDA
SMEs
TCF

Degree Celsius
Adsorbable Organohalogens
Textile Processing Mills Association
Billion Cubic Meter
British Leather Center
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Carbon dioxide
Chemical Oxygen Demand
and Cleaner Production Institute
Cleaner Technology Project for Korangi Tanneries
Dissolved Air Floatation
Elemental Chlorine Free
Environmental Technology Programme for Industries
Gram per Liter
Gross Domestic Products
Sulfuric Acid
Heavy Mechanical Complex
Implementation of Cleaner Production Technologies in the Textile Sector of Pakistan
Introduction of Cleaner Technologies in the Tanneries Clusters of Punjab
International Finance Corporation
Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Meter Cube
Cubic Meter per Ton
Million Acre Feet
Milligram per Liter
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
Million Meter Cube per Day
Million Meter Cube per Year
Multinational Companies
Million Ton per Year
Million Ton per Day
Sodium Hydroxide
National Environmental Quality Standards
Neutral Sodium Sulfite Ccooking
Pakistan Environmental Act 1997
Pakistan Hosiery Manufacturing Association
Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development
Pakistan Pulp, Paper and Board Mills Association
Pakistan Sugar Mills Association
Pakistan Society of Sugar Technologist
Responsible Sourcing Initiative
Sustainable Consumption and Production
Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority
Small and Medium Enterprises
Total Chlorine Free
8

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

TCMTB
TDS
TSS
U.A.E.
UK
UN
UNIDO
USA
WSP
WWF-P
WWF-UK

Thiocyanomethylthio Benzothiazole
Total Dissolved Solids
Total Suspended Solids
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom.
United Nations
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
United States of America
City wide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan (WSP)
World Wide Fund for Nature-Pakistan
World Wide Fund for Nature-UK

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

1
INTRODUCTION
City Wide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan
(WSP) is a three year (2013 to 2015) capacity building project under SWITCH-Asia program. WSP is
directed to ensure the sustainable use of natural resources especially water, toxic materials and emission
reduction of waste and pollutants over the life cycle of the Pakistani SMEs of textile, leather, pulp & paper
and sugar sectors located in Punjab, to meet the of needs of future generations.
This report is on national and international literature review of best water management & cleaner production
practices for water consumption and wastewater pollution reduction, and is anticipated as the guidelines for
designing the feasible water conservation and pollution load reduction techniques for SMEs of Lahore,
Punjab.

1.1 BACKGROUND
Water is one of the most valuable resources and the lifeblood for sustained economic development of any
country. Pakistan, sixth largest country in the world with a population of 2.48%1 of the world's total
population, is developing with high and medium growth rate of population and industrial activity
respectively. United Nations (UN) reported that by the year 2050, Pakistan population will increase from
143 million in 2000 to 349 millions in 2050 as the fourth order of the world.
For economic development, industrial Gross Domestic Products (GDP) at constant 1990 prices is gradually
developing with 7.7 % growth rate in the past 10 years2. Industrial sector is playing important role in
economy with ratio of 18.5% of GDP. Large scale and small scale manufacturing account for 12.2% and
4.9% of the total GDP of the country.3 Hasty urbanization and growing industrial units are showing
increasing trend in water demands. The ground water table is going down due to unsustainable utilization
of water resources. It is reported that 96% of available water is being used for agriculture, 2% for industrial
and the remaining 2% is used by the domestic sector4.
It is reported that industrial water demand in Pakistan will increase two times from 1.44 Billion Cubic Meter
(BCM) in year 2002 to 2.88 BCM by the year 2025. Ministry of Water and Power (2004) reports that
industrial water demand will increase by 1.6 times from 2.7 BCM in year 2000 to 4.3 BCM in year 2025.
In the global context, Pakistan was already declared as water scarce country by Falkenmark index in
1992. By 2003, Pakistans per capita availability of water declined to the extent that it was categorized as a
water-stress country by the World Bank, surpassing Ethiopia and on par with African countries such as

Rainwater Harvesting Potential A Contribution To Sustainable Water Management Strategy, Pakistan Water
OperatorPartnership,TheUrbanUnitPunjab,PakistansWaterOperatorsPartnership,2013
2
Industrialandhouseholdwaterdemandmanagement,ACaseStudyofPakistan,KochiUniversityofTechnology,
Kochi,Japan.
3
FinanceDivisionE.A.WingGovernmentofPakistan,PakistanEconomicSurvey200910,PrintingCooperation
PakistanPress,2010
4
Ibid1
10

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

Libya and Algeria. United Nations Development Programme estimates Pakistans current water availability
as 1,090 m3 per capita per year.
On the other hand, water scarcity is estimated to be 850 cubic meters in 2013 and will go on declining to
659 cubic meters per annum in 2025. Critical factors such as rapid population growth, climate change,
reduction in the ice and snow areas of the Himalayas, urbanization, industrial growth, poverty, distribution
inequalities, unsustainable water consumption practices, loss of ecosystems, more rapid runoff and bad
management of water resources by the government have caused degradation of the resource base and
laid huge stress on the quantity and quality of water resources. The gap between water supply and demand
is sharply increasing and creating water shortages in almost all sectors of the economy5.
There is now a strong and growing need to manage this precious resource more carefully and efficiently to
ensure water for all on a sustainable basis. In order to boost the economy and to meet the future industrial
water demand, Pakistan must take concrete steps towards water conservation measures along with
efficient water management systems in line with resources available.

1.2 THEPROJECT
City wide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan
(WSP) is a three year capacity building project under SWITCH-ASIA. Its duration is from year 2013 to
2015. SWITCH-ASIA is the new regional environmental program in line with the EC (European
Commission) Regional Paper for Assistance to Asia (2007-2013). The aim of this program is to promote the
adoption of Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) among small and medium sized enterprises
(SMEs) and consumer groups in Asia.
WSP is funded by the European Union. It is being executed by the consortium of three organizations i.e.
World Wide Fund for Nature-Pakistan (WWF-P), World Wide Fund for Nature-UK (WWF-UK) and Cleaner
Production Institute (CPI). Lahore Chamber of Commerce and Industry (LCCI) is the associate of the
project.
The project is directed to the Pakistani SMEs of textile, leather, pulp & paper and sugar sectors located in
Punjab and seeks to ensure minimal use of natural resources, toxic materials and emission reduction of
waste and pollutants over the life cycle so that the needs of the future generations are not compromised.

1.3 OBJECTIVES
1.3.1 Overallobjective
By 2025 water efficient production and consumption predominates as best practice in Pakistans major
industrial cities as part of a broad engagement of business in water management, contributing to improved
environmental sustainability and poverty reduction within the context of sustainable development.
1.3.2 Specificobjectives
The specific objectives of the project are to:

ImpactofwaterscarcityonfoodsecurityatmicrolevelinPakistan,Fahim,MuhammadAmirJanuary2012,MPRA
11

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

Reduce the water consumption by at least 15% and pollution load by 15% in 25 water intensive
SMEs in Lahore by 2015
Increase the capacity of 75 cross sectoral water intensive SMEs to adopt or support more
sustainable water management practices by 2015.
Enhance understanding and knowledge of further 300 SMEs regarding impacts of unsustainable
water use and wider community level benefits of better water stewardship
Develop a multi-stake holder city wide partnership, comprising SMEs, public authorities, Ravi
Commission, supporting institutions and Multinational Companies (MNCs) by 2015
Share the lessons learned with policy makers and regionally through SWICTH-Asia network by
2015

1.4 STRUCTUREOFTHESTUDY
Chapter-1:
This provides introduction to the project, its background and objectives.
Chapter-2:
Presents Water Consumption and Expected Water Risks presents the industrial water consumption, water
efficiency and expected water risks to the industrial sector.
Chapter-3 to 6:
A detailed review of industrial sectors, worldwide best available water conservation and pollution reduction
techniques and feasible techniques and locally implemented technology options for leather, pulp & paper,
textile and sugar sector.

12

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

2
INDUSTRIAL WATER CONSUMPTION AND
EXPECTED WATER RISKS
Industrial sector is of great importance for economic development around the world. It is historical fact that
countries with strong industrial sectors have shown more economic growth and development as compared
to others.
Pakistan industrial sector is the second largest sector of the economy accounting for 25%6 of the GDP and
13%7 of total employment in Pakistan. This industrial sector is comprised of large, medium and small-scale
units. Pakistan ranks forty-first in the world in factory output8.
There are approximately 6,634 registered industries in Pakistan. The majority of these industries are
located in Karachi and Central Punjab, with a cluster of large industries. Sugar mills are scattered in the
sugarcane growing areas throughout Punjab and Sindh. The major industrial cities of Pakistan are: Karachi,
Lahore, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Multan, Gujranwalla, Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Kasur, Rawalpindi, and
Peshawar.
In Punjab, major industrial cities are Lahore, Faisalabad, Kasur and Sheikhupura. Industries located in
Punjab mostly use ground water whereas in Sindh, industries located in Karachi and Hyderabad mostly use
surface water.

2.1 WATERUSEININDUSTRIALSECTOR
Pakistans industrial base is small and has yet to experience industrialization. Owing to its small industrial
base, only 2% of the total water available including surface, groundwater and rain water after losses is
consumed by industrial sector.9
Based on industrial data contained in Pakistan Statistical Yearbook 2001, water consumed in the process
by major products is estimated as 1.18 MAF (1.452 BCM) per year. The industrial demand is expected to
increase to 1.47 MAF (1.815 BCM) by 2011 and to 1.84 MAF (2.268 BCM) by 2025. Most of the industrial
establishments use ground water and abstract it at their own expense. It is estimated that currently about
23,500 AF (29 MCM) of water is provided to industries through municipal water supplies.10
This implies that industrial water consumption has the potential to cause local level impacts on the
groundwater resources by direct pumping of groundwater. The United Nations has placed Pakistan among
the water hotspots of Asia-Pacific Region due to high water utilization which is deteriorating the water
quality.

PakistanIndustrialGrowth,TheRawalpindiChamberofCommerce&Industry
FinanceDivisionE.A.WingGovernmentofPakistan,PakistanEconomicSurvey200910,PrintingCooperation
PakistanPress,2010
8
PakistanIndustrialGrowth,TheRawalpindiChamberOfCommerce&Industry
9
GovernmentofPakistan,EconomicSurveyofPakistan200910
10
PakistanWaterSectorStrategy;Vol:5;October2002;MinistryofWaterandPoweroftheChiefEngineering
Advisor/ChairmanFederalFloodCommission
7

13

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

Industrial sector, although consumes a small portion of water, is a contributor to water table draw-down in
the industrial cities of Pakistan. Serious efforts are needed for water resources management otherwise
absolute scarcity will disturb the water usage patterns leading to water risks to the industrial sector.

2.2 WATERUSEEFFICIENCY
Generally industries of Pakistan waste about 30-40% of consumed water due to poor practices during the
production process.11 Karachi receives a share of water from the allocation for the Province of Sindh under
the Water Accord 1991. In Karachi water scarcity is experienced by all. Municipal supplies are limited and
not reliable. Industries in Karachi buy water from tankers to cover the shortfall caused by limited municipal
supplies. Tanker water is many times more expensive than the municipal water. Owing to high price of
water, industries in Karachi are about 30-40% more efficient in terms of unit water consumption as
compared to those industries using groundwater elsewhere in the country. For example, tanneries in
Karachi use 35-50 liters of water per kilogram of leather, whereas tanneries in Punjab use 70-100 liters of
water per kilogram of leather.
In the last ten years, most of the progressive industries in Pakistan have adopted water conservation
practices and techniques.12 The main drivers for increasing the water efficiency for industry are; increasing
energy costs of groundwater pumping, and reduced wastewater discharges owing to water conservation at
industrial process level that leads to smaller treatment plants and consequently lower capital costs
requirements.

2.3 WASTEWATERDISCHARGES
In Pakistan, resource intensive industries use large amounts of water due to outdated and resource
intensive production technologies consequently, contribute significantly to overall pollution levels with
associated human impacts.
It is estimated that industry sector of Pakistan has discharged about 2,280 million m3 per annum in 2010
which will increase to 4,560 million m3 in 2025. Punjab represents about 63% of the total inland water
discharges13.
Out of 6,634 registered industries about 1,228 (about 19% of the registered industrial units) are considered
to be highly polluting. The major industries which discharge highly polluted water are textiles, chemicals,
fertilizer, pulp & paper, pesticides, petroleum refining, paints, steel, and leather tanning.14 Less than 1% of
wastewater is treated in urban areas, while the remainder is discharged directly into drains, streams, and
rivers with sever impacts on downstream users.15 In most surface waters concentrations of Biochemical
Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and heavy metals in industrial wastewaters are
higher than the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) established under Pakistan
Environmental Act 1997 (PEPA 1997).

11

CleanerProductionInstitutedatabase
Cleaner Production Institute database shows that about 120 textileprocessing mills, 80 sugar mills, 200
tanneries,andfivepulpandpapermillshavereducedwaterconsumptionintherangeof3050%.
13
KhanA.U.,EvaluationofIndustrialEnvironmentalManagementofPakistan,TheWorldBank2010
14
MinistryofEnvironment,PakistanEnvironmentalProtectionAct1997,Schedule1:CategoryAIndustries
15
PlanningCommissionGovernmentofPakistan,Vision2030,2007
12

14

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

Indiscriminate discharges of wastewater to freshwater bodies and the sea have caused serious impacts to
the environmental health of rivers and sea shores in Pakistan. WHO estimates that eight liters of freshwater
is required to dilute every liter of grey (polluted) water in order to prevent harmful contamination.16 Table 2.1
presents the pollutant loads for the principal water quality parameters affected by the industrial sector of
Pakistan.
There are two ways to reduce the pollution load, one is end of the pipe treatment and second is cleaner
production techniques. First one provides a practical and cost effective way of moving towards
sustainability. Cleaner production techniques allows the producers to produce more with less-less raw
material, less energy, less waste and thus, less environmental impact and greater sustainability.
Table 2.1: Estimated Industrial Wastewater Pollution Loads in Pakistan
Wastewater
Total BOD5
COD
TDS
Mm3/y Mm3/d mg/l MT/y T/d
mg/l MT/y
T/d
mg/l MT/y MT/d
2010 2,280
6.2
1.2 3,286
2.4
6,510
1.1 3,100
530
1,050
500
2025 4,560
12.5
2.4 6,625
4.8 13,125
2.3 6,250
Ref: Evaluation of Industrial Environmental Management of Pakistan, The World Bank 2010
Year

It is estimated by the World Bank that industries represent about 51% of the total pollution load of Pakistan.

2.4 EXPECTEDWATERRISKSTOINDUSTRIALSECTOR
Industrial sector needs water that is reachable, reliable and of acceptable quality for its operations. Water
shortage and deteriorating quality will pose significant risks to the industrial sectors. These risks might be in
the form of physical, regulatory and reputational. Table 2.2 shows the details of the risks:
Table 2.2: Expected Water Risks
Type of Risk

Detail

Physical risks

Physical risks tend to be those that industries face as a result of their direct operations and use of water in
their manufacturing or processing. Reduced quantity and quality of water can result in operational issues, low
productivity, and increased cost of operations. These risks can also arise from disruptions in availability and
the price of water-intensive raw materials in the supply chain. These risks can be aggravated by weak water
governance and institutional architecture that exist in the country.
Regulatory
Regulatory risks refer to government action (policies, laws, regulation) that address issues related to sitting of
risks
industries, water use and effluent discharge. These can potentially affect pricing, supply, rights, standards
and license to operate, both at the individual plant level or at the sector level.
Reputational
Reputational risks tend to damage brand equity and reputation of a company, when the actions of a company
risks
are poorly executed, understood or communicated with local stakeholders or when perceptions around water
use, pollution and behavior suffer. These can result in stakeholder unrests, conflicts, lawsuits, media scrutiny
or stringent regulatory action. This also affects future business development as well as shareholder value.
Ref: Water Stewardship for Industries, The Need For A Paradigm Shift In India, WWF Report 2013

The availability of water and management of water related impacts are local and appear at watershed,
basin, subbasin and basin-levels. It also leads to company-related risks which are location and sectorspecific.
There are likely to be considerable asymmetries in exposure and vulnerability between various
stakeholders when it comes to water as a resource. Hence, there is a need to understand physical,

16

Orr Stuart, Cartwright Anton & Tickner Dave, Understanding Water Risks: A Primer on the Consequences of
WaterScarcityforGovernmentandBusiness,WWFWaterSecuritySeries4,March2009
15

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regulatory and reputational risks in the context of their shared risk across a basin. Table 2.3 details out
basin and company-related risks.
Table 2.3: Industry and Basin Related Risks
Type of Risk

Physical Risk

Basin Related
Risks (Linked to
the location of
the industry)

Water quantity (scarcity,


flooding, droughts) and
quality (pollution) within the
river basin and the impacts
this might have been on
society and the environment

Regulatory Risk

Reputational risks

Strength and
Perceptions around water use, pollution and
enforcement of water
behavior that may have negative impacts in the
regulations and the
company brand and influence purchasing
consequences of
decisions. Public perceptions can emerge
restrictions by public
rapidly when local aquatic systems and
Institutions. Either felt community access to water are affected
through direct
regulatory action or
from neglect,
blockage or failure
Company
Water quantity and quality
The potential for
When the actions of the company are poorly
related Risks
issue related to the
changes in pricing,
executed, understood or communicated with
(Linked to the
performance of the company supply, rights,
local stakeholders and where perceptions and
behavior of the
and its supply chain
standards and license brand suffer as a consequence
industry)
to operate for a
particular company
or sector
Ref: Water Stewardship for Industries, The Need For A Paradigm Shift In India, WWF Report 2013.

There would be high risk to the industrial sector due to the limited availability of freshwater in future;
however, the implementation of water management strategies at the right time will give the industry an
opportunity to contribute towards sustainability.

16

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3
LEATHER SECTOR
Pakistans leather industry is the second largest foreign exchange earner amongst the manufacturing
sector. At present about 90 % of the leather is exported in finished form. This sector contributes 5% of GDP
and 4.41% to the overall export earnings of the country. The major export items in the leather sector are
tanned leather, leather garments, sports goods, leather gloves, footwear and other leather manufacturing
goods. The main buyers of Pakistani leather products are Italy, China, Germany Turkey, U.A.E., Germany,
USA, Spain, UK and France.

3.1 GEOGRAPHICALLOCATION
There are 79 registered leather units in Punjab17. These units are categorized as small, medium, and large
units depending upon the number of processing drums. Tanneries having 1-2 drums are categorized as
small tanneries whereas the tanneries with 3-5 drums and more than 5 drums are medium and large
category respectively18. Figure3.1 shows the location of leather units while figure 3.2 shows the district wise
distribution of units in Punjab.
Figure 3.1: Location of Leather Units

17
18

PakistanTannersAssociation,NorthZone,201213
CPIDatabase
17

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Figure 3.2:
3 District Wise
W Distrib
bution of Un
nits in Punjab
355
30

Number of Units

300
255
19

200

17

155
100
4

4
2

0
Lahore

Sialkot

Kasur

Mu
ultan

Sahiw
wal

Sheikhupurra Gujranwala

3.2 LEATHER
RSECTORPRODU
UCTION
Table 3.1 indicates thhe current caapacity and production
p
levvels of leatheer industry in Pakistan.
Table 3..1: Productio
on Levels off Leather Ind
dustry
Current
C
Capacityy
Annuall Production
of Industrry
Tanned Leather
million ft2
60
90
Leather Garments/ Appparels
million piecess
05
07
Leather Gloves
million pairs
05
10
Leather Footwear
million pairs
100
200
Ref: Impplementable Recommendations for Cleaner Production
P
Programs in Pakistaan, WB, May 20011
Production Iteems

Units

Table 3.1 clearly indiicates that thhe capacity of


o leather secctor remains highly under--utilized and there is a lott
of room to substantiaally increase the productioon and exporrts of leather products.
During the period off 2011-12, leather sector production was
w reportedd to be 63,5330,000 numbbers of hidess
and skinns processed. Table 3.2 provides
p
the leather
l
sectoor production of last five yyears.
Table 3..2: Leather Sector
S
Produ
uction
Speciess
HIDES (000 Nos)
Cattle
Buffalo
Camel
Total
SKIN (0000 Nos)
Sheep Skin
S
Goat Skin
Total

2007-08

2
2008-09

2009-10

2010-111

2011-12

6,032
6,070
96
12,198

6,260
6,255
97
12,612

6,496
6,445
99
13,040

6,7411
6,6400
1000
13,4811

6,995
6,942
101
14,038

10,251
21,860
32,111

10,371
22,452
32,823

10,495
23,061
33,556

10,6200
23,6855
34,3055

10,745
24,237
34,982

18
8

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Fancy Skin (000 Nos)


Lamb Skin
3,045
Kin Skin
10,170
Total
13,215
Ref: PTA Annual Report, 2011-12

3,081
10,445
13,526

3,117
10,728
13,845

3,154
11,019
14,173

3,192
11,318
14,510

According to ICTP project, Table 3.3 represents the average production of tanneries of small, medium and
large sizes.
Table 3.3: Leather Sector Production
Processing of Hides and/or Skins
(avg. kg/d)
Small
216,370
Medium
150,918
Large
185,000
Ref: ICTP Database
Category

3.3 WATERCONSUMPTION
Water consumption in leather sector consists of process water, energy generation, sanitary purposes etc.
The latter is estimated to account for about a fifth of total water consumption.
Process water consumption varies greatly between tanneries, depending on the processes involved, the
raw material used and the manufactured products. The water consumption of tanneries manufacturing
finished leather from intermediate products is low compared with that of integrated tanneries or those
generating intermediate products. This difference is also partly due to more or less stringent water saving
measures, e.g. in rinsing steps. For a traditional tannery, average water consumption lies in the range of 25
to 80 m/t of processed hide19. The environmental audits conducted under ICTP and CTP-KT projects show
that about 50 -150 liter of water is used for the conversion of one kg of raw hide/skin into finished leather.
Average daily water consumption in medium and large tannery is in the range of 350-1,000 m3. Table 3.4
provides detail of process wise water consumption contribution in the tannery process.
Table 3.4: Process Wise Water Consumption Contribution
Water Consumption (%)
BLC
Local
Soaking
15-25
15-20
Liming/Rinsing
23-27
25-35
De-liming/Bating/Rinsing
10-15
8-12
Beam House (Total)
48-67
48-67
Pickling / Tanning / Rinsing / Neutralization / Rinsing
10
7-15
Retanning / Dyeing / Fat Liquoring / Rinsing
30
8-14
Post Tanning (Total)
40
15-29
Finishing
10
Ref: BLC-British Leather Technology Centre-UK, Local-Pakistani Tanneries
Tanning Process

19

IntegratedPollutionPreventionandControl(IPPC),DraftReferenceDocumentonBestAvailableTechniques,for
theTanningofHidesandSkins,February2009,EuropeanCommission.
19

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

3.4 WASTEWATERPOLLUTION
Wet processes of the tannery are the main sources of wastewater generation. Some mechanical operations
also contribute small quantities of wastewater.
3.4.1 Wastewatercharacteristics
Tannery wastewater is highly polluted in terms of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen
demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), Total Kjeldhal Nitrogen, conductivity, sulphate, sulphide and
chromium. The values of these parameters are very high as compared to the values mentioned in the
National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Typical wastewater characteristics of the tannery
effluent are presented in Table 3.5.
Table 3.5: Pollution Characteristics of Tannery Effluent
Parameters
(mg/l except pH)

Raw Sheep & Goat Skins


to Finished Leather

Raw Calf Hides


to Finished Leather

NEQS
(Into Inland Waters)

pH
BOD5
COD
TSS
TDS
Sulphate
Chromium
O &G (Oil & Grease)
Ref: ICTP database

89
600 1200
2,000 3,300
450 1,650
3,800 7,000
900 2,000
10 90
150 200

68
1,500 3,500
2,600 5,000
800 1,500
4,000 15,000
900 -2,000
50 150
20 100

6-9
80
150
200
3,500
600
1
10

3.4.2 Wastewaterquantities
In the tannery processes, water is used as a chemical carrier to render the cleaning of raw hides and skins
as well as to penetrate the chemicals facilitating reaction of chemical with collagen fibre of the skins. The
processed water after the completion of the process is drained out as wastewater.
Quantity of wastewater generation varies from tannery to tannery. It depends upon many variables along
with the quantity of raw material processing. Average daily wastewater discharge from medium to large
tannery ranges from 280 to 800 m3.

3.5 BESTAVAILABLERESOURCECONSERVATIONTECHNIQUES
This section describes the commercially available techniques having potential to achieve the considerable
level of environmental protection and resources conservation in leather industry. For tanneries, the focal
points are water consumption, efficient use of process chemicals and waste reduction within the process in
conjunction with recycling and re-use options.
The resource management of a tannery depends primarily on the type of leather production carried out,
and secondarily on the local conditions, i.e. the availability, quality and cost of fresh water, as well as the
costs and legal requirements for wastewater treatment and discharge. Efficient wastewater treatment
involves the optimization of water consumption and lowering the consumption of chemicals used in the
process and wastewater treatment.

20

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3.5.1 Efficientu
useofwate
er
Due to poor
p water management
m
in the tanneries, only 500 % of the waater consumeed is actuallyy used in thee
processees while the other half is lost due to extensive
e
running water losses, overfrflowing vessels, leakage,
ts washing of
continuoously runningg pipes, and over-frequen
o
o floors and drums.
d
International literaturre suggests the
t following general water managem
ment techniquues in order to
t reduce thee
excessivve water conssumption andd pollution looad in the effluent;
a. Rep
pair and rep
placement system: Thiss system redduces the waater losses ffrom valves leaks. Goodd
mainntenance of water pumps, seals, fllanges can substantiallyy reduce thee water connsumption. A
prevventive mainttenance scheedule should be developeed and implem
mented.
p
type taaps: Press type taps shhould be installed insteadd of open tapps in order too
b. Installation of press
d to negligeence of a worker.
avoid water wasttage throughh open taps due
o close valvve for hosep
pipe: Press type
t
clutchess in the hoseepipes shouldd be installedd. This wouldd
c. Auto
prevvent water losss due to neggligence.
d. Installation of flow meteers: Daily water
conssumption and
a
losses from indivvidual
secttions should be reported.. This would allow
the rapid ideentification of non rooutine
condditions so thaat prompt acction can be taken.
t
Thiss measure reequires the installation of
o flow
meteers20.
e. Trainings of wo
orkers: Perioodic training of all
senior and junnior manageement stafff and
operrators can be a cost effective way of
reduucing the waater consumpption and pollution
loadd.
f. Envvironmental managemen
nt system (E
EMS): EMS optimizes
o
thee managemeent, increases awarenesss
and includes gooals and measures, proocess and job
j instructioons etc21. Itt is reportedd that waterr
conssumption cann be reducedd by over 90%
% by improvinng the houseekeeping22.
3.5.2 Usedrumsinsteado
ofpitsand
dpuddles
The use of drums is generally favvorable to paaddles or pitss, which use about 300 1000 % floaats. However,
p
can be processsed in drumss, certain tannneries will not be able too
becausee not all types of leather produced
take advvantage of this option to reduce
r
their water
w
consum
mption e.g. thhe processingg of long-woool skins mustt
be done in paddles233.

20

Final report
r
on devvelopment of guidelines fo
or water consservation in pulp
p
and Papeer sector, cen
ntral pollution
n
controlb
boardDelhi.
21
Integra
atedPollution
nPreventionaandControl(IPPC),DraftR
ReferenceDoccumentonBeestAvailableTTechniquesin
n
thePulpandPaperInd
dustry,Decem
mber2001,EuropeanComm
mission
22
Water,,FactsandTreends,Worldb
businessCoun
ncilforsustain
nableDevelop
pment
23
IntegraatedPollution
nPreventionaandControl(IP
PPC),DraftRe
eferenceDocu
umentonBesttAvailableTechniques,for
theTanningofHidesaandSkins,Feb
bruary2009,EEuropeanCom
mmission
21
1

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3.5.3 Batchwashingindrums
The consumption of water for rinsing processes varies considerably between tanneries. Running water
washes, goods are run in a drum with a lattice door and continually rinsed, is one of the major sources of
water wastage. Batch washes save over 50 % of total water used in the process24. Moreover, a great
uniformity of the end product is attained. Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), a member of
the World Bank Group, also promotes the batch washing practice in drums instead of continues washing in
its environmental guidelines for Tanning and Leather Finishing. IFC Environmental, Health, and Safety
Guidelines for Tanning and Leather recommend the same practice of batch washing instead of continues
washing.
3.5.4 Modifyingexistingequipmentsforshortfloatsshortfloattechnique
The short-float technique yields a reduction in water consumption and processing time, savings in chemical
input because of a higher effective concentration and increased mechanical action. As per literature,
utilization of short floats 40 80 % floats instead of 100 250 % is achieved for certain process steps by
modifying the equipment.
With a combination of batch washing and short floats, savings up to 70 % can be achieved, compared with
a conventional process.
3.5.5 Modernequipmentforshortfloats
The installation of modern tannery machines can reduce water consumption by 50 % compared with a
conventional process in addition to chemical savings25. Keeping in view the sustainable production, the
high cost of the machines can be justified by the water saving, chemical conservation and less energy
input. Only minimal re-modeling is required to allow recycling systems.
3.5.6 Maintenanceofequipments
Leaks in pipes and process vessels can account for considerable losses of water. Preventative
maintenance programmes should be carried out to minimize the water losses. Apart from the deposition of
solids, raw unsettled tannery wastewater can cause many problems in a sewer. Calcium carbonates cause
encrustation, high sulphide contents lead to corrosion and sulphates cause deterioration of concrete. It is
important to use sewer material suitable for tannery wastewater.
3.5.7 Reuseofwastewaterforlesscriticalprocesses
Reuse of wastewater of soaking process has been investigated by number of researchers. All the
techniques have been studied thoroughly and references of only published documents are given. Soaking
processing in tanneries is carried out in two steps: dirt soak and main soak and the Rinsing. Main soak and
rinse liquor is collected and reused in the next soaking operations for dirt soak and main soak respectively,
the dirt soak liquor is discarded and fresh water is used for the rinsing operation.26
The IPPC document on Best Available Techniques for the Tanning of Hides and Skins states that rinsing
water from de-liming can be recycled back to soaking. Lime washes together with recycle from
pickle/chrome tan and some other washes can be recycled to soak. Water consumption can be reduced
considerably through this technique.

24

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Eleventh Session of the Leather and, Leather
Products Industry Panel, Nairobi, Kenya, 29 November 3 December 1993, Introduction of cleaner leather
productionmethodsprospectsandconstraints
25
IntegratedPollutionPreventionandControl(IPPC),DraftReferenceDocumentonBestAvailableTechniques,for
theTanningofHidesandSkins,February2009,EuropeanCommission
26
RecyclingInTheTanningIndustry,N.P.Slabbert,LeatherIndustriesResearchInstitute,Grahamstown,South
Africa,JournaloftheSocietyofLeatherTechnologistsandChemists,Vol.64,p.89
22

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3.5.8 Partialsaltelimination
During curing process, salts are added to prevent the degradation of skins and hides. Salt represents about
20% of the raw material weight. It is possible to recover partially the preserving salt by shaking the hides
either manually or mechanical by using perforated and inclined rotating drums. The recovered salt, heated
over 400 centigrade to eliminate the organic material can be reused for hide preservation27.
This technique of partial salt recovery will help in improving the effluent quality besides saving the chemical
and energy input at subsequent steps.
3.5.9 Hairsavingunhairinglimingmethods
Liming is a process in which lime Ca(OH)2, sodium sulphide and ammonium salts are conventionally
employed for hair removal, interfibrillary components and epidermis and to open up the fibre structure.
This process accounts more than 60% of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen
demand (COD) and total solid (TS) in the wastewater28.
Recovery of hair before dissolution, can lead to a COD reduction of 15- 20% for the mixed tannery effluent,
and a total nitrogen decrease of 25-30%. It is an advantage to filter off the loosened hair as soon as
possible and higher COD and nitrogen reduction can be obtained. This process can be considered as a
cleaner technology if the hair is utilized, even as a nitrogen source29. UNIDO document on Introduction of
cleaner leather production methods-prospects and constraints also proposes the same %age reduction
values of COD and nitrogen by hair saving method.
3.5.10Directrecyclingoflimeliquors
Direct recycling is carried out for maximum recovery of the residual float. The chemical content of the float
is restored to its initial composition before being reused in another unhairing-liming operation. This
technology holds much interest and is being used for over 12 years in tanneries. It can save 35 to 40% of
the involved sodium sulfide, and almost 45 to 50% of the conventional lime consumption. On the whole, 30
to 40% of the COD and 35% of the nitrogen may be eliminated from the mixed effluents. Savings in
chemicals generally lead to a 3 to 4 years investment return rate even if the pollution control value is not
considered in the balance30.
3.5.11CO2deliming
De-liming is done by traditionally with ammonium salts. It is considered that up to 40% of ammonical
nitrogen is produced by the use of ammonium salts during the de-liming process. The use of carbon dioxide
provides quite a few advantages as far as pollution is concerned. In practice, the only difficulties are related
to the required distribution equipment from CO2 storage.
This technology is very much favorable for light pelts (thickness lower than 3 mm). The CO2 is injected
directly in the axe of the drum. The application rate is 1 to 1.5% of the weight of pelts. For thicker hides,

27

,United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Eleventh Session of the Leather and, Leather
Products Industry Panel, Nairobi, Kenya, 29 November 3 December 1993, Introduction of cleaner leather
productionmethodsprospectsandconstraints
28
An Environmentfriendly LimeFree Liming Process based on sodium silicate, Yuansen Liu, Haojun Fan*, Xiuli
Zhang,BiyuPeng,BiShi,NationalEngineeringLaboratoryforCleanTechnologyofLeatherManufacture,Sichuan,
University,Chengdu,P.R.China,610065
29
RecentDevelopmentInCleanerProductionandEnvironmentProtectionInWorldLeatherSector,International
unionofenvironment(IUE)commissionofinternationalunionofleathertechnologistsandchemistssocieties
(IULTCS),2008)
30
UnitedNationsIndustrialDevelopmentOrganization(UNIDO),EleventhSessionoftheLeatherand,Leather
ProductsIndustryPanel,Nairobi,Kenya,29November3December1993,Introductionofcleanerleather
productionmethodsprospectsandconstraints
23

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diffusionn remains rather slow andd requires muuch greater CO


C 2 amountss, and it is neecessary to increase floatt
temperaature (up to 35 centigraddes) and/or process duration, and/oor to add sm
mall amountt of delimingg
auxiliariees. A large amount
a
of H2S appears at the beginnning of the reaction reqquiring pre-treeatment withh
hydrogen peroxide. More
M than 1000 European and Americaan firms are using
u
this tecchnology31.
3.5.12Recyclingofpicklingliquor
Tanneriees use large quantity of salt
s in the pickling processs, wherein thhe salt is disssolved in water along withh
other chemicals for reducing
r
the pH of the picckle. The salt used is in the
t range of 7 10% of the
t weight off
32
skin .
Pickle liqquor recyclinng reduces thhe amount of
o salt and
effluent discharged to
t sewer. A suitable
s
tankk/container
needs too be dedicateed to the colllection and storage
s
of
the pickkle liquors. Before the pickle liquoor can be
recycledd, several checks and addjustments need to be
carried out.
o It is neceessary to cheeck and adjuust the salt
content and the aciid content prior
p
to recyccling. If a
substanttive fungicidde has beeen used (such as
TCMTB)), extra funggicide has too be added to ensure
adequate mould protection. Alsoo, a grease trap and a
m the liquorr prior to
screen for filtering solids from
storage and re-usee can enhaance the number of
r
stricct analytic
recyclingg cycles. Thhe process requires
control by
b skilled perrsonnel.
Salt saving up to 80%
% are reported through this techniquees. The reduuction of acid consumption is betweenn
10-25%,, although more formic accid than sulpphuric acid is saved33. UN
NIDO reportss the reductioon of 20-25%
%
acids coonsumption.
3.5.13Recyclingofchrome
etanningffloats
Chromiuum tanning saalts are usedd today in 85% of tanningg processes around
a
the w
world34. Direcct recycling off
tanning floats is an easiest
e
method to apply, recover and reuse chrom
mium salts frrom tanning operations.
o
Itt
35
is obserrved that 255-30% appplied chromee remains unconsumed
u
and draineed out as effluent. Afterr
collection and sufficiiently fine sccreening, the floats are controlled andd the chromiium amountss used in thee
previouss cycle replacced by new chromium
c
sallts.
Dependiing on the tanning technoology in use, the degree of
o exhaustionn reached for each cycle may vary. Inn
a conventional bovinne tanning prrocess, it is estimated
e
thaat the direct recycling tecchnology cann save aboutt
20% of the
t chromium
m used in thee conventionaal process.

31

United
d Nations Ind
dustrial Development Orgaanization (UNIDO), Eleventth Session off the Leather and, Leatherr
Productss Industry Paanel, Nairobi, Kenya, 29 November 3
3 December 1993, Introd
duction of cle
eaner leatherr
productio
onmethodsp
prospectsandconstraints
32
www.cpi.org.pk
33
IntegraatedPollution
nPreventionaandControl(IP
PPC),DraftRe
eferenceDocu
umentonBesttAvailableTechniques,for
theTanningofHidesaandSkins,Feb
bruary2009,EEuropeanCom
mmission
34
Recentt Developmennt In Cleaner Production and
a Environment Protectionn In World Leeather Sector,, Internationall
union off environmentt (IUE) comm
mission of innternational un
nion of leathher technologiists and chem
mists societiess
(IULTCS
S), 2008)
35
Thisfiggureistakenffromwww.cpi.org.pk
24
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On the other
o
hand, for the treatment of wooolly sheep skkins (especiaally double faace), this dirrect recyclingg
makes itt possible to reuse almosst 50% of thee chromium introduced inn the processs, since tannning floats doo
not reacch high exhauustion rates.
This reccycling methood may be repeated sevveral times on the samee float. How
wever, it is lim
mited by thee
occurrennce of qualityy problems with
w delicate hides, and by
b the need to control reesidual floatss (acidity andd
chromium concentraation), a meaasurement which
w
takes around 30 minutes.
m
Thiss technologyy is speciallyy
ms and is widely used throoughout Euroope36.
adapted to small firm
ecoveryth
hrough
3.5.14Chromere
precipitationandseparatiion
Chrome can be recoovered from the
t exhaust liquors
l
(tanning liquors) froom the connventional chrome
tanning process; chhromium from
m high-exhaausting
chromium salts is not recycledd due to thhe low
concentrration.
The chroomium-contaaining liquorss are collecteed in a
collection tank, aftter which the
t
chromiuum is
precipitaated by addition of an alkali. The
precipitaated chromium is sepparated from
m the
supernatant, after which
w
the chhromium sluddge is
dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid (for 1 kg of
Cr2O3 as
a precipitaate about 1.9
1 kg H2SO
S 4 is
required). The superrnatant is gennerally dischaarged to the effluent. Thee precipitate sshould be re--dissolved ass
s
with time.
t
Chromiium recovereed in this wayy resembles the quality off
soon as possible, as it gets less soluble
fresh chromium. Chrome precipittation can remove aroundd 99.9 % of the chrome37.

3.6 FEASIBL
LETECHN
NIQUESFO
ORLOCA
ALINDUSTRIES
CPI is working
w
with leather sector since 20007 with the objective
o
to enable
e
the P
Pakistans seecond foreignn
exchangge earning seector to compply with national and interrnational environmental reequirements and to adoptt
best management prractices for cleaner produuction and ennergy efficiency practices..
CPI has worked in taannery sectorr under the foollowing proggram:
Program
mme for Indu
ustrial Sustaainable Deveelopment -1 (July, 2007 - June, 2010)
CPI hass implementeed the follow
wing cleanerr technologiees in a logiccal sequencce under a cost-effective
c
e
framewoork with direcct and indirecct financial paaybacks.

Limee Recycling
Chroome Recovery and Recyccling

36

United
d Nations Ind
dustrial Development Orgaanization (UNIDO), Eleventth Session off the Leather and, Leatherr
Productss Industry Paanel, Nairobi, Kenya, 29 November 3
3 December 1993, Introd
duction of cle
eaner leatherr
productio
onmethodsp
prospectsandconstraints
37
IntegraatedPollution
nPreventionaandControl(IPPC),DraftRe
eferenceDocu
umentonBesstAvailableTe
echniques,forr
theTan
nningofHidesandSkins,February2009,EuropeanCo
ommission
25
5

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

Carbon Di Oxide De-liming


Salt De-dusting
Reduction at Source Techniques

Process Change
Establishment of process control laboratory
Batch washing instead of continuous washing
Determination of pH with electronic pH meter
Optimized raw trimming by skilled labor
Control of water hardness
Installation of flow meters
Mechanical salt de-dusting machine
Input Material Change
Use of enzymatic products instead of sulphides
Use of biodegradable surfactants
Avoid penta chloro phenol
Use of weak organic acids instead of ammonium sulphate
Use water finishers instead of halogen hydrocarbons.
Good Housekeeping
Use of wooden pallets for raw hide/skin or wet blue
Use of wipers for extra floor washing
Use low-pressure pipes or install nozzles on high-pressure pipes for floor washing
Provide washbasins for workers
Provide proper light and ventilation in processing hall and stores
Control water leakages
Construct separate drains for liming and tanning operations
Construct covered and sufficiently sloped drains
Raw skins/hides and wet blue stack on wooden pellets
Well-maintained floors with proper slope
Sufficient provision of light and ventilation

26

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

4
PULP AND PAPER SECTOR
In 1947, Pakistan got independence having no paper and board mill in the country and had to rely on
imported paper. At present, there are 134 reported establishments related to paper and paper products
including, 45 pulp, paper and paperboard processing, 73 makers of containers of paper and paperboard
and 16 makers of other articles of paper and paperboard38. Moreover, there are unaccounted number of
small manufacturing units producing low grade paper or board to meet the market demands. Production of
45 pulp, paper and paperboard plants caters about 80% of the nationwide paper requirement of 850,000
tons of paper per annum. Approximately 100,000 people are employed in this industrial sector.

4.1 GEOGRAPHICALLOCATION
Pulp, paper and paperboard industry is mostly located in the province of Punjab and Sindh. Out of 45, 29
paper and paper board processing units are located in Punjab. A small percentage of total production is
produced in the KPK. District wise distribution of 29 processing units located in Punjab is not available from
the association (Pakistan Pulp, Paper and Board Mills Association-PPPBMA) and any other source.
Therefore, CPI used his own database developed for PISD project. Under this project, 15 paper industries
were selected out of 29 for the implementation of cleaner production and energy efficiency initiatives during
2007-2011.
All industries were selected from Punjab province except one which was located in Karachi (Sindh). Figure
4.1 shows the location of pulp & paper mills while Figure 4.2 shows the district wise distribution of mills.

4.2 PRODUCTIONPROCESS
The main processes involved in pulp and paper industries are following:

Chemical pulping involves Kraft (sulphate) pulping process and Sulphite pulping process
Mechanical and chemi-mechanical pulping
Recovered paper processing with and without de-inking
Papermaking and related processes39

Pakistan is one of the few countries in the world where agricultural waste and Neutral Sodium Sulfite
cooking process is used to produce paper and paperboard grades.

38

CensusofManufacturingIndustries200506Weights

39

IntegratedPollutionPreventionandControl(IPPC),DraftReferenceDocumentonBestAvailableTechniquesin
thePulpandPaperIndustry,December2001,EuropeanCommission
27

Cityywide Partnerrship for Sustainable Water Use


U and Waterr Stewardship in SMEs in Laahore, Pakistan
n WSP
Better Water
W
Managem
ment & Cleaner Production
P
Practices in Major Industrial Secttor of Pakistan

Figure 4.1:
4 Location
n of pulp & paper
p
mills in Punjab
Attock
Rawalpindi

Chakwal

J
Jhelum
Gujrat

Mianwali
Mandi
Bahauddin

Sialkott

Khu
ushab
Gujranwala

Sargodha

Narowal

Hafizabad

Shekhupura
Bhakkar

Chiniot
Nankana
Sahib

Faisalabad

Jhang

Kasur

Toba
Tek
Singh

Layyah

Lahore

Okara

Sahiwal
Khan
newal
Dera
Ghazi
Khan

Pakpattan

Muzaffargarh
Multan

Vehari
Bahawalnagar

Lodhhran

Rajanpur

Bahawalpur

Rahim
Yar
Khan

Figure 4.2:
4 District Wise
W Distrib
bution of 14 Units in Punjab
9
8
8
7
6
5
4
3
3
2
2
1

0
Lahore

Multa
an

Kasur

Sheikhupuira
a

4.3 PAPERS
SECTORP
PRODUCT
TION
t period off 2010-11, paper
p
and paaperboard seector production was repported to be 434,800 tonn
During the
includingg all paper and paperboard produucts. Moreovver, the sector is conttributing tow
wards importt
substituttion by savingg millions of dollars by prroducing highh and low quaality paper annd paper boaard.

28
8

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

Total installed capacity of members units of PPPBMA is reported to be 436,500 ton per year i.e. 62% of the
total production for the year 2008-09. However, these units are operating at about 80% efficiency and
producing around 350,000 ton per year (50%) of paper and paper board. Majority of the mills are below 100
ton per day capacity and many have designed capacity of not more than 50 ton per day. All large paper
mills are located in Punjab due to the availability of basic raw material i.e. wheat straw. Table 4.1 provides
the paper and paperboard production of last five years.
Table 4.1: Pakistan Paper and Paperboard Production
Year

Paperboard
(000 Ton)

Paper (All other types)


(000 Ton)

Total
(000 Ton)

280.4
227.6
168.8
178.2
206.1

161.7
192.0
252.5
249.1
228.7

442.1
419.6
421.3
427.3
434.8

2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11

Ref: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2011-12

Table 4.2 represents the average annual production for the mills studied under PISD project.
Table 4.2: Paper and Paperboard Production
Category

Annual Production (Ton)

Integrated Pulp and Paper Mill


Wastepaper Mill

229,929
99,220

Ref: PISD Database

4.4 WASTEWATERPOLLUTION
Pulp and paper industry is highly polluted industry of the Pakistan with reference to wastewater discharges.
Water being the only pulp carrying medium in this industry is used extensively throughout the paper and
board production process.
4.4.1 Sources
The major sources of wastewater in pulp and paper mill are the pulping, bleaching and finally the
papermaking sections. The wastewater generated from pulping process (commonly known as NSSC) in
which raw material breaks down to liberate cellulose from lignin is the main pollution point. The wastewater
generated at this stage through cooking and washing of pulp is termed as black liquor. Most of the
wastewater is drained but little quantity of this wastewater is recycled in few of progressive unit of Pakistan
pulp and paper sector.
The second main source of wastewater is the bleaching section. The washed pulp is then bleached with
bleaching chemicals to get rid of the remaining lignin contents and mainly to achieve the required
brightness of the pulp. The wastewater of this stage is highly toxic due to the presence of chlorinated
compounds.
The effluent from Paper Machine mainly comprises of fibers and fillers which is relatively less harmful as
compared to pulp mill effluent. Most of the wastewater generated from this section is recycled in pulp mill.

29

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

4.4.2 Wastewatercharacteristics
Table 4.3 shows the range of characteristics of the wastewater generated by pulp and paper mills. The
comparison of characteristics with NEQS confirms that the paper industry is one of the most polluted
industries of Pakistan. All the results in Table 4.3 are based on the data collected during the integrated
audits of pulp and paper mills under PISD and ETPI projects.
Table 4.3: Wastewater Characteristic
Parameter

Units

pH
BOD
COD
TSS
TDS
Temp

mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
C

Effluent Characteristic Ranges


ETPI
PISD
Pulp Mill
Paper Mill Pulp and Paper Mill
6.5 7
6.7 7.9
5.19 11.72
4,000 8,000
100 500
219 3,292
6,000 14,000 200 1,000
892 3,460
1,000 4,000
300 500
358 4,232
1,164 5,824
34 36
35
-

NEQS
69
80
150
200
3,500
40

Ref: PISD Database

Table 4.4 shows the average wastewater generation rates for the mills studied under PISD project.
Table 4.4: Wastewater Generation Rate
Category
Integrated Pulp and Paper Mill

Wastewater Generation
(avg. m3/y)
5,491,999

Unit Wastewater Generation


(avg. m3/ton)
202

1,817,082

96

Wastepaper Mill
Ref: PISD Database

4.5 BESTAVAILABLERESOURCECONSERVATIONTECHNIQUES
Pulp and paper manufacturing requires large amount of water, steam and electricity. As a result, the main
environmental stress associated with pulp and paper industries is water and energy consumption and
emissions to the water. A long list of best available techniques is available to reduce the environmental
pollution in pulp and paper sector. These techniques are developed keeping in view different raw materials
and processes involved in the mills. As, agricultural based sulphite pulping process is commonly in practice
in Pakistani Industries therefore, worldwide best available techniques for NSSC process are explained
here:
4.5.1 Goodhousekeepingmeasures(GHM)
GHM are the low-cost or no-cost practical measures that allow water consumption and pollutant
discharges to be minimized40. GHM to reduce the water consumption and pollution load for Pulp & Paper
sector are following:
a. Repair and replacement system: This system reduces the water losses from valves leaks. Good
maintenance of water pumps, seals and flanges can substantially reduce the water consumption. A
preventive maintenance schedule should be developed and implemented.

40

Bestpracticeguideno.BPGCS001,GoodHousekeepingMeasuresForSolvents,EnterpriseIreland
30

Cityywide Partnerrship for Sustainable Water Use


U and Waterr Stewardship in SMEs in Laahore, Pakistan
n WSP
Better Water
W
Managem
ment & Cleaner Production
P
Practices in Major Industrial Secttor of Pakistan

b. Installation of press type taps: Presss type


tapss should be installed instead of open taps in
ordeer to avoid water
w
wastagee through oppen taps
due to negligencce of a workeer.
c. Auto
omatic
s
shut
dow
wn
proccedure:
Impllementation and
a monitoriing and follow
w up of
autoomatic shut down procedure shoould be
carried out for thhe water turrbines when pulping
or paaper machine sections arre out of prodduction.
d. Installation off flow meters: Daily water
conssumption andd losses from
m individual sections
s
shouuld be reporrted. This woould allow thhe rapid
idenntification of non
n routine conditions
c
soo that promppt action can be taken. Thhis measure requires thee
instaallation of flow
w meters41.
e. Trainings of wo
orkers: Perioodic training of
o all senior and
junioor managem
ment staff annd operators can be a cost
c
effecctive way of reducingg water consumption and
polluution load.
f. Envvironmental managemeent system
m (EMS): EMS
E
optim
mizes the management,
m
, increases awareness and
incluudes goals and meaasures, proccess and job
instrructions etc422. It is reporrted that watter consumption
can be reduceed by overr 90% by improving the
houssekeeping43.
4.5.2 Useofbettterpulpw
washingtecchnology
Conventtional potcheer washing is a batch process which consumes
c
huuge quantity of water as compared too
the conttinuous counntercurrent processes whhich consumees less wateer. Dependinng upon the process andd
industry,, usually twoo to three washes
w
are applied. Usee of fresh water
w
in the last washing stage andd
recyclingg of effluent in the first stage/stagess not only reeduces the consumption
c
n of fresh waater but alsoo
allows thhe recycling of spent liqquor leading to the savinng of chemiccals. This syystem not onnly saves thee
consumpption of fressh water buut also reduuces the pollution load in the effluuent44. Somee continuouss
processees are given::
a. Hyd
draulic drum
m washing: Hydraulic drum washeer works onn hydraulic principle therefore, hass
minimum operatiing cost.
b. Vacuum drum washing:
w
In vacuum drrum washingg, each stage consists oof a rotating screen drum
m
having partial vaacuum applieed to its interior. The druum sits in a tank where ppulp is diluteed with washh

41

Final report
r
on devvelopment of guidelines fo
or water consservation in pulp
p
and Papeer sector, cen
ntral pollution
n
controlb
boardDelhi
42
IntegraatedPollution
nPreventionaandControl(IPPC),DraftR
ReferenceDoccumentonBeestAvailableTTechniquesin
n
thePulpandPaperInd
dustry,Decem
mber2001,EuropeanComm
mission
43
Water,,FactsandTreends,Worldb
businessCoun
ncilforsustain
nableDevelop
pment
44
(Enviro
onmental pro
otection strattegies for susstainable development, Sp
pringer Dordrrechet Heidelberg London,
Newyorkk.
31
1

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

water. The vacuum draws a pulp mat against the surface and washes water through the mat. The drum
rotation advances the washed pulp mat to the next dilution tank. Wash water discharged from this wash
stage is sent to the previous washing stage.
c. Pressure washing: Pressure washing is similar to vacuum drum, but differs by spraying water under
pressure through the pulp mat as the drum rotates.
d. Diffusion washing: Diffusion washing is a counter flow process that takes place in one or more
stages. Pulp flow is upward and is carried on a perforated plate. Water flows downward through a
series of baffles.
e. Chemi or Belt washing: A Chemi or belt washer is a simplest washing system in terms of design. It
offers excellent washing with reduced water usage. Belt washing is a counter flow process where pulp
enters the washer area on a wire belt. Washing takes place under a series of showers. Clean water
enters on the opposite end from the pulp and is sprayed vertically through the pulp. The used wash
water is then collected and reapplied to the dirtier pulp by the next washing head. This process is
continued through all the stages until the wash water is saturated with liquor after washing immediately
coming pulp. The wash water is then sent to the recovery process. Belt washing can reduce the
amount of water used per ton of pulp in brownstock washing by 50%.
f. Twin roll press washer: Twin wire roll press washer works on the general principle of dewatering,
displacement and pressing. It consists of a twin-wire dewatering unit which allows controlled washing of
the pulp. The two-sided dewatering and strong turbulence of the washer facilitate two to three time
higher capacities per unit of width than conventional washer technologies. An additional main feature of
this technology is that the ash and fines removal can be controlled depending on the targeted levels.
This technology can be used for high consistency pulp washing and resulting in reduced water
consumption45.
4.5.3 Carbondioxidebrownstockwashing
The injection of CO2 into the wash water of brownstock washers reportedly improves pulp drainage, which
can enhance washing efficiency and lead to improved throughput and reduced water usage. One published
estimate suggests that CO2 injection in brownstock washing could lead to a 10% reduction in wash water
use46.
4.5.4 Alternativebleachingtechniques
Chemical pulp bleaching is carried out to remove and /or brighten the residual colored lignin that remains in
the pulp after the cook and to achieve this without undue loss in pulp strength or yield. In conventional
bleaching, chlorine, hypochlorite or chlorine dioxide is used as bleaching agent and discharged in the
effluent as dissolved chlorinated material.
In early 80s, there has been strong focus on the environmental impacts of conventional bleaching effluent.
As a result, new technologies including ECF and TCF were introduced. These bleaching techniques reduce

45

Development of Guidelines for Water conservation in pulp and Paper sector, Central Pollution Control Board,
Delhi
46
EnergyEfficiencyImprovementandCostSavingOpportunitiesforPulpandPaperIndustries,KlaasJanKramer,
Eric Masanet, Tengfang Xu, and Ernst Worrell, Environmental Energy Technologies Division, U.S. Environmental
ProtectionAgency,October2009
32

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

the amount of chlorinated and colored material in the effluent. Moreover, effluent volume and environmental
load can also be reduced by using these modern bleaching techniques47.
Elemental Chlorine Free Bleaching (ECF) replaces chlorine with chlorine dioxide as a bleaching agent. The
use of ECF bleaching results in reduced levels of chlorinated pollutants in the wastewater stream. Totally
Chlorine Free (TCF) bleaching uses no chlorinated bleaching agents to bleach the pulp. Instead, bleaching
agents such as oxygen and peroxide are used. TCF bleaching eliminates chlorinated pollutants in the
wastewater stream48-49.
4.5.5 Optimumuseofcoolingwastewater
Cooling with water is required at various sites like pump gland cooling/sealing, steam turbine cooling,
compressor cooling, refiner gland cooling, rewinder brake cooling, etc. Fresh water is mostly used for pump
jacket cooling on once through basis. There are different techniques by which this water use can be
optimized as described below:
a. Collection of once-through cooling water and reuse it in different process operation: Collection
involves installation of several small sumps or tanks from which water is subsequently pumped to
process water tanks. It is also possible to directly use the water for specific applications like shower
systems. The higher temperature of cooling wastewater is advantageous to the shower system as it
increases the water drainage property of the web.
b. Converting once-through system into a closedloop system: This requires installation of cooling
tower, a temperature controller and a cartridge filter to remove any suspended particles present in the
waste cooling water. Further, periodic injection of fresh water is required as a make up for the
evaporation loss.
4.5.6 Recoveryandrecyclingofcleanwaterfromvacuumpumps
Fresh water is used for sealing/cooling in vacuum pumps of paper machine section. Vacuum pumps are
used to supply vacuum to vacuum drum pulp washers, wire section and press section of the paper
machine.
Vacuum pumps are typically liquid ring pumps which use water for sealing and cooling. Water usage is
continuous and highly depending upon the size of the pump. The wastewater is mostly non-contaminated
and can be used in the pulp mill for pulp dilution, decker thickener showers, brown stock washing after
recycling. Recycling of sealing water requires the installation of vacuum flume tank. Sealing wastewater
from all the vacuum pumps in paper machine section is collected in a tank and by the action of centrifugal
action, suspended particles are separated from it. About 50% of the clear filtrate goes back to vacuum
pump as sealing water and rest is collected in water conservation tank. In the water conservation tank,
fresh water is added as make up and is recycled back to the plant for different uses.

47

UNEP, Environmental management in the pulp and paper industry, Technical report, UN Environmental
programeeforindustryandenvironmemnt
48
TechnicalEIAGuidelinesManualforPulpandPaperIndustries,MinistryofEnvironmentandForest,Government
ofIndia
49
CleanTechnologiesinUSindustries:FocusonPulp&Paper,PollutionPreventionAssistancedivision,United
StatesAsiaEnvironmentalPartnership,September1997
33

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U and Waterr Stewardship in SMEs in Laahore, Pakistan
n WSP
Better Water
W
Managem
ment & Cleaner Production
P
Practices in Major Industrial Secttor of Pakistan

4.5.7 Replacem
mentofwattersealsin
nprocessp
pumps
Seal watter used in various
v
pumpps can be elim
minated by reeplacing withh mechanicall face seals and
a lip seals.
Seal watter flows are typically nott very high, but
b are continnuous and caan add up to large volumees over time.
Water luubricated pum
mps can be reeplaced with seal less puumps50.
An International Papper (formerly Union Campp) mill in Savvannah, Geoorgia, replaceed water lubricated sealss
with mechanical seaals with a 955% success rate, and claaimed reducced water ussage, reduceed equipmentt
damage, reduced waater contaminnation, and reduced
r
mainntenance time after the inntroduction of
o mechanical
seals. UK
U tissue mill reduced water
w
consuumption by 66,000
6
galloons per day,, which wass an amountt
equivaleent to 1,320 gallons
g
per toon of productt by using seaal less pumpps51.
Water luubricated pum
mps can alsoo be replaced with diastoolic tube pum
mp where maagnetically cooupled pumpp
transmitss power from
m the motor to
t the pump with
w a magneetic pump. Pumps
P
with braided packing seals andd
a self luubricating coompound aree also availaable. These lubricants have a colloiddal mixture of lubricantss
amalgam
mated with aragraphe fibers.
f
Replaacement of water lubriccated seals not only reduces waterr
consumpption but alsso reduces thhe occurrencce of equipm
ment damagee, maintenannce time andd wastewaterr
generation52.
4.5.8 Installatio
onofwaterefficientshowersa
atpaperm
machines
Paper machine
m
show
wers are one of the largesst users of freesh
water. Fresh
F
water showers
s
with holes are innstalled to cleean
the wire part of papeer machine. FICCI case study on waaste
paper based
b
industtry indicatess that each hole of waater
shower consumes
c
thhe water at thhe rate of 10 m3/h.
These conventional
c
showers caan be replaced with waater
efficient showers witth fan jet andd wide anglee spray in paaper
machinees. Water effficient showeers consumee fresh water in
the rangge of 5-7 m3/h. This schheme saves consumptionn of
fresh water
w
which in turn reeduces the generation of
5
53
effluent .
4.5.9 Useofeffiicientdeck
kerthicken
ner/vacuu
umdrumsshowers
Decker thickeners and
a vacuum drums for pulp washinng contain showering
s
syystem. Drilleed perforatedd
showerss consume laarge amount of fresh wateer. These shhowers can be
b replaced w
with nozzles. An optimum
m
nozzle design
d
(e.g. needle
n
jet typpe, flat type, etc) with maaintenance of
o appropriatee pressure inn the pipelinee
ensures optimum waater consumption. Also with
w the passsage of timee, nozzle diameter gets widen
w
due too
corrosion. Functioninng of showerrs should bee regularly monitored to maintain
m
the required preessure in thee
showerss. Oscillating showers at bleaching annd high presssure nozzless at pulp andd paper sections improvee
the washhing efficienccy and reduce quantity off water requirred for washing.

50

Develo
opment of Gu
uidelines for Water
W
conserrvation in pulp
p and Paper sector, Centraal Pollution Control
C
Board,
Delhi
51
EnergyyEfficiencyIm
mprovementaandCostSavingOpportuniitiesforPulp andPaperInd
dustries,KlaasJanKramer,
EricMasanet,TengffangXu,and ErnstWorrell,Environmen
ntalEnergyTeechnologiesDivision,U.S.EEnvironmental
October2009
9
ProtectionAgency,O
52
Develo
opment of Gu
uidelines for Water
W
conserrvation in pulp
p and Paper sector, Centraal Pollution Control
C
Board,
Delhi
53
Federaation of Indiaan Chambers of Commercee and Industrry (FCCI) Interventions in Pulp and Pap
per Sector forr
ReducttioninFreshw
waterConsumptionandTreeatmentofCo
oloredEffluen
nt,AcaseStud
dy.
34
4

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

4.5.10Useofhighpressurelowvolumeshowers
Installation of high pressure low volume showers consume lesser quantity of water and therefore reduce
the consumption of fresh water.
4.5.11Useofselfcleaningshowersinpapermachinesection
Installation of self cleaning low pressure showers in paper machine section consumes 55 to 60% less fresh
water.
4.5.12Improvingwhitewaterquality
The clarification of white water leads to significant benefits, including the recovery of fiber for reuse,
reduced suspended solids loads, and reuse in other facility applications to reduce mill freshwater demand.
There are different technologies to clarify paper machine white water which are described here:
a. Poly disc filtration system: Poly disc filtration system uses a number of hollow discs to achieve a
high surface area of filtration. Two different qualities of filtrate is produced from this technique. The
filtrate initially produced has relatively high-suspended solids content called cloudy filtrate. The next
stage filtrate is produced once a mat of fibers has been built up on the disc surface which acts as a
filter medium. The suspended solid concentrations in this filtrate is much less and can be easily used
for variety of applications like paper machine showers, pump gland cooling/sealing, vacuum pump
sealing, etc. Cloudy filtrate is suitable for use in pulp dilution whereas clear filtrate can be used in selfcleaning showers. The saving of fresh water consumption by this system is in the range of 13.3m3 to
26.6 m3/ton of pulp.
b. Krofta /Gravity sedimentation type saveall: Krofta saveall is based on dissolved air floatation
principle whereas other works on sedimentation. This technique is effectively used in wastewater
treatment system and found very effective in fibre separation from the paper machine wastewater.
Flocculating agents are used in both the system.
c. Drum filters: Drum filters use a rotating cylinder covered with a mesh that acts as the filtration
medium. The filtrate produced contains suspended solids concentrations of 120-150 mg/l. These types
of filters are frequently used in broke pulp thickening, decker thickeners, etc.
d. Inclined /Hill Screens: Inclined/Hill screens provide a simple separation system for the recovery of
fiber and clarification of paper machine wastewater. However, they are less frequently used due to
lower quality of filtrate produced.
e. The various application of clarified paper machine wastewater is decker thickener showers, vacuum
washers, pulp dilutions before bleaching stage and johnson screen showers54.
f. Hydrodynamic Separator for Raw Material Recovery from white water: This technology is applied
in the papermaking section to recover raw material and reduce pollution loads. The hydrodynamic
separator is installed above the pulper on the paper making machines, which replaces the conventional
white water tanks. White water is pumped directly from the paper machine wire pit and press section to
the hydrodynamic separator.
g. The white water enters the separator at an angle designed to induce a cyclonic flow, which holds the
solids in suspension towards the inner shell of the vessel. Clear water separates and flows inwards

54

DevelopmentofGuidelinesforWaterconservationinpulpandPapersector,CentralPollutionControlBoard,
Delhi
35

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n WSP
Better Water
W
Managem
ment & Cleaner Production
P
Practices in Major Industrial Secttor of Pakistan

beloow the annulaar baffle, oveerflowing the central circuular weir wheen the separaator is full. The solids aree
conccentrated at the
t bottom of the separattor, ready forr the next pulper rechargee. The conicaal base of thee
hydrrodynamic seeparator is shaped
s
to release solids, reducing thee number of blockages and
a thereforee
cutting maintenaance requirem
ments. Solid removal effficiency of Hydrodynamicc Separator is 97%. Thiss
techhnique is beinng used in Arrjo Wiggins Fine
F Papers Limited
L
Stow
wford Mill,Unitted Kingdom55.
h. Reccycling of trreated effluent for non
n process use:
u
Fresh water
w
is useed in some non processs
activvities like gaardening, plaantation and toilet flushinng. As quality of water iss not essenttial for thesee
activvities therefore treated waastewater caan be used inn these activitties. This will reduce the consumptionn
of frresh water. Researchers
R
report that 50-100
5
m3 freesh water caan be saved per day by adopting
a
thiss
56
meaasure .
4.5.13Installatio
onofmediiumconsisstencypulp
pscreenin
ngequipment
Low Coonsistency pulp screenn consumess huge
amount of fresh water for dilution and large volume
of wasteewater is gennerated with more percenntage of
fiber losses. Medium consisteency pulp screen
technoloogy requiress less amoount of waater as
compareed to low coonsistency sccreening andd saves
energy
fresh water
w
conssumption. Moreover,
M
consumpption to pump the extra water
w
is also saved.
s
m
conssistency
FICCI caase study inddicated that medium
pulp sccreening tecchnology (2..5%) saved about
1,000 KL/day
K
of fresh water whhich was preeviously
consumiing additionaal input of 1,000
1
KL/day fresh
water with low consistency (1%) screening
technoloogy57.
4.5.14Recyclingofchlorin
newashba
ackwaterc
completely
yintothes
system
After paassing the unnbleached puulp through a chlorinatioon tower, it is washed inn a conventioonal vacuum
m
drum thickener cum
m washer. The filtrate generated froom this washer containss mainly orggano-chlorinee
compounds. Recyclinng of this filtrrate completeely back to thhe system noot only saves fresh water consumptionn
but also reduces AOX containingg wastewater generation. This technique can save fresh water consumptionn
by 1.4 m3/ton of prodduct58.
4.5.15Dryclean
ningofwhe
eatstraw
Dry and wet cleaningg techniquess are used too clean the raaw material in agro residdue based industries. Dryy
de-dusting of straw not only saaves the consumption of
o freshwater but also aavoids the generation
g
off
wastewaater. Dry cleaaning also redduces the am
mount of silica in the straw
w.

55

CleaneerProductioninPulpandPaaperIndustry,TechnologyFactSheets,U
UnitedNation
nsEnvironmen
ntProgrammee
(UNEP),AsianInstitu
uteofTechno
ology(AIT).
56
Enviro
onmental protection strateegies for sustainable deve
elopment, Sp
pringer Dordrrechet Heidelberg London,
Newyo
ork.
57
Federaation of Indiaan Chambers of Commercee and Industrry (FCCI) Interventions in Pulp and Pap
per Sector forr
ReducttioninFreshw
waterConsumptionandTreeatmentofCo
oloredEffluen
nt,AcaseStud
dy.
58
Develo
opment of Gu
uidelines for Water
W
conserrvation in pulp
p and Paper sector, Centraal Pollution Control
C
Board,
Delhi
36
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This system is fairly simple; it has low specific power consumption and its investment costs are rather low.
Reductions in the silicon content of 20 to 50 % in straw have been reported59.
4.5.16Reuseofwetcleaningwastewater
Wet cleaning is carried out in agro-based pulp and paper industries to clean the raw materials. Effluent
generated from wet washing can be passed from sedimentation effluent. Solid will be settled down and
supernatant can be reused in other processes60.
4.5.17Dryandwetcleaningofstraw
This technology is applicable in the agro residue based industries to reduce the pollution load of the
effluent. Washers are used to wash the straw and dreg remover is used to remove unwanted part of the
straw. This kind of dry-wet straw material preparation can remove mud, sand, grains, leaves and nodes,
which cannot turn into fibers but consume chemicals in the course of digesting and bleaching. This process
improves pulp quality and reduces the quantity of pollutants generated in black liquor. Mud, sand and
grains removal up to 0.3 to 0.7%, leaves and nodes removal up to 5 to 6% are achievable with this
technology. In addition, silica content of black liquor is reduced from 4.14 g/l to 3.59 g/l, which is favorable
for alkali recovery.
For implementation of this technology, the feeding mouth of the four roller feeder needs to be reduced and
the hoppers also need to be modified. An additional screw conveyor to transfer the raw material is required
and the dreg remover needs to be replaced by dehydroextractor. This technique is widely used in China.
4.5.18Disccutterforremovalofnoncellulosicmaterialfromstraws
For removal of non-cellulosic material like leaf, fines and dust from straws having moisture less than 15%,
disc cutter along with air blower and cyclone can be employed in the raw material preparation stage. This
process also reduces the silica content in the black liquor thereby enabling the chemical recovery.
Removed material can be used as fuel after briquetting or mixing with concentrated black liquor. In addition
to reduction in consumption of chemicals, energy, silica content and pollution load can be reduced up to 20
to 25%. This process is highly suitable for small scale pulp mills and is being successfully used in India.
4.5.19Fiberrecoverybydissolvedairfloatation
In pulp and paper units, lot of short fibers and fillers escape with water through the paper machine wire,
thickeners etc. This loss can be up to 7-8% of net production. Dissolved Air Floatation (DAF) technique is
used to capture the fibers to reduce the pollution load and recycle the water for process. Floating sludge
separated in the DAF units is with high solid consistency (2.3%) and can be directly recycled. High
molecular weight polyelectrolytes ensure flocculation of smallest colloid and also help as retention aid on
machine wire.
The implementation of this technology requires installation of surge tanks, scraping devices for floating
matter and pumps for feed water and recovered fiber. DAF technology is being successfully used in Star
Paper Mills Ltd. Saharanpur Uttar Pradesh, India.

59

Paavilainen,L.:Modernnonwoodpulpmillprocessconceptsandeconomicaspects,TAPPIProc.North
AmericanNonwoodFiberSymposium,Atlanta,GA,p.227(1998).b)PreparationofBiosilicaenrichedFillerand
anExampleofitsUseinaNanoParticleRetentionSystem,JanPekarovic,AlexandraPekarovicovaandPaulD.
FlemingIII,DepartmentofPaperEngineering,ChemicalEngineering,andImaging,WesternMichiganUniversity,
A23,Parkview,KalamazooMI49008.
60
UNEP, Environmental management in the pulp and paper industry, Technical report, UN Environmental
programmeforindustryandenvironment.
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4.5.20Extractionofblackliquorusingscrewpress
For agro-residue based mills, having no chemical recovery system in place, extraction of black liquor using
screw press before pulp washing reduces the water and time requirement for lignin removal. The extracted
black liquor, having high solid content, can be reused as secondary fuel after solar evaporation and mixing
with agro washes viz. straw screenings etc. In addition to this, part of the recovered black liquor can be
reused for impregnation to utilize residual cooking chemical and heat. For black liquor extraction, one of the
low cost options is the installation of screw press in between blow tank and pulp washer. Part of black
liquor is used for pulp dilution and part for treatment and disposal. This system reduces the water
requirement up to 50%.
4.5.21Oxygendelignificationforagrobasedpulp
Bleaching of pulp in the paper mill is carried out in multi-stages using various bleaching chemicals such as
chlorine, hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide to achieve brightness of pulp. Chlorine compounds in bleaching
generate toxic effluents having poor degradability. Chlorinated compounds can be replaced by oxygen,
ozone or hydrogen peroxide bleaching mainly for wood pulp bleaching. As per experience from wood pulp,
pre-bleaching with oxygen reduces the lignin content by almost 50%. Oxygen delignification at alkali
extraction stage reduces the AOX (toxicity) level considerably and increases the delignification degree.
Oxygen can be applied on pre-bleaching stage to reduce kappa number. This is a well applied technology
for wood based mills. This technique reduces the BOD and COD values by 60 % and reduction in color by
80 %.
4.5.22Defiberisationofagrobasedpulpasalkalinehotstockrefining
Refining requirements vary according to raw material used and final product quality. For agro-based pulp,
the process is actually defibrisation rather than refining. Conventionally, refining is done after pulp washing
i.e. in cold and neutral pH. Due to morphology of agro based pulp having short fibre length (like straws),
during refining, there is more possibility of breaking fibres into smaller fibres (fragments), which generate
higher pollution load. Hot stock refining before washing pulp in alkaline medium avoids over refining due to
its slippery action and energy requirements are also reduced considerably. Hot stock refining is adopted
successfully in few mills using straw as raw material. One example is Ashoka Pulp and Paper Mills, India.
This technology considerably reduces the water pollution load61.

4.6 FEASIBLETECHNIQUESFORLOCALINDUSTRIES

CPI had been working with pulp and paper sector of Pakistan during the year 2007-2010 with the objective
to enable this sector to comply with national and international environmental requirements and to adopt
best energy efficiency practices. The geographical location of this sector is Punjab, Sindh and few in
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development I (July, 2007- June, 2010)
The Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development (PISD), a three year project (2007-2010) was
launched by the embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (EKN) in collaboration with the Cleaner
Production Institute (CPI) for cleaner production and energy efficient technologies implementation in five
major industrial sectors of Pakistan. The program was started with the aim of providing technical assistance
for safe environmental and cost effective production in 15 pulp and paper mills of Pakistan.

61

CleanerProductioninPulpandPaperIndustry,TechnologyFactSheets,UnitedNationsEnvironment
Programme(UNEP),AsianInstituteofTechnology(AIT).
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Under this programme, CPI had implemented the following cleaner technologies and energy efficient
technologies under a cost-effective framework with direct and indirect financial paybacks.
Control of water leakage
Dry cleaning system improvement
SO2 water drainage control system
Installation of thickener
Process modification by adding Johnson screens and three stage centri cleaner
Installation of high pressure screens
Installation of centri-cleaner battery
Installation of high density cleaner
Control of compressed air leakage
Improvement in lighting of MCC
Installation of electronic relays
Installation of inverters
Installation of paper machine hood
Installation of steam flow meter
Installation of steam pressure indicator
Installation of steam traps
Insulation of bare steam lines
Power factor improvement and improvement of lighting system
Replacement of motors
Replacement of piston compressor with screw
Steam leakage control
Various water conservation options

39

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5
TEXTILE PROCESSING SECTOR
Textile is the largest industrial sector of Pakistan with respect to production, export and labor force
employment. Pakistan is the 8th largest exporter of textile products among Asian countries and 12th
globally. The textile sector has existing established capacities of 1,550 million kg of yarn spinning, 4,368
million square meters of fabric weaving and 4,000 million square meters of fabric finishing. It contributes
8.5% of the countrys GDP and 52% in the export. This sector employs 38% of the manpower in the
manufacturing sector and accounts for 31% of the total investment in the country.
Major textile export products include cotton fabrics, knitwear (hosiery), cotton yarn, bed wares, readymade
garments, towels, synthetic textile and raw cotton.

5.1 GEOGRAPHICALLOCATION
Textile processing is one of the most value added sub sector in the textile. In Punjab and Sindh, the
number of textile processing units is estimated to be around 1,545. Out of these units, about 841 are the
woven processing units and the rest are knitwear processing (hosiery) units. These units carry out various
textile processes, including pretreatment, dyeing, printing and finishing.
The number of textile processing units in Punjab is estimated to be around 1,395. Out of 1,395 units, about
691 are the woven textile processing units and the rest are knitwear processing (hosiery) units. Estimated
total production of textile processing sector in Punjab is 9,500 million meters/year for woven textiles and
2,200 million kg/year for knitwear textiles. Figure 5.1 shows the location of textile processing industries in
Punjab while Figure 5.2 shows the intra city distribution of textile processing units62.

62

Pakistan EPA, Draft Textile Sector Report, prepared by Activity Based Capacity Development Project
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U and Waterr Stewardship in SMEs in Laahore, Pakistan
n WSP
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Managem
ment & Cleaner Production
P
Practices in Major Industrial Secttor of Pakistan

Figure 5.1:
5 Presencce of Textile Processing
g Industries in Punjab

A
Attock
Rawalpiindi

Chakwal

Jhelum
Gujra
at

Mianwali
Mandi
Bahauddin

Sialkot

Khushab
Narowal

Gujrranwala

Sargodha

Hafizabad

Shekhupura
Bhakkar

Chiniot
Nankana
Sahib

abad
Faisala

Jhang

Kasur

Toba
Tek
Singh

La
ayyah

Lahore

Okara

Sahiwal
Khanewa
al
Dera
Ghazi
Khan

Pakpattan

Muzaffargarrh
Multan

Vehari
Bahawalnagar

Lodhhran

Rajanpur

Bahawalpur

Rah
him
Ya
ar
Kh
han

Figure 5.2:
5 Location
n of Textile Processing
P
Industries in Punjab
4000
3500
3000

283

2
278

270

2
245

2500
179

2000
1500
68

1000

35

500

35
1

0
Faisalabad
d

Lahore

Gujranwala
a
Woven

Sialkot

Multan

Others

Knitwear

41
1

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Table 5.1: Intra City Distribution of Textile Processing Units


Type

Faisalabad

Lahore

Gujranwala

Sialkot

Multan

Others

Total

Woven Textile Processing


Large
50
Medium
135
Small
98

30
135
105

5
30
33

4
23
8

8
20
7

97
343
251

Sub Total

283

270

68

35

35

691

Knitwear Processing
Large
55
Medium
113
Small
110

35
120
90

1
-

25
98
56

1
-

115
333
256

Sub Total

278

245

179

704

Total

561

515

69

179

36

35

1,395

The city wise distribution of textile mills has been established on the basis of information available from
CTP-Textile project (Cleaner Technology Program for Textile Industry), All Pakistan Textile Processing
Mills Association (APTPMA) and Pakistan Hosiery Manufacturing Association (PHMA). Categorization of
industries in terms of small, medium, and large units has been done on the basis of the annual production
of fabric in million meters. The small units process below 10 million meters of fabric annually, medium units
annually process between 10 and 20 million meters of fabric while large units process in excess of 20
million meters of fabric annually.

5.2 TEXTILEPROCESSINGSECTORPRODUCTION
Estimated total production of textile processing sector in Punjab is 9,500 million meters/year for woven
textiles and 2,200 million kg/year for knitwear textiles63.

5.3 WATERCONSUMPTION
Water consumption in medium industry is comparatively higher than large and small industries. Large
industries have latest high tech machinery with proper process control instrumentation to produce very
good quality of the fabric. All the processes are conducted at controlled process conditions with optimized
water consumption. Secondly, due to economies of scale, unit water consumption in large industry is less
than the medium industry.
On the other hand, medium industry processes medium to very high finished quality (export quality) fabric
with the old conventional machinery. Due to lack of process control instrumentation, proper process control
conditions are not maintained. Chemicals added in the process do not work efficiently, if proper operating
conditions are not maintained in process baths. Therefore, excessive fabric washes are carried out, to
achieve the desired quality of the fabric hence increases water consumption.
Generally, low to medium quality fabric is processed in small industry. Small industry has limited number of
machinery and conduct only selected unit processes. Some of these processes do not involve extensive

63

DatagivenbyCleanerTechnologyProgramforTextileIndustry(CTP)
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water consumption. This is one of the reasons of lower water consumption in small industry than medium
and large industry.
Based on the findings of environmental audits conducted under PISD, typical utility consumption for each
kg of fabric is given in Table 5.2.
Table 5.2: Water Consumption in Textile Industries
Utilities

Unit Water Consumption (l/kg fabric processed)

Water (liters)

Punjab

Sindh

70 - 400

25-140

Ref: CTPT database

5.4 WASTEWATERPOLLUTION
Following processes are the main sources of wastewater generation;
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

Desizing
Bleaching / scouring
Mercerization
Dyeing
Printing
Boiler
Cooling water wastage
Laboratory

5.4.1 Wastewaterpollutioncharacteristicsatunitlevel
Characteristics of process wastewater vary from industry to industry depending on the technology in use
and in-house operational practices.
A significant part of the process wastewater results from periodic discharges from various types of batch or
continuous processes, with varying discharge intervals. This factor, in addition to the variation in flows,
also, results in relatively higher short-term fluctuations in the characteristics of the wastewater. The
variation in characteristics is also a function of the time schedule of discharges. Relatively high pollutant
concentrations may be encountered for short periods, in case of simultaneous discharges from different
batch processes. Table 5.3 and 5.4, presents the characteristics of composite woven textile processing
wastewater and composite knitwear processing wastewater respectively.
Table 5.3: Characteristics of Woven Textile Processing Wastewater
Parameter[1]
pH
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
Oil and Grease (O&G)
Total Dissolved Solids-Incremental (TDS-I)
Chloride-Incremental (Cl-I)

Type of Industry
Dyeing
Dyeing-Printing
8.3 11.7
6.3 12.0
200 570
300 480
640 1,200
880 1,130
320 940
200 440
17 32
11 40
1,280 1,540
1,000 1,900
400 750
90 1,100

NEQS
(Into Inland Waters)
69
80
150
200
10
3,500
1,000
43

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Chromium (Cr)
Copper (Cu)
Note: All parameters are in mg/l except pH

0.5 3.6
0.4 0.5

1.5 12.6
0.10

1
1

Table 5.4: Characteristics of Knitwear Processing Wastewater


Parameter

Unit

Values

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)


Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
Oil and Grease (O&G)
Total Dissolved Solids-Incremental (TDS-I)
Copper (Cu)

(mg/l)
(mg/l)
(mg/l)
(mg/l)
(mg/l)
(mg/l)

100 300
300 800
200 440
11 40
1,000 1,900
0.1

NEQS
(Into Inland Waters)
80
150
200
10
3,500
1

5.4.2 Wastewaterquantities
Quantity of wastewater per kg of fabric processed varies from industry to industry, and largely depends on
degree of value addition to raw fabric. Table 5.5 shows the quantity of wastewater produced per kg of fabric
processed for both woven textile and knitwear processing mills.
Table 5.5: Unit Wastewater Generation
Sector
Woven Textile Processing
Small Units
Medium Units
Large Units
Knitwear Processing

Wastewater Generation
(l/kg of fabric processed)
Ranges
120 180
180 430
100 250
70 100

Ref: Cleaner Technology Program for Textile Industry (CTP-Textile)

5.5 BESTAVAILABLERESOURCECONSERVATIONTECHNIQUES
This section describes the commercially available techniques having potential to achieve the considerable
level of environmental protection and resources conservation in the industry. For textile, the focal points are
water consumption, efficient use of process chemicals and waste reduction within the process in
conjunction with recycling and re-use options.
The resource management of a textile industry depends primarily on the type of raw material used, and
secondarily on the local conditions, i.e. the availability, quality and cost of fresh water, as well as the costs
and legal requirements for wastewater treatment and discharge. Efficient wastewater treatment involves the
optimization of water consumption and lowering the consumption of chemicals used in the processes and
wastewater treatment.
As the textile industry is water intensive industry and most of the water is consumed for cleaning the raw
materials, dyeing, printing and various other production processes. Therefore, water consumption varies
among processes, machine types and setups within a textile mill. In a textile mill, wet processing that
includes pre-treatment, dyeing, and finishing typically accounts for the majority of water consumption and
wastewater discharge.
44

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Numerous techniques have been developed to conserve water in textile mills. Few of the best worldwide
available techniques for water conservation in textile mills are given below:
5.5.1 Goodhousekeepingandmanagementmeasures
A reduction in water use of 10 to 30 percent can be accomplished by taking strict housekeeping measures.
Good housekeeping measures often carried out without significant investments, but leading to substantial
cost savings and the saving of water, chemicals and energy.64 Following are the good housekeeping
measures that can contribute significantly in reduction of water consumption of a textile mill.

Leaks and spills control.


Monitoring & measurement of water carrying lines by installing water meters
Workers training
Identifying unnecessary washing of both fabric and equipment and simple turn off the water when
machines are not operating

5.5.2 Countercurrentwashing/rinsing
The water consumption of rinsing processes varies considerably between textile mills. The technique of
counter-current washing can be applied on continuous preparation and dye ranges that conserves not only
water but also contribute in energy savings. In counter current washing, the water flows in the direction
opposite to the fabric. This technique is established common on all continuous ranges of washing and
rinsing in textile industry. Additionally, counter-current washing can be applied at de-size washers, scour
washers, mercerizing washers, bleach washers, dye ranges, and print house soaper ranges.
5.5.3 Reuseofprocesswater
The rinse water from the scouring operation is adequate for reuse in other processes such as de-sizing that
do not require water of an extremely high quality. This reuse is particularly true with scouring wastes from
synthetic or cotton/synthetic blend fabrics. Scouring rinses may, in certain cases, also be reused to wash
floors and equipment. Further, mercerizing or bleaching rinse water can also be used in scouring and desizing operations as long as size recovery is not practiced. Generally, the caustic or bleach stream will
degrade many size compounds to an extent that they cannot be recovered. Similarly, the rinse water of
final dyeing batch operation can be used in previous rinsing or even subsequent dyeing batch. The colored
wastewater from the soaping operation can also be reused at the back grey washer, which does not require
water of a very high quality. Alternatively, the wastewater can be used for cleaning floors and equipment in
the print and color shop65.
5.5.4 Reuseofnoncontactcoolingwater
Good quality and high temperature of non-contact cooling water can be reused at various processes such
as in desizing, scouring, washing, or rinsing. Furthermore, at a discharge temperature of 45C and
considerable water volume, discharge of cooling water stresses the wastewater treatment system. It is thus
highly beneficial to keep such large quantities of hot, clean water out of the treatment system. Responsible
Sourcing Initiative (RSI) found that some mills were either not reusing this water at all or were using it in
cold water processes that did not benefit from the heat. RSI identified three sources of non-contact cooling
water that can be most beneficially recaptured and reused: water used in singeing, preshrink machines,

64

PakistanTextileJournal,2009
IntegratedPollutionPreventionandControl(IPPC)ReferenceDocumentonBestAvailableTechniquesforthe
TextilesIndustry,July2003,EuropeanCommission.

65

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and in air
a compressoor systems. Other sourcees of coolingg water may be availablee elsewhere in
i the mill ass
66
well, succh as from baatch jet dyeinng machines..
5.5.5 Reuseofc
condensate
ewater
A large amount of saturated steam
s
is useed in textile
processiing for dyeinng purposes. Some of those steam
converteed into conddense water (condensatte) over the
course of
o its use. As
A the condeensate is pure and high
temperaature water, therefore this can be reused
efficiently into the booiler by restorring and retuurn it back to
the boileer for steam generation. Additionally, in few mill
this conddensate water can be seerved as a water
w
supply
for washhing or desizzing, therebyy recovering both water
and heat.
5.5.6 Processm
modificatio
ons
a. Wasshing Proceess Optimizaation: In texttile mills, thee caustic scoured cotton yyarn packages are beingg
batcch washed byy a 10 minutee hot runningg rinse followeed by a 10 minute
m
cold ruunning rinse. For washingg
proccess optimizaation, a seriies of full-sccale experim
ments revealeed that the same fabricc quality wass
obtaained by a 3 minute hot running
r
rinsee followed byy a 3 minute cold running rinse67. By adopting thiss
washing optimizaation, a largee quantity off water can be
b saved thaat ultimately rreduces the consumptionn
as well
w as pollution loads.
b. Dyeeing Processs: The changge of the dyeeing techniquue saves a loot of water in textile sectoor. The Rapidd
Inveerse Dyeing Technique is being ussed by manny progressive textile m
mills. In Rapid Reversee
Techhnique, dispeerse and fibeer reactive dyes are usedd for dyeing purposes. W
Whereas, in normal
n
or oldd
techhnique, the fiber is dyed with
w dispersee dyeing at elevated
e
tempperature andd then washeed with waterr
to reemove dyes and acetic acid.
a
On thee other hand, in Rapid Innverse Dyeinng, the fiber is dyed withh
reacctive dyes annd then acidicc disperse dyye bath is used to wash the fiber reacctive dyes. Thhis techniquee
not only
o reducess the water annd energy deemands but also
a minimizee the durationn of the dyingg process.
nting Processs: The convventional texxtile printing process connsumes higheer quantities of water forr
c. Prin
cleaaning of screeens, blankeet and otherr parts. The new technique of using vacuum extraction
e
forr
cleaaning of blankket consideraably reduces the water coonsumption. Similarly, forr cleaning of screens andd
otheer parts, the method of spraying wateer by the cylindrical shappe broom andd usage of high
h pressuree
cleaaning equipment contributtes in major water
w
savingss.
5.5.7 Automaticccontrols
systems
The auutomated coontrol systeems are veery importaant for the
conservaation of water in any textile mill. The absencce of these
systemss and poor working
w
practtices can leaad to significaant wastage
of waterr. Manual waater control valves
v
cannoot be operateed efficiently
and havve a potential of overfillingg during fillinng and rinsinng. Similarly,
displaceement spillagge during immersion of the
t fiber in the
t machine

66

NRDCssTenbestpraacticesfortexxtilemillstosaavemoneyan
ndreducepollution.Apractticalguideforrresponsible
sourcing..
67
PakistaanTextileJourrnal,2009.
46
6

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may account for up to 20 % of total operating volume over the course of a dyeing cycle68. This may also
lead to losses of dyes and hazardous chemicals if these are introduced before the displacement takes
place. Therefore, all machines but in particular the dyeing machine should be fitted with modern control
equipments to control both the fill volume and the liquor temperature.
5.5.8 Rawmaterialscontrol
Raw materials of different types are used in textile industry like processing water, dyes, process chemicals
and substrate (yarn, fabric, etc.). In most of the mills, chemicals are used and applied in excessive and
unnecessary amounts. This chemical consumption can often be reduced without any significant effects on
the quality of the product. Chemicals that are often overused include cleaning agents, surfactants,
defoamers, lubricants, carriers and other chemical specialties. Sometimes, chemicals are also even added
to counteract the negative effects of other chemicals. Therefore, control of high & overdose of raw materials
in dyeing and printing processes can lead to minimize the undesirable wastes in wastewater streams.
5.5.9 Chemicaloptimizationandsubstitution
Most of the chemicals used in the textile processing industry are not retained in the fiber but washed away
that result in higher pollution loads and therefore higher treatment costs. The pollution loads can be
reduced by adopting the optimization of chemical consumptions and by substituting the more polluting
chemicals with less polluting chemicals. However, these options vary from process to process and industry
by industry.
The following Table 5.6 shows a few of the chemical substitutions made by textile mills to reduce BOD and
improve effluent quality.
Table 5.6: Reducing BOD at Source by Possible Chemical Substitutions
Application
Sizing
Acid de-sizing
Washing

Current Material
Starch
Enzymatic
Soaps (140% BOD)

Neutralizing scoured goods

Soda ash

pH adjustment in disperse
dyeing and pigment printing

Acetic acid

Textile printing

Gum-thickening

Oxidation of vat dyestuffs

Acetic acid

Finishing

Temporary starch-based finishes


Two-stage dyeing using two different classes
(eg polyester using disperse, and celluloses
using vat, reactives)
Other carriers
Acetic acid (0.64 kg BOD/kg), Carding oils and
anti-static lubricants

Dyeing of blended varieties


in pale shades
Polyester dyeing
Dye bath acid

Substitute Material
PVA/acrylates
Mineral acids
Synthetic detergents (0 - 2.2% BOD)
Sodium acetate (converts mineral acidity
into organic acidity)
Ammonium sulphate (although salt
concentration increases, the ammonium
serves
as a nutrient in the biological treatment
process)
Emulsion thickening (full or partial)
Sodium bicarbonate in conjunction with
peroxide or perborate
Durable resin finishes
Single class dyestuffs like Indigosol,
pigments
Monochlorobenzine
Formic acid (0.12 kg BOD/kg)
Non-ionic emulsifiers

Ref: Water and chemical use in the textile dyeing and finishing industry. A practice guide by the Environmental Technology Best Practice
Programme.

68

IntegratedPollutionPreventionandControl(IPPC)ReferenceDocumentonBestAvailableTechniquesforthe
TextilesIndustry,July2003,EuropeanCommission.
47

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5.5.10Dyefixationimprovement
Better fixation of dyes on fiber or cotton yard contributes to lower chemical use and lower effluent
contamination. Usage of higher fixation dyes like bi-reactive dyes that have a higher affinity for fabric than
average require less salt usage and rinsing and therefore less dye must be then treated in the wastewater
treatment plant. High fixation reactive dyes can be applied in all types of dyeing machines, but offer
particular advantage on the most modern low liquor ratio dyeing machines fitted with multi-task
controllers69.
5.5.11Printingprocessmodification
The use of digital printing is gaining an importance in textile industry as an alternative to conventional
analogue printing. In digital printing the selected dyes are dosed on-demand with computed requirements.
Therefore, it reduces the wastage of printing paste residues at the end of each printing cycle. Further, this
printing modification also contributes a lot in the minimization of pollution loads generated by textile
industry.
5.5.12Reuserecyclerecovery
The water discharged from various machines or sections of textile mill like bleaching and mercerizing
machines can be collected and reused for other processes, instead of discharging it directly to wastewater
treatment. Similarly, the colored wastewater from the soaping operation can be reused at the back grey
washer which does not require water of a very high quality. Alternatively, the wastewater can be used for
cleaning floors and equipment in the print and color shop.
5.5.13Reuseofhotwastewater
Reuse of hot wastewater can be considered as one of the main heat recovery and pollution load reduction
options in textile industry along with other savings of water and chemicals. Therefore, dyeing and finishing
specialists claim that wastewater from light shade operations can be re-utilized up to 20 times. In addition,
washing, mercerizing and bleaching machines often operate continuously for long hours requiring hot water
intakes and simultaneously produces a large volume of hot wastewater. Therefore, the heat from hot
wastewater leaving the machines can be recovered by heat exchangers and then reused for the purpose of
heating up the intake cold water stream to minimize the load of heating equipments.
On the other hand, if there is no reuse and heat recovery option available at departmental level then the
feasibility of installing a centralized heat recovery system should be investigated. In centralized heat
recovery option, the hot wastewater is stored in a large tank from where a hot stream is pumped to heat
exchanger in order to warm up the process water. The results of various experiments showed that the
payback period centralized recovery option is invariably more than 12 months and a payback of 18 to 36
months is common70. However, in some cases this payback period can extend to more than 10 years in
spite of the availability of a large volume of wastewater at high temperatures71.

5.6 FEASIBLETECHNIQUESFORLOCALINDUSTRIES
It was greatly felt during 1996-1999 under ETPI project to start environmental improvement activities in the
textile sector of Pakistan. Therefore, considering the demand of environmental improvement work in
progressive textile mills, one project ICPT in 2001-02 was launched with the vision to extend it for 3-6 years
in future.

69

UBA,(2001)."BATReferenceDocumentGermany.
EEO(1992a).Decentralisationofsteamsupplyinsmallindustrialsite,CS134,EnergyEfficiencyOffice,UK1992.
71
WoodallL.andGodshallE.,(1976).Energyeconomyinadyehouse,TextileIndustry,October1976,p105
70

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Implementation of Cleaner Production Technologies in the Textile Sector of Pakistan (2004-2007)


After the completion of ICPT (also known as CTP-Textile), CPI started to work with textile sector of
Pakistan in 2004 under the 2nd phase (2004-2007) of the above mentioned project. The objective of the CPI
work was to enable the progressive textile mills of the textile processing sector to comply with national and
international environmental requirements and standards by adopting best cleaner and energy efficient
practices. The geographical location of this sector was mainly Punjab and Sindh.
Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development I (July, 2007- June, 2010)
The Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development (PISD), a three year project (2007-2010) was
launched by the embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (EKN) in collaboration of Cleaner Production
Institute (CPI) for cleaner production and energy efficient technologies implementation in five major
industrial sectors of Pakistan. The program was started with the aim of providing technical assistance for
save environmental and cost effective production in 125 textile processing and spinning mills of Pakistan.
Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development II (July, 2010- June, 2013)
Under the 2nd phase of PISD, the technical assistance was continued to the textile processing sectors of
Pakistan along with other major industrial sectors. The overall objective of the programme was that the
major industrial sectors of Pakistan adopt best environmental and energy efficiency practices.
Under the above mentioned projects and other various textile sector studies, CPI has implemented the
following cleaner technologies and energy efficient technologies under a cost-effective framework with
direct and indirect financial paybacks.
Reuse, Recycling and Recovery (RRR) Options
Reuse of cooling water from singeing, oil heater and compressors
Reuse of mercerization wash water for post desizing washing
Reuse of RO rejected water
Reuse of soaper wastewater for blanket and screen washing
Reuse of spent water of washing pits in the next washing (bleaching)
Reuse of acid spent bath
Reuse of chiller cooling water of chiller, jet and compressor
Installation of system piping for cooling water return from singeing machine to raw water tank
Reuse of flash steam
Reuse of steam condensate
Installation of caustic recovery plant at mercerization wastewater
Installation of heat exchanger at soaper, bleaching, compressor and on continuous blow down of boiler
Installation of heat exchanger like economizer and other heat recovery system
Reuse of steam condensate
Installation of bleaching plant heat exchanger
Installation of caustic recovery plant
Heat recovery from gas generator through water heating
Better Practices and Proper Maintenance
Installation of appropriate capacity boilers
Installation of softener at boiler feed water
Installation of water shutof valves
Insulation of bare hot surfaces (Steam pipe lines, condensate lines, condensate storage tank, jets and
jet heaters)
Up keep of steam traps
49

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Water, air and steam leakages control


Air emission monitoring of boiler and generators
Ambient air improvement/ventilation improvement
Calibration and installation of temperature gauges
Compressed air consumption and leakage monitoring
Construction of primary settling tank for processing effluent treatment
Energy efficient lighting system
Installation of water trigger nozzle on water hoses
Proper chemical storage and handling
Replacement of magnetic ballasts with electronic ballasts
Resource conservation in washing and rinsing
Safe chemical handling and storage
Use of process control instruments

Automatic Control Systems


Blow down on the basis of TDS
Installation of steam & gas flow meters
Installation of temperature gauges and optimization of process temperatures
Installation of water flow meters
Installation of inverter at hydro extractor, compressor, stenter fan, water turbine
Installation of online oxygen trimming system on boiler
Installation of RO plant for boiler feed water and generator cooling water
Installation of silencer on boiler fan
Installation of temperature gauges on jiggers and process control
Installation of temperature controller at soaper
Replacement of electrical condensate pump with Ogden pump
Process Modification and Improvement Options
Countercurrent washing at mercerizer and soaper
Water consumption optimization at bleaching machine and by placing water flow meters
New process initiative in (Cold Pad Batch)
Process modification in the dyeing neutralization
Substitution of chemicals

50

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6
SUGAR SECTOR
Pakistan is one of the largest sugarcane producers in the world. It is 5th largest in terms of area under
sugarcane cultivation, 11th by production and 60th by the crop yield. Sugarcane is one of the major crops
in Pakistan which is cultivated over an area of around one million hectares. Sugar industry plays an
important role in the economy of Pakistan. Average annual production of sugarcane is in the range of 45-50
million metric tons. There are about 83 sugar mills and 23 distilleries, located mostly in Punjab and Sindh,
with few in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), producing four million tons of sugar and about quarter of a million
tons of ethanol respectively. An average of 41 million ton of sugarcane is crushed annually. Total
contribution of sugarcane crop to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is in the range of 7.5-9%.
After textile, sugar industry in Pakistan is the 2nd largest agro based industry. It plays major role in the
economic development of the country and contributes more than Rs. 15-20 billion per annum in the form of
General Sales Tax (GST), federal, provincial, local taxes etc. Share of sugar industry in the GDP is 1.9%.
The annual per capita consumption of sugar in Pakistan is 26 kg which is highest among the developing
countries. The direct employment in the sugar industry is about 120,000 of managerial, skilled and semi
skilled staff and indirect employment is about 4 million people. Sugar sector supports industries like alcohol,
paper, beverages, etc.

6.1 GEOGRAPHICALLOCATION
Sugar industry is mostly located in the rural areas of Punjab and Sindh. A small percentage of total
production is produced in the KPK. Previously, Punjab was partly dependent on supply of sugar from
Sindh, but lately the establishment of some large units in Punjab has made the province self-sufficient in
the commodity. The province wise distribution of sugar mills is given in Table 6.1.
Table 6.1: Sugar Mills in Pakistan
Province
Punjab
Sindh
KPK
Balochistan
Total

No. of Sugar Mills


45
30
08
00
83

Percent
(%)
54.20
36.10
09.60
00.00
100.00

Ref: Pakistan Sugar Mills Association

Figure 6.1 shows the location of sugar mills in Punjab while the district wise distribution of mills in Punjab is
illustrated below in Figure 6.2.
This development of sugar sector is a great achievement. Major contributor to this achievement is the
Governments continuous incentives, establishment of local technology vendors like Heavy Mechanical
Complex (HMC), and progressive role of Pakistan Sugar Mills Association (PSMA) and Pakistan Society of
Sugar Technologist (PSST).

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Figure 6.1:
6 Location
n of Sugar Mills
M in Punjaab

A tto c k
R a w a lp in d i

C hakw al

J h e lu m
G u jra t

M i a n w a li
M andi
B a h a u d d in

S ia lk o t

Khushab
G u jra n w a la

S a rg o d h a

N a ro w a l

H a fiz a b a d

S h e k h u p u ra
B hakkar

C h in io t
N ankana
S a h ib

F a is a la b a d

Jhang

K asur

Toba
Tek
S in g h

Layyah

L a h o re

O k a ra

S a h iw a l
Khanew al
D e ra
G hazi
Khan

P a k p a tta n

M u z a ffa rg a rh
M u ltta n
V e h a ri
r
B a h a w a ln a g a r
L o d h h ra n

R a ja n p u r

B a h a w a lp u r

R a h im
Y ar
K han

6 District Wise
W Locatiion of Sugarr Industries
Figure 6.2:

52
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6.2 SUGARSECTORPRODUCTION
Sugar mills are categorized into small, medium and large industries on the basis of following crushing
capacity. The detail of crushing capacity with respect to size of the mill operating in Pakistan is given in
Table 6.2.
Table 6.2: Pakistan Sugar Industry Size
Industry Size
Small
Medium
Large

Crushing Capacity
(ton/d)
< 4,000
> 4,000 < 6,000
> 6,000

The total sugar produced during the year 2008-9 and 2010-11 was 3,189,508 and 4,150,240 ton
respectively. The detail of crushing of sugar beet and sugar cane and their recoveries are given in Table
6.3.
Table 6.3: Sugarcane Crushed and Sugar Recovery in Pakistan
Raw Material Crushed (Ton)
2008-09
Sugarcane
Sugar Beet
2010-11
Sugarcane
Sugar Beet

Sugar Production (Ton)

Sugar Recovery (%)

33,733,266
9,301

3,188,561
947

9.45
10.18

44,525,264
50,509

4,145,774
4,467

9.31
8.84

Ref: Final Report Synopsis of Technical Results Season 2008-2009, 2010-11 (PSST)

Province wise production of sugar during last two seasons is summarized in the Table 6.4
Table 6.4: Province Wise Production of Sugar in Pakistan
Province
2008-09
KPK (Cane)
Punjab (Cane)
Sindh (Cane)
KPK (Sugar Beet)
2010-11
KPK (Cane)
Punjab (Cane)
Sindh (Cane)
KPK (Sugar Beet)

Crushing (Ton)

Sugar (Ton)

Sugar Recovery (%)

2,313,725.00
21,270,939.00
10,148,602.00
9,301.00

193,768.00
2,018,373.00
976,420.00
947.00

8.37
9.49
9.62
10.18

3,035,460.00
27,889,004.00
13,600,800.00
50,508.680

262,120.00
2,584,759.00
1,298,895.00
4,466.700

8.63
9.27
9.55
8.84

Ref: Final Report Synopsis of Technical Results Season 2008-2009, 2010-11 (PSST)

6.3 WATERCONSUMPTION
Water plays a role of important utility in sugar mills in different operations from juice extraction to the refined
sugar. Major areas of water consumption of sugar mills are:
53

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Cooling and washing of evaporators, vacuum pans and other equipment


Cooling of mill bearings, vacuum pumps and turbines
Injection water at condenser to produce vacuum at evaporators
Boiler feed water to fulfill the steam requirement
Water for general purposes i.e. floor washing, sanitation etc.

Water consumption per ton of cane crushed varies from mill to mill. The data collected by PISD project
during last four years (2007-11) from 22 sugar mills of Pakistan, shows a wide range of raw water
consumption i.e., 0.35-1.6 m3/ton of cane crushed.

6.4 WASTEWATERPOLLUTION
Wastewater is generated from various sources in the sugar mills. List of the wastewater sources with
possible activities are described in Table 6.6.
Table 6.5: Wastewater Sources in Sugar Mills
Sources

Activity

Wastewater Quality

Mill House

Floor washing, bearing cooling


water and oily water from
lubricating system

Process
House

Chemical cleaning & washing of


evaporators and heaters, floor
washings

Boiler
House

Blow down water, fly ash (wet or


dry) and clinker

Spray Pond
Laboratory
Sanitary
Waste

Turbine and bearings cooling water, floor washing, product leaks & spills
and oil & grease

Overflow of effluent due to


addition of vapor condensates
and fresh water in the spray pond
Laboratory testing (Pol. % etc.)
Effluent from wash rooms and
colony of sugar mills

Floor washing, washings of juice heaters, evaporators, vacuum pans and


other vessels, evaporators cooling water, sugar contents, equipment
cleaning chemicals (e.g. caustic soda, soda ash, anti-scale and
sometimes HCl), scale, etc.
Blow down wastewater containing high concentration of dissolved solids,
fly ash disposed with wastewater (which increases TSS of effluent),
wastewater from wet scrubber
Wastewater from spray pond containing sugar traces and antifoaming
chemicals (comparatively less contaminated than wastewater from
houses)
Liquid waste containing chemical solutions and lead sub-acetate
Sanitary waste containing fecal coliforms

6.4.1 Wastewatercharacteristics
Wastewater quantities and characteristics vary from industry to industry depending upon the production
processes and in-house operational practices. Typical wastewater pollution characteristics related with
production of sugar is presented in Table 6.6.
Table 6.6: Wastewater Characteristics
Wastewater Characteristics
pH

BOD

COD

TSS

4.7 - 6.5

600 4,853

1,037 19,234

185 526

All the wastewater characteristics are in mg/l except pH


Ref: Sugar Sector, Environmental Report, ETPI Project

6.4.2 Wastewaterquantities
In order to determine the wastewater quantities of sugar production, wastewater flow per ton of cane
crushed has been estimated on the basis of data collected by PISD project from 22 sugar industries during

54

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the year 2007-11. Wastewater quantities generated per ton of cane crushed varies in the range of 0.5-6.9
m3/ton of cane crushed.

6.5 BESTAVAILABLERESOURCECONSERVATIONTECHNIQUES
The sugar cane consists of about 70-75% water and therefore sugar mill processes involve more water
than sugar. Apart from water entering in the form of cane, some quantity of raw water is also added in the
production process of the sugar mill. All the water entering in a sugar mill whether in the form of cane or
fresh raw water must also leave the mill in one form or another. Based on these facts, the sugar industry is
considered as a major water user and wastewater producer. In most of the sugar processing mills, the
water management is the focal issue because of high water costs and government enforcement to reduce
water consumption as well as pollution loads.
The resource management of a sugar industry depends primarily on the quality and type of raw materials
production carried out, and secondarily on the local conditions, i.e. the availability, quality and cost of fresh
water, as well as the costs and legal requirements for waste water treatment and discharge. Efficient
wastewater treatment involves the optimization of water consumption and lowering the consumption of
chemicals used in the processes and wastewater treatment.
Generally in the sugar production process, following are the main points of water usage and from where the
water conservation can be made possible through adopting various cleaner production options;

Cooling of mill bearing, vacuum pumps and turbines;


Cooling and washing of evaporators and vacuum pans;
Injection water at condenser;
Boiler feed water; and
General process water use

Numerous techniques have been developed to conserve water at these points in sugar mills. Few of the
best worldwide available techniques for water conservation in sugar mills are given below:
6.5.1 Floorwashingandcleaningwithlowqualitywater
In most sugar mills the floor washings are normally carried out with fresh water. This type of floor washing
not only increases the fresh water demands but also enhance the chances of wastewater pollution load in
case of product leakages and spillage. By controlling the spillage and substituting the cleaning with fresh
water to low quality water decreases the water requirement as well as lead to raw material savings.
6.5.2 Reducewaterconsumptionforcoolingofevaporators
The cooling of evaporator is normally carried out by excessive continues stream of water for about 30
minutes before the manual cleaning operation of an evaporator. It was revealed in EP3 that the
consumption of cooling water at a single evaporator is about 70-90 m3 for 30 minutes and the temperature
of cooling water after washing is nearly equal to the water taken from tap. This fact depicts that excessive
water is in general used for cooling purposes. Therefore, the cleaner production option of using air force
flow in conjunction with a fine spray of cooling water to minimize the volume of water needed to cool the
evaporator. Additionally, air flow from top to bottom with the help of a fan can also be helpful in removing
the water mist and enhancing the hamper visibility inside the evaporator.72

72

EnvironmentalPollutionPreventionProject(EP3),PollutionPreventionDiagnosticCaneSugarMill(1998),Hagler
BaillyConsulting,Inc.1530WilsonBlvd.,Suite900Arlington,Va222092406.
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6.5.3 Reducewa
aterconsu
umptionattsprayponds
In sugarr mills, the sppray ponds are
a mainly ussed to cool down
d
the water coming frrom the proccess plant. Inn
general, the wind drift
d and evaaporation lossses are
nearly compensated
c
d by the incooming processs water
from barometric conndensers. Thherefore, fressh water
is addedd to the sprray pond eitther continuoously or
periodicaally, to repleenish excesssive drift losses and
maintainn the concentration of contaminants at an
acceptabble level. Hoowever, in moost mills this addition
of waterr to spray poond is excesssive as compared to
actual requirement and evenntually resuulted in
overflow
w of water frrom spray plant.
p
Therefoore, any
reduction in the spray
s
pond overflow equals a
reduction in the voluume of well water addeed to the
spray poond.
In order to reduce thhe water consumption at spry pond, it is required to install a ssystem that automatically
a
y
controls the operatioon of its well and plant puumps engageed in refillingg the pond. A
Additionally, it is revealedd
that the addition of well
w water to the
t spray ponnd plays onlyy a minor rolee in reducing the water teemperature inn
w
additionn to the sprayy pond is nott expected too significantlyy
the spray pond. Therrefore, the reeduction in water
affect thee temperaturre and perforrmance of thee spray pondd.73

6.5.4 Closedwa
atercircu
uitsystem
m74
Normallyy, excessive volume of water
w
is useed by a sugaar
mill and therefore sttrives to usee water moree efficiently in
i
order too minimize the water coosts and subbsequently to
t
reduce the wastew
water dispossal and treaatment costss.
Following are the feew measurees that can be helpful in
i
reducingg water conssumptions byy shifting from
m open wateer
system to
t close wateer circulation system.

Creaating sub-circcuits for totall recirculationn of cooling water


w
by makking arrangements for coollection of all
cooling waters inn a suitably sized
s
containner (steel tannk). The coolling effect of collecting water
w
must bee
conssidered in deesigning of thhe container as well as thhe receiving of make-up w
water from thhe raw waterr
sourrce. Additionnally, it also includes the arrangemeent for colleection of boiler and feedd water tankk
overrflows with thhe provisionss of pumpingg back when required andd collection oof surplus hoot water from
m
the overflow of the
t overheadd hot water tank
t
and its being pumpeed for maceration and/orr back to thee
overrhead tank foor make-ups when requireed.
Boileer feed water requiremennts should bee met by conddensates from
m the pre-evaporator andd 1st and 2ndd
bodiies of the evaaporators witth arrangemeents of surpluus storage annd pumping bback.
Classsification, coollection andd recycling of
o condensattes for various process requirementss and steam
m
geneeration.
Reclamation of all water in the form off condensatees and additionally theree must be a centralizedd
colleection system
m for all hot condensates
c
other than those
t
for boiller use in an overhead coollection tankk

73

Environ
nmentalPollu
utionPreventionProject(EP
P3),PollutionPreventionD
DiagnosticCaneSugarMill(1998),Haglerr
BaillyCon
nsulting,Inc.1530WilsonB
Blvd.,Suite90
00Arlington,V
Va22209240
06.
74
MangaalSingh,1994,,WaterBalan
nce&SourcesofWastewaterInSugarMill&Refinery..
56
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P
Practices in Major Industrial Secttor of Pakistan

provviding for draaw down lines incorporaating prefereential distribuution system to various consumptionn
poinnts, e.g. lime slaking, cakee washing, ceentrifugals annd magmas, pans and maaceration, etc.
A prrovision in thhe central coollection tank of raw waater make-upp to meet deeficiencies if any, and itss
autoomated working with tankk level controol and resulttant removal of parallel ccold water linnes from thee
proccess has or no
n provision thereof
t
in casse of new insstallations.
Arraangement to divert the lim
me house annd grit washiings into the condenser water channnel to reclaim
m
bothh the water and residual liime which heelps to make up the condeenser water pH.

6.5.5 GeneralhousekeepiingandCP
Pmeasures75
Small chhanges in suugar productiion and wastte handling processes
p
caan lead to coonsiderable reductions
r
inn
water coonsumption, wastewaterr volume and pollutant load: Follow
wing are a ffew techniquues that cann
contributte to the reduuction of pollution loads generated
g
by the sugar mills.
m

Engage and keeep remindingg workers about their im


mportant rolee in achievinng company goals aboutt
wateer conservation and cleanner productioon.
Raisse awareness among woorkers by puttting signboaards and posster of water conservation near waterr
fauccets and hosees.
Usage of spray guns on all water
w
hoses can play a vital
v role in reducing
r
water consumpttion. Improvee
floorr conditions and promote floors cleaaning with dry
d cleaning agents like baggase etcc. instead off
washing with water.
Regular monitorring, inspection and repaair significanttly reduce thhe spill and leak risks. However,
H
thee
instaallation of greease traps on
o all drains carrying greaase and otheer lubricants play an important role inn
conttrolling the water consumption and poollution loads..
The power plant and boiler house where oil drops gennerally to the floor, it is suuggested to use
u drip panss
to coollect the oil and
a to prevent it from gettting into the flour drains.

6.5.6 Propermo
onitoringandtimely
ymaintena
ance
Regular inspection and
a timely reppair of equipm
ments and other tools can reduce thee spillage andd leakages inn
sugar mills. Further, the proper handling
h
and storage of molasses
m
alsso minimizes the wastewaater pollutionn
loads. Whereas,
W
the monitoring and
a measureement of incooming raw materials
m
espeecially of watter in the mill
with the help of flow meters is thee main initiative towards resource
r
andd pollution redduction.
6.5.7 Operation
naloptimizzationand
dwaterreu
use
Water conservation
c
and sugar recovery can be im
mproved by
avoidancce of overloaading evaporators and vacuum
v
panss, boiling at
excessivve rates, or operating at incorrect liqquid levels. At
A optimum
capacityy and with minimum
m
stopppages, the raw water coonsumption
normallyy reduced ass compared to crushing at lower thaan optimum
capacityy and when hot
h water production is suuspended durring halts in
operations (cleaning)). Therefore, for maximum
m recovery of
o sugar and
hot watter reuse, the
t
imbibitioons water should
s
be reused
r
and
maintainned at aroundd 25-30% off cane used. Similarly, dirrt and large
particless in effluentts can be minimized by
b allowing suspended
particless in filter clooth washingss to settle inn a holding tank
t
before
being mixed
m
with other effluentts and screeening wastew
water beforee
emitting to remove reefuse, dirt, and
a remnantss of the canee. This at souurce treated or separatedd wastewaterr
is often used
u
for irrigation purposes if oil, susppended particcles and pH are settled first before usse.76

75

Studyo
onCleanerProductionOpp
portunitiesforrtheSugarInd
dustryinBelizze(2008),NattionalCentralUniversity,
TaiwanR
ROC.
57
7

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

6.5.8 Condensationprocessinnovation
Generally in the sugar industry, there are two types of condensation process, namely direct and surface
condensation employed to condense the vapors from vacuum pumps or the evaporation station. However,
in developing countries the direct condensation process is commonly in practice by the sugar mills. In direct
condensation, the incoming vapors come in direct contact with the cooling media and condensate due to
the temperature difference of both media that later exit the condenser in the form of vapor and cooling
media mixture. The mixture is then either re-circulated or disposes into the drain. Whereas, in surface
condenser the condensate is recycled to use it in a sugar plant at higher efficiency because of no contact of
cooling media with incoming vapors and thus do not become polluted. Additionally, the cooling mixture
which flows in a closed circuit enhances the heat transfer efficiency that results in less residual vapors to
vacuum pump. It also lowers the vacuum pump load by reducing the vapor loss that ultimately minimizes
the water demands and pollution loads.77
6.5.9 Substitutionofleadacetate
Lead sub-acetate is mainly used in laboratories of a sugar mill to clarify the product samples for sucrose
analysis. About 10% of lead acetate used in this analysis discharges into the drainage system that
ultimately goes into the lagoon and other main wastewater channel. As, lead is a very toxic metal in nature
and not biodegradable in the environment, thus eventually enters into the food chain. Therefore, it is the
need of time to substitute the lead acetate with other chemical completely or replace the analysis
method/technique to eliminate the use of this toxic chemical. The principal ingredients of a cane juice
clarifier include AlCl3, lime, activated carbon and a flocculant. Similarly, changing of analysis methodology
or instrument that does not require sample clarification is another option to minimize the hazard of
wastewater pollution. Further, until the complete elimination of lead acetate, lead-containing substances
(solids and liquids) should be collected, stored in suitable containers, and sent to an appropriate waste
disposal site.78
6.5.10DischargereductionandrecoveryofNaOHduringwashing&cleaning
The evaporator tubes and even sometimes the entire evaporators are required to clean thoroughly with
concentrated NaOH solution due to scaling phenomenon. In NaOH cleaning, all the used cleaning solution
can be collected and stored in a storage tank to further reuse it rather than discharging it. This maximum
recovery of NaOH from the evaporators not only cut down the consumption of NaOH but more importantly it
reduces the pH of wastewater that earlier affecting the performance of lagoons. The recovered NaOH
solution can be reused as many times as possible and only discarded once or twice during the entire
production season. Generally, after this cleaning the entire evaporator is washed with water to eliminate the
NaOH residues and other impurities. Normally this washing is carried out with continuous water and then
the wastewater is discharged into the main drainage system. This washing water contains enough NaOH to
raise the pH of wastewater significantly which affects the performance of lagoons. A new cleaner
production approach of washing the evaporators by a short rinse with water spray at first and then by
standard thorough washing process isn't reducing the pH value upto certain level because of little NaOH
contents that significantly affect the performance of the lagoon. Further, the water of first rinse can be
collected and reused along with the stored NaOH solution. However, the recovery of the first rinse water
will gradually increase the volume of the recovered NaOH solutions. This excess volume can be eliminated
by evaporating the excess water either in the storage tank or in the evaporators themselves.79

76

EnvironmentalImpactofSugarIndustryACaseStudyonKushtiaSugarMillsinBangladesh,
j.innov.dev.strategy.2(3):November2008.
77
InternationalSugarJournal2007,Vol.109,No.1301.
78
EnvironmentalPollutionPreventionProject(EP3),PollutionPreventionDiagnosticCaneSugarMill(1998),Hagler
BaillyConsulting,Inc.1530WilsonBlvd.,Suite900Arlington,Va222092406.
79
Environmental Pollution Prevention Project (EP3), Pollution Prevention Diagnostic Cane Sugar Mill (1998),
Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc. 1530 Wilson Blvd., Suite 900 Arlington, Va 22209-2406.
58

Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

6.5.11ControlledBlowdowns
Uncontrolled blowdown from boilers and cooling towers in the sugar industry is another potential source of
waste. The purpose of the blowdown is to control the water quality but all too often blowdown valves are
normally left open at a fixed flow rate irrespective of changes in operating conditions. A simple monitor and
automatic valve is a very cost effective way of controlling blowdown that reduces the pollution loads
generated by huge boilers in sugar mills.

6.6 FEASIBLETECHNIQUESFORLOCALINDUSTRIES
CPI is working with sugar sector since 2007 with the objective to enable the pakistans second agro based
sector to comply with national and international environmental requirements and to adopt best energy
efficiency practices. The geographical location of this sector is Punjab, Sindh and few in Khyber
Pakhtunkhwa.
Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development I (July, 2007- June, 2010)
The Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development (PISD), a three year project (2007-2010) was
launched by the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (EKN) in collaboration with the Cleaner
Production Institute (CPI) for cleaner production and energy efficient technologies implementation in five
major industrial sectors of Pakistan. The program was started with the aim of providing technical assistance
for save environmental and cost effective production in 45 sugar mills of Pakistan.
Programme for Industrial Sustainable Development II (July, 2010- June, 2013)
Under the 2nd phase of PISD, the technical assistance was continued to the sugar sectors of Pakistan along
with other major industrial sectors. The overall objective of the programme was that the major industrial
sectors of Pakistan adopt best environmental and energy efficiency practices.
Under the above mentioned projects and other various sugar sector studies, CPI has implemented the
following cleaner technologies and energy efficient technologies under a cost-effective framework with
direct and indirect financial paybacks.
Reuse, Recovery and Recycling (RRR) Options
Reuse of cooling water
Reuse of spray pond overflow water
Recovery of juice leakages
Reuse of caustic soda
Use of wastewater for ash disposal
Condensate recycling
Replacement of 4 bar steam with exhaust steam
Replacement of 4 bar steam with 1st/2nd vapours
Replacement of exhaust steam with vapours
Good Housekeeping, Better Practices and Proper Maintenance
Repair of boiler for fly ash reduction
Oxidation pond for wastewater
Juice leakages control by proper maintenance
Dry collection of ash
Installation/maintenance of cooling towers
Chemical handling
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Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

Modification of desuper heater


Installation of cooling towers
Exhaust fans installation
Improvement in lighting
Repair of de-aerator
Repair of oxygen analyzer

Automatic Control Systems


Installation of water flow meter on imbibition water
Installation of temperature and pressure gauges/recorder
Installation of oil separator on compressor
Installation of auto drains for compressed air
Purchase of new polarimeters
Entrainment catchers at evaporators
Process Modification and Improvement Options
Improvement in spray pond efficiency
Installation of oil skimmer
Installation of refrigerant dryer
Installation of soft starter on ID fan
Installation of high efficiency motors
Replacement of oversize/undersize motors
New electrical wiring to reduce losses
Replacement of compressor filters
Improvement in ventilation of compressor room
Insulation of hot surfaces
Installation of bagasse dryer
Installation of economizer on boiler
Installation of Variable Speed Drives
Installation of capacitors
Installation of juice heaters
Air pre-heater tubes replacement
Installation of vapour cell
Replacement of compressor with energy efficient one

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Citywide Partnership for Sustainable Water Use and Water Stewardship in SMEs in Lahore, Pakistan WSP
Better Water Management & Cleaner Production Practices in Major Industrial Sector of Pakistan

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