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LAF 2233
SEM 1 (2014/2015)













Research project instructed by Sir Shazuan bin Mohd Sidek for the
subject of Introduction to Social Studies, LAF 2223,
Centre For
Foundation Studies, IIUM.


Background of research
Scenario of the research area
Definitions of concept and terminologies
Objectives of research
Research questions
Significant of research


Internet Addiction in Malaysia Causes and Effects
Impact due to Internet Addiction among the Malaysian University
Internet Addiction, Locus Control, and Social Isolation among
Malaysian Adolescents
Internet and Computer Addiction
Internet Addiction-Symptoms, evaluation and Treatment

Factors associated with Internet Addiction among Adolescents


Library Discussion


Survey Analysis
Interview analysis



Background of research
Ever since the internet phenomenon has emerged in the early 1990s,
it has provides us with new chances to widen communication and deepen
relationships. Generally, internet was defined as the global communication
network that allows almost all computers worldwide to connect and
exchange information. For instances, we can stay in touch with family and
friends across the globe via chat-rooms, or make transfer payment and

others. Despite the numerous advantages of using the internet, there are
some drawbacks we should admit.
The use of the internet may have bad effects upon the society. The
internet somehow behaves like drugs and alcohol. Being addicted to it,
people sometimes dont know when to stop accusing it. Such behavior is
regarded as a kind of illness nowadays called Internet Addiction Disorder.
According to Dr.Jerald J.Block, from the Center for Internet Addiction internet
addiction was defined as a compulsive activity involving excessive use,
withdrawal and negative repercussions which interferes with normal living
and causes severe stress on family, friends and ones work environment. For
examples, cyber sex, cyber relationships and computer gaming are some
of the categories that relate to the broad them Internet Addiction. Over the
past decade, the condition has attracted increasing attention in the popular
media and among researchers in this attention has paralleled the growth in
internet access. As the internet grows in Malaysia, Internet Addiction is
surfacing as a key problem amongst the people.
With the widespread and overwhelming influence of cybernetic devices
such as the Internet and electronic email, globalization has reduced the
world into a global village. The advent of Internet in recent times has even
further revolutionized the way we communicate and share information.
However, there are dangers that lurk on the Internet and relate to moral and
social implication. One of those issues is the Internet addiction. Internet
addiction can be classified as one of the impacts of globalization upon our
generations today. This problem is already a crisis in many developed
countries. Although the concept of Internet Addiction is still evolving and
debated, some empirical studies have been done in the recent years. The
purpose of this research is to gain a better insight on how the globalization
has affected the problem of Internet addiction and to what extent it affected
our generations today.
Scenario of the research area

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One-Minute World News

News Front Page

Last Updated: Wednesday, 10 August

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S Korean dies after

games session

Middle East
South Asia
Science & Environment
Also in the news
----------------Video and Audio
Have Your Say
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Special Reports


Online gaming is treated like a sport in

South Korea

South Korean man has died a

reportedly playing an online
computer game for 50 hours
few breaks.

The 28-year-old man collapsed a

playing the game Starcraft at an
internet cafe in the city of Taegu
according to South Korean

The man had not slept properly,

had eaten very little during his
marathon session, said police.

Multi-player gaming in South Ko

extremely popular thanks to its
and widespread broadband netw

Games are televised and profess

players are treated, as well as p
like sports stars.

Professional gamers there attrac

huge sums in sponsorship and c
make more than $100,000 a yea
They are the types of
games that completely engross
the player. They are not games
that you can play for 20
minutes and stop
Professor Mark Griffiths

identified by his family name, Le

started playing Starcraft on 3
August. He only paused playing
to the toilet and for short period
sleep, said the police.

"We presume the cause of death

heart failure stemming from
exhaustion," a Taegu provincial
official told the Reuters news ag

He was taken to hospital followin

collapse, but died shortly after,

according to the police. It is not
known whether he suffered from
previous health conditions.

They added that he had recently

been fired from his job because
kept missing work to play comp
Small minority

Online computer games are som

the most popular and largest gr
areas in interactive entertainme

Players can easily get immersed

feel compelled to play for hours
stretch, particuarly in massively
multiplayer online role playing g
- MMORPGs - in which thousand
gamers play and interact in shar
fantasy or science fiction worlds

Reports of gamers spending 10

hours a day in front of video gam
such as the highly popular World
Warcraft and EverQuest, are
becoming more frequent. Expert
gamers should take regular scre

Psychologist Professor Mark Grif

author of several in-depth studie
into online gaming and gambling
addiction, told the BBC News we
that, according to his research,
playing excessively was not
problematic in any shape or form
the majority of gamers.

He said: "It does seem to be the

case that online gaming addictio
a small minority is a real
phenomenon and people suffer t
same symptoms as traditional

MMORPGs are social and immersive so

require long periods of play

it is a small minority."

In one detailed survey of 540

gamers, Professor Griffith and h
team found that there were four
playing more than 80 hours a w
which is considered "excessive".

He explained many people liked

play MMORPGs for long periods
time because of the social aspec
the games.

"They are the types of games th

completely engross the player. T
are not games that you can play
20 minutes and stop.

"If you are going to take it serio

you have to spend time doing it,

But he warned there was a diffe

between "healthy enthusiasm" a
"unhealthy addiction." People wh
sacrificed jobs, partners and lov
ones were considered "extreme

Unlike help for traditional addict

such as gambling, there is very
help for computer game addictio

"It is not taken seriously yet - it

the same for internet addiction,"

He advised anyone worried abou

gaming addictions should contac
their local GP and get referred to

More than 15 million people, or

of the population, are registered

online gaming in South Korea. T

country also host the annual Wo
Cyber Games.

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E-mail news


News feeds



BBC Copyright Notice

The article above tells us about a man from South Korea was dead
because of playing game excessively. He was playing the online game for
fifty hours with a few and brief breaks. He did not have a proper sleep cycle
and ate in small portions during playing the game. He was diagnosed heart
failure stemming from exhaustion. This problem not only happened in South
Korea but it has happened to many people around the global.
Games are one of the applications offered in the internet. In fact, with
the process of globalization, it has improved the communication between
people by using the internet network. For example, online games allow its
players from all over the world to compete with each other. This
improvement seems does not bring any problem. However, the problems
start to exist when the players start to use this application excessively. The
types of games that offered in the internet normally will engross the players.
This will lead the players to neglect all their basic needs such as eating

properly, taking care of their cleanliness and others. In fact, some of them
neglect their responsibilities like going to work and they end up being fired
because of their obsessions towards this application.
Hence, this scenario has led us to do the research of internet addiction
and globalization. This is because this scenario or problem also included in
branch of Internet addiction. In addition, this scenario also portrays the same
impacts like internet addiction. Then, it thus proved that Internet addiction
has brought many negative impacts in people lives without them noticing it.
Internet addiction not only referred to play online game excessively but it
also refers to using any other applications that offered in the internet in
excessive manner. With all the problems and impacts that portray in this
scenario, they have encouraged us to do thorough research regarding to
Internet addiction.
Definitions of concept
ADDICTION: Public policy statement stated that:
Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory
and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic
biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations1. This is reflected
in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use
and other behaviors.
Addiction is characterized by inability to consistently abstain, impairment in
behavioral control, craving, diminished recognition of significant problems
with ones behaviors and interpersonal relationships, and a dysfunctional
emotional response. Like other chronic diseases, addiction often involves
cycles of relapse and remission. Without treatment or engagement in
1 American society of addiction medicine, definition of addiction
( ) cited on September

recovery activities, addiction is progressive and can result in disability or

premature death.
ADDICTION RECOVERY, concluded that:
Internet addiction is described as an impulse control disorder, which does not
involve use of an intoxicating drug and is very similar to pathological
gambling2. Some Internet users may develop an emotional attachment to
on-line friends and activities they create on their computer screens. Internet
users may enjoy aspects of the Internet that allow them to meet, socialize,
and exchange ideas through the use of chat rooms, social networking
websites, or "virtual communities." Other Internet users spend endless
hours researching topics of interest Online or "blogging". Blogging is a
contraction of the term "Web log", in which an individual will post
commentaries and keep regular chronicle of events. It can be viewed as
journaling and the entries are primarily textual.
Similar to other addictions, those suffering from Internet addiction use the
virtual fantasy world to connect with real people through the Internet, as a
substitution for real-life human connection, which they are unable to achieve
According to Merriam Webster dictionary, globalization means the act or
process of globalizing: the state of being globalized; especially: the
development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially

2 Unity point health, Illinois institute of recovery addiction,

( cited on September

by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper of foreign labor

Definitions of terminologies
1) Addictive behavior: Causing a strong and harmful need to regularly
have or do something: Very enjoyable in a way that makes you want to
do or have something again4
2) Carpal tunnel syndrome: A branch of medicine that deals with mental
or emotional disorders.5
3) Cognitive behavior therapy: psychotherapy especially for depression
that emphasizes the substitution of desirable patterns of thinking for
maladaptive or faulty ones
4) Cybersex addiction: Activity in which people become sexually excited
by sending messages about sex to each other over the internet.
5) Supervise: To be in charge of (someone or something) :to watch and
direct (someone or something).
6) Pathological Internet Use: Extreme in a way that is not normal or that
shows an illness or mental problem.
a. Medical: relating to or caused by disease.
b. Or relating to the study of disease: relating to pathology 6.
7) Psycho Dynamic: the psychology of mental or emotional forces or
processes developing especially in early childhood and their effects on
behavior and mental states
8) Etiology: cause, origin; specifically: the cause of a disease or abnormal
condition: a branch of knowledge concerned with causes; specifically:

3 Merriam Webster dictionary, ( ) cited on September 15,2014

4 Ibid
5 Ibid
6 Ibid

a branch of medical science concerned with the causes and origins of

9) Co morbidity: When two disorders or illnesses occur in the same person
simultaneously or sequentially, they are describe as co morbid. :
existing simultaneously with and usually independently of another
medical condition.
Regression : the act or an instance of regressing: a trend or shift
toward a lower or less perfect state: as
a. : progressive decline of a manifestation of disease
b. : gradual loss of differentiation and function by a body part
especially as a

physiological change accompanying

aging or gradual loss of memories and acquired skills8

Severity: The fact or condition of being severe. : very bad,

serious, or unpleasant : causing a lot of physical pain or suffering : very


Stratification : The state of being divided into social classes

i. : The state of having many layers
Locus of Control: locus of control refers to a persons perception

of control or responsibility for his own life and actions. People who view
the world as the primary contributor to their life situations and believe
forces outside of themselves are responsible for their misfortunes or
success subscribe to an exterior locus of control. Those who view their
life and destiny as a result of their own doing subscribe to an interior
locus of control.9
Internet usage: refer to utilizing the internet and are neutral as to
its benefit.

7 Ibid
8 Ibid
9 Nannette Richford, eHow Contributor, Definition of internet locus of control

( )
cited on September 19, 2014.


Online gambling: Online gambling also known as Internet

gambling and I-Gambling, is a general term for gambling using the

Online affairs: An online affair involves the same kind of emotions
that other affairs do. There is secrecy, fantasy and excitement also,
rationalization of what you doing and denial of the effects. Online
affairs are as potentially devastating as a physical affair.
Maladaptive Behavior: Refer to types of behaviors that inhabit a
persons ability to adjust to particular situation. This type of behavior is
often using to reduce ones anxiety, but the result is dysfunctional and
non-productive. For example, avoiding situations because you have
unrealistic fears may initially reduce your anxiety but, it is nonproductive in alleviating the actual problem in the long term.
Compulsion Spectrum: Obsessive-compulsive spectrum
disorders are a group of similar psychiatric disorders. These disorders
are characterized by repetitive thoughts distressing emotion and
compulsive behavior.
Social Isolation: A major and prevalent health problem among
community-dwelling older adults, leading to numerous detrimental
health conditions. Social isolation is define as a state in which the
individual lacks a sense of belonging socially, lack engagement with
others, has minimal number of social contacts and they are deficient in
fulfilling and quality relationship.

Objectives of research
1) To examine how people become addicted to the internet because some
of them do not realize that they were became addicted.
2) To identify the symptoms of person that addict to Internet. This is
because the signs and symptoms of this problem vary from person to
person. This includes emotional symptoms and physical symptom

3) To find out the causes and effects of internet addiction which give more
negative impacts than positive impacts.
4) To know the treatments that the internet addicts can get to overcome
and control internet use. This includes give a special therapy and
attending counselling and gets the support from parent.
5) To measure the level of Internet addiction in the society.
6) To diagnose the pattern of online behaviour among the people by
launch a survey and interview among the CFS International Islamic
University students and the layperson.

7) To identify the activities engaged the most by the people that cause
them to become an Internet addiction.
Research Questions
1. What is the level of Internet Addiction in the society?
2. Is there any difference between gender and Internet addiction among
the society?
3. Is there any significant link between Internet Addiction and
globalization among the society?
1. The level of Internet Addiction in the society is high especially among
the young generation.
2. There is a difference between gender and Internet addiction among the
3. There is a significant association between Internet Addiction and
globalization among the society.
Significant of research

This research is very important to investigate the seriousness of

Internet Addiction and globalization in the society nowadays. It is
undisputable fact that that Internet has been the most useful technology of
the modern times which helps us not only in our daily lives, but also our
personal and professional lives. The evolution of wireless technology as the
result of globalization has make our live much more easily compared to our
parents time. However, presently Internet is not only use for seeking
information but also used to fill leisure time as well. But, alas, Internet also
had their downsides apart from the advantages. One of them is Internet
Addiction. If this phenomenon continues without any solution, it will then
become a cancer in the society. Hence, this research seeks to examine the
seriousness of Internet Addiction and it relation with globalization.
In spite of that, this research also intended to lay down the negative
consequences of Internet Addiction. Besides, these studies also important to
increase the awareness of every particular individual in the society of their
important role in solving this problem. Through this research, they may start
to aware of this problem so that they can try to control their children or
This research can provide much information about the link between
Internet Addiction and globalization. Based on this research, it can explain
more details on the symptoms of Internet Addiction, the impact of Internet
Addiction and also the effect of globalization on Internet Addiction.


Internet Addiction in Malaysia Causes and Effects
Recent studies have sought to determine the level of Internet
addiction amongst Malaysia youth. In this century, Internet does apprise the
human society by making available all the information needed for human
well being, growth and prosperity. However the positive growth has negative
impacts as it created its own set of problems-one of the key ones being
Internet addiction. Dr. Jerald J. Block, from the Center for Internet Addiction,
defined Internet addiction as an obsessive activity involving excessive use,
withdrawal and negative repercussions including social isolation, lying, low
achievement and fatigue. As the Internet grows in Malaysia, Internet
addiction is surfacing as a key problem, particularly amongst the young
generation. Thus, researchers Ashish, Choo, Sureswaran and Nibras (2013)
conducted a study to identify the use of Internet among Malaysia youth and

the relation of excessive use to the addictive level. They hypothesized that
the youth are indeed susceptible to Internet addiction.
Indubitably the Internet has revolutionized the way we think and place
an important part in our private lives and the society as a whole. Internet
addiction can be well defined through the observations of ones behavior.
Behavioral addictions can be seen as a repetition of a habit that cause
imbalance in lifestyle or social issues or worst of all affect ones health. In
addiction there is always a sign of uncontrollable force when the addicts try
to cut back the amount of addictive use. For the last couple of years, Internet
addiction has become a global concern and can be classified as a health
issue. In relation to that, it is also proposed as a cause of mental disorder.
Apart from that addictive behavioral were suggested to cause improper life
style and deterioration of personalities, especially amongst the young.
Children and teenagers are the most exposed to this technology as they
were encouraged to utilize it in education system. The study on the usage of
Internet among Malaysian youth is to evaluate the causes that make them
surf for long hours and the types of activities engaged by them while online.
Hence, a set of questions was devised to diagnose the pattern of online
behavioral among the youth by launch an online survey on Internet Surfing
and Addiction nationwide. The aim of the survey is to identify the Internet
addiction among the youth caused by surfing long hours.
The next section sheds lights on topics that are relevant to their
proposed research. Firstly, the degree of the internet use was rated by using
Internet Addiction Test (IAT). The questions range from personal daily life,
social life, life performance emotional feelings and so forth. Then, the total
IAT scores are used as a measure of addictive level. Highest score suggested
that a person is addicted to internet and vice versa. Subsequently, the
addictive behavior to the Internet develops

when an individual starts

engaging in activities of obsession such as excessive gaming. Common signs

of gaming addiction can be seen through several ways like gaming

preoccupation and social retreat. Next addictive activity is online sexual

preoccupation. Internet users who are addicted in this category, find this as
an easy alternative activity to access sexually explicit materials while remain
anonymous, thus are allured into this form cyber addiction. The last one is
emailing or texting. It was observed that internet users who are addicted in
this usually suffer from loneliness and lack of confidence. In short, emailing
or texting addiction is about finding alternatives to avoid face-to-face
communication. The social and cultural implications of the internet are
perceived to have both pros and cons. The internet benefits the society by
joining the global network of like-minded people. Besides, it facilitates
expressing of ideas freely. On the other hand, it is also suggested that the
Internet causes temptation and poisons the mind of the young as it affect
them to neglect their roles in the real life. Excessive use of the Internet has
become one of the leading challenges of the modern society and causes both
physical and mental impairment.
The methodology of this research was conducted through an online
survey to study the Internet use and addiction among Malaysian youth. A
questionnaire was created on the basis of Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and it
was structured on the following information: 1) Demographic information, 2)
A modified version of the Internet addiction Test (IAT), 3) Factors affecting the
Internet addiction, 4) Internet Surfing Addiction, 5) Impact of Internet
addiction. The survey was participated by 2013 Malaysian youth from all
over Malaysia and it was conducted for a total duration of seven days. Based
on the survey, 58 participants (29%) were considered to be at risk of
addictive behavior.
As mentioned earlier, a total of 203 participants took part in the
survey. The participants were categorized into 4 segments based on the
hours spent on the Internet usage: 1) normal user, 2) moderate user, 3) atrisk user, and 4) extreme user. A question was asked to self-identify if they
considered themselves as Internet addicts or not before they proceed with

the IAT test. A large number of participants (64%) considered themselves as

Internet addicts whereas the opposite (36%) did not consider that they were
addicted. Most of the participants were ranging from 20-25 years old (64%)
and studying a bachelors degree (51%). It can be observed that through this
survey the factors affecting Internet addiction were found that 83% of the
participants go online for task-related purposes such as distant learning,
working online and so forth while the remaining 17% of participants do not
use it for that reasons. It is also because of the ease of access make user
stay connected to the Internet. In addition, most of the findings show the
motive that compel Internet user to engage in online activities was due to
entertainments. Impulsive surfing was also noticed as one of the factors
affecting Internet addiction. The researcher also discovered several impacts
of Internet Addiction. Firstly, the addicted would likely to get insomnia due to
late night log-ins and problems related to sleep. Next refers to immediate
impact on the physical changes such as weight loss and backaches. Third
impact is inferiority which refers to a feeling of low self esteem. Among the
other impacts are loss of concentration on daily activities at work or at
school, loss of productivity, and withdrawal syndrome that when a person
stops using the Internet, they experience unpleasant feelings or physical
In conclusion, Internet Addiction is generally described for internet
overuse or excessive use of computer. It has lead to interfere or changes in
one regular daily life and begins to have a deep effect on them. The data
supported the hypothesis that Malaysian youth are at high risk of Internet
addiction. Based on their study, it can be described that those in the age
range of 18-25 are found susceptible to Internet addiction, especially those
going to college or university. Addictive behavior however may not be all that
harmful and is subjected to the individuals intentions, actions and selfdiscipline, which ascertained the real harm to the individual and the society.
However, it can be noticed that the findings of this research is preliminary

and empirical works need to be done to complement this research due to

some limitations of this study.
Impact due to Internet Addiction among the Malaysian University Student
The internet is one of the greatest recent advancement in the world of
information technology and has become useful instrument that has fostered
the process of making the world a global village. This is a universal fact that
the useful internet has a great impact on the students academic
achievement and social life. Internet is one of the primary sources that
nowadays very important for students and other people. Internet has a lot of
beneficial aspects but due to that, it also has many negative aspects that
can affect people especially among university students. This article stated
that negative effect can destroy students life if the students misuse or
overuse it. It also emphasize about internet addiction which means the
problem that caused by the internet.
The study was conducted by Kubey to determine the effect of use of
internet on the academic performance, social life and outdoor activity
of students from Rutgers University. The study will be helpful for the
university students, researchers and curriculum developers in order to find
out the correlation of use of internet and academic performance. The study is
significant for the university teachers to analyze the effect of use of internet
on academic performance of students. There are also few research studies
that done on how internet usage is associated with individual differences in
personality. Other than that, a few studies have examined the relationship
between internet addiction with personality variables such as sensation
seeking, pleasure experience, use-and-gratifications, loneliness and
A study done to examined the loneliness and interpersonal communication
between independent internet user and non-independent by Kubey. The
result of the study stated that dependent students felt significantly more

alone than other students. These results strongly suggest that loneliness is a
factor associated with heavier internet usage. Besides that, internet addicts
also faced problems in their lifestyles. Most of them practice unhealthy
lifestyle and its can impact their daily lives due to more negative
consequences on their daily routines. Other than that, the study also stated
that the internet addicts may be less in extracurricular and social activities.
Next, other problem created due excessive internet use is a relationship.
Relationship problem are also extremely common to those who are addicted
to the internet. The report by Lin and Tsai stated that the internet slightly
negatives influences on their school learning but strong positive influences
on their peers relations. However, some studies resulted that internet has
enhanced the relationships with family and friends since the internet became
a means to communicate.
Then, the methodology of this research were done through some survey
questions that designed by the researcher and some questions were adopted
from Dr. Kimberly Youngs Internet Addiction Test question (Kimberly Young,
1996). This participants of this survey were distributed to different group of
student ranged from first year students to final year students which taking
different courses offered in five different universities. This survey was
conducted in self-administered environment which means without the
interviewers interference. Instructions were given to the participants with an
explanation on the objective of every section included in the survey form.
The result has been analyzed and the result stated that the respondent who
used the internet more than 5 hours considered as excessive internet user
and they have a big chance to be addicted internet user. This result also
discovered that more than half of the respondents were average user and
they can control their internet usage so that it did not affect their life
although they overused of the internet at a time.
In addition, in this study there are four hypotheses to be proved and
tested. Firstly, there is no significant in terms of academic performances

problems between average user and excessive user students. Then,

secondly, there is no significant difference in terms of retaining relationship
with family and friends between average user and excessive user. Next,
there is no significant difference in terms of personality between average
user and excessive user students. Lastly, it stated that there is no significant
difference in terms o f lifestyle between average user and excessive user
students. After that, the test revealed there was statistically significant
difference in relation to agreement with academic performance and the null
hypothesis are rejected. In other words, excessive user reported that their
academic performances were having problems due their internet usage.
Next, in term of relationship, the test also revealed there was statistically
difference in relation to agreement with internet to retain relationship with
their family and friends and null hypothesis are rejected. The excessive user
said that they does not have problems and strongly agree that internet can
help them enhance these relationships compared to the average user
because they reported the internet grew away and cause problems in these
Nevertheless, from the aspect of personality, it shows that there was
statistically obvious difference in personality and it also was rejected
because of the null hypothesis. The excessive user described that they agree
if they change their personality to be a negative compared to average user.
It means the excessive user does have problem with their personality when
they are not online but the average user does not have any problems due to
that. Lastly, there was statistically clear difference in lifestyle and resulted
concluded that the null hypothesis should be rejected. Excessive user
reported that they practice unhealthy lifestyle compared with average user.
In other words, the excessive user would face problem when they start
connecting to the internet. They reported that they were neglecting their
household chores and others while they are online. So, it can conclude that
there are three problems that affected students which are academic

performances, personality and lifestyle. Meanwhile, in term of relationship,

they reported that internet enhanced their relationships with family and
In conclusion, from the analysis, it can be clearly seen that internet
addiction cause problems with respondents academic performance, having
bad personality and practicing an unhealthy lifestyle. Apart from that, from
the analysis its discovered only one positive impact due to internet addiction
which is the internet helps them to retain and enhance their relationship with
their family and friends. From all of these results, we can conclude that
internet itself is not an addictive but the specific application that allows and
offer internet user to gain more entertaining rather than real life make them
to stay online longer and overuse it.
Internet Addiction, Locus Control, and Social Isolation among Malaysian
Many people nowadays think Internet is one of the most incredible that they
should use. Internet also becomes a phenomenon to all people around the
world regardless their ages. Everyone knows that Internet gives people a lot
of benefits that could make them be more knowledgeable and advances. Its
provide people with information and knowledge that they want to know and
everything is in our fingertips. However, this technology makes people
become addicted and negative effects will possibly happen. There is an
opinion from people said that some of the societies today are more close to
computer rather than their family. This kind of globalization is very wellknown to all mankind and spread widely as the one of the education
mechanism. It can be rarely to see children and teenagers without
awareness of this technology, even the rural areas had been provided with
the Internet connection and computer.
This phenomenon has been addressed by many countries and used as an
issue to be measured and studied. There are two associations, which are

American Psychiatric Association and Canadian Medical Association that

studies about the symptoms of the addiction. American psychiatric
association classified that who have the symptoms for disorder of written
expression include, for example poor use of grammar or punctuation. While
Canadian Medical Association created the term internet addiction disorder
and the symptoms are loss of control and academic failure.
People nowadays also can be seen that they depend too much on the use of
internet, craving for information and entertainment until they give a lack
attention towards their family and friendships. Even thought this problem is
serious but still there is no official psychology and psychiatric diagnosis of an
internet addiction. According to Diagnosis and Statistical Manual on mental
disorder, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), there are two basic definition for internet
related disorder have to be known. These definitions adapted from existing
DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling and substance dependence. In
addition, Griffith defined addiction using some features for example salience
which is the activity of drug, mood modification and conflict.
By using the Pathological Gambling as a model, Young came out with ideas
that internet addiction can be defined as an impulse-control disorder, which
does not involve an intoxicant. He was also using the questions which
modified criteria for pathological gambling for addictive Internet use, fall into
the categorization of an addict. One of the question is Do you feel
preoccupied with the Internet (think about previous on-line activity or
anticipate next on-line session)?
Davis suggests that the Problematic Internet Use can be categorized as
Specific Pathological Internet Use and Generalized Pathological Internet Use.
SPIU refers to the use of the Internet to heighten the intensity of a preexisting addiction such as gambling, however GPIU refers to the use of the
Internet in general terms such chatting. Meanwhile, there are also Hall and
Parson present the Internet Behavior Dependence and they believe that
maladaptive Internet use can impair cognitive, behavioral, and affective

functioning in an otherwise healthy person. They also think that excessive

Internet use is a benign problem in living.
Many studies use the participant or volunteer to determine the addicts. For
example, Young use 500 heavy Internet users while Anderson, a psychologist
at counseling centre uses participants. Majority of them are diagnoses as
having the dependency of Internet. One of the study said that social anxiety
is a strong predictor of who will be more prone to Internet addiction; they
were more likely to have formed very close Internet relationships. Loneliness
was also highlighted in this problem. Loneliness can also cause to Internet
The concept of locus of control was introduced as individuals belief about
the causes of events in their life; it also known as measures the extent to
which an individual attributes the causes of his own behavior to internal and
external sources. Rotters Social Learning Theory said that people who
believe events in their lives as being contingent on their own behavior have
an internal locus. Paulhus realms of control are related to the focus on
personal efficacy, which refers to beliefs about mastery of ones non-social
environment and concerns personal achievements. Second, the interpersonal
control, deals with the management of face to face interactions and
relationships. Third, socio-political control is more like social system control,
the matching of individuals against larger systems. Research found that
people who have an external locus are more tend to have Internet
relationships because they are less confident in every single thing they do.
They are also afraid of rejection and failure and they find that Internet is the
best way to control their feelings.
However, in the concept of social isolation related to the loneliness and
social support. The major factor of these things is the lack of face to face
contact. Loneliness can be divided into two aspects which are the emotional
distress that results when inherent needs for intimacy and companionship
are not met, and the unpleasant experience that results from a perceived

discrepancy between a persons desired and actual social relationships.

Loneliness doesnt mean that people who are alone without people around
him/her. Even people with their spouses also can be said loneliness. This is
due to the lack interaction between spouses, friends and family. They will
feel lonely being alone. So, this thing can cause to the use of Internet at
home and have an online relationship. However, there are also people that
use Internet to communicate with their family who are far away, because it is
easier and faster.
Social support refers to physical and psychological comfort provided by
friends and relatives to people facing stress. This can help people to have a
better condition and able to face the stress with the support people surround
them or in the other words, it can reduces their stress. Social support may be
different from the concept of social networks. Jones appointed that people
who are lonely and have low self esteem, they are looking for social support
and social stimulation. It also can be said that Internet people are seeking for
attention and social support from their friends.
Internet and Computer Addiction
Internet addiction, known as computer addiction, online addiction or
Internet addiction disorder (IAD). It covers a variety of impulse-control
problem including cybersex addiction, cyber-relationship addiction, net
compulsion, information overload and computer addiction itself.
In cybersex addiction, the users compulsively use the Internet as Internet
pornography, adult chat rooms, or adult fantasy role-play sites which impact
on real-life intimate relationships while cyber-relationship addiction is
addiction to social networking, chat rooms, texting and messaging to the
point where virtual, online friend became more important than real-life
relationships with family and friends. Besides, net compulsion is different
compare to cybersex addiction and cyber-relationship addiction, such as
compulsive online gaming, gambling, stock trading or compulsive use of

online auction sites such as eBay, often resulting in financial and job-related
problem. The information overload refers to compulsive web searching or
database searching, leading to less power productivity and less social
interaction with family and friends while computer addiction is obsessive of
of-line computer games such as Solitaire or Minesweeper, or nay obsessive
computer gaming. However, the most of the Internet addiction are cybersex,
online gambling and cyber-relationship addiction.
Some people are not realizing that they were become addicted with
internet. Many people turn to the internet in order to manage their
discomfort feelings such as stress, loneliness, depression, and anxiety. This is
the one the ways for them to escape from any problem plagued in their
mind. Surfing internet might make their unpleasant feelings reduced. People
would be at greater risk of internet addiction if they were suffered from
anxiety. An anxiety disorder like obsessive-compulsive disorder may also
contribute to excessive email checking and compulsive Internet used as an
element to escape from feeling of depression, but a lot of time has been
spend in front of internet can make things worse. This because internet
addiction further contributes to stress, isolation and loneliness. Besides,
many internet addicts suffer from other addictions such as drug, alcohol,
gambling and sex. Usually, people lead their life at risk if they were lack of
social support and unhappy people. They tend to use social networking sites,
instant messaging, and online gaming as a way of establishing new
relationship and could be more comfortable than the real-life. The factor
people became addicts to the internet also because they were less mobile
and socially active than they once were. This is because they were in
disability to do so. For instance, it is hard to parent to leave the house or
connect to old friends since they were busy with their children. In conclusion,
even Internet is used to the healthy levels; the painful or unpleasant felling
that may have prompted them to engage in unhealthy Internet use in the
past will remain.

Signs and symptoms of Internet addiction vary person to person.

However, there are some general warning signs that the internet use may
have became a problem. Firstly, people are losing track of time online. This
sign, found in a person who find himself on the Internet longer than he
intended. Secondly, they are also having trouble completing tasks at work or
home. This is because they perhaps find yourself working late more often
because they cannot complete their work on time, and then staying even
longer when everyone else has gone home so you can use the Internet
freely. Thirdly, the sign of Internet addiction is people who are isolation from
family and friends. Usually, this people spend most of their time on Internet
while neglecting their family and friends. Fourthly, feel guilty and defensive
about the Internet use when others nagging you to get off the computer or
put the Smartphone down and spend time together. This people also hide
their Internet use or lie to their boss and family about the time spend on
Internet. Lastly, feel a sense of euphoria while involved in Internet activities.
People use the Internet as an outlet when stressed, sad, or for sexual
gratification or excitement and when they tried to limit their time they are
There are also physical symptoms of Internet addiction such as Carpal
Tunnel Syndrome (pain and numbness in hands and wrist), dry eyes or
strained vision, back aches and neck aches and severe headaches. Besides,
black disturbances and lastly pronounced weight gain or weight loss.
There are three main Internet addiction which are cybersex or
pornography, online gambling and cyber-relationship. First and foremost,
internet addiction in terms of cybersex and pornography refers to the types
of sexual addiction, special challenges on the Internet includes its relative
anonymity and ease of access. Usually, it is easy to spend hours on the
Internet in the privacy of their home and engage in fantasies impossible in
real life. These activities can give greater affect in real-life relationships,
career and emotional health. Sexual addicts does not unhealthy sexuality (an

integrated life experience), it use as a means to cope, to handle boredom

and anxiety.
Besides, Internet addiction in term of online gambling today is available
in the Internet as well as has made gambling far more accessible. Thus, it is
hard for recovering addicts to avoid relapse. Online or virtual casinos are
open all day, for every on with Internet access. Similarly in net compulsions
such as compulsive stock trading or online auction shopping can be just as
financially and socially damaging as online gambling. For example, eBay,
make wake up at strange hours in order to be online for the last remaining
minutes of an auction. They may purchase thing that they do not need and
cannot afford in order to experience of placing the winning bid.
Finally, cyber-relationships can be more intense than interact socially in
real life. The fantasies are given free reign and the idea of being with our
online love exceed all realistic expectation. Since few real-life relationships
can be compete with this wild fantasy relationship, the Internet addict will
prefer to spend more and more time with their online friends. As a result,
when online friends meet and the real-life fails to match the online person, it
create profound emotional disappointed.
Therapy can give a tremendous boost in controlling Internet use. For
example, Cognitive-behavioural therapy provides step-by-step ways to
compulsive internet behaviours and changes your perception regarding
Internet, Smartphone and computer use. It also can be use to help you learn
healthier ways of coping with uncomfortable emotion. In term of cybersex or
online affair, marriage counselling can help you work through these
challenging issues. Marriage counselling can also help you reconnect your
partner if you have been using the Internet of most of your social needs.
Besides, attending group may be able to help you work through your
problem as well. There may also be groups where you can work on social and
coping skills such as for anxiety or depression. Although, there are some
Internet addiction support on the Internet. However, these should be used

with caution. It may be helpful in orienting and pointing people in right

direction but real-life people to best benefit from group support.
Internet Addiction-Symptoms, evaluation and Treatment
This article tell us about internet addiction is a new mental health disease
and the clinicians still unaware about it. Thus, this article is going to facilitate
the clinicians to understand thoroughly about the internet addiction. The
article will first focus on the complications of diagnosis of Internet addiction.
Second, the negative consequences of such Internet abuse are explored.
Third, how to properly assess and identify triggers causing the onset of
pathological Internet use are discussed. Fourth, a number of recovery
strategies are presented. Lastly, since Internet addiction is an emergent
disorder, implications for future practice are presented.
First and foremost, the concept of internet addiction was introduced by
Young in 1996 and this concept has triggered a great debate among the
scholars especially the academicians and clinicians. One of the issues that
has been debated among them was about the term addictive and
addiction. Some of the scholars said that the term addictive can only be
applied if there are physical substances being consumed in ones body.
However, many believed that the term addiction can only be applied if it is
related to the consumption of drugs. Yet, the term addiction has been used
widely to describe a number of behaviors (e.g. gambling, overeating and
playing games) that did not involve any consumption of drugs. Thus, the
term of addiction can be applied to describe any behavior or condition and
not only confined to the consumption of drugs.
Furthermore, the complication to prove internet addiction arose when
the internet itself gives a lot of benefits to the people. In fact, it facilitates
and eases our daily activities. For example, internet helps us to do research,
to access any international libraries and etc. On top of that, there are many
books that promote internet because it gives benefits to us. Hence, it is

difficult to recognize one who is having internet addiction and it needs the
skilled clinicians to comprehend first the features of internet addiction to
differentiate normal and internet addicts.
Proper diagnosis is hard to do when there are no specific features of
internet addiction that listed in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Therefore, Young has established eight
questions based on the criteria of pathological gambling because they are
quite similar to the pathological user Internet. The eight questions are:1. Do you feel preoccupied with the Internet (think about previous on-line
activity or anticipate next on-line session)?
2. Do you feel the need to use the Internet with increasing amounts of
time in order to achieve satisfaction?
3. Have you repeatedly made unsuccessful efforts to control, cut back, or
stop Internet use?
4. Do you feel restless, moody, depressed, or irritable when attempting to
cut down or stop Internet use?
5. Do you stay on-line longer than originally intended?
6. Have you jeopardized or risked the loss of significant relationship, job,
educational or career opportunity because of the Internet?
7. Have you lied to family members, therapist, or others to conceal the
extent of involvement with the Internet?
8. Do you use the Internet as a way of escaping from problems or of
relieving a dysphonic mood (e.g., feelings of helplessness, guilt,
anxiety, and depression)?
Patient will be considered as addicted if he answered yes five times and
onwards. From these questions the clinicians can differentiate between
normal and pathological user Internet addiction. However, the author has
highlighted that the propensity of patients denial is high because the need
for him to carry out employment tasks or academics purposes. Thus, even
though the patient has fulfilled all eight features, he can easily cover with "I
need this as part of my job," "Its just a machine," or "Everyone is using it".
Therefore, the clinicians really need to comprehend all the features of
internet addiction in order to identify the pathological user Internet addiction.

There are many negative consequences of addictive use of the internet.

However, in this article only several negative impacts were highlighted in the
aspects of familial, academics and occupational.
Young discovered about fifty-three percent of Internet addicts were
involved in serious relationship problems. The Internet addicts will spend
more time in front of the computer to stay online rather than spending time
with the family. In fact, marriage relationships seem to be the most affected
by the excessive use of the Internet. This is because the Internet addicts
have the propensity to neglect all their obligations such as feeding their
children and doing the house chores. Apart from that, they will become
grumpy when their partner questions their consumption of time in front the
computer. Moreover, the matrimonial lawyers found out that many cases of
divorce are due to the cyber affairs. The addictive users will spend more time
with their virtual partner and gradually their love towards their real life
spouse will dissipate and consequently, they withdraw from the marriage in
order to maintain the virtual relationship.
The Internet has been promoted as a tool that can facilitate students in
their learning. However, one survey revealed that eighty-six percent of
responding teachers, librarians, and computer coordinators believe that
Internet usage by children does not improve performance. They argued that
the materials in the Internet were disorganized and unrelated to the school
curriculum. Therefore, the Internet usage in the school did not help the
student to improve their grades at all. Furthermore, Young found that fiftyeight percent of students reported a decline in study habits, a significant
drop in grades, missed classes, or being placed on probation due to
excessive Internet use. The students were misuse the Internet by joining chat
rooms, playing games and etc. On top of that, Alfred Universitys Provost W.
Richard Ott investigated why normally successful students with 1200 to 1300
SATs had recently been dismissed. His investigation found that forty-three
percent of these students failed school due to extensive patterns of late
night log-on to the university computer system. This is due to the inability of

students to manage their usage of the Internet. In fact, a survey initiated by

counselors at the University of Texas at Austin found that of the 531 valid
responses, 14% met criteria for Internet addiction. As a result, there are
many programmers that being organized to increase the awareness among
students about the Internet addiction.
The excessive usage of Internet was affected the employees. One
survey from the nations top 1,000 companies revealed that fifty-five percent
of executives believed that time surfing the Internet for non-business
purposes is undermining their employees effectiveness on the job. In fact,
by using the tracking devices, one firm has tracked all traffic going across its
Internet connection and discovered that only twenty-three percent of the
usage was business related. These results have surprised all the managers
due to the massive abuse of Internet. Hence, the Internet has been the worst
distraction by many employees.
Normally, the symptoms of Internet addiction were rarely prevailed
when the clinical interview was being carried out. Therefore, the clinicians
need to understand the features of Internet addiction and asses the
pathological Internet use. To properly assess the Internet pathological use,
the author believed that there are certain cues that make the user to be
addictive and the cues need to be traced back through the assessment. In
fact, there are four types of cue that need to be assessed.
The first factor that might be influenced one to stay longer on the
Internet is its application. On the Internet, there are many applications such
as chat rooms and games. In addition, the Internet addicts might obsessed
with one of applications that available on the Internet and spend his
excessive amount of time on it. Therefore, the clinicians need to identify
which application that influenced the user and how many hours he spends on
it. A deep assessment can be done with several questions like (a) What are
the applications you use on the Internet? (b) How many hours per week do
you spend using each application? (c) How would you rank order each
application from best to least important? And (d) what do you like best about

each application? By using these questions, the clinicians can easily

determine the pattern of applications of Internet addicts.
The second factor that triggered the addictive use of the Internet is
emotion. The Internet can be an instrument for one to escape from the real
problem. It gives one a pleasant, security or calm feeling when he is online.
Hence, one has the tendency to keep coming back to stay on the Internet.
Therefore, the clinicians should ask "How do you feel when off-line?" to the
Internet users and reviewed their answer whether they feel unpleasant
feeling like unsatisfied, worried, and troubled. Then, the clinicians should ask
them "How do you feel when using the Internet?" and if they give positive
response like excited, happy and thrilled, then it indicates that the user has
indulged in Internet addiction. Furthermore, if the clinicians faced with the
introvert user, then the clinicians can ask the user to keep a diary in order to
know his true feeling when he is online. These ways of assessment can help
clinicians to determine the normal from the pathological Internet use.
The third factor that triggered the excessive use of internet is
cognition. The Internet addicts have more tendency to think negatively or
paranoia about something. In fact, they also have maladaptive cognition
such as low self-esteem or insecurity about their physical appearance.
Consequently, they chose the Internet a mechanism to escape from their real
problem. Moreover, some of Internet addicts will hide their addictive towards
the Internet while being treated. Thus, clinicians have to concentrate on the
patients if they have deep core beliefs like I am no good or I am a failure.
This is because these patients have higher tendency to be the Internet
One that has less connection to other people or deprived of love from
his loved one has the higher propensity to involve in Internet addiction. This
is because he makes the Internet as his security blanket to escape
temporarily from his problems. Likewise, the alcoholic will continuously drink
alcohol if he faced a problem but when he is sober the problem is not


changed. Yet, he keeps drinking because that habit is his escape instrument
from reality.
The treatment for the pathological Internet use should be simple or
moderate practices. It cannot be in the term of forcing or aggressive because
the patients will reject it immediately and it is hard for them to change their
habits instantly. There are several techniques to treat the patients. The
techniques are (a) practice the opposite time in Internet use, (b) use external
stoppers, (c) set goals, (d) abstain from a particular application, (e) use
reminder cards, (f) develop a personal inventory, (g) enter a support group,
and (h) family therapy. The first three techniques of treatment are including
time management and the remains will be enforced later because of having
a good time management only is inadequate to stop the Internet addiction.
Practice the opposite time in using the Internet is like changing the
whole schedule of the Internet addicts. The clinicians should take their time
to know the patients routine in using the Internet by asking a set of
questions such as (a) What days of the week do you typically log on-line? (b)
What time of day do you usually begin? (c) How long do you stay on during a
typical session? And (d) Where do you usually use the computer? Once the
clinicians get the answers and reviewed them, ask the patients to do the
opposite routine. For example, if the patients usually log-in as soon as they
wake up, then ask them to do anything else first like taking the breakfast or
shower. By doing other activities, their time will be occupied and their
Internet activities became lesser than usual. The author called this treatment
as practice the opposite.
External stopper is another simple technique to treat the internet
addicts by using their obligations like going to the school or work as the
stopper of using the internet. For example, set a time for the patients to login the internet one hour before they are going to work. They will naturally
stop themselves and log-off from the internet. However, the risk by using this
treatment is the patients might be ignored their obligations and continue to
stay online. Therefore, the clinicians can suggest to the patients to put the

alarm clock beside the computer so that they alert and know when they are
supposed to stop their internet activities.
There are many users that tried to limit their time in using internet but
failed severely. This is because they had vague plan pertaining to when
exactly they are going to continue back their internet sessions and they let
the internet controls them. Therefore, the clinicians should limit the patients
time in using the internet. For example, allow the patients to log-in about
twenty hours rather than forty hours according to their current habits.
However, their internet sessions should be arranged short but frequent in
order to prevent them from withdrawal. Then, the clinicians should write
their schedule on the calendar or their planner so that the patients aware
with their new schedule and have a sense of being control instead of letting
the internet control them.
The abstinence here referred to the abstinence of application. As the
author stated above, the clinicians need to know what kind of application
that being preferred by the patients so that they can ask the patients to stop
using their favorite application. Yet, the patients can still use other
application that not related to their application. For instance, the patients are
addicted to the chat room application. Thus, they must abstain from it.
However, they can still use e-mail as a mechanism to communicate with
others. By using this technique, the patients will reduce their time in front of
the computer due to the less appealing application.
Reminder cards are one of the techniques to ensure the patients to
stay focus to eradicate their addictive use of the internet. The clinicians may
ask the patients to list down five major problems of internet addiction and
five benefits if they are free from the internet addiction. Then, ask the
patients to write down on the card that they can bring it anywhere. This
technique will remind them if they are trying to go back to their old habits
and remain them on the path to strive their goals.
Personal inventory is one of the important ways to reduce the internet
addiction. The clinicians should ask the patients to fill their personal

inventory with activities that they neglect during their solitary time with the
internet. For example, gathering with the family, hiking and etc. This will lead
the patients to feel the real happiness by doing the real activities that they
left behind because of the virtual world. Moreover, the clinicians should
instruct the patient to put scale on their activities such as 1 - Very Important,
2 - Important, or 3 - Not Very Important. This way will make the patients to
reflect their life before they are involved in addiction and make they realize
that their decision to change are correct. Thus, they will more appreciate
their life and people around them.
Some of the normal users may turn into the internet addicts due to the
lack of social life. They have less connection with the real people in the
reality. Therefore, they may find online friends which always available to
communicate. This make their attachment towards the internet became
strong. Apart from that, there were some people who have lack of selfesteem or self-confidence that lured them into the virtual world because they
feel more comfortable due to absence of direct contact with people.
Moreover, patients that experienced the death of the loved one may involve
in the internet to escape from the sadness and the lonely life. They need a
group that has experienced the same problems like them so that they can
share their problems or feelings. Thus, the clinicians need to find the suitable
group for the patients in order for them to make new friends. The group may
give support to the patients to go through their lives. Hence, the patients
really need to join a group that can support them.
The internet addicts really need the family therapy because family are
the closest contact and have a huge influenced in ones live. Family therapy
need to include several important contents that gradually change the
internet addicts. The contents are (a) educate the family on how addictive
the Internet can be, (b) reduce blame on the addict for behaviors, (c)
improve open communication about the pre-morbid problems in the family
which drove the addict to seek out psychological fulfillment of emotional
needs on-line, and (d) encourage the family to assist with the addicts

recovery such as finding new hobbies. Hence, the family therapy has a good
influence that may recover the addicts to normal.
A few years back, the study of pathological Internet use has grown.
There are many research and theories examining the effects of on-line
behavior patterns. The emergence of a new psychological journal is being
developed that will focus upon aspects of Internet use and addiction.
However, the actual result not yet being specified and definite. Thus, the
scholars need to study about the Internet addiction thoroughly before it can
be recognized by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
and be a reference in the future.
Surveys have found that about 47 million have ventured on-line and
analysts estimate that massive of number will join online. With the increasing
number of user, the clinicians should take note that there will be many
possibilities the users became addictive and they should prepare the
treatments for the patients.
This type of the addiction is new and the addicts may have the
difficulties to express their problems regarding to the addiction. Therefore,
the advertisements should be published to encourage the addicts to get their
treatments. Moreover, the seminars or the program should be held at the
university to increase the awareness level regarding to the Internet addiction
and the misuse the Internet should be held.
Last but not least, further research needs to be carried out in order to
have deep understanding about the Internet addiction and the recovery
program to succeed.
Factors associated with Internet Addiction among Adolescents
Internet addiction has been recognized since the mid- 1990s as a new
type of addiction and a mental health problem that exhibits signs and
symptoms similar to those of other established addictions. It is described as
uncontrollable and damaging use of the Internet and is recognized as a

compulsive-impulsive Internet usage disorder, one of those in the spectrum

of impulse-control disorders discussed in recent psychiatric literature. While
studies have indicated that people suffering from Internet addiction are
mostly young males with introverted personality, it has also been shown that
the rates of exhibiting the disorder among females is increasing. In recent
years, with the greater availability of the Internet in most Asian countries,
Internet addiction has become an increasing mental problem among
adolescents. A growing incidence in adolescence has been reported by
researchers in Taiwan and China from about 6% in 2000 to about 11% in
2004. Many studies have reported associations between Internet addiction,
psychiatric symptoms, and depression among adolescents. Internet addiction
is also detrimental to physical health. Research on patients who were
addicted to the Internet, particularly to the massively multiplayer online roleplaying games (MMORPGs), demonstrated that these games induced
seizures in 10 patients. In terms of risk factors associated with Internet
addiction among adolescents, information provided from the literature is
scarce. Apart from the above-mentioned male predominance, no other
detailed information is available. Hence, the aim of this exploratory study is
to expand the knowledge of potential risk factors associated with Internet
addictions among adolescents.
Based on the article the survey was conducted in Guangzhou city of
the Guangdong Province in Southeast China in July 2008. The sample
consisted of adolescents from 13 to 18 years old and was generated using a
stratified random sampling method with stratification according to the
proportion of students in metropolitan and rural areas. Selected students
from different schools were invited to participate in the survey via school
principals and their teachers and were encouraged to fill in a self-report
questionnaire designed specifically for the study. Consent was implicated by
a voluntarily response to the questionnaire. Internet addiction was assessed
by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), also known as the Youngs Internet

Addiction Scale (YIAS). The IAT is a 20-item self-report scale based on the
DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. It includes questions
that reflect typical behaviors of addiction. The severity of addiction was then
classified according to the suggested cutoff scores: 20 to 49 points rated as
normal, 50 to 79 points, moderate, and 80 to 100 points, severe. Other
information collected in the survey included demographics, metropolitan or
rural schools; location of family residence; whether the respondent was an
only child; parental education levels; and health condition and behaviors,
including drinking, smoking, physical activity, and sleep hours. Information
on respondents perceptions of family financial situation, parental
expectation, burden of study, any disruption to daily life, family satisfaction,
and any recent stressful life events was also collected. The depression status
of students was also assessed using the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale.
Data were analyzed using the Stata V10.0 statistical software program.
Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine unadjusted relationships
between Internet addiction and all variables of interest. The unadjusted odds
ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of self injurious
behavior for Internet addiction and all variables of interest were estimated
using unweighted logistic regression techniques. For the inclusion of
potential risk factors in multivariate analyses, variables that attained a
p0.20 in the bivariate analyses were included in further analysis. Logistic
regression analyses were also employed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios
of all significant variables retained in the final model.
As a result, a total of 1,639 students were recruited with 1,618
responses to the survey providing usable information. This represented a
response rate of 98.7%. Comparisons between the respondents and nonrespondents indicated no statistically significant differences in terms of age,
sex, and whether attending city or rural schools. The majority of respondents
were classified as normal users (n1,392, 89.2%), with 158 (10.2%)
moderately and 10 (0.6%) severely addicted to the Internet. The most

common usage of the Internet was for entertainment (n690, 45.1%),

followed by searching for information and knowledge (n304, 19.9%) and
communication with school mates (n242, 15.8%). The bivariate
relationships among Internet addiction, students demographics, health
conditions and behaviors, and perceptions on personal and family situations
were examined. Next, without adjustment to other variables, Internet
addiction was significantly associated with a number of variables: sleep
hours, drinking, and all perceptions variables. These variables were included
in further analyses. Age, sex, and involvement in physical activity were also
selected because associations among these variables and Internet addiction
attained a significance level of 0.20. Four variables remained significant in
the final model after adjusting for the others. The results suggest that males
had a 50% increased odds of Internet addiction (OR1.5, 95% CI1.12.2)
when compared to females. The odds of those who had tried drinking more
than 2 times were 1.7 times higher (OR1.7, 95% CI1.12.8) than for those
who had tried only 1 to 2 times. Satisfaction with family was also associated
with Internet addiction. Students who were very dissatisfied with their family
were nearly 2.5 times (OR2.4, 95% CI1.34.3) more likely than those who
were satisfied with family to be addict to the Internet. Experience of recent
stressful events was also related to Internet addiction. The results suggested
a dose-response relationship between the degree of stressful experience and
Internet addiction. After adjusting for other variables, the odds were 10 times
greater (OR10.0, 95% CI6.512.2) for young people who had experienced
a recent event and felt very stressed and 2.8 times greater (OR2.8, 95%
CI1.84.4) for those who felt moderately stressed than for those who had
no stressful experience or who had experienced an event but did not feel any
stress at all. An examination of the interaction terms of these variables
indicated none were significant, suggesting that these risk factors were
independent of Internet addiction among young people.


The results suggested a number of factors were associated with

Internet addiction. Being a male, drinking, dissatisfaction with family, and
experience of recent stressful event were potential risk factors of Internet
addiction. This study found that males are 50% more likely than females to
be addicted to the Internet. There could be many explanations for the
associations between these factors and Internet addiction among
adolescents. One possible explanation is that Internet addiction is a
behavioral manifestation of internal stress experienced by these young
people. Three of the four significant factors associated with Internet
addiction are drinking behavior, dissatisfaction with family, and experience of
stressful event all are stress-related variables. Drinking has long been
identified as behavior significantly related to stress among adolescents,
particularly young males. Internet provides a means for these young people
to be distracted from these stressful experiences, and hence the usage of
Internet becomes a coping mechanism. In fact, it has been established that
stress is a known risk factor of addiction to substances and also a factor in
addiction relapse tendency. Results obtained from the article provide further
evidence for a universal relationship between stress and addiction of all
forms. These results have a direct implication on clinical management as well
as the prevention of mental illness among young people, particularly in
developing countries such as China. As mentioned previously, Internet
addiction can be considered as part of the spectrum of impulse-control
disorders. Group therapy that is effective in managing other addictions has
also shown positive results in treating Internet addiction. However, clinicians
should be aware that psychological stress might be a co-morbidity of
addiction as well as a trigger for a relapse after the completion of treatment.
Limitations of the study include self-reporting on Internet addiction; not all
possible familial factors are measured and included in the analysis; and the
cross-sectional nature of the study provides only associative results, which
are insufficient to draw any causal inference.


This study will use the cross-sectional design whereby all variables will
collect at the same point of time. Some of the questionnaire in Internet
Addiction Test (IAT) is use for this study. This is non-experimental study that
has demographic variables, that is gender. This study will use the society as
respondents. There are 50 targets among the society with different gender
and age. Some of the survey questionnaire was taken from IAT questionnaire
and some of them are create by our group members. It consists of 15
questions to evaluate the respondents level of internet addiction. It covers
to which internet use affect daily routine, social life, productivity, and feeling.
In order to conduct the survey, the questionnaires were distributed
personally to the respondents. The questionnaires were then collected there
and then. The completed questionnaires were later analyzed. Since this

survey is conduct among the society, so we just go around the CFS IIUM and
Jaya One Mall to distributes the survey. We approach them and told them
about our assignment then they answered the survey. After having
calculated the questionnaires, the data was analyzed. The survey data
collected were analyzed using the statistical method. Then the results will be
illustrated using the diagram.
The other way to collect data is by using interview method. This is a
conversation with a purpose and is non-experimental in design. The
interviewer in one-to-one conversation collects detailed personal information
from individuals using oral questions. We use the experts in Internet matter
as a interviewee. This method will extend our knowledge about the
interviewee thoughts, feelings and behaviors. In this method, we go and
make an appointment with the experts in this matter, En. Zulhairi bin Joblee.
Then we went to meet him in his office and do some interview
questionnaires. While having the interview session, we record his voice and
took some pictures as a proof. After complete the interview, all the answer
were gathered and we do some analyzed. All the conversation between the
interviewer and interviewee are jot down in the paper then we analyze the
conversation into a summary.

Library Discussion
Next is library discussion method. This is a discussion among the group
members in the library. All of us will gather in the library then discuss the
problem in our project research then solve it together. Other than that, we
also use all the facilities in the library to complete our project such as books,
Internet and etc. All the data collected and discussed together with the

In this method, Internet sources are using to find more information about the
research project work. All of us using the Internet to find an article regarding
this research then do a summary about that. Apart from that, Internet is also
one of our methods to get the information and idea to complete this project.

Survey analysis


Diagram 1.1 time taken by people on Internet Everyday

The bar chart above displays the time taken by the people on the
Internet every day. Based on this chart, we can see both number of people
which are male and female whose spend their time in surfing the Internet
every day. After doing the survey on 50 respondents, we can see the result
where almost 20 of females from 31 females spend more than 8 hours
surfing the Internet while the other 9 females use their time, less than 6
hours and 2 females spend less than 3 hours surfing the internet. On the
other hand, most of the males spend less than 6 hours in surfing the Internet
where 11 males from the total number of 19 males while other only 4 males
using more than 8 hours of their compare the females and the other 4 males
use their times less than 3 hours. As we can see the number of females are
prefer spend their time in surfing the internet compare to the males.


Diagram 1.2: Whether the Usage of the Internet Make People a Better Person

This bar chart depicts, the total number of people, based on the
questionnaire to the IIUM community on does the usage of excessive Internet
make you a better person socially, we can see that most of the respondents
disagree, that Internet makes a person to be better person socially. From the
chart, 29 people from 50 person said No for the usage of Internet which
makes people good person while only 21 person said Yes. This is because,
actually communicate with others through Facebook, twitter, Skype and
many more make people become isolated in a real life. Although they are
friendly in social network but sometime they do not know how to
communicate with a new friend in front of them. As a result they are often
uncomfortable with face-to-face communication or confrontation. People,
nowadays prefer to communicate on social media rather than face to face.


Diagram 1.3: Whether surfing Internet Cause Impact to Daily Activities at Work or at

This pie chart demonstrates the percentage of people on the

questionnaire, does surfing the Internet cause impact to daily activities at
work or at school. Based on this chart 72% person agree that Internet is the
main source/ medium acts disturbance in their daily activities where 36 of 50
respondents say Yes on this matter. On the other hand, only 28% disagree
with the impact of the Internet. There are two opinions on how the internet
impacts their daily activities whether bad or good. Most of them opine that
internet give a lot of information, because as a student most of their
information come from internet such as journal, article, new, blog and many
more. However, bad impact are the Internet actually not a medium that give
them information but they prefer to communicate through social networking
such as Whatapps, Facebook, Twitter, Skype, online game, and online
shopping. They also said that the Internet make them lost focus in class, and
missed out many important thing. Besides, for the people who say No to the
impact of internet because these people absolutely can manage their time in
surfing Internet.


Diagram1.4: The total number of people considered themselves as

Internet addiction.

This bar chart shows the total number of people whos considered
themselves as Internet addiction. Based on this graph, most of the people
not considered themselves as Internet addiction which 27 respondents say
No on this question, where 15 of them are females and 12 males. On the
other hand, 23 respondents consist of 16 females and 7 males say No. From
the surveys given to them, they considered themselves as Internet addiction
because their life are too dependents on internet. Some of them thought as a
student all of the information is come from internet in order to complete their
assignments and works. Besides, they also spend almost of their time to
watch movies, dramas online and also through YouTube. They also became
addict because on their hand is phone which always hold by them to chat
with friend, online shopping, online game and others. Furthermore, they are
not considered themselves as Internet addiction because they spend less
time on the Internet. They also do not feel stress or disappointed when they
cannot get network coverage. However, they also spend some time on
surfing Internet but for a important tasks to do not for something that can
neglect them from the important works. Compare to the people whose

addicted to the Internet, this people still can survive if there is no internet. It
means they still can do their tasks.



Diagram 1.4 Question no 3 what is the factor that makes you use Internet

The bar graph shows the number of respondent in our survey, based on
the question number 3, what is the factor that makes you use internet
continuously? This question has been answered by 50 respondents and it
has three different answers. It can be seen that the major factor of people
using internet are because of the entertainment. 20 respondents of female
are more interested on entertainment compared to the male, but still
majority of male also using Internet for entertainment. Majority of the
respondents are students but two of the respondents are from the
government staff. This is due to the advancement of the media social such
as the Twitter, Instagram and the Facebook. Meanwhile, the second majority
factor is information acquisition. This graph represents 7 male and 9 female

for this answer. However, we can see from the graph that people use internet
to relieve from study is the less compared to the other two answers which
was only 5 respondents, 3 male and 2 female.





Diagram 2.4 Question no 4 what is the best solution for you to restrict the
usage of the Internet?
This graph is based on the question no 4, which is what is the best
solution for you to restrict the usage of the internet? Based on this graph,
both male and female enjoy in the society in order to restrict the usage of
the internet. The number of male and female is same. So, it can be said that
enjoy in the society is the best solution or the simple way to reduce the
usage of the internet. This is because there are many society activities that
are suitable for people and also youth to join.
There are also people that indulge outdoor game. The female are
outnumber the male in this solution, which is usually male are more
interested in the outdoor game compared to female. It can be predicted that
female nowadays also enjoy the outdoor game. However, there was the large
number of female in window shopping. That is not a surprise because as we
know that female enjoy shopping compared to the male. We cant denied
that there are also male that enjoy window shopping.





Diagram 3.4 Question no 5 what is the first thing usually do after you get out
of bed in the morning?
This bar graph illustrates the number of people relating to the question
number 5, what is the first thing usually you do after wake up in the
morning? 10 male respondents answered that they go to bathroom right
after they wake up in the morning, but there are only 7 female respondents
do the same. However, there a huge number of female answered that they
check their social media when they wake up in the morning which was 14
female, while only 4 male represent this answer. It can be said that female
are more often check their media social because in the previous question,
they assumed that they are more interested on entertainment. Other than
that, 15 respondents respond the question with the answer something else, 5
male and 10 female.







Diagram 4.4 Question no 14 do you think globalization is making the people more dependent on
the Internet? Why?
Based on this graph, majority of the respondents agree that
globalization is making people more dependent on the Internet. They also
have to provide their reason for this question. 27 female and 18 male agree
with this question while 5 female and 1 male disagree. Many of them think
that people are more depends on Internet because, globalization makes
education is more advance and there are many new syllabus and technology
that affect the way of teaching. For example, in secondary school, students
are required to learn how to find information in Internet. Meanwhile, in
university, students are more exposed to the Internet because they have to
do a research and online tasks given by their lecturer. So, nowadays, the
concept of learning is affected by the globalization by using the internet.
There are also people that think Internet provided everything that worlds
nowadays need, for instant, the information. The respondents that disagree
with this question mostly didnt give the reason for their answer.


Interview Analysis
This interview was held on Friday (Sept 11, 2014). The outcome of the
interview is to get more information or details about the relation between
Internet Addiction and Globalization. So, an appointment was made with Sir
Zulhairi Joblee. He was a lecturer of Information and Communication
Technology from ICT Department of Centre of Foundation Studies
International Islamic University Malaysia. He was interviewed with two
interviewers namely Siti Zuraina Binti Zakuwan and Nur Hidayah Binti Rahim.
Voice recording was done by Nurul Amirah Binti Che Sulaiman.
Interviewer: Assalamualaikum and good evening Sir. Firstly, I would like to

my gratitude as you are willing to spend your evening to answer

some of our inquiries concerning our research. This research is important as

it contributions a huge portion of our carry marks which is 40%. Let me
introduce ourselves first before we continue our conversation. My name is
Siti Zuraina Binti Zakuwan and on my left is Nur Hidayah Binti Rahim and on
my right side is Nurul Amirah Binti che Sulaiman.
Respondent: Walaikumussalam and good evening too. Surely I would try to
help to

answer some of your inquiries regarding your research.

Could you please explain first the background of your research?

Interviewer: Our research topic is Globalization and Internet Addiction. The
reason why we choose this topic is because nowadays we can see that there
are many problems that lurk on the Internet and relate to moral and social
implication. In addition, with the development of technology due to
globalization, we would like to study whether it associated with the problems
of Internet Addiction. Thus we hope you could help us clear up some of our
ambiguous relating our research topic.
Respondent: Ok. You can proceed with your questions.

Interviewer: Firstly, how do you define the term of Internet Addiction?

Respondent: Internet Addiction is defined as a situation when a person
spends more than 12 hours per day on the Internet. It is either the person
spends his or her on laptop, desktop, mobile phone or any gadgets that has
Internet connection. However, most of the peoples think that Internet
addiction is just merely on laptop and desktop. In addition, with the advent of
smart phone today, people using it more frequently compared to laptop to
stay connected online.
Interviewer: So, can you explain more detail about problems regarding to
Internet Addiction?
Respondent: When we talk about problems regarding to this issue, we need
to refer to the groups of people that are affected with Internet Addiction.
Firstly, we will look at the group of people from education section that
consisted of students and staffs. When students get addict with Internet,
they will become less social with others or in another term is anti-social. The
next effects of these problems to students are less work done. For example,
when they start doing their assignments, notifications will appear and it will
start to distract students from their works. They will start to chat, sign in to
Facebook, or searching on something unnecessarily important. Apart from
that, these problems will also cause them to get less rest. We should at least
have 6 hours of sleep. This is because when you spend more on the Internet
to watch drama or footballs for brother, streaming at 3am in the morning will
cause you to get less rest. Now we continue on how the Internet addiction
affected the staffs. When the staffs get affected, they will automatically
become less productive in work as you spent more time on Internet. For
instances, staff who work at customer service section will not entertain their
customer properly. They are busy with their Facebook or running an online
business. The second groups of people that are risky to be affected are kids.
Kids are the most dangerous part because it will certainly affect their growth.
If you notice nowadays, parents simply give their gadgets to their kids aged

less than 2 years because this is the easiest alternative to distract the kids
from disturbing their works. Thus, kids were exposed to this technology at a
very young age and it thus embarks on many problems on their mentality as
they grow up such as less interacts and play with other kids. Internet
addiction not only affects their mentality growth but also physically (body
growth). They become momentum because they use these gadgets. As we
all know, it only requires the movement of their eyes and fingers. Thus, it
causes less other body movements (motor). In addition, the habit of stay
connected for a long time will damage their eyes as they concentrate on the
screen within improper radius. It is because they do not know the
ergonomics which is the correct body posture. It is important for us to know
the ergonomics so that we can have a proper body posture. Normally kid
does not care or know anything about this matter.
Interviewer: Which groups of the society that you think are affected the most
by this problem?
Respondent: The answer is everybody. It is because you know at this
moment you are a student. So when at this times you are addicted to
Internet, so you will continue to stay addicted. It is because once you get
connected, the habit will stick to you as you grow older. Then you might have
to seek for expert to get some counseling regarding this problem. Internet
addiction is classified as part of serious problem and it is also argued among
some experts either to classify as part of mental problem or not. So it is
better for you to see expert as soon you realize yourselves are among the
Internet addict.
Interviewer: It is fact that globalization has revolutionized the way we
communicate and share information. To what extent do you think
globalization makes an impact on Internet Addiction?
Respondent: Globalization does make an impact on Internet addiction
because of the wireless revolution. Previously, we only had the device. For

examples, during our parents time, they used to communicate each other
using cell phone. If we want to communicate back then, we have to use
landlines or public phone. Besides they still need to meet each other.
However, now, we can have internet access at almost everywhere. It
depends more on the Wi-Fi technology. For instances, when you experienced
the last Eid Fitr, our families gathered together, however, most of them were
busy with their phone. With the emergence of selfie trend among the people
all over the world, they become more care about posting their pictures on
social network. It shows that they care much more about virtual life
compared to the reality in front of them.
Interviewer: Do you think globalizations are making people more dependable
on the Internet? Why?
Respondent: Yes. I agree with the statement. The reason is because most of
us regardless of our gender either male or female cannot live without
Internet less than one day. It becomes more danger now especially when we
can get internet access from our mobile phones.
Interviewer: How would you see this problem affect our young generation
over the next five year?
Respondent: Actually you do not have to wait over the next five year to see
how this problem affected our young generation. It is because the wireless
revolution has started two or three years ago back then. So you can see it
now through how people act online especially our young generation. They
usually did not observe what they write online then it will stem them to start
become racist in the society. In one way, people become too outspoken and
usually not in a good way but in a bad manner. People tend to express
everything online but if you notice, this kind of person is usually the introvert
kinds of person. This type of person usually very outspoken in online or
virtual world but when you meet them in the face to face in the reality, they
are very shy persons.

Interviewer: What ways do you think the government can adopt to reduce
Internet Addiction?
Respondent: It is reported in the newspaper either the last two or three
months before that the government decide to shut down the Facebook.
Nevertheless it is quite impossible to be done. From the beginning, all the
people are given freedom to use the Internet. Unlike other countries such as
China and Iran, they already imposed the authority to block the freedom of
using the Internet from the beginning. Thus, it will not going to be a problem
for the country like them to shut down the usage of Facebook. After all,
Facebook was used widely among Malaysian people to socialize, to get
connected, to make new friends and also running an online business. Thus, it
is quite difficult for the government to hundred percent shut it down.
Basically, the government has to educate Internet user in this country. They
can create something like an organization or groups of people or expert that
can educate from every stage in society such as for students, staffs and kids.
They cannot just put advertisements or campaign through mass media such
as television or radio because the initiative is not effective. Thus, they should
have expert for every stage of people in the society to explain details about
Internet addiction.
Interviewer: Is globalization in modern technology such as the advancement
of Internet gives more negative impacts than the positive ones towards our
Respondent: Yes. The reason is because we did not educate the user. Parents
simply give gadgets to their children without explain to them how to use it
properly. For examples, parents should restrict the usage of Internet among
their children only two hours per day or use it as a reward. In addition, the
government in Malaysia simply launched or gives facilities without
instruction of the proper usage. When they get less education about the
proper usage, it will leads to negative impacts compare to if you teach them.

Besides you cannot stop them from stay connected online as the Internet is
already there.
Interviewer: Thanks for spend some of your time for us. All information will
contribute lots in our research project as it helps to clear some of our vague
questions regarding Internet Addiction and Globalization.
Respondent: You are welcome.
Summary of interview analysis
According to Sir Zulhairi Joblee, a person is considered as an Internet
Addict when he or she spends more than 12 hours in a day on laptop, mobile
phone or any gadgets that has internet access. However, nowadays, people
using smart phone as it is easier to carry as compared to laptop.
He also emphasizes that the problems related to Internet Addiction
should be look at the groups of people to be more specific. He classified into
two groups of people to see how Internet Addiction become a problem
among them. The first group is from the education section such as students
and staffs. As for students, some of the problems stem from Internet
Addiction such as less work done, they started to become anti-social, and
lack of rest for their body. All this problems will disturb their process of study.
As for staffs, they will become less productive in work as they tend to make
themselves busy with social network or running an online business. The
second group of peoples that dangerous to be affected with this problem is
kids. It is simply because it will affect their growth mentally and physically.
They should not get exposed to Internet at a very early age such as those
aged less than 2 years as they will become anti-social with other kids and
will cause detrimental to their body growth as they know nothing about
Based on his observation, there is no specific group that gets affected
the most by this problem. Everybody can be considered as equally affected.

He said that when we are an Internet Addict while we are a student, the habit
will stick to us as we grow older. That is why it is important for a person to
seek an expert so that he or she can get counseling.
The link of globalization and Internet Addict can be seen through the
evolution of wireless technology. Previously, people only can communicate
through landlines or phones. Conversely, with the advent of technology
nowadays we can get internet access at almost everywhere. We depend
more on the Wi-Fi technology. It does cause people to care more about their
virtual life compared to the reality.
Apart from that, the disadvantages of wireless revolution can be
observed through how our young generation acts online. Most of them start
to become racist as they become too outspoken through social media. They
tend to express their feelings online and sometimes by not thinking the
sensitivity of others. Most of the person that are too outspoken is actually
introvert in the real world.
In order to reduce the problems in the society, the government should
firstly educate us. They should create something like an organization or
groups of expert that can educate us from every stage of peoples. Methods
such as advertisement or campaign through mass media are not effective.
Thus, they should have an expert for particular groups of people to explain
details about Internet Addiction.
He also stated that Internet Addiction has more negative impacts on
the society compared to the positive one. The reason is because we did not
educate the user on the proper usage of how to use the facilities or gadgets.
Less education concerning the usage of new technology or gadget will drive
more towards the negative impacts. Parents also play an important role to
educate their child on proper usage of those gadgets. For examples, they can
restrict the use of Internet only 2 hours per day or make it as a reward

It can be concluded from this interview that most of Malaysians are

considered as Internet addict either in the positive or negative ways.
However the negative impacts weigh more than the positive outcome. Thus,
we should start to educate the people about the proper usage of this new
technology. It will require the efforts of every particular individual in the
society to make it successful.



Internet does apprise the human society by making available all

information needed for human well being, growth, and prosperity. However,
the positive growth has negative impacts as it created its own set of
problems. Based on the research had been done, we can say that most of the
people nowadays became an Internet addicts but they did not realize it. As
Internet grows in Malaysia, Internet addition is surfacing as a key problem,
particularly among the younger generation. Some of the impacts of Internet
addiction are the addicted would likely to get insomnia or lack of
concentration in daily activities at work. Hence, Internet Addiction led to
changes in one regular daily life and begins to have a deep effect on them.
Based on the survey analysis, we can conclude that the females are
more addicted compared to male. Most of the female spent more than 8
hours on Internet whether for doing works or just for entertainment. They will
easily lure to make online shopping and even to find new recipe to cook
while males spent most of their time for online games and entertainments.
This shows that Internet make people wasting their time on something not
beneficial. On the other side, Internet also can be beneficial when people use
it in the right way, such as for student; they can find a lot of information that
can help them in their studies.
Internet also contributed to the globalization. It can be seen through the
evolution of wireless technology. Previously, people only can communicate
through landlines or phones. Conversely, with the advent of technology
nowadays we can get internet access at almost everywhere. We also
depends more on the Wi-Fi technology that cause people to care more about
their virtual life compared to the reality. Apart from that, the disadvantages
of wireless revolution can be observed through how our young generation
acts online. Most of them start to become racist as they become too
outspoken through social media. They tend to express their feelings online
and not thinking the sensitivity of others. In short, Internet helps in
globalization but it does contribute to the Internet addiction problems in the

There are several limitations that we faced throughout completing this
research. Firstly, the internet connection is limited. Normally, we have to wait
until three or four in the morning to get fully access to internet. This is
because during day the internet is very slow and sometimes there was no
internet access any at all. This limitation has created difficulty for us to seek
adequate information pertaining to this research.
Second, the language that being used in the questionnaire is English
and no translation was provided. The questionnaires were distributed to all
level of the society and they have different level of comprehending this
language. Some of them encountered few difficulty in understanding the
language, terms, or phrases that we put in the questionnaire. It is because
some of the terms or phrases might be quite extraordinary for layperson like
them. This has led them to give answers without understanding the
questions and giving any consideration.
Third, the responds that we got from the respondents during the
survey was carried out. Some of the respondents were not friendly and
refused to complete the survey. Next, most of our respondents choose not to
answer the subjective questions that have been provided by us. These
problems have become one of the obstacles for us to complete the survey as
it harden our process complete the data of the survey. When we have
insufficient data collected, it creates pressure for us to make a complete
analysis for this research. Thus it may leads to some deficiencies in our
research project.
Last but not least, the insufficient number of members that presents
during discussion. This is because every member in our group has different
schedule. Thus, it was hard for us to organize one discussion that comprised

of every member. This limitation has led us to use application like Whatsapp
as our medium to discuss. However, this means of discussion always led to
misinterpretation and miscommunication of information. Hence, this
limitation has made our research became slow.

1. American society of addiction medicine, definition of addiction

( )
2. Unity point health, Illinois institute of recovery addiction,
3. Merriam Webster dictionary (

Nannette Richford, eHow Contributor, Definition of internet locus of

control ( )