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'1 Define electric fleld strength.

2 Define potential ai a point.

3 State the relationship between field slrength of the field at a point, and the potential gradient
at that point.

Application Questions

A lnteraction between Point Charges

1 Point charges, each of magnitude Q, are placed at three corners of a square as shown in the
diaqram. The side of the square is L.

-O' lnO (a) Draw 3 arrows at the fourth corner of the square to
indicate the directions and relative magnitudes of
the electric fields due to each charge.

(a) Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant field.

(b) Determine the electric potential at the fourth comer due to the 3 charges-

239 n 324
t@) 0ttE.t tfrom -Q towards the for
lnh corner) (b)

2 \a) Two ions A and B are separated by a dislance ol 0.72 nm in a vacuum. A has a
charqe of +3.2 x 10 I' C and B has a charqe of -1.6 x 10 '' C.

(i) Calculate the force A exerts on B. I 8.9 x 10r0 Nl

(i') Calculate the torce B exerts on A.

(b) Without making detailed calculations, draw labeled arrows on the Fig. below to

(i) the field E4 atthe point Xdue to the charge atAonly.

(ii) the field Es at the Xdue to the charge at B only.
(iii) the resultant field at X d ue to both charges.

(c) Sketch on the diagram, line representing the electric field caused by the two ions in
the region within the rectangle. lnclude the field line passing through X


Two equal negative charges of each of -3.2 pC are situated at points X and Y, which
represents a diameter of a circle as shown. O is centre of the circle. AB is a diameter
perpendicular to XY. The diameter of the circle is 3.0 cm.

(a) A proton is placed at A then moved to O and
finally to B. Determine the direction and magnitude
of the force the proton experiences when it is at A, ,,1
O and B. - Z.Z p)j ,.
O-------'-- P a,--Y S.Z 1,e

x'1. oi ..i

'.-.i-. i

I(a) 1.45 x10irN, o, 1.45 * 10i1 Nl

(b) lf a stationary proton is released at A, describe the motion of the proton.
Two point charges are positioned so that they are separaied by a distance of 2.0 cm as
shown in the figure below. X is a point lying 5.0 cm away from the positive point charge. The
magnitude ofthe positive charge js 10.0 pC and the magnitude ofthe negative charge is 30.0

5.0 cm 2Ocrn

(i) Calculate the magnitude and state the direction of the electric field strength at point X.

(ii) ln the figure above, sketch the electric field pattern around the h^/o charges.

(i;i) Determine the position where no net electric force will act on a test charge placed

(iv) "There is no net electric force acting on a test charge in a region where the electric
potential is unifo.m." Explain whether this statement is valid.
B Uniform Electric Field

5 Two large horizontal parallel conducting metal plates are situated 40 mm apart
shown in the diagram. The potential of one plate is +20 V and the other is -30 V.

+ 20v

- 30v

The space behreen the plates is divided equally by 3 dotted lines. X and Y are two points
that lie on the lines as shown above. The field within the plate is assumed uniform.

(a) Draw an arrow in the space between ihe 2 plates to show direction of the electtic field
within the plate.

(b) What is the potential diiference between X and Y?

(c) What is the amount of work needed to bring a proton from Y to X?

(d) A siationary electron is released, within the field, at the surface of the -30 V plate
Describe its subsequent motion.
(e) Determine the acceleration of the electron.

(f) How long does iL take to reach the +20 V plale?

I(b)25V (c)4.0x10-13J (e) 1.20' 101'?ms'? (f)2.58*10'sl

A beam of electrons enters a uniform electric field between h,vo places of length, /, 50 cm,
separated by a distance, d, 20 cm, as shown in Figure 6. One plate is at a potential of +30 V
while the other is at a potential of -30 V.
Find the angular deflection of the electron beam. The velocity of the electron beam as it
enLerc the electric field, u, is 2.65 x 106 m s 175"1
(Charge on electron is L6 1O-1e C and mass is 9.11 1Or1 kg)
" '(

20 cm

-30 v

50 cm
What is meant by uniform electric field?

The diagram below shows ihree points X, Y and Z forming equilateral triangle of side s in a
uniform electric field of strength E. A unit neoative charge is moved from X to Y, from Y to Z
and from Z back to X.

Determine the work done, in each case, in moving the charge along the various paths?
(a) XtoY

(b) YloZ

(c) Zto X

What will the answers be to (a), (b) and (c) if the charge were positive?

[ (a) 0.866 Es (b) 0.866 Es (c)0]

The diaqram shows a uniform field in which the lines of equal potential are spaced 2.0 cm

'1 00 v 50v 0V -50V -100V

electric field

i2.0cm 2.0cm i2.0cm i2.0cm i

<---_- >< _---'>ia----------+ lines of
'< equipotential
(a) Determine the field strength of this electric field.

(b) A proton is placed in the field at the point X.

(i) Deiermine the magnitude and direction of the force it experiences.

(ii) Calculate its electrical potential energy at point X.

(iii) lf the proton is moved to point Y, determine its electrical potential energy
at point Y.
(iv) What is the chanqe in the

'1. electrical potential, and

2. electrical potential energy?

(c) Repeat (b), but change the charge to an electron instead of the proton.

[ (a) 25OO Vm-1 (bxi) 4.0 x 1o16N (ii)8.0x 10 18J (iii) B.O x 10 13
(iv) 1. 100 V (iv) 2. 1.6 x 1O-1?J l
c Comparison between Electrical and Gravitational Fields

I (a) (i) What is the analogous expression for a gravitational field?

(ii) Wite down the units of electric fleld strength and potential and of
gravitational field strength and potential.

(b) ABC is a triangle in which CA = CB = r. IntheFig.'11.1 below, charges -Q and

+Q are placed at A and B respectively and, in Fig. '11.2, equal point masses m
are situated at A and B.

L, '.R B
r\ rr'r m m
Fig. '11.1 Fis. 11.2

(i) !n Fig. 1, in which direction relative to the x- and y-directions does the
resultant electric field at c act.
(ii) ln Fig. 2, in which direction relative to the x- and y-directions does the
resultant gravitational field at C act?

(iii) Determine the electric and gravitational potential at C.

I(iii) 0,

Structured Question

(a) The Millikan experiment is said to provide experimental evidence for lhe quantization of
charge. What is meantby quantization2

(b) The arrangement in the flgure below shows an oil droplet between tvvo metal plates.

.n \J
Urldroplet Melal plates

When no p.d. is applied across the plates, the oil drop is observed to fall at a terminal
velocity v. Assume upthrust is negligible.

(i) Draw a clearly labeled free-body diagram to show the forces acting on ihe oil drop.

(ii) Using the following information, determine the radius r of the oil drop.
Terminal velocity of oildrop, v= 2.5 r '10 m s

Separation of plates, d = 20 mm
Viscosity of air, I = 1.8 x 10-sNsm'?
Density of oil, p" = 9OO kg m-3
Stoke's law (sphere), f = 6rrlv
(c) (i) Another oil drop of radius 1.90 Fm carries 8 electrons, and remains stationary
between the plates. Determine the p.d. applied across the plates, with the upper plate
being positive. [You may use the information given in (bXii) where necessary]

(ii) lt this oil loses an electron, calculate the initial acceleration ol the drop.

*** End of Tutorial ***