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BUILDING

U
G INFO
ORMAT
ATION M ODEELING (BIM
M)
BESST PRAACTICES PRO
OJECT REPO
ORT
An
nInvestig
gationoffBestPrractices throughhCaseStu
udiesat
Reg
gional,N
National, andInteernationaalLevelss
NOVEM
MBER30,20011

T hisprojecctwasfunndedby:
AlberrtaBIMCen
ntreof
Exccellence(A CE)

Produc tivityAlberrta

Western Economic
Diversiification

EXECUTIVESUMMARY
Building Information Modeling (BIM) involves a new approach to project delivery that focuses on
developingandusinganinformationrichmodelofafacilitytoimprovethedesign,constructionand
operation of a facility. Many projects have now successfully implemented BIM with significant
benefits,includingincreaseddesignquality,improvedfieldproductivity,costpredictability,reduced
conflicts and changes, and reduced construction cost and duration to name a few. However,
successfulimplementationofBIMrequiresdrasticchangesintheorganizationofworkthatcannot
be achieved without redefining work practices, which might explain the slow adoption rate,
particularlyinCanada.
The mandate of this research project was to investigate BIM best practices for the Canadian
industrytobetterunderstandwhatisworkingandwhatmightbetheobstacles.Theresearchteam
identified seven projects at regional, national and international levels and analyzed these projects
along three dimensions: Technology, Organization and Process. It is our belief that successful
implementationofBIMrequiresabalancebetweenthesethreedimensions.Wealsoinvestigated
existing BIM guidelines and standards to see how other countries are driving BIM adoption and
measuringthereturnoninvestment.
Thefollowinghighlightssomeofthebestpracticesidentifiedalongthethreedimensions:
Owner:specifyclear,complete,andopenrequirements.
Owner/ProjectTeam:determineuses/purposesofthemodel.
Technology
Owner/ProjectTeam:determinethescopeofthemodelandthelevelofdetail
ofthemodelingeffortrequiredtosupporteachpurpose.
Owner: rethink the organizational structure/practices for managing its
constructionprojectsandrealestateportfolio.
Organization
Owner/ProjectTeam:earlyinvolvementofallkeydisciplinesisessential.
Owner:implementtheappropriateincentivestoenablecollaborativeBIM.
Owner/supply chain: devise and agree on shared goals regarding what is
expectedtobeachieved.
Process Supplychain:deviseandagreeonaBIMexecutionplan.
Supply chain: clearly define roles and responsibilities including handoffs
betweendisciplines.
ThisreportdemonstratesthatalthoughBIMisquitenewintheCanadianlandscape,therealready
existsanabundanceofinformation(guidelinesandstandards)fromothercountries,whichwecan
leveragetoadvanceBIMadoptioninCanada.TheUKinitiative,inparticular,providesanexcellent
example of a thoughtful, deliberate and wellresourced process that the government initiated to
investigate the appropriate application of BIM for public projects, and to develop a longterm
strategyforhowtohelptheindustrymakethetransitiontothisnewwayofworking.
Our intent with this reportwas to first capturethe essenceof these internationaleffortstomake
senseofanddocumenthowBIMischangingourindustry;andsecond,tomakeknowledgetangible
through the description of cases that outline some or many of these best practices while also
presenting lessons learned. There are still major challenges ahead, particularly in terms of
procurement and education. To reap the full benefits of BIM, contracts encouraging collaboration
andpartnershipsuchasIntegratedProjectdelivery(IDP)shouldbeadopted.Propertrainingatthe
universityandprofessionallevelshastobeinitiated.BIMhastobebuiltaroundtrustandsharing.
Thegovernment of Alberta is leading the way inCanada in its initiativesto support its industry in
ii

adoptingBIM,involvinguniversitiestoparticipateinthis process.Additionaleffortsareneededto
develop a strategy for driving BIM adoption, continue to document emerging best practices in
Canadian BIM projects, and to develop and formalize tools to help industry measure their
performanceandmaturityinusingBIM.

iii

AUTHORSANDCONTRIBUTORS

ThisreportwasauthoredbyateamofresearchersattheUniversityofBritishColumbiaandcolede
TechnologieSuprieure.Principleauthorsinclude:

SherylStaubFrench,PhD,PEng
AssociateProfessor
DepartmentofCivilEngineering
UniversityofBritishColumbia

DanielForgues,PhD
AssociateProfessor
DepartmentofConstructionEngineering
coledeTechnologieSuprieure

IvankaIordanova,PhD
PostdoctoralFellow
DepartmentofConstructionEngineering
coledeTechnologieSuprieure

AmirKassaian
GraduateStudent
DepartmentofCivilEngineering
UniversityofBritishColumbia

BaselAbdulaal(CapitalTheatre)
GraduateStudent
DepartmentofCivilandEnvironmentalEngineering
UniversityofAlberta

MikeSamilski(VancouverConventionCentreProject)
GraduateStudent
DepartmentofCivilEngineering
UniversityofBritishColumbia

HasanBurakCavka,MASc(ResearchCentre(R2)Project)
GraduateStudent
DepartmentofCivilEngineering
UniversityofBritishColumbia

MadhavNepal,PhD
GraduateStudent
DepartmentofCivilEngineering
UniversityofBritishColumbia

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Weacknowledgethefollowingpeopleandorganizationsfortheirassistanceintheproductionofthis
report:

Geoff Glotman, GlotmanSimpson Structural Engineers (Vancouver Convention Centre


Project)
JimMcLagan,CanronWesternConstructors,Ltd.(VancouverConventionCentreProject)
DanSadler,PCLConstruction(VancouverConventionCentreProject)
JeanThibodeau,InteliBuild(HongKongInternationalAirport)
DianeLeclerc,MBA,InteliBuild(HongKongInternationalAirport)
SteveBeaulieu,InteliBuild(HongKongInternationalAirport)
NormandHudon(Coarchitecture
SbastienVachon,SeniorTechnician,TechnicalTeamLeader(Coarchitecture)
DominicDubuc,ArchiDATA(UniversitdeMontral)
GeneviveTremblayArchiDATA(UniversitdeMontral)
JeanPhilippeCyr,DirectiondesImmeublesoftheUniversitdeMontral
RobinBlanger,DirectiondesImmeublesoftheUniversitdeMontral
AllanPartridge,Group2ArchitectureEngineeringLtd.(CapitalTheatre)
ScottCameron,SupremeSteelLP(CapitalTheatre)
MonajMistry,Stantec(CapitalTheatre)
DerekCunz,MortensonConstruction(Research2(R2)Project)

TABLEOFCONTENTS

INTRODUCTION...............................................................................................................................1
1.1

DefinitionsandContext..........................................................................................................1

1.2

ResearchObjectivesandApproach........................................................................................5

1.3

SelectionofCaseStudies........................................................................................................6

1.4

ConstraintsandDisclaimers....................................................................................................8

RELEVANTBACKGROUND...............................................................................................................9
2.1

CanadianEfforts:BIMStandardsandInitiatives....................................................................9

2.2

InternationalEfforts:BIMStandardsandInitiatives............................................................11

2.3

BIMGuidesandExecutionPlanning.....................................................................................16

2.4

UsesofBIM...........................................................................................................................20

2.5

LevelsofBIM.........................................................................................................................22

2.6

ImpactofBIM........................................................................................................................25

2.7

BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................................................................................28

CASESTUDIES................................................................................................................................29
3.1

SutterMedicalCenter(UnitedStates)..................................................................................30

3.2

UniversityOfColoradoDenver,Research2(R2)(UnitedStates).........................................61

3.3

CathayPacificCargoTerminalHongKongAirport(HonkKong)........................................73

3.4

VancouverConventionCentre(BritishColumbia)................................................................91

3.5

UniversitDeMontralWithArchidata(Quebec).............................................................117

3.6

CoarchitectureArchitecturalPractice(Quebec).................................................................133

3.7

CapitolTheatre(Alberta).........................................................Error!Bookmarknotdefined.

SUMMARYOFBESTPRACTICESEXTRAPOLATEDFROMALLCASESTUDIES...............................169
4.1

Technology..........................................................................................................................169

4.2

Organization........................................................................................................................170

4.3

ProcessAndProtocols.........................................................................................................172

CONCLUSIONSANDNEXTSTEPS.................................................................................................174

RECOMMENDEDREADINGANDSOMERELEVANTWEBSITES....................................................175

vi

INTRODUCTION

Therearegreatopportunitiesforimprovingproductivityintheconstructionindustry.Overthepast
four decades, construction labour productivity has remained relatively stagnant and has not kept
pace with the increasing productivity found in other industries (Teicholz 2004). In contrast, other
industries, such as manufacturing, have achieved efficiencies through the innovative use of
technology (e.g., increased automation, information systems) and through new and improved
business practices (e.g., collaborative agreements, concurrent engineering, and supply chain
management). In comparison, facility planning, design, and construction practices have remained
relativelyunchanged.
BuildingInformationModeling(BIM)hasthepotentialtosignificantlychangethewayprojectsare
delivered.BIMinvolvesanewapproachtodesign,construction,andfacilitymanagementinwhicha
digitalrepresentationofthebuildingprocessisusedtofacilitatetheexchangeandinteroperability
of information in digital format (BIM Handbook 2009). It is said that BIM has the potential to
revolutionize the project delivery process changing the way facilities look and function, the way
theyaredesignedandconstructed,andultimatelyhowfacilitiesaremaintained.
Many projects have now successfully implemented BIM, demonstrating significant benefits:
increased design quality, improved field productivity, cost predictability, reduced conflicts and
changes, less rework, increased prefabrication, and reduced construction cost and duration. This
resultsinafasterandmorecosteffectiveprojectdeliveryprocess,andhigherqualitybuildingsthat
performatreducedcosts(Hardin2009;Eastmanetal.2008).
BecauseBIMisarevolutionarytechnology,mostpeoplearejustbeginningtounderstandhowtouse
it.Whatwedoknowisthattomaximizethebenefitsofthistechnology,avarietyoforganisational,
procedural and technical issues have to be addressed. BIM requires drastic changes in the
organizationofworkwiththeclientandwithinthesupplychain,aswellasmajormodificationsin
the legal relationships and sharing of responsibilities. This cannot be achieved without redefining
workpractices.
The mandate of this research project was to investigate BIM best practices for the Canadian
industrytobetterunderstandwhatisworking,andwhattheobstaclesmightbe.Theresearchteam
identified seven projects at regional, national and international levels to serve as representative
BIM projects. We analyzed these projects along three dimensions: Technology, Organization and
Process. It is our belief that successful implementation of BIM requires a balance between these
three dimensions. These case studies demonstrate the various ways that work practices are
evolvingtoleverageBIMinthedeliveryofprojects,thedifferentwaysthatBIMprojectsarebeing
organized to maximize the benefits of BIM, and the benefits and challenges that may be
encounteredwhenimplementingBIM.
1.1

DefinitionsandContext

The term Building Information Modeling (BIM) has come to mean different things to different
people.WeviewBIMasbothaproductandaprocess.WedefineBIMinawaythatisconsistent

with thee National BIM


B
Standarrd (NBIMS), which defin
nes a Building Informattion Model (BIM) as
(Figure1
1showsagraphicalrepreesentationo
ofthisview):
n of physica
al and functiional characcteristics of a
a facility. As such it
a digitalreepresentation
sserves as a shared know
wledge resource for info
ormation ab
bout a facilitty forming a
a reliable
basisfordeccisionsduring
gitslifecyclefromincep
ptiononward
d.(NBIMS20
007)

Figure1:BIMDefined
dintermsofP
PhysicalandFFunctionalChaaracteristics((buildingSMA
ARTalliance)

BIM can
n also be deefined as a p
process the process off Building In
nformation Modeling.
M
From
F
this
perspecttive,BIMcan
nbedefinedas:
anewapprroachtodessign,constru
uction,andfa
acilitymana
agement...BIM
Misnotath
hingora
type of softtware but a human activity that ulltimately invvolves broad
d process changes in
construction
n.(BIMHandbook2008))
aprocessfo
focusedonth
hedevelopm
ment,useand
dtransferof
f adigitalinfformationmodelofa
buildingprojjecttoimpro
ovethedesiign,construcctionandoperationsofa
aprojector portfolio
offacilities.(BIMProjecctExecutionPlanningGu
uide2009)
ToqualifyasaBIM,amodelneeedsonlytwocharacterisstics:(1)a3D
Dobjectbassedrepresen
ntationof
a facility, and (2) information or propertties about the
t
objects. Figure 2 shows the kinds of
informattionthatmaayberepreseentedinaBIMthroughouttheprojecctlifecycle.


Figure2:InformationthatmayberepresentediinaBIMbase
edonaLifecyccleView(builldingSMARTalliance)

IntegratedpracticessandIntegraatedProject Delivery(IPD
D)aretermssthatarebeeingusedto describe
thetren
ndtowardgrreatercollaborationbetw
weenmembeersofaprojectteamthrroughouttheeproject
deliveryprocess.IPD
Disdefinedas:
a project
p
deliveery approach
h that integrates peoplee, systems, business
b
stru
uctures and practices
p
into a process that collabo
oratively harnesses the talents and
d insights off all particip
pants to
optiimize projectt results, inccrease valuee to the own
ner, reduce waste, and maximize efficiency
e
thro
ough all pha
ases of desig
gn, fabricatiion, and construction. (Integrated Project Deelivery: A
Guid
de2007)
IPDprin
nciplescanbeappliedto
oavarietyoffcontractualrelationship
ps,andinth
heUnitedStates,IPD
agreemeentsareincrreasinglybeingusedon BIMprojectss.Thefundaamentalprin
nciplesofIPD
Dinclude
(fromIntegratedPro
ojectDeliveryy:AGuide2007):
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

Mutualresp
pectandtrusst
Sharedriskaandreward
Collaborativveinnovation
nanddecisio
onmaking
Earlyinvolve
ementofkeyyparticipants
Earlygoaldeefinition
Intensifiedp
planning
Openanden
nhancedcom
mmunication
n
Appropriateetechnology
Virtualorgan
nizationandleadership

Figure 3
3 graphicallyy shows the differencess between a traditional and integraated project delivery
process..Thisfigureeillustratestthesignifican
ntchangesin
nthesequen
ncing,timinggandinvolveementof
thediffeerentprojecttparticipantss,whichissu
ummarizedb
below:

Inputfrom thebroaderrintegrated teamcoupleedwithBIM toolstomodelandsimu


ulatethe
p
project enable the dessign to be brought to a higher level
l
of com
mpletion bef
efore the
documentattion phase iss started. Th
hus the Concceptualizatio
on, Criteria Design,
D
and Detailed
Designphasesinvolvem
moreeffortth
hantheircou
unterpartsinthetraditionalflow.Th
hishigher
level of com
mpletion allo
ows the Imp
plementation
n Documentss phase to be shorter than
t
the
traditionalC
CDphase,an
ndtheearlyp
participation
nofregulato
oryagencies,subcontractors,and
ffabricatorsa
allowsshorteeningofthe AgencyreviiewandBuyyoutphases. Thecombinedeffect
is that the project
p
is deefined and co
oordinated to
t a much higher
h
level prior
p
to consstruction
sstart, enabliing more eff
fficient consttruction and
d a shorter construction
c
period. (In
ntegrated
ProjectDelivvery:AGuidee2007):

Figure3:Differencesb
betweenIntegratedandTrraditionalPro
ojectDelivery(AIACaliforn
niaCouncil2007)

Figure 4
4 shows thee MacLeam
my Curve, which
w
was first introdu
uced in the Constructio
on Users
RoundtaablesCollab
boration,InttegratedInfo
ormation,andtheProjecctLifecyclein
nBuildingDeesignand
ConstructionandOp
perationtoillustrateth
hesignificanttchangesthatoccurinaanintegrated
dproject
delivery(Constructio
onUsersRoundtable2004).Inthis approach,d
designdecisio
onsaremad
deearlier
in the p
process when
n the opporttunity to inffluence posittive outcomes is maximized and thee cost of
changessisminimized(AIACalifo
orniaCouncil2007).


Figure4:McleanyCurveillustratingthateffortanddecisionmakingisshiftedearlierinthedesignprocess
inanIntegratedProjectDelivery(ConstructionUsersRoundtable2004).

Aswillbedemonstratedinthecasestudies,projectteamsthatemployamoreintegratedproject
deliveryprocessarebetterabletomaximizethebenefitsofBIM.
1.2

ResearchObjectivesandApproach

Thereweretwomainobjectivesforthisresearchproject:
o

Reviewdifferentindustrysectorsincludingowners,architects,engineers,MEPs,aswellas
different types of building construction including industrial and residential builders, and
manufacturers to see how BIM has successfully applied and what challenges and barriers
havearisen.
Investigatebestpracticesthroughcasestudiesatregional,national,andinternationallevels.

Theresearchteamcompletedthisworkinfourparts,asoutlinedbelow.
1) Identifycasestudiesthatrepresentbestpractices
Theintentwastoidentifycasestudiesthatadequatelyrepresentsufficientdiversityacross:
(a)thedifferentindustrysectors(e.g.,owners,architects,engineers,etc.),(b)thedifferent
regions (regional (Alberta), national, and international), (c) different project phases (from
concept through operations), (d) different scales of projects (in terms of size, complexity,
and function), and (e) different uses of BIM (e.g., energy analysis, constructability,
fabrication,etc.).OurmandatewastoprovideaminimumofthreeCanadiancasestudies
andtwoInternationalcasestudies.

2) InvestigateBIMguidelinesandstandards.
This part of the research: (a) investigated BIM guidelines and standards that exist within
differentregionsoftheworldthathavedemonstratedleadershipinBIMadoption,and(b)
identified relevant industry publications thatprovide guidance in BIM implementation and
assistwiththeevaluationofBIMprojectexecutionforthecasestudiesconsidered.
3) Developaframeworkforanalyzingcasestudies
Basedontheresearchcompletedinstep(2),wedevelopedaframeworkforanalyzingthe
case studies. The intent of the framework was to establish a consistent and thorough
methodforevaluatingeachBIMProject.
4) Analyzecasestudiesusingtheframeworkdevelopedin(3):
EachBIMprojectidentifiedinstep(1)wasevaluatedbasedontheframeworkdevelopedin
step (3). For the international case studies, we relied extensively on existing publications
sincemuchhasbeenwrittenabouttheseprojects.FortheCanadiancasestudies,significant
effortwasmadetowriteuptheBIMprojectsselected.
1.3

SelectionofCaseStudies

ToselecttheBIMprojectstostudy,ourintentwastoidentifyprojectsthatcapturedabroadrange
ofbestpracticesthathadsignificantimpactsontheprojectlifecycle.
To identify Canadian projects, we spoke to several practitioners that have experience on BIM
projects, reviewed the literature, attended the Insight BIM Forum and other BIM events to learn
about ongoing and completed projects, and talked to a variety of people in our network. For
international projects, we focused on projects that pushed the extent and depth of collaboration,
highlighted the benefits across the entire lifecycle, and demonstrated novel project delivery
approachesthatincentivizedallmembersoftheprojectteamtocollaboratewithBIM.
FortheCanadiancasestudies,theintentwastoprovideaminimumofoneregionalcasestudyfrom
AlbertaandaminimumoftwoothercasestudiesfromacrossCanada.However,thechallengewas
thattherearealmostnowrittencasestudiesofBIMprojectsinCanada,althoughseveralprojects
havebeenpresentedatdifferentvenues.Incontrast,manyBIMcasestudieshavebeenwrittenup
forinternationalprojects,particularlyintheUS.Therefore,wewereconstrainedbytheshortterm
accessibilityofdataandaccesstoprojectparticipantsforthe4monthresearchprojectduration.
Table 1 shows the seven BIM projects that were selected for this study. Each case study will be
describedindetailinSection5.

Table1: ThesevenBIM projects studied


s
to ide
entify best practicesat
p
regional,natio
onaland inte
ernational
levels.

SutterM
MedicalCentterCastroVaalley
(UnitedSttates)

International

UniveersityofColo
oradoDenveer
Research2(R2)
(UnitedSttates)

HongK
KongInternationalAirporrt
CathayPacificCaargoTerminaal
(HongKo
ong)

VancouverConveentionCentre
(BritishColumbia)

National

Unive
ersityofMon
ntreal(UdeM
M)
(Quebeec)

Regional

Bio
otechnologyb
buildingfor
GlaaxoSmithKline(GSK)Inc.
and
Headqu
uartersforCaaisseDesjard
dins
(CD))
(Co
oarchitecturre,Quebec)

CapitolTh
heatre
(Edmontton)

Table2showsthedifferentphasescoveredbytheBIMprojectsselected.Asstatedpreviously,we
wantedtoselectprojectsthatdemonstratedbestpracticesthroughouttheprojectlifecycle.
Table2:CoverageofBIMProjectsselectedacrossProjectPhases
Feasibility

Concept
Development

Design
Development

Design
Documents

Preconstruction

Construction

Operation

SutterMedicalCenterCastroValley(UnitedStates)
UniversityofColoradoDenver,Research2(R2)(UnitedStates)
CathayPacificCargoTerminal(HongKong)
VancouverConventionCenter(BritishColumbia)
UdeM(Quebec)
GSK&CD(Quebec)
CapitolTheatre(Alberta)

International

1.4

Legend
Canada

Regional

ConstraintsandDisclaimers

The mandate for this project was to investigate best practices through case studies at regional,
national,andinternationallevels.BecauseBIMisrelativelynew,particularlyinCanada,weusethe
phrase best practices with hesitation. A best practice is considered as a proven method or
techniquethatconsistentlyperformsataskwithsuperiorresultswhencomparedtoothersmeans.
In this report, we have tried to identify those methods or techniques that have enabled
organizations and/or project teams to leverage the benefits of BIM, while also documenting the
challenges.WearenotclaimingthattheprojectsstudiedarethebestBIMprojects.

RELEVANTBACKGROUND

This section describes relevant background on different aspects of BIM implementation and
planning.Specificallyitdescribes:

2.1

BIMStandardsandInitiatives
BIMGuidelinesandExecutionPlans
UsesofBIM
LevelsofBIM
ImpactofBIM
CanadianEfforts:BIMStandardsandInitiatives

In Canada, there are two organizations focused on driving BIM adoption: the Canada BIM Council
(CanBIM),andtheInstituteforBIMinCanada(IBC).
2.1.1 CanadaBIMCouncil
The Canada BIM Council (CanBIM) was established in 2009 to advocate and support the entire
AECOO business community to effectively deploy BIM. The following summarizes the mission,
strategyandgoalsofCanBIM(CanBIMwebsite,accessedNov.2011):
CanBIMsMission

ServingasthebusinessvoiceofCanada'sBIMcommunity.
CanBIMrepresents,supportsandadvocatesonbehalfoftheentireAECOOandeducational
communitytobuildapositivebusinessenvironmentfortheeffectivedeploymentofBIM,not
onlyforourmemberfirms,butforallengagedinutilizingBIMinCanada.
OurMissionistoprovideourprofessional,educational,construction,fabricationandsupply
chainmembersacollectivevoicededicatedtoBIM.Weprovideourmemberswithadvocacy,
learning opportunities and best practices for BIM in a Canadian context while maintaining
connectivitywithourinternationalpartners.

CanBIMsStrategy

Ourstrategyforexecutingourmissionisto
Foster an environment of open collaboration and communication with all industry
stakeholders.
AlignourorganizationwithprofessionalorganizationsfocusedonmakingBIMthestandard
Assist in any way possible to produce tangible working methodologies that allow BIM to
developasastandard.

CanBIMsGoals

Weplantoimplementourstrategybyachievingthefollowingoperationalgoals:
WewillhostRegionalSessionsthroughouttheyearwherewewilldiscussionanddecideupon
keyissuesrelatingtoBIM.
9

Wewillgrowourmembershipandprofessionalaffiliationsforthepurposeofcollaboration
andcommunicationwithawideraudience.
We will continually improve upon the delivery of relevant and current information to our
membershipandinterestedstakeholders.

CanBIMmembershipcomes from allpartsoftheindustryfromBuilders,Architects,Engineers and


ConsultantstoFacilityManagersandVendors.CanBIMisaregisterednotforprofitentityrunbya
volunteerBoardofDirectors.Thecouncilusesannualmembershipduestodevelopdocumentation,
maintainthewebportalandhosteventsrelatingtoBIM.
Members are encouraged to participate on subcommittees and contribute to ongoing projects
organized by the subcommittee leaders. The CanBIM board meets monthly or as required. The
membership is invited to meet four times a year during our Regional Sessions. The goal of the
Regional Sessions is to host a local forum to discuss Industry issues related to BIM and other
technologies.Theintentistoshareknowledgeacrossthecountry,aswellassettingprioritiesforthe
development of standards, guidelines and best practices in BIM. The Regional Sessions are also a
greatopportunitytohaveyourfirm'svoiceheardinapublicsettingtohelpsteertheconsensuson
howthistechnologywillbeimplementedintheindustry.
Videos from the meetings, open discussions and the presentations, etc. are hosted online as a
resourceforthecommunity.SimilartotheRegionalSessions,theCanBIMwebsiteisalsointended
tobeaportaltohostdiscussionsandtechnicaldevelopments.
CanBIMalsohasaMemorandumofUnderstanding(MOU)withbuildingSMARTalliancetoshareboth
materialandhumanresourcestofosterapanAmericanapproachtoBIM.CanBIMhasaseatonthe
Technical Committee, Planning Committee and Board of Direction for NBIMS, an initiative of
buildingSMARTalliancethatwillbedescribedinthenextsectiononInternationalEfforts.
2.1.2 InstituteforBIMinCanada
TheInstituteforBIMinCanada(IBC)wasfoundedin2010toleadandfacilitatesthecoordinated
use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in the design, construction and management of the
Canadian built environment. IBCs priorities include an awareness program, a practice manual, a
bibliography of useful resources, and a full environmental scan/assessment on the use of BIM in
Canadaandinternationally.(InstituteforBIMinCanadawebsite,accessedNov.2011)
The following summarizes the terms of reference for the organization, including its authority,
missionandobjectives(InstituteforBIMinCanadawebsite,accessedNov.2011):
Authority

TheInstituteforBIMinCanada(IBC)isajointnationalorganizationhavingthesoleauthority
toendorseitsproducts,services,positionsandpolicies.
Marketing, education and promotion of IBC approved documents and suggested practices
aretheresponsibilityoftheInstituteincollaborationwithitsconstituentorganizations.
The IBC may receive inquiries, make recommendations, and distribute information to
improveBIMrelatedprocurement/contractingpractices,asitdeemsappropriate.
10

Mission

To lead and facilitate the coordinated use of BIM in the design, construction and
managementoftheCanadianbuiltenvironment.

Objectives

To define collaborative approaches and solutions as between stakeholders in the BIM


environment.
To develop and recommend best practices policies, tools and procedures to support BIM
utilization.
ToeducatetheindustryabouttrendsanddevelopmentsrelativetoBIMinCanada
Tocommunicateitsactivitiestotheindustryatlarge.

The IBC recently completed an Environmental Scan of BIM Tools and Standards, which is a report
that is publicly available on their website. This report provides a quick overview of the tools and
technologiescommerciallyorfreelyavailableinthemarkettosupportBIMimplementationefforts.
TheyarenowworkingonaBIMPracticeManual.(IBCwebsite,accessedNov.2011)
2.2

InternationalEfforts:BIMStandardsandInitiatives

BuildingSMARTInternational(bSI)isaneutral,internationalanduniquenotforprofitorganisation
supportingopenBIMthroughthelifecycle.(bSIwebsite,accessedonNov.2011)Theyhaveregional
chaptersinEurope,NorthAmerica,Australia,AsiaandtheMiddleEast.Figure5showsaworldmap
highlighting specific chapters of buildingSMART, as well as the regions that were studied in more
detailforthisproject(showncircled).BuildingSMARThasdevelopedacommondataschemathat
makes it possible to hold and exchange data between different proprietary software applications.
ThisbuildingSMARTdatamodelstandardisdefinedbyIndustryFoundationClasses(IFC),whichisin
theprocessofbecominganofficialInternationalStandardISO/IS16739.AccordingtobSI:
Open is the key to the real value of our buildingSMART standard. IFC can be used to
exchangeandshareBIMdatabetweenapplicationsdevelopedbydifferentsoftwarevendors
without the software having to support numerous native formats. As an open format, IFC
does not belong to a single software vendor; it is neutral and independent of a particular
vendors plans for software development. For this reason, we say that our organisation
buildingSMARTisthehomeofopenBIM.

11


Figure5:CountrieswhoseBIMguideswerestudiedinthecontextofthisproject(indicatedwithredellipses
ontheWorldmap).

ThebuildingSMARTalliance(bSa)isamemberofthebSIandisfocusedonhelpingtomakethe
NorthAmericanrealpropertyindustrymoreefficientbyleadingthecreationoftoolsandstandards
that allow projects to be built electronically before they are built physically using Building
InformationModeling.(bSawebsite,accessedonNov.2011)ThebSaisresponsiblefordeveloping
the National BIM Standard (NBIMS) for the United States. The goal of NBIMS is to establish the
standardsneededtofosterinnovationinprocessesandinfrastructuresothatendusersthroughout
all facets of the industry can efficiently access the information needed to create and operate
optimizedfacilities.Recently,theInstituteandtheAlliancesignedanagreementtodevelopOpen
BIMStandardswiththeCanadianBIMCouncil.TheintentistoworkcollaborativelyonaNational
BIM Standard that will be adjusted for countryspecific issues to create a National BIM Standard
Canada.(bSawebsite,accessedonNov.2011).
For this research, we investigated relevant BIM standards and guidelines, and identified relevant
organizations that are BIM advocates within the different regions. Figure 6 shows the different
organizationsthatareworkingtodevelopBIMstandards,promotetheuseofBIM,andprovideBIM
educationandinformationforthedifferentindustrysectorsfortheregionsweanalyzed.

12


Figure6:BIMStandardsandGuidesstudiedinthisresearchandorganizationsinvolvedfromthedifferent
regionsstudied.

Table3showsthedifferentthemesandtopicsofthedifferentguidesshowninFigure6.Thistable
showsthebreadthofcoverageoftheseguidesintermsofaddressingimportantissuesrelatedtothe
threedimensionsofourframeworktechnology,organizationandprocess.Werecognizethatthese
areincompletebutourintenthereistoprovideasummaryofexistingBIMguidesandareference
thatcanbeusedtobetterunderstandallthevariousBIMrelateddocuments.
ThereisagrowingtrendwithincertainregionstodevelopBIMstandardsandguides.Ingeneral,we
found guides mostly prepared by public owners, industry advocates and universities. Some guides
aredevelopedbylargeconsortiumsofpublicownersandprivatecompanies.Thescopeofinfluence
of these documents varies from multinational (INPRO) and federal (GSA, NIST, NIBS), through
countryandstate(intheUSA)levels,tolocallevels(LosAngelesCommunityCollegeDistrict(LACCD)
Guide).
Thenextsectionsdescribeafewnoteworthyinitiativesinthedifferentregions.
2.2.1 BIMInitiativesintheUS
TheUnited Statesclearly hasthe mostsignificantbreadthofownersrequiringBIM,aswell asthe
mostsignificantrepresentationoforganizationsadvocatingforBIM.Apivotalpointintheadoption
ofBIMintheUSwaswhentheGeneralServicesAdministrationstartedmandatingBIMonallfederal
building projects starting in 2007. The GSAs mission is to "help federal agencies better serve the
public by offering, at best value, superior workplaces, expert solutions, acquisition services and
managementpolicies."(GSAWebsite,accessedonNov.2011)OnegoaloftheGSAsNational3D4D
BIMProgramistoprovideasignificantsupportserviceforassistingprojectteamsthatareinterested
in adopting new 3D, 4D, and BIM building technologies. Further, some guides developed by other
institutionsrefertochaptersoftheGSAGuides(e.g.,theVeteranAffairs(VA)BIMGuide).

13

GiventhesignificantgrowthofBIMadoptionintheUSinthepastdecade,itisclearthatthebroad
range of organizations advocating, teaching and supporting BIM implementation have had an
impact.ThistransformationwitnessedintheUSdemonstratestheimportanceofdisseminatingbest
practicestosupporttheindustrytransitiontoBIM.
Table3:Thedifferentthemes/topicsdiscussedinthevariousBIMguides.

federal

Process

Organization

Technology

General
BIM theory
BIM benefits
Point of view (owner, professionals, builder)
Technology (software, infastructure)
Requirements
Modeling requirements
(BIM application, hierarchy, objects+prop,
precision, layers)
Deliverables
Quality control& perf. Measure
Data
Data exchange
Files, names, folders structure
Metadata
Data interoperability
Sharing, storing data
Contents of the model by building aspect:
architecture
structure
spatial program
visualisation
building code
4D phasing
energy performance
sustainability
clash detection
5destimating
circulation, safety
Contents by disciplines + landscape, interior, acoustic
Contents by project phases: prelim, concept, dev,
exec, constr, oper, recycle
construction
subcontractors, fabricators
operation (as build)
BIM adoption process in company
BIM maturity (matrix, measure,certification)
BIM management (execution plan)
Planning & impl. of the Guide
Risk management
Experience feedback
Legal aspects
Project
Process (projet, btiment)
Project delivery mode
Collaboration
Project team
Process of creation of the standard

state

other

association

x
x
o,p,b
x

x
x

x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x

x
x gates

x
x

x
x

x
x

x ifc
x reuse

x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x

x lean

x
x
x
x

x
x

x
x
x

x
x

x
x
x

x
x

x
x ipd
x

x
x
x
x

x
x

x lean
x ipd
x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x

France

Australia

x
x

Norway

UK

countries

other

x
x
x

Au

x
x

inst

INPRO Europe

AIA, etc.: IPD for owners

CURT BIM implement.:


owner's Guide

Texas guidelines standards


for professionals

Wisconsin BIM standard &


Guide for arch. & eng.

Europe

PAPort Authority of NY&NJ


BIM Standard

VA Veteran Affairs BIM Guide

CIC+PennState BIM execution


panning guide

NIST Dept. of Commerce Inf.


Handover Guide

NIBS

GSA

USA

x
x
x
x
x

x
x

2.2.2 OtherNoteworthyBIMInitiatives
The government of the United Kingdom has recently taken significant steps to advance BIM
adoption as part of a major governmental strategy to improve construction efficiency and deliver
better value for public sector construction. The Government Construction Strategy report was
releasedonMay2011,announcingthatthegovernmentwillrequirecollaborative3DBIMonallof
its projects by 2016. This requirement will be implemented in a phased process while working

14

closelyw
withindustryygroupsto allowsufficienttimeforrthedevelop
pmentofneewstandardssandfor
training..(CabinetOfffice,Govern
nmentConstructionStrattegyReport2
2011)
Thedecisionofthe GovernmentConstructionClientsBoardwasbaasedonthe reportfrom theBIM
IndustryyWorkingGrroupconvenedbytheDeepartmentfo
orBusiness,InnovationaandSkills(BISS),which
wasreleeasedMarch
h2011(BIM IndustryWo
orkingGroup
p2011).Theekeyrecomm
mendationsffromthe
BIMstraategygroupw
were:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

Leavecompllexityandco
ompetitionin
nthesupplycchain
Beveryspeccificwithsup
pplychainpro
oviders,theyywillonlypro
ovidethatw
whichisasked
dfor
Measureandmakeactivveuseofouttputs
Provideapprropriatesupp
portinfrastrructure
Takeprogressivesteps
Haveaclearrtargetforth
heTraining
gEdgeoftheeindustry.

They alsso developeed a BIM Maturity


M
indeex (Figure 7)
7 that charaacterizes the
e different levels of
experien
ncewithinth
hesupplych
hain,andalssothediffereentapproachestoBIM. Thismaturrityindex
serves aas a structurred learningg progressio
on and BIM eevolution prrocess over time. (BIM Industry
WorkinggGroup2011
1)

Figure7:Maturityind
dexillustratinggthedifferen
ntlevelsofexperienceandapproachesttoBIM(BIMIIndustry
eBIS2011)
WorkingGroupofthe

Anotherrnoteworthyyinitiativeto
oaccelerateBIMadoptio
onistheSinggaporeConsstructionPro
oductivity
andCap
pabilityFundprogram,w
whichsupporrtsBIMtrain
ningandBIM
Menhancementinitiativees.Itisa

15

multiprongedinitiativeaimedattransformingtheSingaporeindustrytomakeitmoresustainable.
TheBIMFundisoneofthreecomponentsstimulatingtheadoptionoftechnologiestoimprovethe
productivityandqualityoftheendproduct.ItincludesaspecialistdiplomainBIM,whichisoffered
as a 5month parttime study program. Another interesting characteristic is that this BIM
enhancementprogramproposesaConstructionProductivityRoadmapwhichenvisionsmandatory
BIMsubmissionstartingin2013(seeFigure8)andambitiousBIMadoptiontarget(80%ofthedesign
professionalsby2015).AConstructionProductivityandCapabilityFundwascreatedtosupportthis
process(Figure9).

Figure8:TimelineformandatoryBIMsubmissioninSingapore.

Figure9:ProcessessupportedbytheConstructionProductivityandCapabilityFundinSingapore.

2.3

BIMGuidesandExecutionPlanning

Several government and industryled efforts from around the world have developed different
guidesormanualstofacilitateBIMimplementation.However,fewhavegoneasfarasPennState

16

andthe GSAinthe US,ortheA


AustralianCR
RCindefininggbestpractiicesinBIMd
designandeexecution
planningg.Forthisreason,thisseectionprovid
dessomehighlightsonth
heseinitiativees.
2.3.1 USBIMGu
uides
The Com
mputer Integgrated Consttruction Ressearch Progrram at Penn State Unive
ersity develo
oped the
BIM Pro
oject Execution Planningg Guide a buildingSMART alliancee project (CIC 2010). Th
his guide
intendstoprovideaapracticalmanualthatcaanbeusedb
byprojectte
eamstodesiggntheirBIMstrategy
and devvelop a detailed BIM Pro
oject Executtion Plan (orr the BIM Plan). The BIM Plan outlines the
overall vvision along with implem
mentation details for the team to follow througghout the project to
effectiveelyintegrateeBIMintotheprojectdeliveryprocesss.
Thisguid
deoutlines afourstep procedure(sseeFigure1
10)todevelo
opadetailed
dBIMPlan. Thefour
steps co
onsist of ideentifying thee appropriate
e BIM goalss and uses on
o a projectt, designing the BIM
executio
on process, defining thee BIM delive
erables, and identifying the supporting infrastru
ucture to
successffullyimplementtheplan.

Figure10
0:TheBIMProjectExecutio
onPlanningP
ProceduredevvelopedbyPe
ennState(CIC
C2010)

TheGen
neralServiceAdministrattion(GSA)National3D4
4DBIMProgrram(GSA20
011)providessgeneral
guidelinesforintegrrating3D,4D
D,andBIMte
echnologies intotheexisstingprojecttdeliverypro
ocessfor
GSAadm
ministered projects.
p
GSSA is develo
oping the fo
ollowing BIM
M guide series to support the
adoption
n of 3D4DBIM technologies on GSSAadministeered projectts and beyon
nd, and for assisting
projecttteamsthataareinterestedinadoptinggthesenewdigitaltechn
nologies.

Series013
3D4DBIMO
Overview
Series02SpatialPrograamValidatio
on
Series033
3DLaserScan
nning
Series044
4DPhasing

17

Series05EEnergyPerforrmanceandOperations
Series06C
Circulationan
ndSecurityV
Validation
Series07B
BuildingElem
ments
Series08FacilityManaagement

Figure1
11highlightsthestepsan
nditerationssthatarereccommendedbyGSAfortechnologyaadoption
onaspeecificproject.

Figure11
1:Processforadopting3D,,4D,and/orB
BIMtechnologgies(www.gssa.gov.bim)

TheGSA
Arecognizedthatthereaareanumbe
erofopportu
unitiesthat maybeavaiilableonap
projector
project areas where
e 3D4DBIM
M technologies may be applied
a
(Figu
ure 12). Thee GSA encou
urages all
GSA pro
ojects to deeploy techno
ologies at strategic
s
pro
oject phasess in supportt of specificc project
opportu
unities, takin
ng into account a numb
ber of consid
derations: 1) the experience of thee project
team, 2)the maturiity ofthe technology, 3)) the resource availabilitty (e.g., fund
ding), 4) info
ormation
exchanggebetweentteammembeers,5)theprrocurementof3D4DBIMservices,6
6)timingofaadoption
oftechn
nologyduringgtheprojecttlifecycle,7
7)contractuaallanguage, 8)ownershipandrightssindata,
9)rolesandresponssibilities,and
d10)metricsformeasuringthesucceessofdigitaltechnologies.

18


Figure12
2:3D4DBIMapplicationsorprojectare
easidentified
dbytheGSA((www.gsa.govv.bim)

2.3.2 OtherNot eworthyB IMGuides


Other co
ountries havve also taken initiatives at the natio
onal level to
o promote BIM.
B
For exaample, in
Australiaa,theNation
nalGuidelineesforDigitalModelinghaavebeendevelopedtoaassistinandpromote
theadop
ptionofBIM
Mtechnologieesinthewho
oleAustralianbuildingan
ndconstructtionindustryy(CRCfor
ConstructionInnovaation2009).TTheguidelinesaresuppo
ortedbysixccasestudiesincludingassummary
oflesson
nslearntabo
outimplemeentingBIMin
nAustralianb
buildingprojects.
Accordin
ng to these guidelines, three areaas of current practice, namely tech
hnology, policy, and
process will be affected byBIM
M implementtation. Whileethe techno
ologyandpo
olicy implicattions are
also urggent, the prrocess impliications are the most pressing for the industry to addrress. The
technolo
ogyandpoliccyimplicatio
onsareframedbyhown
newBIMtoo
olsareemplo
oyedandnew
wmodes
ofpracticeemergeu
usingnewprrocesses(CRC2009).Digitalmodelingwillresultinchangesindesign,
construcction, maintenance and operation processes.
p
TThe focus of the Nationaal BIM Guid
delines in
Australiaa is on the
e process im
mplications of BIM im
mplementatio
on. There are
a four maajor BIM
implemeentationstaggesasidentifiedinthegu
uidelines(seeeTable4).
Table4:DifferentstaggesofBIMIm
mplementation
n(Source:CRC2009)

Stage
02DDo
ocuments
1Modeling

2Collab
boration

Subdivisionss
0AManualD
Drafting
0BCAD2DD
Drafting
1A3DCADM
Modelling
1BIntelligen
nt3D
Modelling
2AOneWayy
Collaboratio
on

Remarks
PreBIMstage;stillthep
predominanttmodeofprractice;
usoftheguid
deline.
notthefocu
FirststagesintheadopttionanduseofBIM;reprresent
mentingBIM.Most
partoftheiindustrywhichisimplem
practitionerrsarecurrentlyatstage1
1B;majorfoccusof
theguidelin
ne.

19

3Integration

2BTwoWay
Collaboration
3ALocalServer
3BWebBasedServer

3Aand3Bstagesdescribetechnologiesandprocesses
hostedonmodelservers.Thesemodelserversareyet
tobeimplementedintheAustralianindustry,butare
currentlybeingusedforresearchatUNSWandQUT.

Theguidelinesspecificallyprovide,inthecontextofAustralianBuildingandConstructionIndustry,
modeling requirements and challenges of BIM implementations, particularly for Intelligent 3D
Modeling (Stage 1B) and Collaboration (Stages 2A and 2B). The guidelines stress on the need for
carefullysettinguptheBIMprojectdefinitionandexecutionplansforBIMimplementation.These
majordecisionsessentiallyinvolvewho?,what?,why?andwhen?.Theinterrelatedquestions
thatneedtobeworkedoutaccordingtotheseguidelinesare:
1) Whoisinvolvedandtheirresponsibilities?Forwhomarethemodelsintended?
2) Whatmodelsarerequired?Whatrangeofdisciplinemodelsisneeded,andifanaggregate
modelistobecreated,whyisitrequired?
3) Whenaretheyrequired?Atwhatprojectstagearethemodelsneeded?
4) Whatdataisneededinthemodelsandatwhatlevelofdetail?
5) Howwillthemodelsbeexchangedandinwhatformat?
6) Whoismanagingtheprocess?IsthereaneedforaprojectBIMmanager?
Thissectionhighlightsafewinitiativesthathavebeendevelopedbydifferentorganizationsthatare
ownerandindustrydriventofacilitatetheadoptionofBIM.
2.4

UsesofBIM

BIM can be used to support a variety of functions throughout the project delivery process.
Identifying how BIM will be used and/or what functions it will support are key considerations on
everyBIMproject.Figure13showsthemostfrequentBIMrelatedactivitiesidentifiedinasurveyof
theUSindustry(McGrawHill2008).

20


Figure13
3:MostfrequentBIMrelattedactivitiesidentifiedinaasurveybyM
McGrawHill(2
2008)

One of tthe major drivers of BIM


M expansion
n is the increeasing abilityy of specialized analysis tools to
extract data from design mo
odels and perform
p
valu
uable analysis, such as quantity takeoff,
scheduliing,estimating,energyaanalysis,etc.(Figure14).

Figure14
4:UseofBIMAnalysisToolsidentifiedinasurveybyyMcGrawHilll(2008)

The Com
mputer Integgrated Consttruction rese
earch group at Penn Staate Universitty has also id
dentified
potentiaalusesofBIM
MwhendeveelopingtheirrBIMExecuttionPlanninggdocumentd
discussedprreviously.
Specificaally, they id
dentified thee following 25 uses of BIM and provide temp
plates to heelp users
understaand the requirements for implem
menting each use (Com
mputer Integrated Consstruction
ResearchProgram2009):

21

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

MaintenanceScheduling
BuildingSystemsAnalysis
AssetManagement
SpaceManagement/Tracking
DisasterPlanning
RecordModeling
SiteUtilizationPlanning
ConstructionSystemDesign
DigitalFabrication

10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)

3DControlandPlanning
3DDesignCoordination
DesignAuthoring
EnergyAnalysis
StructuralAnalysis
LightingAnalysis
MechanicalAnalysis
OtherEng.Analysis
LEEDEvaluation

19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
24)
25)

CodeValidation
Programming
SiteAnalysis
DesignReviews
PhasePlanning(4DModeling)
CostEstimation
ExistingConditionsModeling

WeevaluatedtheusesofBIMforeachoftheprojectsstudied.
2.5

LevelsofBIM

AnimportantconsiderationwhenimplementingBIMonaprojectisthelevelofBIM,whichreally
triestoanswerthequestionofhowfardoyougo?Itiscriticalthatthescopeandlevelofdetailto
bemodeledisproperlyconsideredandthatallpartiesareclearonwhatisexpectedofthem.The
American Institute of Architects (AIA) have grappled with this issue and developed the E202 BIM
Protocol document that is meant to provide a practical tool for using BIM across the project.
Specifically, the intent of the E2022008 BIM Protocol document is to answer the following
questions(fromAIAwebsite):

Whoisresponsibleforeachelementofthemodelandtowhatlevelofdevelopment?
Whatareauthorizedusesforthemodel?
Towhatextentcanusersrelyonthemodel?
Whowillmanagethemodel?
Whoownsthemodel?

Figure 15 shows the E202 Model Element Table that is included as part of this BIM protocol
documentandidentifies(1)thelevelofdetail(LOD)requiredforeachModelElementattheendof
eachphase,and(2)theModelElementAuthor(MEA)responsiblefordevelopingtheModelElement
totheLODidentified.

22


Figure15
5:Aportiono
oftheAIAE202Element ModelTabledevelopedb
bytheAIAand
dincludedin theE202
BIMProttocolexhibit.

Asshow
wnintheE20
02ModelEleementTablee,theAIAdeefine5levelsofBIMwitthincreasingglevelof
detailfromLevel10
00thruLevel500.Figure
e16graphicaallyshowsth
hese5levelssofdetailalongwith
their definitions from
f
AIA (graphic fro
om http://aallthingsbim.blogspot.co
om/2008/12//aiabim
protocole202.html)).

23


Figure 16: Levels of Detail defined by the AIA in their BIM Protocol Exhibit (graphic from
http://allthingsbim.blogspot.com/2008/12/aiabimprotocole202.html)

DPRConstruction,acontractorintheUnitedStateswithextensiveBIMexperience,defines4levels
ofBIM(fromhttp://dprreview.com/fallwinter2010/story/thefourlevelsofbim).

24

Level 1: A tool primarily used to communicate design intent and help owners evaluate
alternativedesignsatthebeginningofaprojectandvisualizeanendproduct.
Level2:Modelscreatedbydesignteamsthatincludemechanical/electrical/plumbing(MEP)
systems at a higher level done during the coordination phase to reduce requests for
information(RFIs)andchangesinthefieldduringconstruction,aswellassitelogistics.
Level3:IncludesdetailedmodelscreatedbyMEPsubcontractorsthataremergedwiththe
designers models to produce fabricationlevel MEP models. Level of detail also allows for
verydetailed4D sequencingofthebuildingprocess,3D asbuilt models,andtheabilityto
pullaccuratequantitytrendsdirectlyfromthemodels.
Level 4: Integrates substantially more stakeholders into the process from the early design
stagetoprovideinputandreview,testtheconstructibility,anddeterminethebestmaterials
andmethodsfordesignandconstruction,inaccordancewiththeprojectsbudget,schedule
andquality.Level4BIMresultsinthecreationofamodelthatincorporatessuchfinedetails
asseismicandgravityhangers,metalframingsystems,anddetailedmodelsofcomponents
likerebar.Thesemodelscanbeusedtoproducepermitdocumentsandshopdrawings,pull
material quantities, produce accurate modelbased estimates, perform crosstrade
prefabrication,andproduceactualinstallationdrawings.

WeusedthesereferencesinanalyzingthelevelofBIMimplementedintheprojectsstudied.
2.6

ImpactofBIM

Thereturnon investment(RIO) forBIMwasresearchedin McGrawHill'sSmartMarketReporton


Building Information Modeling: Transforming Design and ConstructiontoAchieveGreaterIndustry
Productivity,(2008):

Thesurveyedcompanies,whoactivelytracktheirreturnoninvestmentfromBIM,saythey
aregettingreturnsof300%to500%.
82%ofrespondentsbelieveBIMishavingapositiveimpactontheircompany'sproductivity.

In a followup survey by McGrawHill in 2009, they sought to identify the key areas where BIM is
contributingthemostvalue.Figure17showsthetopratedwaysthatrespondentsfoundthatBIM
savestimeand/ormoney(McGrawHill2009).

25


Figure17
7:ThetopBIM
Mbenefitsthaatwererated
dascontributiingthemostvvalue(fromM
McGrawHill2
2009)

ManyBIIMusersalso
oseeasignifficantinternalbusinessvvalueofBIM
M(Figure18)..Theyseeitasaway
togeta leguponth
hecompetitionbymarke
etingnewbusinesstonewclients,o
offeringnew
wservices
andmaiintainingrep
peatbusinesswithpastcclients.Moreeover,BIMccreatesefficiencieswhicchmainly
comefromreducinggandavoidingrework,rreducingcon
nflictsandchangesduringconstructtion,and
throughclashdetecttion(McGraw
wHill2009)..

26


Figure18
8:Relativeimportanceofinternalbeneffitsforimplem
mentingBIM(fromMcGrawHill2009)

TheMcG
GrawHillstu
udiesdemon
nstratethefu
ullrangeofb
benefitsthattcanbeachievedwithB
BIM.The
nextsecctiondescribesspecificBIMprojectsandtheimpactofBIMfo
ortheseprojjects.

27

2.7

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AIACaliforniaCouncil(2007),IntegratedProjectDeliveryAWorkingDefinition.
BIMIndustryWorkingGroup,DepartmentforBusiness,InnovationandSkills(BIS),UnitedKingdom
(2011).AreportfortheGovernmentConstructionClientGroupBuildingInformation
Modelling(BIM)WorkingPartyStrategyPaper.Availableonlineat:
(https://connect.innovateuk.org/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=6842e02020df4449
881708ce2ba9ef7c&groupId=68909).
ComputerIntegratedConstructionResearchProgram(CIC).(2010).BIMProjectExecutionPlanning
GuideVersion2.0,ThePennsylvaniaStateUniversity,UniversityPark,PA,USA.Available
onlineat:http://bim.psu.edu/Project/resources/default.aspx.
CooperativeResearchCentre(CRC)forConstructionInnovation.(2009).NationalGuidelinesfor
DigitalModeling,Brisbane,Australia
GeneralServicesAdministration(GSA).(2011).3D4DBuildingInformationModeling.Available
onlineat:http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/105075
CabinetOffice,UnitedKingdom(2011).GovernmentConstructionStrategyReport.Availableonline
at:http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/sites/default/files/resources/Government
ConstructionStrategy.pdf)
McGrawHillConstruction(2008).BuildingInformation:TransformingdesignConstructiontoAchieve
GreaterIndustryProductivity,SmartMarketReport.
McGrawHillConstruction(2009).TheBusinessValueofBIM:GettingBuildingInformationModeling
totheBottomLine,SmartMarketReport.
Websitesreferenced:

www.canbim.com
www.ibcbim.ca

28

CASESTUDIES

WedevelopedaframeworktoevaluatealltheBIMprojectsconsistently.Theframeworkconsiders
each BIM project in terms of the three dimensions: Technology, Organization, and the Process.
StaubFrenchandKhanzode(2007)highlightedtheseissueswhendocumentinglessonslearnedon
twoBIMprojects.Thisframeworkisalsorelativelyconsistentwithhowothershavecharacterizeda
BIMimplementation.Forexample,atStanfordUniversitysCenterforIntegratedFacilityEngineering
(CIFE), they consider projects from a POP perspective Product (this would align with our
Technology perspective), Organization, and Process (Kunz and Fischer 2011). And at DPR
Construction,theytalkabouttheModel(thiswouldalignwithourTechnologyperspective),Team
(thiswouldalignwithourOrganizationalperspective),andProcess(DPRwebsite).
For each dimension, we further characterized the kinds of issues that would be addressed as
outlinedinTable5.Werecognizethattheremaybeotherkindsofinformationtoincludeandthat
there is some ambiguity in terms of how a particular issue might be characterized. However, our
aimwastotryandensureconsistencyacrossallthecasestudiesasmuchaspossible.
Table5:TheTOPPframeworkdevelopedtoanalyzeeachoftheBIMprojectsstudied.

Technology

Organization

Process/Protocol

Ownerrequirements
Usesofmodels
Scopeofmodeling
LevelofBIM(e.g.,DPR4levelsofBIM)
Technologiesused
Informationinfrastructure
Participantsinvolved
Timingofparticipantinvolvement
Businesspracticesandstructure(withinfirmandbetweenfirms)
BIMexpertise
Contractualrelationships
Legalconsiderations
Executionplanning
Workflows
Handoffs
Informationexchange

Inthefollowingsections,wedocumentsevencasestudiesofBIMprojectsusingthisframework.

29

3.1

SUTTERMEDICALCENTER(UNITEDSTATES)

This projectwasselectedasanInternationalBIMprojectbecause itexemplifiesmanyofthebest


practicesthathavebeenachievedtodate,allinoneproject:

11partyIPDagreement
Targetvaluedesign
Integratedsupplychain
Leanpractices
Productionlevelmodeling
Modelbasedestimating
Significant benefits, including faster design, faster cost feedback, improved productivity,
increasedprefabrication,lessrework,etc.

3.1.1 PREFACE

Thiscasestudyiswrittenbasedonnumerouspublicationsthatarepubliclyavailable.Theintenthas
beentocollectallrelevantinformationinonedocumentorganizedina structurecompatiblewith
othersuchBIMcasestudieswritten.Thecontentofthiscasestudyispredominatelysourcedfrom
thefollowingpublications:

Sutter Medical Center Castro Valley: The Real Risks and Rewards of IPD (Christian et al.
2011)
BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers,
Designers,andContractors(Eastmanetal.2011)
AnUnprecedented11PartnersPropelIntegratedProjectDeliveryatSutter'sNewCalifornia
Hospital(Post2011)
Sutter Medical Center Castro Valley: IPD Process Innovation with Building Information
Modeling(GhafariAssociates,accessedonOct.2011)
SutterMedicalCenterCastroValley:CaseStudyofanIPDProject(Khemlani2009)
ModelBasedEstimatingtoInformTargetValueDesign(Tiwarietal.2009)
SutterMedicalCenterCastroValley,USA(Teklawebsite,accessedonOct.2011)
Transcending the BIM Hype: How to Make Sense and Dollars from Building Information
Modeling(Lambetal.2009)
CollaboratingwithaPermittingAgencytoDeliver aHealthcareProject:CaseStudyofthe
SutterMedicalCenterCastroValley(SMCCV)(Alarcon2011)

The above publications are excellent sources of information about the project and are
recommended for further reading on this case study. Refer to the Bibliography section for more
information about these publications and other references. Note that any text shown in italics in
thiscasestudyiscopieddirectlyfromoneofthesesources.
3.1.2 PROJECTDESCRIPTION

ThiscasestudyisaboutastateofthearthospitalownedbySutterHealththatiscurrentlynearing
completionatCastroValley,California.TheSutterMedicalCenterCastroValley(SMCCV)isamodern

30

130bed capacity hospital that is being build adjacent to and will operate in replacement of the
currentEdenMedicalCenterinCastroValley,California(Figure19.ThevisionofSutterHealthisto
create an extraordinary landmark medical center that integrates advanced technology, quality
medicalcareandoutstandingphysiciansandemployeestoprovidethebestcarefortheirpatients
andcommunity.The$320millionprojectisfullyfundedbySutterHealthandisfinancedwithoutany
taxpayersupportorpublicfunds.TheSMCCVisa230,000sqftsevenstorytallbuildingconsistingof
castinplace frictionpiers,a threestory reinforced concrete shearwall podium supporting a four
storysteelbracedframe.Inadditiontothehospital,theprojectincludesbuildingadditionalparking
on Eden Medical Center campus and demolition of the old hospital once SMCCV is operational.
(SutterMedicalCenterCastroValleywebsite)(Post2011)

Figure19:ModelImagesofSMCCV(toprow:SMCCVwebsite,bottomrow:GhafariAssociates2011)

Theprojectwasfacedwithanumberofchallengesfromtheoutset(Christianetal.2011):

Site:thenewhospitalisbeingconstructedonaslopedgradewithlimitedspaceavailablefor
constructionactivities.Inaddition,thecurrentEdenMedicalCenterhadtostayoperational
withminimaldisturbancethroughouttheentireprocess.
Schedule:strictdeadlinesfordesign,permitting,andconstructionweresetbythelegislation
governingtheseismicsafetystandardsforhospitalsinCalifornia.Inordertomeetthesefix
deadlines,theprojectteamhadtodesignthehospitalatleast30%faster.
Budget: an aggressive target cost of $320 million was set for this project. Under no
circumstanceswastheprojectcosttoexceedthetargetvalue.
OSHPD: the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) mandate
extensive regulatory oversight on hospital projects in California. OSHPD typically takes 24
months for review upon completion of design. To accelerate the permitting process, the
projecthadtobeoneofthefirsttouseOSHPDsPhasedReviewProcess.

Overall,theprimarygoalofSutterHealthwastodesignanddeliverafacilityofthehighestquality,
atleast30%faster,andfornomorethanthetargetcostof$320million(Christianetal.2011).

31

CONTEXT

Khemlani(2009)providesaconciseandinformativeprojectbackground:
SutterHealthisoneofthenationsleadingnotforprofitnetworksofcommunitybasedhealthcare
providers,withover60facilitiesinNorthernCaliforniaincludinghospitals,cancercenters,longterm
carecenters,researchinstitutes,andhomehealthandhospicecenters.
The need for a new hospital arose from Californias hospital seismic safety law, SB1953, passed in
1994, that requires every hospital in the state to meet specific criteria that would keep these
structuresstandingandprovideuninterruptedcareiftheywerestruckbyamajorearthquake.The
deadlineforcomplyingwithSB1953isby2013.Underthestringentearthquakesafetyrequirements,
the original hospital building built in 1954 would not be eligible to be licensed as an acute care
hospitalafterJanuary1,2013.
ThenewseismicsafetylawhasmandatedseismicimprovementsformanyofotherSutterfacilitiesas
well, requiring the organization to execute several large projects within a specific time frame. This
motivated Sutter to find ways to reduce the time delays and budget overruns typically associated
with large projects, as well as the extended litigation that often results. It was looking at ways by
which the design and construction delivery model could be transformed, and IPD fortuitously
emergedasaviablealternativetothetraditionaldeliverymodeljustastheSMCCVprojectwasbeing
initiated. Moreover, the SMCCV project had several additional challenges that made it a good
candidate forIPD:it hadharddeadlines for bothdesign andconstruction,anacceleratedschedule
thatwas30%fasterthanaconventionalschedule,andanaggressivecosttargetthatcouldnotbe
exceeded. None of these could be met with the conventional designbidbuild process, as that is
iterativeandtakestoolong,andanyattempttofasttracktheprocessusuallyresultsinhigherriskof
rework or cost increases. The IPD approach was therefore adopted for this project, in conjunction
withtheprinciplesofleanconstructionandtheimplementationoftechnologiessuchasBIM.
Thiscasestudywillstartoffbydescribingtheorganizationalconsiderationsonthisproject,sincethis
wasadistinctiveaspectofthewayBIMwasimplemented.
3.1.3 THEORGANIZATION
ProjectParticipants

An unprecedentedelevenpartner Integrated ProjectDelivery(IPD)team wasassembledbySutter


HealthtodelivertheSMCCVproject.Table6identifiestheseelevenpartnerswiththeirassociated
functionintheproject.
Table6ElevenMembersofSMCCVIPDTeam(Eastmanetal.2011)

FUNCTION

FIRM

Owner

SutterHealth

Generalcontractor

*
DevenneyGroupLtd.
*
DPRConstruction

Mechanical&plumbingdesign

*
CapitalEngineeringConsultantsInc.

Architect

32

Electricaldesign

TheEngineeringEnterprise(TEE)

Structuraldesign

TMAD/TaylorandGaines(TTG)

Fireprotectiondesignbuild

TransbayFireProtection

Mechanicaldesignassistandcontractor

SuperiorAirHandlingCo.(SAHCO)

Processandtechnologymanagers

GhafariAssociates

Plumbingdesignassistandcontractor

*
J.W.McClenahan

Electricaldesignassistandcontractor

MorrowMeadows

*TheCoreGroupconstitutedindividualsfromthesepartnersinadditiontoarepresentativefrom
EdenMedicalCenter
SimilartotheideaofBoardofDirectorsandCEOadvisinganddecidingonthebestpathforwardfor
acorporation,theIPDteamcreatedaCoreGroupfromtheprincipalsofthepartnerfirmstoprovide
oversightandguidetheprojecttosuccess.TheCoreGroupspurposehasbeentomanagestrategies
and behaviors and to make critical decisions affecting project timeline, cost and risk. The Core
Group decides through consensus with Sutter Health ultimately making the final call. Table 7
identifiesthemembersoftheCoreGroup.
Table7MembersofSMCCVIDPCoreGroup(Post2011)

FIRM
SutterHealth
EdenMedicalCenter
DevenneyGroupLtd.
DPRConstruction
CapitalEngineeringConsultantsInc.
alsorepresentingTTGandTEE
J.W.McClenahan
alsorepresentingMorrowMeadowsand
Transbay

POSITION
SeniorProjectManager
VicePresidentofAncillaryandSupportServices
COO/Principal
ProjectExecutive

InadditiontotheoriginalelevensignatoriestotheIPDcontractmanyothercontractors,fabricators,
and suppliers later became involved in the project through a traditional bid process. Figure 20
illustratestheSMCCVsIPDteamstructure.

33


Figure20
0:SMCCVInte
egratedTeam
mStructure(Ch
hristianetal.2011)

BIMExperttise

Healthhasdo
oneanexcellentjobinggatheringtheememberso
ofitsSMCCV
VIDPteam.TTheteam
SutterH
memberrs are well recognized
r
f their abillity to deliveer efficient projects
for
p
thro
ough employyment of
variousttechniques.
Sutter H
Health: an industry leaader in pro
omoting effiicient projecct delivery methods. They
T
are
committtedtoutilizin
ngleanpractticescoupled
dwithBuildiingInformattionModelin
ng(BIM)applications.
They haave successffully delivereed a numbe
er of projectts under an Integrated Form of Aggreement
(IFOA)contract.IFOA
AisSutterHealthsversionofIntegraatedProjectDelivery(IPD
D).
Devenne
ey Group Lttd. Architectts: a leadin
ng healthcarre architectu
ural firm with nearly 50 years of
experien
nce.Asafirm
mthatis100
0%dedicated
dtohealthca
aredesign,ttheyareinno
ovativeleadeersinthe
useofR
RevitandBuildingInformationModelling,LEED,LeeanDesignP
Principles,an
ndIntegrated
dProject
DeliveryyMethodolog
gies.(Deven
nneyGroupw
website,acccessedonOcct.2011)
DPRCon
nstruction:leeadersinVirrtualDesignandConstruction(VDC),BIM,leanco
onstruction,andIPD.
Theyhavedelivered
d numerous projects em
mploying thesetechniquees.They aree alsoexperienced in
onstruction((i.e.LEED)an
ndpreconstructionmeth
hodologies.
greenco
Ghafari Associates: aleadingffullservicea
architecturea
andengineeeringorganizzationwitha
a29year
historyo
ofcustomer focus,qualiityworkand
dtechnologiccalinnovatio
on.Ghafarid
distinguishessitselfas
an operrationsfocussed design practice
p
with
h experienceed managem
ment leadersh
hip, expert technical
resourcees, and an impressive p
portfolio of projects. Ghafari
G
was founded on
n innovation
n, and is
recognizzedasapion
neerinadopttingthelatessttechnolog
giesinrealprrojectapplica
ations.Thattradition
continuees today; Gh
hafaris expertise in 3D
D building in
nformation modeling
m
(B
BIM), combin
ned with
integratted project delivery and
d lean busin
ness practicces, is transfforming thee industry. (Ghafari
Associatteswebsite,accessedonOct.2011)

34

WiththeirexpertiseandknowledgecombinedtheSMCCVIDPteamisperhapsoneofthestrongest
teamsassembledforanIntegratedProjectDeliverymethod,employingleanconstructionpractices
andBIM.
ContractualRelationshipsandLegalConsiderations

AnIntegratedFormofAgreement(IFOA)wasselectedasthecontracttypefortheproject.IFOAis
SutterHealths version of Integrated ProjectDelivery(IPD) method. A working definition ofIPD as
per2007documentfromAIACaliforniaCouncilis:

Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) is a project delivery approach that integrates people, systems,
business structures and practices into a process that collaboratively harnesses the talents and
insights of all participants to reduce waste and optimize efficiency through all phases of design,
fabrication and construction. Integrated Project Delivery principles can be applied to a variety of
contractual arrangements andIntegratedProject Delivery teams willusually include memberswell
beyond the basic triad of owner, designer and contractor. At a minimum, though, an integrated
projectincludestightcollaborationbetweentheowner,architect/engineers,andbuildersultimately
responsibleforconstructionoftheproject,fromearlydesignthroughprojecthandover.
In an IFOA contract the project team members manage and share the risk collectively, hence,
promotingcollaborationandefficientmeansofcompletingaproject.Profitabilityisdeterminedat
the end of the job and all contract signatories share a pool of both risk and reward based on a
predetermined percentage. Hence, each dollar saved through efficient means of delivery benefits
theentire11membersoftheIFOAcontract.(Christianetal.2011)
Whenthecurrentseniorprojectmanagerjoinedtheprojectin2007theplanhadbeentodeliverthe
projectunderamoretraditionaltripartyIFOAwiththeowner,architect,andgeneralcontractoras
thesignatories.Hebelievedgettingmoresignatoriesonlystrengthensthecollaborativeprocessand
prevents return to traditional relationships between the architect and its subconsultants and
similarly between the general contractor and its subcontractors. He promoted and succeeded in
expandingthepainshare/gainshareschemebeyondthetypicalownerarchitectcontractortriparty
to11signatories.Hehadtoexplaintoeachpartythattheycouldonlyprofitfromtheprojectifthe
entire project profited as a whole. The contract signatories had to understand that even if they
loweredtheircost,wherethatcostreductioncausedabiggercostincreaseinanotherpartofthe
project,theycouldlosemoney.(Post2011)
Thepainshare/gainshareplanisquitesimple.Theprofitiscalculatedbysubtractingtheactualcost
oftheprojectfromthebudgetedcost.TheprofitisthensplitbetweenthenonOwnersignatoriesas
showninTable8.(Christianetal.2011)
Table8SplitShareofSMCCVIFOAProfit(Christianetal.2011)

FIRM
DPRConstruction
J.W.McClenahan
MorrowMeadows
SuperiorAirHandlingCo.
TransbayFireProtection
DevenneyGroupLtd.

SPLITOFIFOAPROFITPOOL
47.717%
9.648%
6.320%
6.651%
1.863%
17.163%

35

CapitalEngineeringConsultantsInc.
TheEngineeringEnterprise
TMAD/TaylorandGaines
GhafariAssociates

3.755%
2.351%
2.625%
1.908%

Post(2011)providessomefurtherinsightregardingtheprofitdistribution:
UndertheCastroValleyIFOA,eachnonSuttersignatorygetspaiditscostsbasedonaudits.Sutter
paysout50%oftheprofitpoolatagreeduponprojectmilestones.Designerstypicallyreceiveprofit
earlierthancontractors.Sutterpaystheother50%atcompletion,assumingithasnotoverspentthe
contingencyfund.Inthatevent,profitscoveroverage.Ifnecessary,partnersarerequiredtoreturn
profitalreadydispensed.Anymoneyleftinthecontingencyfundissplit5050betweenSutterandits
partners,accordingtotheirshareofrisk.
3.1.4 TECHNOLOGY
ScopeofModeling

The IFOA members were required to provide their designs in a 3D objectbased format. Ghafari
Associateswasresponsiblefortheplanning,coordination,workflowsandtechnologiesrequiredto
maintain alignment between the parties. Table 9 lists each members scope of modeling and
softwareused.
Table9ScopeofModelingandSoftwareUsedontheSMCCVProject(Eastmanetal.2011)

FIRM

ROLE

SAHCO

DesignAssistMechanical Fabricationlevelmodelsof
Subcontractor
HVACandPneumaticTube
systems
DesignAssistPlumbing
Fabricationlevelmodelsof
TradeContractor
plumbingsystems
DesingBuildFire
Fabricationlevelmodelsof
ProtectionSubcontractor FireProtectionsystems
DesignAssistElectrical
Fabricationlevelmodelof
Subcontractor
ElectricalandCabletray
Mechanicaland
Designmodelfor
PlumbingEngineers
MechanicalandPlumbing
systems
ElectricalEngineers
DesignmodelforElectrical
GeneralContractor
Modelsofdrywall,misc.
supportsandsteel;
Developingquantitiesand
costestimatesfrommodel

J.W.
McMlenahan
TransbayFire
Protection
Morrow
Meadows
Capital
Engineering
Consultants
TEE
DPR
Construction

TTG

StructuralEngineer

MODELSCOPE

Analysisanddesignmodel
forStructure
36

MODELSOFTWARE
AutoCAD
CADDuct
AutoCAD
CADMEP
AutoSPRINK
AutoCAD
CADMEP
CADDuct
DesignLine
AutoCAD
AutoCAD
Revit,AutoCAD
Architecture,
TimberlineEstimating,
InnovayaVisual
Estimating,StrucSoft
MetalWoodFramer,
AutodeskDesign
Review
ETABSRevit

ISAT

SeismicSupport
Contractor

CaseworkContractor
Architect

Seismicsupportmodels

AutoCAD

Sparling
ISEC
Devenney
Group
MultipleParties N/A

AutoCAD
Caseworkmodels
Revit
Architecturaldesignmodels Revit

HarrisSalinas/
GregLuth
HerrickSteel

RebarTradeandRebar
Detailer
StructuralSteel
Subcontractor
StrategicProject SoftwareSupplierfor
Solutions
SchedulingandSupply
Chain

FabricationlevelRebar
models
FabricationlevelStructural
steelmodels
LastPlannerSystemaswell
assystemtomanagethe
Processmappingprocess

Ghafari
Associates

BIMCoordinationand
Processmapping

ProcessConsultant

Clashdetectionand
coordination

AutodeskDesign
Review,Autodesk
NavisworksManage
TeklaStructures14
TeklaStructures
StrategicProject
SolutionsProduction
Manager(notamodel
creationsystem)
BentleyProjectWise
CollaborationSystem
(notamodelcreation
system)

OwnerRequirements

SutterHealthexplicitlystatedtheprojectgoalsfromtheoutsetincludingtherequirementsforBIM.
SeeTable10forSMCCVProjectGoalsfromChristianet.al.,2011.
Table10SMCCVProjectGoals(Christianet.al.,2011)

Introduction
Aprojectisnotconsideredsuccessfulbytheownerunlessitmeetstheownersgoals.Oftenthese
goalsareunstated,notclear,varywithtime,orvarywiththeindividual.Onthisprojectthiswillnot
bethecase.Thegoalswillbeexplicitlystatedinthisdocument.

GOAL1:StructuralDesignCompletion
The first incremental package will be submitted to OSHPD for review no later than December 31,
2008.
GOAL2:ProjectCost
Totalcostoftheprojectshallnotexceed$320,000,000.
GOAL3:ProjectCompletion
Thereplacementhospitalshallopen,fullycompleteandreadyforbusiness,nolaterthanJanuary1,
2013.
GOAL4:HealthcareDeliveryInnovation
Cellularconceptofhealthcaredesigntobeutilized
Controlcenterconcepttobeutilized
Electronichealthrecordsystemimplemented
GOAL5:EnvironmentalStewardship
Meetanyoneofthefollowing:
ThestandardsforcertificationontheSILVERlevelperLEEDforHealthcare(draftversion)
ThestandardsforcertificationontheSILVERlevelperLEEDNCv2.2

37

AchieveCER
RTIFIEDlevelperLEEDforHealthcaree(final)
AchieveCER
RTIFIEDlevelperLEEDNC
Cv3.0
GOAL6::Design&Co
onstructionDeliveryTraansformation
n
The building will siignificantly transform
t
th
he delivery model for the design and constru
uction of
complexxhealthcarefacilities:
HigherperceentageoftottalbudgetunderIFOA
Newincentivestructure(gainshare/painshare)
Newmethoddofdefininggprojectgoaals
Newmethoddologyforthhedesignproocess
mmitments
Newmethoddologyforpllanningandtrackingcom
Newmethoddologyofacttiveengagem
mentwithth
hestateregulatoryagenccy
FarmoreextensiveusaggeofBIManddvirtualdesignandconsstruction
Useoftargeetvaluedesiggn
Sophisticateedcommissiooning&operrationsandm
maintenanceehandover
Energymodeling
LevelofBIM
M

a Level 4 model througghout most systems and


d componen
nts. The
The SMCCV projectt achieved a
edinthemo
odel(seeFigu
ure21):
followingareinclude

Buildinginteerior
Buildingexteerior,curtain
nwallandprrecast
Stairsandellevators
Structuralstteelandconccrete
Slabsandsla
abopenings
Allmechaniccalandplum
mbingsystem
ms
Allelectricallsystemsinccludingcondu
uit
Fireprotectiion
ITandlowvvoltagesystems
Nursecallsyystems
Furniture
Fixedmedica
alequipment
Rebardetailling
Foundationss
Allundergro
oundutilities
Civilsite
Allseismicreestraints
DrywallFram
ming

FFigure21:VarriousModelD
Details(TeklaandGhafariw
websites,accessedOct.20
011)

detailthatsh
houldexistinthemodel.Asthepro
ojectwas
Thecontractdidnotmandatetthelevelofd
progresssing, the teaam memberrs constantlyy evaluated benefits veersus effort required for adding
further details to th
he model. Iff the anticip
pated benefiits of increaasing design certainty byy adding
o
the cost of modeling, the design details weree added.
further details to the model outweighed
nOct.2011)
(GhafariiAssociates,accessedon

38

Lambetal.(2009)ofDPRConstructionprovidesaninterestingexample:
Whenyouhaveapatientlift,ithasatrackofthreeorfourfeeteachthatsupportsit.Ifyoudont
know exactly how many lifts or supports you need, you begin to guess. In a project that has very
limited interstitial space, such as Sutter Medical Center Castro Valley, they had to incorporate the
exactmodelingforthesupports,patientliftsandradiology(seeFigure22).

Figure22:RenderedImageofaPatientRoom(SMCCVwebsite,accessedonOct.2011)

By using the model, the shear wall and slab openings for risers, piping and ductwork were
coordinatedandincludedinthestructuraldrawingsthatwassubmittedtoOSHPD.Theunderground
componentswerealsomodeledreasonablyindetailtominimizepotentialconflicts.(see Figure23).
(Post2011)

Figure23:UndergroundModel(GhafariAssociates,accessedonOct.2011)

BIMUses

Clash/ConflictDetection
NavisWorks was used to combine the models from the various parties into one multidiscipline
model. The team was then able to review the entire design collectively and understand the
interdependencies between disciplines. By using Navisworks multidiscipline design issues such as

39

physicalclasheswereidentified.Throughcollaborationtheissueswereeitherresolvedonthespot
orhighlightedforfutureactiondependentonthecomplexityoftheissueandtheavailabilityofthe
parties.Inanumberofoccasions,theteammemberswerenotsurewhathadchangedsincethelast
review process that had caused the conflict. In such occasions, a NavisWorks feature that color
codes the changes in each model from its previous version was used to identify the changed
components.(SeeFigure24)(Khemlani2009)

Figure24:NavisWorksCapabilitytoHighlightDesignChangessinceLastReview(Khemlani2009)

EnhancedConstructabilityReviews
Construction members of the general contractor and subcontractors review the multidiscipline
modelonanongoingbasisandhavebeenabletoidentifyandresolvehundredsofconstructability
issueswithoutaffectingsiteproductivity.Throughtheseconstructabilityreviews,theteammembers
have increased design certainty resulting in lowered construction risk at site. As a result,
substantially lower field changes, request for information, and rework is achieved on the SMCCV
project compared to similar projects with traditional delivery methods. For example, continuous
constructabilityreviewswerecarriedoutontheinteriorwallsandtheteamhadtorevisethewall
detailingtoensurealignmentandavoidinstallationconflictswiththeMEPsystems.(Christianetal.
2011)
DigitalInformationExchange
Itwasdecidedfromtheoutsettoutilizeasmuch3Dtechnologiesaspossibletoeliminateriskand
increase certainty in design. It was also very important to be able to seamlessly transfer the
data/information from design to construction to eliminate duplication of work between project
participants. The 3D model information was digitally exchanged from design to detailing to
fabricationtoconstructionontheSMCCVproject.(Eastmanetal.2011)

40

LaserScanning
Laserscanning technologies are employed to uncover the discrepancies between the model and
whatisgettingbuildonthefield.Laserscannersareusedtoproducea3Drepresentationoftheas
build building initially. The model is then superimposed on the scanned 3D representation to
validatetheasbuildagainstthedesignlayoutasshowninFigure25:Left:resultfromlaserscanning.
Right: Model superimposed on the laser scan to validate asbuild accuracy (SMCCV website,
accessed on Oct. 2011). By identifying the asbuild discrepancies early on, the team was able to
makeminoradjustmentstofuturecomponentsinadvanceofinstallation.Thescanneddatawasalso

usedtocreatetheasbuildmodelforhandovertoSuttersmaintenanceteam.(Post2011)
Figure 25: Left: result from laser scanning. Right: Model superimposed on the laser scan to validate asbuild
accuracy(SMCCVwebsite,accessedonOct.2011)

ProductionofReliablePaperDocuments
The IFOA team strived to create a detailed multidisciplinary, fully coordinated 3D model before
production of paper documents. That way, the paper documents would benefit from high design
certainlyandrequireminimalrework.(Khemlani2009)
AutomatedCodeChecking
As shown in Figure 26, Solibri Model Checker was used to perform automated codechecking for
compliance with the building codes. Problems areas were identified early in the design which
allowedtheteamtocorrectthedesignwithoutmajorrework.Itwasrecognizedthateventhough
this application is very useful and promising, there is still considerable amount of development
requiredtomakeitpracticalandcomprehensive.(Khemlani2009)

41


Figure26:CheckingthemodelforaccessibilityandotherADAcodecomplianceusingSolibriModelChecker
(Khemlani2009)

AutomatedQuantityTakeoffs
The team has been able to leverage on the reliability of the model to extract material quantities
straightfromthemodelfrequently(seeFigure27).Asthedesignevolvessodoestheaccuracyofthe
automatedquantitytakeoffs,whichkeepssimplifyingtheestimatingprocess.Thisinformationcan
beveryusefulfortrackingquantitytrendsasthedesignevolves.(Khemlani2009)

Figure27:Thequantitytakeoffandtrendingforstructuralbracingautomaticallyderivedfromthemodelat
differentstagesofthedesign(Khemlani2009)

42


ModelbasedCostEstimating
DPRConstructionhasdevelopedsignificantexpertisewithmodelbasedestimatingwithBIMandthe
SMCCVprojectisoneofsuccessstories.AlthoughittookDPRseveralyearstooptimizethisprocess
andworkthroughtheissues,theyarenowreapingsignificantbenefitsreducingturnaroundtimeon
estimatesfrom8weekstoaslittleas2weeks.TheuseofTargetValueDesignrequiredtheteamto
assessthecostofdesignfrequentlyandmodelbasedestimatingprovedinstrumentalforachieving
that,althoughcertaincomponentscouldnotbederivedfromthemodel.3Dmodelcomponentshad
to be mapped to cost assemblies in the cost databases in order to generate automated cost
estimates from the model. Figure 28 shows DPRs object parameters on the left side and the
mappedcostassembliescreatedinTimberlineontherightside.(Tiwarietal.2009)

Figure28:Mappingthe3DmodeltoCostAssemblyinTimberlinethroughInnovaya(Tiwarietal.2009)

Theteamwasabletoproduceacostestimateevery2weekswithconsiderablylesseffort.Further,
by using modelbased estimating the team was able to compare cost differences between design
andconstructionalternatives,asshowinFigure29.(Tiwarietal.2009)

43


Figure29:Costcomparisonofdesignandconstructionalternatives(Tiwarietal.2009)

InformationExchange

The SMCCV project members were located in multiple offices across the United States in various
states. It quickly became apparent that in an IFOA delivery method where collaboration and
informationsharingiskey,amethodtoallowtheentireteammemberstohavefastandrealtime
accesstoprojectinformationwasrequired.PortalsolutionsandcrossofficeVPNsolutionsarenot
practicalasconsiderableuploadanddownloadtimesarerequiredthatdemotescollaborationand
informationsharing.
The team employed Bently ProjectWise for document control and model collaboration, which
consists of eight gateway servers and two integration serves across the country (see Figure 30).
ProjectWiseallowseachfirmtokeepandworkontheirfileslocallyandautomaticallysynchronizes
the contents across all servers so every team member is able to have local access to all project
informationregardlessoftheirlocation.(GhafariAssociates,accessedonOct.2011)
Whenaprojectteammemberneedstomodifyadocument,thatpersonisrequiredtocheckoutthe
document prior to making the changes. In the meantime, other members are notified that the
documentisbeingworkedon.Oncethechangesarecomplete,thedocumentischeckedbackinand
ProjecWiseimmediatelyupdatesalltheserverswiththemodificationsmakingthemavailabletothe
remaining members. Further, ProjectWise transfers only the changes resulting in optimized
synchronizationtime.(GhafariAssociates,accessedonOct.2011)

44

DATA EXCHANGE NETWORK

8 file Servers
25,000+ documents
25+ Gigs of data
1075+ folders
1337+ CAD files with XREFs
285+ users
59 Groups/Companies
10+ Revit 3D Models
100+ AutoCAD 3D Models
Latest copies available to the
team at any time and from any
location

Figure30:TheLocationofModelServers(GhafariAssociates,accessedonOct.2011)

3.1.5 THEPROCESSES
ProjectExecutionPlanning

Theprojectexecutionplaninvolvedanumberofkeystrategiesaslistedbelow:(GhafariAssociates,
accessedonOct.2011)
1. Projectaslaboratory:tocreateopportunitiestoassessvariousevolvingtoolsand
technologiesquicklyandadoptwhatisappropriatetomeetprojectgoals.(Examples:Model
basedestimating,andautomatedcodechecking)
2. Understandtheprocess:beforestartingdesign,theteamwillallocateadequatetimetoplan
thedesignprocess.TheIPDteamusedValueStreamMapping,aleantool,tomaptheir
workflowstepsatappropriatelevelsofdetailtohavemeaningfulcrossdisciplinediscussions
toidentifyvalueaddedstepsandreducereworkloops.
3. ManagebyCommitments:onceflowofvalueisunderstood(viavaluestreammapping)
membersoftheteammakecommitmentstoeachothertocompletethereleasedactivities
andremoveconstraintstoreleasedownstreamactivities.
4. OffsitefabricationandPreassembly:designersworkwiththetradepartnerstomakedesign
decisionsthatleadtoincreaseduseofoffsitefabricationandpreassembly.

45

5. BuildingInformationModeling:theIPDteamwilluseBIMtotheextentpossibleto
coordinateconstantly,shareinformation,andincreasethereliabilityandcertaintyinthe
designsoitcanbedirectlyusedforfabricationandpreassembly.
6. DirectDigitalExchange:informationwillbereusedratherthanrecreatedtotheextent
possiblethroughmodelbasedestimating,detailing,coordination,automatedfabrication,
andscheduling.
7. RealtimeAccesstoInformation:allteammemberswillbeabletoaccessproject
informationatanytimeandregardlessofwherethisinformationiscreatedorstored.
Anotableactiontakenbytheprojectteamwastodelaythestartofdesigninordertoprovidemore
timetotheOwnertofinalizetheclinicalprogram.Delayingthestartofdesignonaproject,thathas
scheduleasamajorconstraint,mightseemcounterintuitive.Howeverbydelayingthestartofdesign
theteamachievedthefollowingtwokeyadvantages:1)anunderstandingofwhatexactlytheowner
wants(toapracticalextent),and2)athoroughunderstandingofthedesignprocessandworkflow.
While waiting for the Owner to finalize the clinical program, the team work continuously on
understanding the design process to shorten the overall duration. The team members worked
diligentlyonValueStreamMappingwhichprovidedthemwithavisualrepresentationofthedesign
interdependencies.Oncetheinterdependencieswereunderstood,valueaddingandwastereducing
exerciseswereperformedtomakethedesignprocessasefficientaspossible.Remarkably,theteam
wasabletoreducethedesignprocessby8month.(Alarcon2011)
Workflows

Alarconetal.(2011)providesomeinsightonhowtheteammanagedtheworkflowsandhandoffs:
Recognizingthatriskswouldmanifestthemselvesinthecourseofdesign,theteamcreateddesign
workflows and did so in a highly visual and explicit way. Development of the design workflow
engagedtheentireteam.Theypresentedtheirworkinaneasytodigestformatforthepurposeof
soliciting constructive debate about what it would actually take to complete design in a way that
increases certainty and minimizes risk. This process helped the team buy into the process and
practicalconversationofIsthisreallywhatisgoingtohappen?,Isthatreallywhatyouaregoing
todo?,Isthatenoughtimetodoit?,Isitreallygoingtotakethatlong?,aswellasWhyare
youdoingthat?,Whydoyouneedthat?,etc.Christians(SuttersPM)instinctisthatwithoutthat,
theteamwouldnothavebeensuccessful.
TheaboveprocessisreferredtoasValueStreamMappingwhereallstepsofaworkflowareshown
andthepurposeistofindvalueandtoreducerisk/wastefromtheperspectiveofthecustomer(see
Figure31).Attentionisgiventounderstandtheprerequisitesforcommencementofeachtaskand
subsequenttasksthataredependentonthecompletionofeachtaskathand.Interdependenciesfor
completingthedesigniswellunderstoodthisway,andcommitmentsaremadebetweenpartiesto
allow releaseof downstreamtasks. As thedesignevolves sodoestheplan. The teamreviews the
planon a regular basis and as more information becomes available, tasks get added, modified, or
removedfromtheprocess.

46


Figure31:ExamplesofValueStreamMappingatdifferentstagesofthedesignprocess(Khemlani2009)

The goal was to design and acquire design approval faster and with more certainty. Value Steam
Mappingcompressedthedesigntoanefficientprocess.OSHPDsPhasedPlanReview(PPR)process
wasusedtoachievesimilarcompressionintheapprovalprocess.TheSMCCVprojectisoneofthe
first that used PPR for accelerating the permitting process. (Ghafari Associates, accessed on Oct.
2011)
Alarconetal.(2011)providefurtherinsightonthePhasedPlanReviewprocess:
A traditional design plan includes schematic design, design development, design detailing, and
productionofconstructiondocumentsandfinaldeliverables.However,thistendstocreatecyclesof
reworkandmiscommunicationthatmaketheoveralldurationlonger.
Incontrast,thePhasedPlanReview(PPR)processdoesnotfollowthesamelogic.ThePPRrequiresa
deeper and more thorough understanding of interdependencies in order to allow 100% complete
documentationwithminimalrework.Eachstepinthedesignprocessmustbeanalyzed,inorderto
understandwhatisbeingproducedandhowitisaffectingwhatotherspecialistsareproducing.This
detail makes it possible to sequence decision making in a way that directly supports the PPR. The

47

breakdownofinterdisciplinaryworkanddecisionsintheprocesswereanalyzedindetailwithallthe
decisionmakers.Thisprovidedinsightinallthehiddendependenciesandtheteamcouldidentifyand
plan for them in advance in order to assure that all aspects involving each decision would be
accountedforintime.
Thedesignplanningprocessstartedwithidentifyingwhatdesigndecisionsifchangedlaterwould
generate large amounts of design rework. This led to a non traditional sequencing of design
decisions, which were rolled up into a series of major designdeliverable milestones, each major
designdeliverablehavingadetailedlistofwhatthespecificsubdeliverableswouldbe.Thisallowed
foranindepthdiscussiononwhatinputswouldbenecessaryateachpointandwhatoutputswere
expectedfromeachactivityforeachflowofworkforeachdetailedsubdeliverable.
ThisprocesswassupportedusingBuildingInformationModeling(BIM)technology.3Dmodelsserved
aspowerfulvisualaidstotheteamwhilediscussinginputsandoutputs,andevaluatingwhereeach
tradepartnercouldgetinvolved.Itisimportanttonotethatnoactualtradedrawingswereproduced
yet at that time. The model enabled to walk through decisions about locations of shafts, major
routingsthroughthehospital,etc.,beforegoingintothespecificdesigndetailsforanydiscipline.This
primarycoordinationeffortallowedtotransitionintoconstructionwithacertaintyforapprovaland
minimalrework.
InformationExchangeProcesses

TheIFOAdeliverymethodrequiresextensivecollaborationandinformationexchangeamongproject
participants.TheBigRoomconceptandmanagingbycommitmentapproachwerekeyinformation
exchangeprocessesontheSMCCVproject.
TheBigRoomConcept
The project team members were distributed in various locations mostly across the United States.
Withroughlyover240projectparticipants,theideaofrelocatingtheentireteamintoonelocation
for the project duration was impractical and costly. An effective method was hence needed to be
abletogathertheentireteamperiodicallyforinformationsharing.
The entire team gathers in the Big Room (see Figure 32) once every two weeks for 3 days. These
sessionsareintendedtogivetheprojectteamthechancetocollectivelyreviewthedesign,assess
theprojectscheduleandcost,andoptimizetheworkflowthroughValueStreamMapping.Further,
theMEPteammeetsintheBigRoomonaweeklybasisandgoesthroughthedetailedmodelsfora
closer coordination of the design. Those who cannot attend the meeting in person are able to
connectremotelyusingtheGoToMeetingcollaborationapplication.(GhafariAssociates,accessedon
Oct.2011)(Khemlani2009)

48


Figure32:TheBigRoomallowingtheentireteamtocollocate(GhafariAssociates,accessedonOct.2011)

AsuccessfulBigRoomwouldbenefitfromthefollowingkeyelements:(GhafariAssociates,accessed
onOct.2011)

Largeconfigurablemeetingspacetoallow30+peoplestoworkcomfortably.
Amixofhardwiredandwirelessnetworkingsolution(wirelessdidnotworkwellforalarge
team).
Space for planning the process (big wall) with enough room for 30+ people to stand and
work)
Spaceforplanningthedesign(wallsizedmarkerboard)thatcanbeusedforbothplanning
andsketchingdesignideas.
Smartboard(s)twoormoretoprojectthe3Dmodel,plans,schedule,andbeabletoshare
themremotelywithotherteammembers.
Planningtablessosmallteamscanfocusonrefiningtheirplans.
Smallteammeetingrooms.

ManagingbyCommitments
Unlike traditional practice where schedule is tracked based on highlevel milestones, this project
tracksperformanceatthetasklevelbasedontheplanfromValueStreamMapping.Aseriesoftasks
inturnleadtoamilestoneandincasetheforecastdateofamilestoneisaffected,theteamneedsto
reviewtheValueStreamMappingtoachievetheoriginalplan.
DuringtheplanningmeetingsintheBigRoom,teammemberspubliclycommittocompleteasetof
specific tasks based on project priority before the next meeting. If completion of other tasks has
constrainedthemintheirprogress,theydiscusstheissueinfrontoftheteamandcollectivelyagree
on a path forward to release the constraint. The team members then work on tasks with no
constraintsandstrivetocompleteasmanyaspossiblewithintheperiodbetweenthetwomeetings.
Thisway,thedesignprogresseswithmorecertainlytowardscompletion.Atthenextmeeting,team
membersagainpubliclyannouncethestatusoftheircommittedtaskstotheprojectteam.Incasea
committedtaskisnotcomplete,acausemustbeprovidedtotheteamexplainingwhatimpededthe
progress.

49

Afterevaluatinganumberofcommitmentmanagementsoftware,theteamselectedSPSProduction
Managertorecord,track,andupdatetheprojectscommitments.SeeFigure33forasamplereport
fromSPSProductionManager.(GhafariAssociates,accessedonOct.2011)

Figure 33: SPS Production Manager for Commitment Management (Ghafari Associates, accessed on Oct.
2011)

InformationExchangeInteroperability

Direct Digital Exchange is one of SMCCVs key execution strategies. The intent is to reuse the
informationratherthanrecreatetolimitduplicationofwork.Howeverthisismorechallengingthan
one would imagine as each firm uses their preferred software and content are seldom easily
transferablebetweenvarioussoftware.

The project team members were well aware of such interoperability issues from previous project
experiences.Theyworkedhardearlyintheprojecttounderstandthepreferredmodelingsoftware
and set the groundwork early to minimize future interoperability issues. For example, the
mechanical,electricalandplumbingsubcontractorswereplanningtouseCADDuctandCADMEP,
which would not have worked seamlessly with the consulting engineers software of choice.
Consequently,theconsultingengineersswitchedtoasoftwarethatwasmoreinteroperablewiththe
subcontractorssoftware.(Lambetal.2009)

GhafariAssociates(2011),Tekla(2011),andTiwarietal.(2009)describe,asprovidedbelow,three
furtherexamplesofinteroperabilityontheSMCCVprojectandexplainhowtheyweretackled.
Mechanical/Plumbing(source:GhafariAssociateswebsite,accessedonOct.2011)
TheMechanical/Plumbingteamsetanaggressivegoalfromthemselvestodesign,detail,estimate,
coordinate,andfabricatetheirsystemsdirectlyinthe3Dmodelwithaslittleuseof2Ddrawingsas
possible.

50

Thedesignteamandthetradepartnersusedthesamesoftwarefrom TSItodesignand detailthe


M/Pcomponents.ThissoftwarehastwomodulesoneforuseduringdesigncalledMAPDesignLine
and the other typically used by the detailers called MAP CAD Duct for sheet metal & CAD Pipe for
plumbing detailing and fabrication. This created an opportunity for using a complete digital and
model based workflow from design to fabrication. Unfortunately there was no successful
implementationstolearnfromasmostteamsthathadtriedtousethisworkflowinthepastfailed
andabandonedthisforamoretraditionalworkflow.
Determinedtomakethiswork,keymembersofthedesignteamandthedetailingteamcollocated
foralmostanentireweekattheofficesofTSI,thesoftwarevendor,inAustin,TXworkingwiththeir
technicalteamtoalignthesetups,software libraries,andconfigurationoptionssothatthedesign
modelscanbedirectlyimportedbythedetailers,workedon,andthenconvertedbacktosimplified
designmodels.Thegoalwastousethebestfeaturesofthedesignmodulestodoearlyroutingand
calculations,thenhavethedetailersimmediatelyapplyfabricationlogictotheroutethenhavethe
design team incorporate that input onto the final drawings without having to recreate models or
drawings.
Thistemplateisnowservingastemplateandbeingimplementedforotherpartsofthemodeland
thedesignincludingsharedresponsibilityforcompletingthedesignanddetailingofthedrywalland
exteriorelementsbetweenthearchitecturaldesignteamandthetradepartners.
ThenextchallengefortheM/Pteamistoimplementautomatedquantitytakeoffsandautomated
estimatingtotheextentpossible.Therearesoftwarelimitationsthattheteamisworkingtoresolve
withTSIaswellasestablishedestimatedpracticesthataredifficulttochange.
StructuralSteel(source:Teklawebsite,accessedonOct.2011)
For rebar coordination, MEP wall sleeves were imported from the MEP modeling software into
Tekla,and50602DDWGfileswereimportedtocreatetheexteriorskinfabricationmodel.Teklas
ability to import 2D profiles from curtain wall manufacturers was used to create, for example,
detailed mullion clips and door frames in 3D. The model created from these 2D drawings was
comparedwithanIFCmodelofthearchitectsRevitmodelusingTekla.CADuct,AutoCADMEP,and
RevitsoftwarewereallusedtointerfaceorexchangedatawithTeklainthisproject.
On top of the main contract for the structural steel, general contractor DPR asked Herrick
Corporation to model all the elements in the building skin system that connected to the structural
steel,toassistincoordinatingthevarioustrades.
The company worked with Candraft, a steel detailing company based in Vancouver, Canada, to
developaTeklatoolkittobeusedbothwithinHerrickandbytheirsubcontractors.Theaimwasto
produceasingle,standardizedmodelthatwasinformationrichandinaformatthatwasaccessible
to all members of the project team. The toolkit includes standard reports, drawing templates, API
interfaces for RFI creation and management, visualization tools, etc. It has since been used
successfullyonotherprojectsandhasbecomeanintegralpartofHerricksapproachtomanyjobs.
MuchofthetoolkitwasdevelopedusingTeklaOpenAPITMtools.Toenabletheprojectteamtorely
entirelyonelectronicapproval,HerrickandCandraftcreateda3Dmodelonlyapprovalinterfacefor
use by the Engineer ofRecord, TMAD. At various times during construction, the project team
imported TMADs Revit structure, Candrafts Tekla model, and models from various subtrades.
Drawingswereonlyextractedfromthefabricationmodelafteritwasapproved.

51

Modelb
basedEstimaating(Tiwariietal.2009)
FortheeSMCCVproj
oject,thefirststepwasa
asanitycheccktoidentifyycomponenttsthatwere modeled
incorrecctlyforestim
matingpurpo
oses(eithertthequantitieeswereinaccurateortheelementsw
werenot
brokend
downtheyw
waytheyareconstructed
d).Next,thellistofidentiffiedcomponentswaspro
ovidedto
the arch
hitects and structural
s
en
ngineers, who then incorrporated tho
ose changes incrementallly in the
modelo
overthespan
noftwomon
nths.Thelistalsoincludeedsomepara
ametersthattneededtob
beadded
totheob
bjectstoauttomatethem
mappingproccesswiththeecostassembliesduetothelimitatio
onsofthe
modelingsoftware((Revit).Forexxample,ceiliingheightin
nformationw
wasaddedassasharedpa
arameter
dtoquantifythewallsurffaceareatha
atwasrequiiredforfinish
htaping.
toawalll,becauseitwasneeded
On the SMCCV pro
oject, implem
mentation off modelbassed cost esttimating hass been succeessful at
ades. The exxtent of usage of 3D modeling for cost estima
ating and
differentt levels for different tra
quantificcationfordiffferenttradeesatSMCCVisdescribedbelowandillustratedinFigure34:

Architectura
alandStructtural:ModelledinRevita
andsuccessfu
ullyestimateedusingInno
ovaya.
Fire Protecttion: No com
mpatible mo
odelbased estimating tool
t
available in the market
m
to
integratewiithAutoSprin
nk,whichistthesoftwareusedformo
odeling.
Electrical:EEventhough themodelisscreatedin AutoCADM
MEP,Innovaya
acannotbe usedfor
estimating because thee cost database is nott in Timberlline or MC2
2. In this ca
ase, cost
quantitiesarrebeingdrivvenoutoftheemodel.
StructuralSSteel:Tocomanisbeing exploredas anoptionfo
orlinkingtheeTeklamod
deltothe
Timberlineccostdatabasee.
Mechanical and Plumbing: CADEEst is the p
preferred modelbased estimating tool for
CADDuct/CA
ADPipe, sincce they aree developed
d by the same
s
comp
pany. However, the
Mechanical//Plumbing subcontracto
s
ors have no
ot yet repllaced their existing esstimating
software(QuickPen,Acccubid)withC
CADEst.(Som
meofthereasonsarem
mentionedin thenext
gdonemanu
ually.
section.)Asaresult,costtquantitiesffromthemodelarebeing

Figure34
4:Thesoftwarebeingused
dfor3Dmode
elingandmod
delbasedcostestimating((Tiwarietal.2
2009)

3.1.6 EVALUATIO
ON
Benefits

benefitsofaprojectdeliverymethod
d.Thisisbeccauseeveryp
projectis
Itischalllengingtoquantifytheb
auniqueeundertakin
ngcharacterizedbyitsscope,particip
pants,locatio
onandotherrfactors.Itissdifficult
then to predict what the outcome would have been given a diffferent projeect delivery method.

52

Nonetheless, a project could be compared to similar type and size projects for drawing some
quantitativeconclusions.
Thefollowingsummarizessomeoftheschedulebenefitstotheproject:

Withprogressatseventypercentcompletion,theprojectisforecastedtobeonbudgetand
sixweeksaheadoftheoriginalschedule.(Post2011)
SutterfinalizedtheClinicalSpaceProgramandtheLEEDGoalsinApril2008.TheFirstPatient
DaymilestonehassinceimprovedbysixweeksfromJanuary1,2013toNovember15,2012.
(Christianetal.2011)
The design was completed in 15.5 months and the construction commenced on schedule.
(Lambetal.2009)
Thedesignperiodforthestructuralsystemswasreducedfromanexpected15monthsto8
months.Thedesignwasalsodeliveredwithbetterqualityassignificantlymoreinformation
fromotherdisciplineswasinputted.(Khemlani2009)
The OSHPD structural review process took considerably less time when compared with
similar projects. It only took 11.5 months between the start of the structural review and
construction commencement. Further all deadlines of the project review plan were
achieved.(Alarcon2011)
TheOSHPDnormallytakesabout24monthsforreviewfromthetimeofdesigncompletion
for such facility; the Phased Review Process unique to SMCCV allowed construction to
commencealmost12monthsearlierthanconventionalpractice.(Christianetal.2011)

TheoriginaldesignandreviewprocessfortheSMCCVprojectisshowninFigure35.

Figure35:ThedesignandOSHPDreviewscheduleoriginallyplannedfortheSMCCVproject(Khemlani2009)

Thefollowingsummarizessomeofthecostbenefitstotheproject:

As the design progressed not only the estimated cost of the project did not increase, but
also it was reduced by more than $20 million to achieve the Target Cost value of $320
million. Figure 36 illustrates how the cost was reduced over the design life. (Lamb et al.
2009)

53


Figure 36: Project co
ost decreased
d as design progressed
p
to
o achieve the
e Target Cosst (Ghafari Asssociates,
donOct.2011
1)
accessed

$2.2 million of the $5.8


8 million con
ntingency fun
nd is still avvailable with most of thee project
boughtandconstruction
nnearingturrnover.(Postt2011)
Thesteelpaackagewasccompleted$
$1.5millionu
underbudge
et.Thiswas accomplisheedbythe
fabricators involvementt in the BIM
M process that resulted in better connection deetails and
conflictreso
olutionahead
doftime.(Po
ost2011)
The start off the detaileed design ph
hase was delayed until there
t
was more
m
certaintty in the
input param
meters such as the Cliniccal Space Pro
ogram. The shortened design
d
proceess saved
$1.2millionindesignlab
bor.(Post20
011)
ModelBasedEstimatinggenabledtheeprojectteaamtogeneraateanupdattedprojectccostonce
everytwow
weeks.Significanttimean
ndcostsavin
ngswerereaalizedasito
onlytooktwo
odaysto
generateanupdatedpro
ojectcost.Thisprocessw
wasapproxim
mately80peercentmoreefficient
than traditiional estimaating effort due to au
utomatic quaantity takeo
offs and au
utomated
mappingbettweenthem
modelobjectssandcostasssemblies.(TTiwarietal.2
2009)

Further, constructio
on productivity has increeased anywh
here betwee
en 6% to 28%, while rew
work has
%.Table11an
ndTable12respectivelypresentpro
oductivityand
drework
decreaseedbetween50%to95%
gainspeerdiscipline.(Christianettal.2011)
Table11IncreaseinC
ConstructionP
Productivity(C
Christianetal.2011)

DISCIPLLINE

BASSELINE

P
PLANNED

ACTUAL

PROJECTTED

Mechan
nical
Plumbing
Electrical
Framing

10
00%
10
00%
10
00%
10
00%

105%
100%
114%
122%

116%
104%
110%
125%

120%
%
106%
%
114%
%
128%
%

54

Table12ReductioninRateofRework(Christianetal.2011)

DISCIPLINE

BASELINE

ACTUAL

Mechanical
Plumbing
Electrical
Framing

7%
10%
10%
5%

0.5%
0.5%
5.0%
0.5%

ThefollowingarefurtherbenefitsachievedontheSMCCVproject:

10%increaseinconstructionproductivityduringembedlayouts.(Teklawebsite,accessedon
Oct.2011)
Anaveragevariationofonly0.5%(1.3%to+2.7%)inthefloorareasofthetenmajorclinical
functionssinceconstructionstart.(Christianetal.2011)
Aninstalledproductthatcloselymatchesthemodel(seeFigure37andFigure38):(Christian
etal.2011)
o mechanical 99%
o plumbing
99%
o electrical
71%
o framing
79%

Figure37:Photomatchof3DModeltoConstructionProgressFeb.2010(GhafariAssociates,accessedon
Oct.2011)

55


Figure38:ComparisonbetweenaModelShotandAsBuild(SMCCVwebsite,accessedonOct.2011)

Approximately90%lessRequestForInformation(RFI)andownerinitiatedchangeorders.At
onetimeduringtheconstructiontherewere333RFIsand26changeorderswhenthenorm
is3,000and400respectivelyforasimilarconventionallybuiltproject.(Post2011)

Challenges

It is by no means easy to setup and manage an IFOA or IPD project. The conventional practice
promotes each participant to analyze the project in isolation and only for its own benefits. This is
reinventingthewheelinthesensethatmosttraditionalmindsetshavetobechangedandchange
doesnotcomeeasy.Itrequiressophisticatedandforwardthinkingcompaniestobewillingtotruly
join forces for mutual goals of benefitting the project. The processes of IFOA and IPD are heavily
frontloadedwithsettingupsystems,planning,andaligninggoalsonlytorealizethebenefitsdown
the road, later in the project. The following highlights typical challenges that one might face in
implementingaprojectsuchasSMCCV:

Costlyandlengthynegotiationprocessforfinalizingamutuallyagreeablecontract.
Itisoftencounterintuitiveforparticipantstounderstandandacceptacostincreaseintheir
portionofworkinaimsofbenefitingtheentireproject.
Frequent multidiscipline design reviews instead of reviews at key design milestones.
(GhafariAssociates,accessedonOct.2011)
Lack of interoperability between many of the used software (i.e. design and estimating
software)(GhafariAssociates,accessedonOct.2011)
Commonprojectdirectorythatisliveandaccessiblebyallprojectparticipants.
Software and hardware limitations. For example, the architectural team had to split their
modeltwice as thesoftware would runoutof memorydue tomodel complexity. (Ghafari
Associates,accessedonOct.2011)
Settingupmodelbasedestimatingisalengthyprocess.Ittookoverthreemonthsofeffort
fromarchitects,engineers,estimators,andBIMengineerstoautomatetheprocessonthe
SMCCVproject.(Tiwarietal.2009)

56

Tiwarietal.(2009)elaborateonthechallengesofmodelbasedestimatingasfollows:
Thechallengesofmodelbasedestimatinggobeyondfindingappropriatesoftwaresolutions.
Totransitionfrommanualestimatingprocessestoamodelbasedestimatingprocesstakes
substantial effort, time and cost. In our experience, the easier part is the purchase of new
programs and transferring the estimating database from one source to another. The more
difficultpartistheculturalshiftandtrainingrequired.Estimatorsmustbethoroughlytrained
inthesoftwareandruntestcasestomakesurethattheinformationcomingoutofthemodel
is accurateand canbetrusted.At first,themodelbased estimatingprocess may alsotake
more time than their traditional way of estimating. However, after time and greater
proficiencyusingthesoftware,thenewmethodshouldtakelesstimethantheoldermethod,
achievingresultsliketheSMCCVproject.
Tiwari et al. (2009) further explain where modelbased estimating falls short of producing an
accurateestimate:
Theelementisnotinthe3Dmodel(e.g.,temporaryshoring).
Theelementispartofthecostassemblyrelatedtoamodeledcomponentthatcannotbe
determinedbyexaminingphysicalattributes.Forexample,thequantitiesofconstruction
jointscannotbecalculatedfromanypropertyofslabongrade(i.e.,perimeter,area,etc.).
Itsquantificationdependsonhowtheslabongradeisbrokendownintodifferentpours.
Themodelisnotintelligentenoughtogiveadesiredquantity.Forexample,thelengthof
aconcretewallagainstslabongradewillprovidethelengthoftheexpansionjoint,but
currentlythisinformationcannotbequantifiedfromthemodel,becausethemodeldoes
notknowthereisawalladjacenttotheslabongrade.
Modelbasedestimatingdoesnotworkwhenthecostisafunctionoftimeandnotthe3D
element. For example, construction trailers, temporary power, equipment, etc., are
dependentonthedurationofmultipleconstructionactivitiesandtheprojectasawhole.
LessonsLearned

TheSMCCVisanunprecedentedelevenpartnerIPDprocess.Naturallytherearemanylessonstobe
learned from this project. These lessons would cover such topics as contract initiation, legal
considerations, level of BIM, uses of model, information infrastructure, software interoperability,
and project execution strategy. Even though the project is not completed yet, a number of these
lessonshavealreadysurfaced,aslistedbelow.

Strivetobecomepartnerswithorganizationsyouknowandhavetrustin.(Post2011)
Bepreparedforlengthycontractnegotiations.(Post2011)
Be prepared for a culture change and expect to share information otherwise considered
private.(Post2011)
Itisbeneficialtohaveanexperiencedconsultingfirmwithsoleresponsibilitiesofmanaging
theprocess,ensuringefficientinformationexchange(includingaccessandinteroperability),
andadvisingonproperleanandBIMpractices.(Khemlani2009)
Itisvitaltobeabletoprovidesolutionsormakedecisionsinatimelyfashion.Withmany
stakeholders involved making quick decisions might become challenging. It is therefore
recommendedtocreateadecisionmakingprocesstoinvolveonlytheparticipantswiththe
particularexpertise.(Lambetal.2009)
Communicateveryearlyonhowtheprocesswillwork,whatperformancemeasureswillbe
used, what will be the expectations, what will be the expected challenges and what will
definesuccessasaproject.(Lambetal.2009)
57

Planandreplan(againandagain)ateverystepoftheproject.(Christianetal.2011)
Better communication is paramount. The importance of facetoface meetings cannot be
over emphasized. Even though todays advanced technologies allow for realtime meeting
applicationsandvideoconferencing,theycannotbecomparedwiththeefficienciesgained
throughpersonalandrealinteractions.(Khemlani2009)
Theprojectwould benefitfrompresenceofmoretradespeopleduringthedesignprocess.
(Post2011)
The designers should be encouraged to share incomplete solutions. That way, earlier
feedback is acquired from the IPD team which in turn reduces the amount of rework.
(GhafariAssociates,accessedonOct.2011)
Nodesignchangeshouldbeconsideredasminor.Adesignchangethatseemsminortoone
discipline might create a ripple effect that impacts the project significantly. Instead of the
traditional designthencheck methodology a more proactive design approach should be
employed where even minor changes are communicated to the team and the best cross
discipline solution is selected for moving forward. (Ghafari Associates, accessed on Oct.
2011)
It is far more costly to resolve conflicts in field than to model and recognize the conflicts
early on. Careful consideration must then be given to the level of detail in the model. It
mightwellworththeefforttomodelthenextlevelofdetailifitwouldpreventanumberof
fieldconflicts.(Post2011)

TheSMCCVprojecthastakenmodelbasedestimatingtoanextentnotpreviouslyachievedinany
other project. Tiwari et al. (2009) provide a number of lessons learned relating to modelbased
estimatingaslistedbelow.

Senior Company Management buyin of modelbased cost estimating: If the senior


company management sees the value in the modelbased cost estimating process and
endorses it, it is much easier to implement within the company. This is one of the major
reasons why some of the trades are still generating traditional estimates as there is still
resistancetomoveawayfromtraditionalestimatingpractices.
Contractuallanguageoftheprojecttosupportcollaborativeworkenvironment:Compared
to nonIPD projects, it has been easier to work with designers and get requests of model
modifications entertained because of the IFOA contractual setting. The IFOA leverages a
collaborativeworkenvironmentbyprovidingincentives,suchasacommonpoolofprofit.
Not all cost estimates can be modelbased: Some of the items in the estimate cannot be
quantifiedorformulatedfromtheexisting3Delementsinthemodel.Itemslikeconstruction
joints in slabs are means and method items, which need to be manually quantified. Also,
there are timebased cost elements (e.g., man lifts, temporary power, trailers, etc.), which
areestimatedbyhowlongtheyareonthejobsiteandcannotbeeasilyquantifiedfromthe
3Dmodel.
Transitioningtraditionalestimatestomodelbasedestimates:Avisualrecordintheformof
marked up drawings of what was a part of the hand takeoff is important to have, so that
quantitiescanbecomparedeasilywiththemodelquantities.
Anewsoftwaretooldoesnotalwaysperformthewayyouexpectitto:Implementationof
new technology is not always successful the first time. A lot of collaboration with the
softwaredeveloperisrequiredtomakeitworktogiveyouthedesiredresult.
Alwayscheckthequantitiesfromthemodelatleastonce:Someoftheelementsmighthave
been modeled using a tool that does not give you the right quantities. In case of SMCCV
project, there were irregular shared pile caps whose quantities were not read correctly.
Taking another example, Revit gives you the flexibility of modeling certain elements in
differentwaysbutquantificationdoesnotworkwithallofthem.Forexample,openingscan
58

bemodeledusinganeditprofiletooloropeningtooloranopeningfamilyoravoid
extrusion.Theonlywayopeningsgetquantifiedisiftheyaremodeledusingopeningtoolor
byusingtheopeningfamily.
Modelbasedcostestimatingisnotaclickofabuttonprocess:Asyoumayhavegraspedby
now, there is a lot of prerequisite work in preparing the cost assemblies, preparing the
model,trainingtheestimators,etc.Allofthesestepsarerequiredtomakethisprocesswork
successfully.
Starttheprocessearlybytheendofconceptualdesignphase:Theearliertheteamsstart
this process in the preconstruction phase, the more in sync the model will be for cost
estimating,andthemoretimedesignwillhaveinthedesigndevelopmentphasetoreactto
theregularcostupdatestoattainTargetValueDesign.

Finally,Christianetal.(2011)providethefollowinglessonlearned:
Perhapsthegreatestlessonlearnedthatistransferabletofutureprojectsisthis:integrated
projectdelivery,Leanpractices,andBIMareallmosteffectivewhenintertwinedintoasingle
process and when they are implemented together as an entire package. Bringing together
modelers,builders,architects,engineersandtradespeopleastruepartners,whoshareinthe
profit and loss of a projects outcome, has the most potential for success; it offers the
promisenot only ofmaximizingtheprofitabilityof an individual company,butof changing
the entire industry by creating better projects that are ultimately more efficient and more
costeffective.
Sutter Health will apply the lessons learned from Castro Valley on their next project already
underway.The250,000squarefeetPatientCarePavilionfortheAltaBatesSummitMedicalCenter,
AltaBates,California,isexpectedforPhase1completionby2014.Thisprojecthastwelvepartners,
fiveofwhicharefromtheSMCCVprojectincludingDPRConstructionandDevenneyGroupLtd.(Post
2011).
3.1.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY
"AboutSutterMedicalCenterCastroValley."SutterHealthEdenMedicalCenter.SutterHealth,n.d.
Web.26Oct2011.<http://suttermedicalcentercastrovalley.org/>.
"DevenneyGroupProfile."DevenneyGroup,n.d.Web.26Oct2011.<http://www.devenneygroup
.com/>.
"GhafariFirm."GhafariAssociates,n.d.Web.26Oct2011.<http://www.ghafari.com/content.cfm
/firm>.
"IntegratedProjectDeliveryAWorkingDefinition."AIACaliforniaCouncil.2007.Print.
"SutterMedicalCenterCastroValley,USA."Tekla,2011.Web.17Oct2011.
<http://www.tekla.com/us/solutions/references/Pages/suttermedicalcenterUSA.aspx>.
Alarcon,Isabel,Christian,DigbyandTommelein,IrisD.."CollaboratingwithaPermittingAgencyto
DeliveraHealthcareProject:CaseStudyoftheSutterMedicalCenterCastroValley(SMCCV)."
19thAnnualConferenceoftheInternationalGroupforLeanConstructionIGLC19.Lima,Peru,
2011.1315.Web.22Oct.2011.<http://p2sl.berkeley.edu/201106

59

23/Alarcon&Christian&Tommelein2011IGLCCasestudyoftheSutterMedicalCenterCastro
ValleySMCCV.pdf>.
Christian,Digby,GeorgeHurley,JamesMobley,andZachSargent."SutterMedicalCenterCastro
Valley:TheRealRisksandRewardsofIPD."ASHE48thAnnualConferenceandTechnical
Exhibition.2011.Print.<http://www.hfmadv.org/uploads/2011ASHESeattleAnnual
Conference/TheRealRisksofIPD.pdf>.
DPRConstruction,2010."TheFourLevelsofBIM:TakingVirtualDesignandConstructiontoaHigher
Level."Web.24Oct2011.<http://dprreview.com/fallwinter2010/story/thefourlevelsof
bim>.
Eastman,Chuck,PaulTeicholz,RafaelSacks,andKathleenListon.BIMHandbook:AGuidetoBuilding
InformationModelingforOwners,Managers,Designers,andContractors.2nded.Hoboken,
NewJersey,USA:JohnWiley&Sons,Inc.,2011.43180.Print.
Emdanat,Samir."SutterMedicalCenterCastroValley:IPDProcessInnovationwithBuilding
InformationModeling."GhafariAssociates,n.d.Web.16Oct2011.
<http://www.placevision.net/AIA_TAP/SutterMedCNTRValley.pdf>.
GhafariAssociates,SutterMedicalCenterCastroValley:IPDProcessInnovationwithBuilding
InformationModeling(GhafariAssociates,accessedonOct.2011)
Khemlani,Lachmi."SutterMedicalCenterCastroValley:CaseStudyofanIPDProject."06Mar2009.
111.AECbytes.Web.22Oct2011.
Lamb,Eric,DeanReed,andAtulKhanzode."TranscendingtheBIMHype:HowtoMakeSenseand
DollarsfromBuildingInformationModeling."22Sep2009.18.AECbytes.Web.22Oct2011.
Post,NadineM."AnUnprecedented11PartnersPropelIntegratedProjectDeliveryatSutter'sNew
CaliforniaHospital."19Sep2011.14.EngineeringNewsRecord.Web.19Oct2011.
Tiwari,Saurabh,JoshOdelson,AlanWatt,andAtulKhanzode."ModelBasedEstimatingtoInform
TargetValueDesign."12Aug2009.112.AECbytes.Web.15Oct2011.

60

3.2

U NIVERSITY
YOFCOLOR
RADODENV
VER,RESEA
ARCH2(R2
2)(UNITED STATES)

Thisprojectwassele
ectedasanInternationallBIMprojectttohighlighttforseveralreasons:

Itisoneoftthefewprojectsthathavvetriedtom
measurethe benefitsofB
BIMwhenco
ompared
toaverysim
milarprojectrecentlybuiltusingatraaditionaldeliveryapproach.
ItdemonstraatestheusesofBIMthro
oughalltheprojectphasses,startingwithdesign,,through
fieldconstru
uction,andin
ntooperatio
ons.
Itprovidese
excellentapp
plicationsof BIMforcon
nstructionussesanddemonstratestheimpact
onfieldprod
ductivity.
Significantb
benefits,includingimpro
ovedproducttivity,increaasedPrefabrrication,lesssrework,
increased co
oordination, reduction in
i RFIs/COss, completed
d ahead of schedule an
nd under
budget.

3.2.1 PROJECTD
DESCRIPTIO
ON
Universiity of ColoraadoDenver Health Scien
nce Center Research
R
2 (RC2)
(
(Figure
e 39) is an 11
1 story,
540,000
0 square foo
ot biomediccal research facility locaated in Aurrora, Colorado on the UCDHSC
Anschuttz Medical Campus.
C
Guaaranteed Maaximum Pricee (GMP) con
nstruction co
ost was $201 million
(US dollars). Planned project du
uration was 32 months but the projject was com
mpleted two
o months
aheadofschedule.

Figure39
9:RC2Projecctduringconstruction(lefft)andsnapsh
hotsfromthe
econstruction
nmodel(righ
ht)(Image
fromCun
nz,2010)

TheRC2
2projectwassbuiltusing anintegrateedVirtualDeesignandCo
onstruction(V
VDC)processs.VDCis
acollabo
orativeprocessincorporratingbothd
designandco
onstructioniinputthrougghtheuseoffBuilding
InformationModelss(BIM),CPM
Mschedulesaandcostestimatestocreateavirtuaalbuildingprototype
prior to
o constructio
on (Mortenson, 2009). The constrruction of the
t
RC2 pro
oject by Mo
ortenson
Construction follows the complletion of thee similar RC1 project byy another co
ompany emp
ploying a
noninteegrated VDC
C approach. The RC2 pro
oject is an interesting case study, because
b
it allows for
comparaativeanalysisofintegrattedVDC(RC2)withnonintegratedV
VDC(RC1).O
Onesuchstudybyan
indepen
ndent research student from
f
the Un
niversity of C
Colorado sho
ows the sub
bstantial redu
uction in
the num
mber of RFIss and change orders on
n RC2 when compared to
t RC1. The study also shows a
significant reduction in mechaanical subtrrade schedu
ule duration
n and requiired labour on RC2
(Morten
nson,2009).

61

The list below summarizes the project participants and their contribution to the BIM (Mortenson,
2011):

FentressBradburnArchitectsInc.3DDesignModel
Martin&MartinStructuralEngineers3DStructuralDesignModel
MortensonConstructionCMAtRiskandtheGeneralContractor
Architectural3DConstructionModel
4DVisualizationSchedule
ConcretePlacementDocuments
3DMEPClashDetection
SturgeonElectricCompany3DElectricalConstructionModel
WesternStatesFireProtection3DFireProtectionPipingModel
U.S.Engineering3DMechanicalDuctandPipingConstructionModel
CivesSteelCompany3DSteelFabricationModel

3.2.2 TECHNOLOGY
TechnologyUsed
The project team used a number of software that best met the needs of the different project
participants.ThesoftwareusedbyeachdisciplineispresentedinFigure40.

Figure40:Thesoftwareusedbytheprojectteam(Mortenson,2009)

Belowisalistofsoftwarepackagesusedbyeachprojectteammember(Mortenson,2009):

62

Autodesk ADT2006wasusedbythearchitect(DesignModelManager)andGM/GC(Construction
Model Manager). Mortenson Construction (GC) self performed the concrete work for the project
andusedADT2006forcreatingconcreteplacementdocuments.
Autodesk ABS 2006 was used by the MEP engineers, the electrical subcontractor and the fire
protectionsubcontractor.
RAMCAD/ADT2006wereusedbythestructuralengineers.
CIS/2&Teklawereusedbythesteelsubcontractor.
ABS2006/CADDUCTwereusedbythemechanicalsubcontractor.
NavisworksJetStreamallowedthemodelmanagertocombinemodelsfromalldisciplinesandfind
collisions between various systems, which might otherwise have gone unnoticed using traditional
coordination methods (Mortenson, 2009). Mortenson used NavisWorks Timeliner for 4D
visualization of schedule and NavisWorks Clash Detective and Publisher for 3D design MEP clash
detection.
ReadClashwasusedforbettervisualizationofdataproducedbyJetStream.ByusingReadClash,the
conflicts that were found using Navisworks JetStream were easily located within AutoCad
environment,whichwasthenativesoftwareusedbytheprojectdesigners(Mortenson,2009).
Software vendors are coming up with new and improved versions almost every year. The GC
comparesthetechnologyusedduringtheprojecttothecurrentstateoftheart(Mortenson,2009,
p.5): Because this commitment [implementation of a collaboration based process] was made in
2003,someoftheBIMtoolsutilizedbytheteamweretrulypushingthecapabilitiesoftheavailable
technologyandarelesssophisticatedthantoolsweusetoday.
Further, Mortenson deployed their inhouse collaboration solution for information sharing and
exchange.
ScopeofModeling
ThissectionexplainsthescopeoftheBIMeffort,focusingonwhatwasmodeledintheRC2project.

Design model:thearchitectmanagedtheconsultantsinthecreationoftheBIM and actedasthe


designmodelmanager.Thearchitectsmodelprovided3Ddesigninformationfortheexteriorskin
and the interior architecture. The consultants models provided 3D design information for their
respectivedisciplines.Thedesignmodelsprovidedthedesignintentthatwasthentransferredtothe
constructionteam(Mortenson,2009).

Construction model: the architect performed early 3D coordination using Navisworks JetStream
followedbytheGC(MortensonConstruction)whoperformedthe3DcoordinationprocessofMEP
andFireProtectionsystemsbycompilingacomposite3DmodelofthevariousMEPsystemspriorto
fabrication and installation. The GC also added important structural and architectural elements to
themodeltoincreaseitsaccuracyandusabilityforconstructioncoordination.TheProjectScheduler
fromMortensonusedNavisworksTimelinertosimulatetheconstructionprocess(i.e.tocreatea4D

63

model)(Mortenson, 2009). Further, theReadClash andNavisworks JetStream applications allowed


eachsubcontractortousetheirnativeAutoCadpluginsoftwaretogenerateaccurate,coordinated
3DMEPmodels,whichwerethenpassedtoCNCmachineryforfabrication.

Incorporation of Facility Managements (FM) requirements: engagement of the owners facility


management team throughout the 3D MEP coordination process helped to ensure all MEP/FP
systemswouldeasilybeaccessibleforfuturemaintenancepurposes(Mortenson,2009).
LevelofBIM
WhenevaluatedaccordingtoDPRsfourlevelsofBIM,theRC2projectcouldbeconsideredasalevel
fourBIMforthekeydisciplinesinvolvedduringconstruction.AlevelfourBIMproject,asdescribed
by DPR:integrates substantiallymore stakeholders into the process fromthe earlydesign stageto
provideinputandreview,testtheconstructability,anddeterminethebestmaterialsandmethodsfor
designandconstruction,inaccordancewiththeprojectsbudget,scheduleandquality.Level4BIM
resultsinthecreationofamodelthatincorporatessuchfinedetailsasseismicandgravityhangers,
metalframingsystems,anddetailedmodelsofcomponentslikerebar.Thesemodelscanbeusedto
produce permit documents and shop drawings, pullmaterial quantities, produce accurate model
basedestimates,performcrosstradeprefabrication,andproduceactualinstallationdrawings.
UsesofModels
The3DmodelsintheRC2projectwereusedfordesign,constructionandforfacilitiesmanagement
purposes.Themainusesofthe3DmodelsinRC2projectareprovidedbelow.
EarlyProjectCostandScheduleAnalyses
Mortenson(GC)usedthearchitectsmodelforearlyprojectcostandscheduleanalysisshortlyafter
theirinvolvementintheproject.
ModelBasedCoordination
Modelbasedcoordinationwasusedtoavoidclashesbetweenbuildingsystems.Designmodelsfrom
theconsultantswereconvertedtoconstructionmodels.Whilethearchitectwasthedesignmodel
manager, Mortenson became the construction model manager and led and managed the 3D MEP
coordinationeffortsonRC2.
Constructabilitystudies
Constructabilitystudieswerefacilitatedbyusingthe3Dmodelsandthe4Dconstructionsimulations
(Figure41).The4Dsimulationswerealsousedinthepreplanningcoordinationmeetingstoavoid
fieldconflictsbetweensubcontractorsscheduledtoworkinadjacentareas.EarlyengagementofGC
and 3D and 4D studies helped to resolve constructability issues well in advance of the actual
constructionactivities.

64

Figure 41: Early engagement of GC helped to resolve constructability issues well in advance of the actual
constructionactivities.(Mortenson,2009)

ModelBasedFabrication
Models created for 3D coordination of MEP and Fire Protection systems were used to facilitate
fabrication (Figure 42). Mortenson,by utilizingAutoCAD ArchitectureandNavisworks,was ableto
streamlinethehandoffsbetweendesignandfabrication.(Autodesk,2009).

Figure 42: A coordinated composite 3D model of the various MEP systems resulted in high degree of
fabricationaccuracyandsimplifiederrorfreeinstallation(Mortenson,2009).

65

ShopDrawings
Steeldesignandfabricationwerecoordinatedbyusingthedesignersandfabricatorsmodels.The
structural steel analysis model from the engineer was exported and used by the steel
detailer/fabricator. The fabricator added details to the engineers model. The 3D steel fabrication
modelwas then integratedwiththe models from other disciplines forcoordinationpurposes. The
fabrication model was used to develop structural steel shop drawings (Figure 43). The structural
steel was fabricated offsite and delivered as per the project steel erection schedule (Mortenson,
2009). Mortensons VDC Subcontractor Exhibit was utilized which requires construction models as
partoftheshopdrawingprocessfortheconcrete,steelstructure,drywall,andMEPtrades.

Figure43:Creationofsteelshopdrawings:1)structuralsteelanalysismodel,23)steeldetailer/fabricator
model,4)structuralsteelshopdrawings(Mortenson,2009)

66

Assemblyinstructions
Concreteworkwasselfperformedbythegeneralcontractorandassemblydrawingsweregenerated
fromthemodels.Theprocessbeganwitha base 3Dbuilding model(Figure44.1andFigure44.2),
andsubsequentlayersofinformation,suchasembedsandMEPsleeves,wereadded(Figure44.3).
Theconstructionteamreviewedthequalityofthedatawithallrelateddisciplines.Thecomposite3D
model(Figure44.4)wasdistilledandtranslatedintoinstallationdrawings(Figure44.5)forusebythe
concrete crew. The information provided was an accurate, singlesource set of instructions that
eliminatedtheriskofusingincompleteoruncoordinateddrawings(Mortenson,2009).

Figure44:Creationofassemblyinstructionsforconcreteconstruction(Mortenson,2009,imagesmodified)

4DSimulation
4D simulations of the construction process were created by linking the CPM schedule to the BIM
(Figure 45). The team was then able to easily visualize the schedule that provided opportunity to
optimizetheconstructionplan.TheCMusedamultilayeredapproachtoscheduling,whichinvolved
studying different installation scenarios, communicating the results to the subcontractors and
trackingmaterialprocurementanddelivery,whichwasenabledby4Dsimulation.

Figure45:4Dvisualizationenabledinstantaneousfeedbackontheschedule(Mortenson,2009)

67

RFISubmission
RFIsubmissionsweredonewith2D/3DmediaattachmentsderivedfromBIM,providingquickand
exactexplanationsoftheissues(Mortenson,2009).
FacilityManagement
TheownersfacilitymanagementteamreceivedconstructionmodelCADfilesrepresenting90%of
theasbuiltconditionstouseformanagementofthefacility(Figure46).ANavisworksmodelwith
hyperlinks to an Excel equipment list was also provided to the facility management team
(Mortenson,2009).

Figure46:MEPCoordinationandfieldverificationbyMortensonresultedinanasbuiltfacilitythatisvery
closetoasplanned.(Mortenson2009)

3.2.3 THEPROCESSES
TheVDCprocess andBIMincreasedtheeffectivenessofthe RC2projectteamscollaboration and
communication.TheOwnerdefinedthecollaborativeprocessasaprocessthatdemandsselfless
execution(Mortenson,2009,p.3).
ProjectExecutionPlanning
Theplanningprocesswasincrementalandevolvedaccordingtothelevelofdetailrequiredbythe
projectteam.Forexample,collisiondetectionwasinitiallydoneonsmallersectionsoftheproject,
thenonlargerzonesandfloors,andfinallyontheentireproject(Mortenson,2009).Complexareas
thatrequiredextensiveanalysesandcoordinationweremodeledingreaterdetail.AstheArchitect
explains: the most complex portion of the project was the interstitial mechanical level above a
subterraneanvivarium.Thecontractorexpendedthedesignmodeltoincludeeverytradeandevery
serviceelement.Meetingsbetweenthedesignandconstructionteamoftenincludedmembersofthe
clientsfacilitiesgrouptoassureaccessandmaintenanceissues(Figure47)weresuitablyaddressed
(Mortenson, 2009, p. 4). 4D scheduling helped the contractor to plan the execution of the
construction processes by providing the opportunity to study the installation scenarios,
communicatingtheresultstothesubcontractorsandtrackingmaterialprocurementanddelivery.

68


Figure 47: Owner facility management team integration in design for coordinating access/maintenance
requirements(VossandRumpf,2010).

Workflows
TheRC2projectteamneededtoestablishwellstructuredprotocolsandworkflowsforthesuccessful
implementationoftheVDCprocess.Datainteroperability,seamlessexchangeofinformation,clear
divisionoftasks andresponsibilities amongprojectteam membersweresomeofthehighpriority
tasks. In order to provide a seamless exchange of information between project participants, the
projectteamproducedspecificstrategiesandexecutionplans.Earlyontheproject,theteamagreed
onspecificcriteriafordevelopingthedifferentmodelstoensureinteroperabilityinthefuture.

Multiple coordination sessions were held between the design members and the construction
subcontractors,eachtimeusingthe3Dmodelastheprimarytoolforunderstandingandresolving
conflicts(Mortenson,2009,p.4).
TransferringtheModel
Thebiddocumentswereissuedin2Dbutthe3Ddesignmodelaccompaniedeachbidpackage.The
contractorandtheprimarysubcontractorsmadethemodeltheirownandusedthedesignteams
updatedmodelstoupdatetheirown(Mortenson,2009,p.4).
ThedesignteamdeliveredthedesignBIMtothecontractorattheendofthedesignphaseandthe
contractor became the steward of the new construction BIM. Sets of 2D drawings or assembly
instructions for various phases and disciplines of construction were ultimately derived from the
constructionBIM(Mortenson,2009).
InformationExchangeProcessandProtocols
Inordertoprovideaseamlessinformationtransferbetweenprojectparticipants,theprojectteam
produced specific strategies and execution plans: the team quickly agreed on a language that
theelectronicdesignfileswouldspeak.Commonlayeringstrategies,coordinatedbasepoints,andan

69

open model sharing philosophy were determined to be critical for proper collision detection and
reporting(Mortenson,2009,p.5)
SinceintegratedVDCwasnotincludedintheR2contractandthisapproachwasnewtotheproject
team,theteamhadtoaddressmodelownershipissuesforliabilityreasons.Mortensonverifiedthe
accuracyofthedesignersmodelforconstructabilityissuesandthentookownershipofthemodel
when construction documents were complete (Young, Jones, Bernstein, & Gudgel, 2009, p. 10).
Cunz,VicePresidentofMortenson,explainsthemodelownershipasfollows:modelownershipwas
consistentwithtraditionalpaperpracticesinthatthedesignteamownedthedesignmodelandthe
construction team and trade contractors owned the means and methods model similar to shop
drawings.
3.2.4 EVALUATION
The following sections provide some benefits, challenges and lessons learned from implementing
BIMontheR2project.
Benefits

Earlydetectionofproblems:thearchitecturalfirmrealizedmanybenefitsintheRC2project.The
Architect expressed the experience as follows: previously unforeseen problems occurred in the
model and on the viewing screen rather than in physical conflicts. The overall project construction
schedulewassubstantiallyforeshortenedbecauseofminimizedconflicts,shareddata,andtheability
tostudysequenceissuesinthemodel.Andatruesenseofcollaborationwasdevelopedbetweenall
participantsdesignteammembers,contractorandsubs,clientandultimateusers,andthefacilities
personnelwhooperateandmaintaintheproject(Mortenson,2009,p.3).

Successfulprojectexecution:thesuccessfuluseofBIMasaplanningtoolallowedtheconstruction
team to increase productivity and enhance communication among the project team (Mortenson,
2009).The3Dprocessguaranteedtheplantobeaccurateandtheworkuninterrupted,allowingthe
field to have very predictable safety, quality and schedule, recalls the GC superintendent
(Mortenson,2009,p.11).
ReductioninRFIresponsetime:thesubmissionwith2D/3DmediaattachmentsderivedfromBIM
resultedinreductioninRFIresponsetime.Italsoeliminatedtrialanderrorinthefield.Further,this
resultedinincreasedprideintheworkbythesubcontractors,whowereincludedintheresolution
process of the RFIs (Mortenson, 2009). The resulting reduction in RFI and change order
administrationcostsoffsetthecostofBIM/VDC.
Better schedule management:The4Dsimulationwasakeycomponentinvisuallycommunicating
the aggressive CPM schedule. By leveraging on VDC, particularly 4D simulation, the construction
team completed the RC2 project two months early and six months faster than the similar RC1
project.
Increased subcontractor efficiency:thesubcontractorsincreasedtheirefficiencyasaresultofthe
VDC implementation. The electricalsubcontractorhadthe least amountof rework theyhave ever

70

observed on the field. Further, the mechanical subcontractor estimated a 50 percent reduction in
bothlabourandschedule(Mortenson,2009,p.12).
Coordination with FM personnel: the initial coordination work of the MEP/FP systems with the
ownersfacilitiesteamresultedinthecompleteeliminationoffieldchangesrelatedtoimprovingor
increasingaccessformaintenancepurposes(Mortenson,2009,p.13).
FewerRFIs:astudywasperformedbyTheUniversityofColoradothatanalyzedandcomparedthe
R1 (traditional method) and R2 (BIM) projects. Ricardo Khan, LEED AP Integrated Construction
Manager for Mortenson Construction compares the two projects according to the findings of this
study(Autodesk,2009,p.2):therewere780fewerRFIsonR2,leadingtoa$585,000savingsjuston
thecostofadministeringRFIs.Thissavingscalculationdoesnotaccountfortheactualcostaversion
iftheissueswereaddressedduringconstruction.Theprojectwasalsocompletedsixmonthsfaster
than R1. Because Mortenson often selfperforms concrete work, the company was particularly
interestedincomparingthestructuralaspectsofthetwoprojects.Khanreportsthat,comparedto
R1,therewere74percentfewerRFIsduringthefoundationphaseand47percentfewerduringsteel
erection.Asaselfperformingcontractor,weseethatasagreatbottomlinebenefitofBIM.Thats
justoneofthereasonsweveusedBIMandVDConmorethan100projectswithatotalconstruction
valueofmorethan$6billion.
Lessonslearned
Thecasestudyunderlinestheimportanceofcollaboration,earlyinvolvementanddedicationofkey
projectparticipantsinusingVDCtechnologiesinthedesignandconstruction.Lessonslearnedfrom
theRC2projectasdocumentedbyCunz(2010)areasfollows:

Earlyteamdiscussionswerekeyindevelopingthecultureattitudedrivesresults.
Thelast100feetiswheretheefficiencyisrealized.TheVDCisafrontendloadedprocessin
termsofplanningbutthereisimprovedefficiencyduringinstallationandconstruction.
Craftworkershaveissueswiththefullyplannedandprefabricationprocessfeelingoflosing
thecraft.
Without more owner engagement and requirement definition its difficult to realize more
modeluseinO&M.
Planningisequaltoimprovedefficiency.BIMisjustoneofthetoolstoachievethegoals.

Cunz provides further insight about the challenges and lessons learned on the R2 project: the
challengeanddifficultywasinactuallydoingeverythingwedidasearlyadopters.Then,andinsome
waysstilltoday,muchofwhatwewereaskingtheteamtodowasnotcommonplaceandwasmore
worktoplanandexecute.Wedrovemorepreplanning,addressedissuesearlier,andforcedpeople
outoftheirtypicalprocess.Theresultwasallthepositivebenefitsabetterbuilding,faster,lower
cost,andhigherquality.Whatwehavedoneonsubsequentprojects:wehavenowusedVDCon170
projects valued at over $11B U.S. Since this project, we have continued to push to execute VDC
Executionplansinasearlyaspossibletoallowmoreintegrationofthesystemscoordinationduring
designwithdesignerassistsubcontractorsinvolvedweknowthatwecouldhavebuiltevenfaster
withthesetechniques.Whilethemodeldataflowedeffectivelyontheproject,wedidnothavethe
contracts aligned with the process we utilized. We have now developed design "right of reliance"

71

contractlanguagetoavoidsomeoftheredundantmodeldevelopmenthandoff"checking"against
2D.
ItisnecessaryfortheOwnerstostartmandatingBIM/VDCinorderfortheindustrytoadapttothese
technologiesandprocesses.Itisalsonecessaryfortheindustrypractitionerstobewillingtogetout
of their comfort zones and change their traditional ways of doing work, in order to benefit from
these new technologies and processes. Some important considerations and suggested next steps
identified from the experience gained in RC2 project have been identified by Cunz (2010, p. 6) as
follows:

SophisticatedownerBIM/VDCrequirements
Change in mindset: Think about operational requirements and implement a backward
approachatprojectstart
Farmoreuserinterface/collaboration
BIMenabledreviewagencies
FacilitiesmanagementembeddedintoBIMasastandarddelivery

3.2.5 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Autodesk.(2009).Addingupthebenefits.Retrieved1017,2011,fromAutodeskWebsite:
http://images.autodesk.com/adsk/files/navisworks10_custstory_mortenson_final.pdf
Cunz,D.(2010).AMortensonVDCCaseStudy:Research2[PowerPointpresentation].PresentationatBIM
Forumin2010,M.A.MortensonCompany.
Mortenson.(2009).UniversityofColoradoDenverHealthScienceCenterResearchComplexII[PowerPoint
slides].Retrieved1017,2011,fromM.A.MortensonCompanyWebsite:
http://www.mortenson.com/resources/images/11320.pdf
Mortenson.(2011).UniversityofColoradoHealthScienceCenterResearchComplexII.Retrieved1017,2011,
fromM.A.MortensonCompanyWebsite:http://mortenson.com/Resources/Images/13744.pdf
Voss,D.,&Rumpf,P.(2010).VirtualDesignandConstruction:ToolsthatPayOff[PowerPointpresentation].
ConferencepresentationtoDataCenterDynamics(ExaminingtheEvolutionofDataCentersandIT
Infrestructure),September30,2010atHilton,Chicago.MortensonConstruction.
Young,N.,Jones,S.,Bernstein,H.M.,&Gudgel,J.(2009).TheBusinessValueofBIM:GettingBilding
InformationtotheBottomLine.InSmartMarketReport.NewYork:NY:McGrawHillConstruction.

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3.3

CATHAYPACIFICCARGOTERMINALHONGKONGAIRPORT(HONKKONG)

Thisprojectwaschosenasabestpracticecasestudyforthefollowingreasons:

InteliBuild is providing construction coordination services to the project team through


managingthe3Dand4DBIM.
InteliBuilds expertise combines deep knowledge about the construction processes and
technology with the most advanced 3D and 4D BIM technologies, thus providing unique
expertiseforconstructionmanagementandmultidisciplinarycoordination.
Construction risk is diminished through virtual construction simulation before and during
construction.

3.3.1 PROJECTDESCRIPTION
TheCathayPacificCargoTerminalattheHongKongInternationalAirportisaneightstoreybuilding
withtotalareaof246,000ft2(Figure48),andwillbetheworldslargestaircargoterminalbuilding.
Thefacilitywillprocess2.6milliontonsofcargoeachyearandisequippedwithacomplexmaterials
handling system (MHS), considered to be the most advanced in the world at this moment. The
terminalwilldelivershortercargodeliverytimes,reducedcutofftimesforexportcargo,ashorter
transshipmentconnectionwindowandshortertruckqueuetimes.Itsconstructionisevaluatedat
$HK5.5 billion, which is approximately $700 million CA. Construction started in 2010 and is
scheduledforcompletionin2013,thoughInteliBuildcompletedtheirscopeofworkin2011.

Figure48:CathayPacificCargoTerminalHongKong

ProjectParticipants
Themainparticipantsinvolvedinthisprojectinclude:

Client:CathayPacificAirways

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Operator:CathayPacificServicesLtd.
BIMConsultant:Intelibuild
Architect:Aedas
Engineer:MeinhardtforthedesignphaseandArupformodificationsoftheprefabricated
concreteduringtheconstructionphase
ProjectManagement:MeinhardtandAedas
GeneralContractor:GammonHipHing
Cargohandlingsystem(MHS)designerandfabricator:Siemens

This case study focuses on the unique role of Intelibuild as the BIM Consultant. InteliBuild is a
businessunitofCanamGroup,aCanadianownedcompanyheadquarteredinMontreal.Intelibuild
providesabroadrangevirtualdesignandconstructionconsultingservices,whichmayinclude2Dto
3D model conversion, architectural renderings and animation, BIM coordination, clash detection,
energyefficiencyandenvironmental(LEED)analysis,4D(3D+time)modeling,5D(4D+cost),and
6D (5D + facility management) (Intelibuild website: accessed Nov. 2011). InteliBuild has offices in
HongKongandinMontreal,andadditionalmodellingresourcesarelocatedinKolkata,India,Brasov,
and Romania. A team from Romania participated on this project. Their BIM Managers also train
architects, structural and building services engineers on how to use the BIM process to improve
designintegrationanddrawingproduction.
Background
Situated at the HongKong International Airport, the cargo terminal has two warehouse floors to
handle cargo. There are three cargohandling zones: nonperishable containers, perishable cargo,
and transit cargo. The administrative part of the building accommodates offices for a number of
governmental departments: Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department, Food and
Environmental Hygiene Department, and Customs. The close proximity of these government
agencies allows the cargo terminal to work efficiently. The Terminal was designed with a strong
commitment to environmental considerations. Offices will utilize natural light to save energy, and
thefacilitywilluseanadvancedwastemanagementsystem,andthecladdingsystemwillregulate
thetemperatureinsidethebuilding.
InteliBuild became involved in the project during the design phase as the design coordinator and
BIMManager,whichwastriggeredbyprojectcoordinationdifficulties.Togetherwiththearchitect
and the engineer, they agreed on the specifications and standards for modelling. Employees of
InteliBuild became part of the architecuts and the strucutral engineers teams. At this stage, the
modelswerebeingcreatedbasedonthe2Ddrawings.
Theconstructioncontractwasgiventoajointventureoftwogeneralcontractors:1)Gammon,and
2)HipHing.AstheclientwassatisfiedwithInterliBuildsperformance,collaborationwithInteliBuild
wasspecifiedinthetenderdocumentsfortheprocurementofthecontractors.InteliBuildhadthe
sole responsibility for creation ofthe structural model.Asthere were considerablechanges in the
designofthestructure(i.e.frominplacecastconcretetoprefabricatedconcrete),themodelhadto
be recreated entirely from scratch. This in turn required coordination with the other design
disciplines. The contractor was responsible for the architectural model but lacked the necessary
resources.InteliBuildwasthenaskedtoassistwiththearchitecturalmodelaswell.Aspecialistfrom

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InteliBuildwasgiventhetasktoremodelthecomponentsthathadchangedsincethedesignphase.
TheMEPmodelsfortheconstructionphasewerecontinuedbyeachrespectivesubcontractoronthe
basisoftheMEPdesigndrawings.Theserevisionsincludedupdatingthemodelsandverifyingthem
againsttheconstructionmethodofeachsubtradeinawaythatensuresconstructability.
InteliBuildwasresponsibleforanalysingthemodelincludingclashdetectionandvisualidentification
of problem areas. Coordination sessions were regularly organized with all the key team members
presentformodelwalkthroughs.Whenaproblemwasdetected,itwasimmediatelydiscussed,a
decision was made and the model was sent for modification. It should be noted that seasoned
designandconstructionpersonelarerequiredforthesesessionstoidentifytheimportantconflicts.
During these sessions, InteliBuild employees would not judge or comment on the quality of the
design,butwouldratheraskquestionstoensureconstructibilityandmaintainability.Forexample,
differenttypesofanalysiswereperformedtoensurethattheoperationtruckswouldhaveenough
space for manuevering, or the contrainers could be moved around freely and easily. The critical
componentintheCargoTerminalisthecargohandlingsystemandthebuildingissubordinatedtoit.
InteliBuild worked with the contractor to raise issues but the contractor had full responsibility for
anydecisions.

Figure49:CathayPacificCargoTerminalBuildingInformationModel

3.3.2 TECHNOLOGY
BIMenabledtechnologieswereextensivelyusedforthisprojectfromdesignthroughconstruction.
The following programs were used: AutoCAD 2D, AutoCAD 3D, Revit Architecture, Revit Structure,
RevitMEP,TeklaStructures,Navisworks,andanumberofothersmallerprograms.

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TechnologyUsed
At the beginning of the project, Revit MEP was not developed enough, so the MEP plans were
produced from AutoCad MEP 3D models. The design of the cargohandling system was done by
Siemens in AutoCAD 3D. Structural and Architectural models were detailed in Revit. During
construction,TeklaStructurewasusedbecauseInteliBuildhaddevelopedanapplicationforprecast
concretetracking.Attimes,partialAutoCADdrawings(2Dand3D)werecreatedfortheinternaland
externalarchitecturalwallsduetolackofresourcestoupdatethearchitecturalmodelinRevit.
Navisworks was used during design for clash detection on the basis of the 3D design models. The
respectiveupdatedmodelswereanalysedinNavisworksduringconstructionaswell.As2Ddrawings
weremodified,the3Dmodelswereupdatedtoperformclashdetectionandvisualanalyses.
ScopeofModeling
One of the main goals of BIM on the Cathay Pacific project was successful multidisciplinary
coordination.Theuseofinterferenceanalysiswasquitebeneficial.Thevariousstakeholdersdefined
the levelof detailrequired for proper interference analysis. If the modelwas intended for Facility
Management, then considerably more detail would have been required. The BIM specifications
prescribed each disciplines scope of modeling. The intent was to model all relevant scope to
minimize conflicts in the field. For example, pipes with diameter smaller than 50mm were
consideredasminorelementsandwerenotrequiredtobeapartoftheMEPmodel.
A rather detailed model was required for the MEP and MHS (by Siemens) systems in order to
facilitate the creation of shopdrawings. These models therefore needed to become much more
detailedthanthedesignmodels.
LevelofBIM
The majority of the models were created to Level 300 according to the AIA classification, which
means that they are: suitable for the generation of traditional construction documents and shop
drawings.Analysesandsimulationscanbeperformedfordetailedelementsandsystems.Theyalso
createdmoredetailedpartialmodelstoverifyspecificpointsofinterestduringconstruction.Also,
inordertoavoidoverloadingthemodels,theytriedtomaintainthelowestlevelofdetailrequired
foreachparticularuse.BasedonDPRsfourlevelsofBIM,themodelcreatedonthisprojectwould
rankbetweenLevels2andLevel3,withsomepartialmodelsreachingLevel4.
UsesofModels
ThissectionprovidesinformationaboutthevariousmodelusesontheCathayPacificCargoTerminal
project:
Designcoordination
According to Ir. Ronan Collins, Managing Director of InteliBuild, the cargo terminal design started
with the MHS equipment. The concrete structure was then wrapped around it followed by the
architectural design, including the offices. The MEP ducts, pipes and electrical systems were

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finally added. The coordination and conflict resolution process resulted in a much higher quality
designbenefittingtheconstructionprocess.
Clashdetection
ThemodelsinRevitweresubdividedperfloor(Figure50)forfilesizereductiontoincreasecomputer
the speed ofanalysis. The Teklamodel was nothowever subdivided as adequate working speeds
were realized with the entire model as one. Submodels per floor were exported from each
software tool for coordination and clash detection purposes. The clash detection was performed
regularlyinordertolimitthenumberofclashesatatime.

Figure50:Subdivisionofthebuildingintozones

OperationalSimulationofTruckMovement
It was important to ensure that trucks would be able to get to their desired location during
operation. Elements with approximate sizing of trucks were included in the model to ensure
adequateclearanceexistsonthetruckroutes.Aspecialvolumewasmodeledinordertorepresent
thevolumetricpath(likeatunnel)ofthetrucks.Itwasthenusedforclashdetectionwiththeother
elements. This was modeled in AutoCAD 3D and then analysed in Navisworks. Ir. Collins explains
further:theresanenvelopeofspacewithintheterminal,suchasheadroomof4.7metresfortrucks.
Wemodelthespatialenvelope,andmadesuretherearenopipesandductsalongthetruckroutes.
Cargocontainersaredifferentshapesandsizes,andtherearemaximumenvelopesindifferentareas
sometimestwoinchesclearancemightberequired,sometimesfourinches.Usingthemodel,the
design team can determine whether clearances in the design meet the clients operating
requirements.

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Asstandardprocedure,InteliBuildrecommendsestablishmentofaclashtolerancesmatrixwiththe
clienton all BIM projects (Figure 51). These tolerances enhance theconflictanalysisbycapturing
bothhardandsoftconflicts.

Figure51:Atypicalclashtolerancesmatrix.

IdentifyingPotentialCoordinationProblems
TheBIMprocessisusedtoidentifyahostofpotentialcoordinationissues,suchaswhereapipewill
hit a beam. These conflicts are communicated with the designers, who can revise the designs
accordingly.

Figure52:CombinedBIMmodelforclashdetection(floorviewinNavisWorks).

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Figure53:CombinedBIMmodel:warehouse(virtualwalkthroughinNavisWorks).

QuantityTakeoff
During the conceptual phase, the Revit and 3D CAD models (mainly Revit MEP and AutoCAD3D)
were used for quantity takeoffs, facilitating the cost estimation process. During the construction
phase,eachsubcontractor,MEP,SiemensandtheGeneralContractorextractedquantitiesfromthe
modelaccordingtotheirneeds.
Linkedandcoordinateddrawingsandmodels
Over 3,000 linked and coordinated drawings were created from the combined model. This was a
major benefit of BIM on this project. Document creation and processing based on traditional
practicewouldhavebeenmuchmoretimeconsumingandcostly.

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Figure54:Combinedmodelofseveraldisciplines.

InformationExchange
Teamsfromthreelocationsworkedontheproject:HongKong,CanadaandRomania.Duringdesign
and construction, most of the Intelibuild team was colocated at the construction site. The Tekla
modelwassynchronizedbetweentheHongKongsiteofficeandtheRomaniaInteliBuildofficeviaa
secureFTPsite.Thefilesweresavedonaserverprovidedbytheclient.
Even though the computers used were powerful, the models were quite heavy and needed to be
split into zones for effective analyses. The models of the neighbouring zones were used as
references(Figure55).The structuralmodelinTekladidnotneedtobesplitasTeklawas ableto
handlebiggermodels.

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Figure55:Acombinedmodelforaspecificzone

3.3.3 ORGANIZATION
On the Cathay Pacific Cargo Terminal project, InteliBuild was providing services to the design and
constructionteamsandwasreportingdirectlytotheowner.
OwnerRequirements
Design coordination and construction verification through BIM were the main purpose for
InteliBuildsparticipationintheproject.ThestrategyofInteliBuildwastoemploysmall,specialised
teamstoofficesasdirectedbytheclient.Theteaminitiallyworkedondevisingamethodologyfor
the various file creation and the sharing protocol. The core of the team, which constituted five
people, were working full time on the BIM for the cargo terminal, coordinating with the client,
projectmanagers,architects,structuralengineersandbuildingservicesengineersfromMeinhardt.
Thoughnotstipulatedinthecontracts,theclientrequestedtoacquirethemodelforfuturefacilities
managementpurposes.
ProjectParticipants
InteliBuildwasoftenprovidingteamsofmodellersconsistingof7to8people.Overallmorethan100
people(includingIntellibuildstaff)wereworkingattheconstructionsiteduringconstruction.
There was a manager for each scope of the project: architecture, structure and mechanical. The
client had representatives responsible for each discipline and a team directing the construction
workersonsite(Figure56).

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Figure56:Asnapshotduringtheconstructionprocess.

BIMMaturity
InteliBuildhasahighmaturitylevelfortheservicesitprovides,especiallydesigncoordinationand
constructabilityverification.InteliBuildsmaturityisestimatedatlevelD(integrated)basedonBIM
MaturityLevelsestablishedbySuccar2010.Someoftheirprocessesarealsooptimized,reachingthe
highestmaturity,levelE(optimized).
ContractualRelationships
During the design phase, InteliBuild was reporting directly to the owner. During the construction
phase,however,InteliBuildwasreportingtotheGeneralContractor,butstillgettingdirectionfrom
theOwner.
Whenmodelsordrawingswerenotdeliveredontime,InteliBuildwouldraisetheissuehighlighting
the negative impact the delay would have on the timing of the analyses that needed to be
performed.Theissuewouldgetreportedtotheclientandtheywoulddecideonanymeasuresthat
neededtobetakenanddirectonthebestpathforward.
3.3.4 PROCESSES
InteliBuild has considerable experience with BIM management and has created a template which
servesasabasisforwritingthespecificationofeachproject.Itconsistsofthefollowingchapters:

BIMrequirements:specifiesthescopeandcontentofthemodelforthedifferentdisciplines,
aswellasthepurposeformodeling(e.g.clashdetection,4Dsimulation,etc.).
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ScopeofservicesprovidedbyInteliBuild,suchas:
o GeneratetheBIMmodelsfromthedesignconsultants2Ddrawings;
o Integrate the different models and provide 3D geometry such that the model is
compatiblewithclashdetectionsoftware(Navisworks);
o ProvideguidancetotheprojectteamonhowtoreviewtheBIMmodelstoresolve
clashes.
Descriptionofthedeliverables:
o BIMmodels
o Flythroughanimations
o Plans,sectionsandelevationdrawings
o Technicalqueryreports
o Monthlyreports
BIMspecifications
Constructioninformationfromcontractor,whichmayincludesitecontextandother
information;
Hardwareandsoftwarespecifications,suchas:
o softwareplatform(Revit)andversion
o hardwarerequirements(Figure57)

Figure57:Modelinghardwarerequirements

ProjectExecutionPlanning
Extensivediscussionsareheldwiththeclientearlyontheprojecttoclearlyunderstandtheclients
expectationsandsetBIM objectives inlinewiththoseexpectations.Rolesshouldbeclearlysetto
understandtheresponsibilitiesoftheBIMmanagerversustheProjectmanager.TheroleofaBIM
Manageristypicallyexplainedas:tocoordinatethemodelsandtodiminishtheconstructionrisks.
The designers and engineers plan to meet on a weekly basis to review the progress on design,
performclashdetection,providesolutions,andcommunicatetheresultstotheappropriateproject
participants.
BIMSpecifications
InteliBuildwasresponsiblefortheBIMmanagement.Incollaborationwiththeotherteammembers
they established a modeling specification. Each item was discussed within the team and decisions
were made collectively to ensure everybodys experience and concerns are voiced during the
decisionmakingprocess.ThesedecisionswereassembledintotheBIMSpecification.Topicssuch
as the following were included in the BIM Specification: Revit BIM data structures, CAD file

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structures, file naming conventions, digital file exchange protocols, Revit BIM standards, quality
controlprocesses,andannotationspecifications.
Thespecificationsareorganizedinthefollowingstructure:

3DModelFileNamingSystemincluding:
o discipline,
o type(modelorview),
o buildingareaandlevel.
ModellingGuidelines(CADreferencepointandaxes)
BIMModelDefinitionforexample:
o producetheRevitmodelandmaintainituptodate,
o keepaTechnicalqueriesdocumentincludingallidentifieddesignconflicts,clashes,
discrepanciesindrawingdetailsanddesigndocumentation,lackofinformationand
coordinationissues
BuildingSystemModelledandLevelofDetaildeterminestheminimumlevelofdetailfor
eachdisciplineandcontains:
o alistofitemstobemodeled,forexample:
exteriorwalls(includingdoorsandwindows)
curtainwallwithmullionsandwindowpanesaccordingtotheirtrueouter
profile
o alistofitemsexcludedfromeachmodel,forexample:
waterproofingmembranes,flashings,etc.
studsandindividuallayersofdrywall
FileFolderStructureandServerInformationspecifyingtheaccesstothefilesandthefile
structure
FamilyNamingSystem
o
o

Rule:
Familytypecorrespondenceto2letters:

Examples:

RFINamingincludingnamingformatandfileformat
o

TeamsandSoftwareusedduringtheDesignPhase
Atthebeginningoftheproject,InteliBuildwasnotpartoftheteam(Figure58left).InteliBuildwas
only approached bytheclientwhendifficulties with coordination betweendisciplineswas noticed
(Figure58right).
TheroleofInteliBuildwasdefinedasfollows:

BIMprocessmanagement
Coordinationbetweenallthedisciplines
DefinitionofBIMspecifications
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Participationincreationofthemodel

AconexwasusedforcommunicationbetweenInteliBuild,thearchitects,thestructuralengineerand
Siemens.

Figure58:Initialdesignteam(left)andmodifieddesignteam(right)(Source:InteliBuild).

Figure59:Teamsparticipatingintheprojectduringthedesignphase,modelsproducedbyeachofthemand
thesoftwareused(Source:InteliBuild).

Uponcompletionofthedesign,InteliBuildscontractwasessentiallycomplete.Theteamcontinued
withoutassistancefromInteliBuild.Manycoordinationproblemshoweversoonsurfacedagain:

Modificationswerenotreflectedinthe3Dmodels
Theanalyseswerenotsystematicallyperformed
Themodificationswereonlymadein2Ddrawings

Given this situation, the owner called for the services of InteliBuild once again, this time for the
constructionphase.
The major modifications to the building design was influenced by the general contractor. These
design modifications include substitution of the main beams by castin place concrete (previously
designedwithprecastconcretebeams)andreductionintheamountofsecondaryprecastbeams,by
usingsemiprecastslabs(acompositionofprecastplanksandcastinplaceconcreteslab).Thisnew
designallowedforeasierinstallationoftheMEPsystemsandwalkwaysthatneededtobeattached

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underneatheachfloorstructure.Anewteammember,theengineeringcompanyLambeth,wasalso
broughtintotheproject.
TeamsandsoftwareusedDuringtheConstructionPhase
Figure60showstheorganisationbetweentheprojectteamduringtheconstructionphase.

Figure 60: Project participants and their relations to one another during the construction phase (thick
arrows represent contractual relations, while thin arrows represent communication channels). (Source:
InteliBuild)

During the construction phase, the timing of the modeling was very important. For each stage of
construction,aclashdetectionanalysishadtobemadewellinadvanceinordertofindthepotential
problemsandtomodifythedesignpriortoerrorsreachingtheconstructionsite.Duringthisphase,
detailed elements that could have had impact on other disciplines were to be modeled to avoid
potentialclashesandconflicts(Figure61).

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Figure 61: Software used by the project team during the conceptual design (above) and during the
construction(below).(Source:InteliBuild)

InteliBuildhademployeesembeddedinthedifferentdisciplineteamstobeabletoreactproactively
andtomodifyeachmodelcontinuouslyasmodificationstookplace.Thiscontinuouscollaboration
was necessary for the quick progress of the project. InteliBuild was also working with the
subcontractorsduringtheconstructionphase.Therelationwasdifferentwiththearchitectsasthey
had a separate contract with the client. A procedure for freezing and analyzing the model was
established.ThecommunicationchannelsduringthisphasearerepresentedinFigure62.

Figure62:Coordination and communication channelsduring the construction phaseand specifically when


BIManalysiswasperformed.

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InformationExchangeProcessandProtocols
Themodelswereupdatedonaregularbasisforcoordinationandanalysis.Giventhecomplexityof
the project and thetight deadlines, a systemof almost realtime modelsharingwas putinplace
betweentheofficesinHongKong,RomaniaandCanada.

Figure63:Verificationprocess.

Asynchronisationscheduleandprocedurewasestablishedinordertokeepthemodelsuptodate
withouthavingmultipleteamssynchronizingatthesametime(Figure64).

Figure64:Modelsynchronisationschemebetweenthe3offices:HongKong,RomaniaandCanada.

Havingadetailedexecutionplanforsynchronizationisimportantforpreservingtheintegrityofthe
modelsandthestabilityoftheITinfrastructureastheprojectprogresses.

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3.3.5 EVALUATION
InteliBuildconsidersthefollowingaskeyaspectsofthisprojectthatleadtoitssuccess:

Theclienthadclearobjectivesfromtheverybeginning
Theprojectparticipantsweremotivatedandengagedintheproject
Thewellestablishedmethodologyofwork(specifications,workflows,etc.)
Thejointexpertiseindesign,technology,managementandconstruction
ThesupportbytheITteam
Benefits

BIM provides an easytounderstand 3D model: With 2D drawings, interpretation is required


whereas with a 3D model, all can easily visualize the design and understand the conflicts much
better,hencespeedingthedesignprocess.Bylinkingthe3Dmodeltotheconstructionschedule,the
team produced a 4D model that helped the contractors throughout the construction process,
includingtheMHScontractors.
A BIM model includes multiple layers of information: Content can be filtered in seconds to
generatevariousviewsasrequiredfordifferentpurposesfordesignandconstructiontasks.
Easyproductionofconstructiondocuments:Revitwasusedtoproduce760architecturaldrawings
and 845 structural drawings. Additionally, Autodesk MEP was used to produce more than 1,600
buildingservicesdrawings.Thesedrawingswerelinkedandcoordinated.Overall,morethan3,000
linkedandcoordinateddrawingswereproducedwithconsiderablylesseffort.
Lowerprojectcost:AlthoughBIMimplementationmightseemasanextracostonaproject,thecost
savingsrealizedfromitsimplementationfaroutweighsitsinitialcost.AccordingtoIr.Collins:saving
fivepercentofconstructioncostsisfeasibleandwelldocumented.
Increased certainty in project schedule: BIM increases design certainty, which in turn improves
construction schedule certainty. With BIM, the project benefits from increased probability of
completingonscheduleandonbudget.
Lower disputes: thecollaborativeprocessofBIMpromotespropercommunicationthat minimizes
unexpected surprises at the end of the project. Decisions are collectively made throughout the
projectleavinglessincentiveandroomfordisputes(i.e.arbitrationandlitigation).
Competitive edge:InteliBuildhasbeenemployedforanumberofotherprojectsbytheowner,as
wellas,bybothcontractors(i.e.GammonandHipHing).
Challenges
As the delivery mode was not IPD, sometimes the interests of the participants were not in sync
whichcreatedsomedifficultiesintheBIMprocess.Further,workingabroadwasachallengedueto
languageandculturalbarriers.InteliBuildhassincedevelopedsomestrategiestodealwiththis.

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LessonsLearned
Onthisproject,theuseofBIMandInteliBuildsinvolvementweremandatedbytheowner(Cathay
Pacific). At the beginning of the process, the contractor was not convinced of the need for BIM.
However as the project progressed, the added value provided by InteliBuild was realized and BIM
wastakenveryseriouslyandconsideredcrucialforthesuccessoftheproject.InitiallyInteliBuildwas
onlytolerated,whileattheend,theywerelistenedtoandtrulyappreciated.
Initially there were not enough resources for BIM purposes. As model coordination was required,
additional resources were provided to create a model containing only the necessary components.
Later, the benefits of the BIM were clearly seen which promoted more model detail and regular
modelupdates.
ThefollowinglessonslearnedwereidentifiedbyInteliBuild:

Getacquaintedwiththecultureoftheplace.
When there is a language barrier, graphical communication (3D models) facilitates the
communication.
The construction expertise of InteliBuild was important; modeling expertise alone is not
enough.

Thefollowingwerealsoimportantlessonslearnedfromthiscasestudy:

Modelingshouldbedetailedtotheminimumlevelpossiblelevelforagivenuse.
For clients that are going to hire BIM Consultants, it is a sound organizational principle to
havethecompaniesofferingBIMservicesreportingtotheclient.
CollaborationandeffectivecommunicationiskeyinimplementingasuccessfulBIMProject.
ABIMStandardishighlyencouragedtoensurepropercoordinationandintegrationofthe
models.

3.3.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
SpecialthankstoSteveBeaulieu(BIMProjectCoordinator),JeanThibodeau(SeniorVP),andDiane
Leclerc(DirectorofMarketingandBusinessDevelopment)fortheircontributionstothiscasestudy.
3.3.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Videosreferenced:
1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nU3qGT9IY
2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mJ4aJntl7M&feature=related

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3.4

VANCOUVERCONVENTIONCENTRE(BRITISHCOLUMBIA)

Thisprojectwasselectedasacasestudybecauseitimplementedthefollowingbestpracticesinthe
designandconstructionofsteelstructures:

Supplychainintegration
Levelofmodeling
Informationexchangeandsharing
Integrateddesignandanalysis
Modelbaseddesigncoordination
Procurementandfabrication
Modelbasedreview(noshopdrawings)
4DModeling

3.4.1 PROJECTDESCRIPTION
TheVancouverConventionCentreexpansionisa1.1millionft2(100,000m2)projectthatachieved
LEEDPlatinumcertification(Naturally:Wood,2010).ItrestsontheshoreoftheVancouverharbour
beside the previous convention centre and facing the worldrenowned Stanley Park. The project
imposed such physical constraints that necessitated an innovative approach from the structural
engineers. The building is supported on more than 1,000 piles and a concrete deck that together
allow the steel structure to bridge roads and railway tracks (Naturally:Wood, 2010). Its main
structureconsistsof18,000metrictonsofstructuralsteelandisconsideredtobeoneofthelargest
steelprojectsinBChistory.OneoftheCentresdistinctivefeaturesisasixacrelivingroofwhichis
landscaped with more than 400,000 indigenous plants and grasses, providing natural habitat to
birds,insectsandsmallmammals(Chami,2009).Figure65showsthefacility:(1)duringdesign,(2)
duringconstruction,and(3)afteritwasconstructed.

Figure 65: The Convention Centre: (1) Rendered representation created by the Architect, (2) under
construction,(3)photoofthefinishedbuilding.

The final cost of the project was $883 million. The total design time for the project was
approximately2years,thesteelfabricationtimewas1year,andtheconstructiontimewas1.5years
forthemarinematandpilesand2yearsforthesuperstructure.Theprojectwascompletedintime
fortheWinterOlympicshostedinVancouverin2010.AfterhostingasuccessfulOlympicswherethe
structure was one of the focal points, the convention centre went on to win numerous design
awardsthroughoutCanadaandtheworld.

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There were numerous organizations involved with the delivery of this facility. The project was
managed by a consortium called the Vancouver Convention Centre Expansion Project (VCCEP). In
terms of designers, there were three Architects on the project. The first architecture firm, LMN
Architects,hadexpertiseinconventioncentredesignandwasinvolvedatthedesigndevelopment
stage.ThesecondtwoarchitecturefirmswereMussonCattellMackeyPartnership(MCMP)andDA
Architects + Planners, which were local architecture firms that got involved at the detailed design
stage. The structural engineer on the project was Glotman Simpson Consulting Engineers and the
mechanical engineer was Stantec. The contractor on the project was PCL Construction and the
fabricatoranddetailerwereCanronWesternConstructorsandDowcoConsultantsrespectively.
The project was designed and built using a BIM workflow that was mandated by the owners and
agreed upon by the architect, the structural engineer, the mechanical engineer, and the general
contractor.TheownerrequiredBIMforanumberofreasons:

itwasafasttrackedOlympicproject,meaningthatitcouldnotbedelayed;
it was a highly complex project, particularly the geometry, which made BIM very useful
visualization,coordination,andidentifyingissuesearly;
the use of structural steel as the material for the structure was another driver for BIM
becausethesteelindustryisparticularlyadvancedinitsuseofBIM.

Thiscasestudyfocusesonthedeliveryofthesteelstructure.
3.4.2 TECHNOLOGY
TechnologyUsed
Thesoftwareusedbyeachoftheorganizationsincludedthefollowing:
Architects:LMN,MCMPandDAArchitects
CreatetheArchitecturalBIM:RevitArchitecture
Produce2DDrawings:AutoCAD
StructuralEngineer:GlotmanSimpsonStructuralEngineers
CreatetheStructuralBIM:TeklaStructures
Produce2DDrawings:AutoCAD
GravitySystemDesign:RAMSteel(nowBentleyintegratedwithTeklaandAutoCAD).
SeismicDesign:SAP2000(integratedwithTekla).
MechanicalEngineer:Stantec
CreatetheMechanicalBIM:RevitSystems
GeneralContractor:PCLConstruction
4DModeling:NavisworksTimeliner
3DMEPClashDetection:NavisworksClashDetective
SteelDetailer:DowcoConsultants
3DSteelDetailing:TeklaStructures

92

SteelFabricator:CanronWesternConstructors
3DFabricationModel:TeklaStructures
MechanicalSubcontractor:FredWelsh
3DasbuiltMechanicalModel:Inhouse3DCAD.
ScopeofModeling
The scope of modeling on this project was directed by the ownership consortium VCCEP. The
directivewasforalltheconsultantsandthecontractortoperform3DmodelingandtoleverageBIM
throughout the design and construction planning process. This directive was more of an overall
mandatetouseBIMwithoutthedetailsbeinglaidoutofhowitwasgoingtobeaccomplished.
Duringthedesignphase,alltheconsultantswerecreatingBIMsbutondifferentsoftwareplatforms,
asnotedintheprevioussection.Figure65showstheBIMmodelscreatedbythe(1)Architect,(2)
StructuralEngineer,(3)MechanicalTradeand(4)Contractor.ThearchitectusedAutodeskRevitto
createamodelwithallthebuildingcomponents.ThestructuralengineerusedTeklaStructuresto
createthestructuralsteelmodel.ThestructuralmodelwasthenlaterpassedofftoCanronWestern
ConstructorsandDowcoConsultantswheretheyusedTeklatofurtherdetailthemodeltocreatethe
steel detailing/fabrication model. Tekla was also used to output steel shop drawings that were
reviewedintheformofavirtualshopdrawingapprovalprocess.ThefabricationlevelTeklamodel
wasalsousedtooutputCNCfiles,whichlinkeddirectlytothefabricationmachinesforcuttingsteel
piecessuchasshearplatesandgussetplates.
Themechanicalengineerused3DAutoCADtomodeltheirmechanicalductworkandpipingsystems.
The mechanical engineer used the architects model and the structural model as a reference for
whichtomodeltheHVACandthepipingsystems.Thecontractorusedtheir4DNavisworksmodel
(Figure66.4)forconstructionplanningandcollisiondetection.Tofurtherenhancecoordination,the
contractorsourcedthemechanicaltrade,FredWelsh,tocreate3DBIMs(Figure66.3)ofthemost
complexmechanicalareas.ThecontractorthenimportedthesemodelsintoNavisworksinorderto
performcollisiondetection.

93

2
2

4
4

Figure66
6:MultipleBIMmodelscrreatedbythe
e(1)Architecct,(2)Structu
uralEngineer,,(3)MechaniicalTrade
and(4)C
Contractor.

LevelofBIM
M
When defined
d
by DPR Constrructions Four Levels of
o BIM, the Vancouver Convention
n Centre
Expansio
onProjectw
wouldbedefiinedasalevvel4projectforthestruccturalsystem
msinceitinccludedall
the detaails of the steel
s
structu
ure. For the
e other systeems, Level 3
3 models were
w
created
d for the
architeccturalandmechanicalsyystem,which
hwereutilizeedextensive
elyforcoord
dinationand quantity
takeoffb
butlackedth
hefinerdetaailsofthesessystems.
UsesofMo
odels
The stru
uctural model was used
d in a varietyy of ways on
o this projeect, includingg design inteegration,
coordinaation, quanttity takeoff, 4D analysiss of temporaary bracing, issuing the 3D
3 structuraal model,
andvirtu
uallyreviewiingthesteelshopdrawin
ngs.

94

StructuralDesignIntegration:AnalysisandModeling
The structural system of the Convention Centre is split into two sides separated by an expansion
joint. For simplicity, each side can be analysed independent of the other. For the east side, the
integrationbetweentheTeklabuildingmodelandthevariousanalysismodelswaslessefficientas
theteamspentconsiderabletimetroubleshootingthroughouttheprocesstofigureoutthebestway
tointegratethemodels.Thewestsidemodelswereintegratedfarmoreefficientlyastheintegration
processwasestablishedbasedontheexperienceoftheeastsidedesignprocess.
Threesoftwaretoolswereusedtoanalyzethebuilding:SAP2000,RAMSteelandExcel.SAP2000
wasusedfortheseismicsystem,whichmakesuptheshellofthebuilding.Thegravityloadedsystem
(nonseismic)wasanalyzedusingRAMSteel.Thegravityloadedsystemfilledinbetweentheshellof
theseismicsystem.Excelwasusedtoanalyzetheeccentricbracingsystem.Thissystemisaunique
part of the overall seismic system. Once each eccentric bracing system was analyzed, the sizes
generatedfromexcelwereinputintotheSAP2000modeltoseehowtheyworkedwiththerestof
theseismicsystem.
EastSide
On the east side, the SAP analysis model and the AutoCAD structural drawings were created
independentofoneanother.TheRAManalysismodelwasbuiltfromtheAutoCADdrawingsandthe
TeklaStructuresmodelwasbuiltfromthetransferoftheSAPanalysismodel.
WestSide
On the west side, a more efficient procedure was employed, which involved creating the Tekla
Structures model first so that they could be utilized during design. The Tekla model was then
transferredtoSAPasa3Dstickmodel,andtoAutoCADas2Ddrawingfiles(Figure67).TheAutoCAD
fileswerethenslightlymodifiedtofacilitatetransferringtotheRAManalysismodel.

95


Figure67:Flowdiagramshowinghowthetransferofmodelstookplaceonthewestside

This change in the design approach resulted in considerable timesavings and increased accuracy.
Approximately3weeksofmodelingtimeonSAP2000wassavedandtheaccuracyoftheSAPmodel
wasimprovedastheTeklamodelisanexactasbuiltmodel.Aconsiderableamountoftimewasalso
savedindraftingastheplanandelevationdrawingswereexportedfromTeklatoAutoCADforthe
additionofnotesandforces.Somechallengeshoweversurfacedduringthetransferofthemodels
betweenthedifferentsoftware.Thesechallenges involved settinguptheTeklamodelcorrectlyto
enableasmoothexporttoboththeanalysissoftwareandAutoCAD.FortheSAPtransfer,theteam
had to make sure that the members were all modeled oncentre with their joints all intersecting
becauseiftheywereoffset,thestructurewouldnotbeanalysedcorrectly.FortheAutoCADtransfer
the team had to make sure that the pen types for the drawings were mapped correctly between
TeklaandAutoCAD.Oncethesestepsweretaken,theprocesswasfairlysmooth.

96

InformationAddedtotheStructuralBIM
Each truss member has an axial and a shear force. These forces needed to be relayed to the
fabricatorinorderforthemtodesignconnectionsatthesejoints.Theseforcesareusuallygivenon
elevationdrawings.SincetheelevationdrawingswerebeingexportedfromtheBIM,thestructural
modelerdecidedtoaddthisinformationtoeachmemberinthemodelusingtwoattributestoshow
theforceateachendofthemember(Figure68).Theseforceswouldthenbecalledupautomatically
ontheelevationdrawings(Figure69).

Endofmember

Typeofforce:
Tension

Startofmember
Forceatstartof
member

Forceatendof
member

Figure68:ForcesaddedtocertainmembersinthemodelintheBeamPropertiesdialoguebox.

97

Forcesinputtedin
themodelarecalled
uponthedrawing

Figure69:Elevationdrawingshowinghowtheforceswereaddedautomaticallyoneachmember.

InformationwasalsoaddedtotheTeklamodelforthepurposeoffilteringtohelpmakeiteasierto
add certain elements on the drawings and in the model, and to identify member types and
percentage of model completion. In terms of the drawings, truss names were given to certain
trusses(e.g.T51)(Figure70)thatcouldbecalledupontrusselevationdrawings(Figure71)andon
atrussplan(Figure72)showingeachtrusslocation.Intermsofthemodel,datawasinputinthe
attributesof eachmemberinTekla showing whereeachmembercamefrom(e.g.somemembers
camefromtheSAPanalysismodelandsomememberscamefromotheranalysismodels)(Figure73)
Thesememberscouldlaterbefilteredeasilytoexporttovariousanalysisanddesignsoftware.The
last information that was added in terms of filters was colours. Colours were used for various
purposessuchasdifferentiatingbetweenmembertypeslike beams,columns,etc.,orfor showing
completionofthemodel(Figure74).Toshowcompletion,theteamusedyellowtorepresentupto
date member size and geometry, and all other colours to represent members that still required
updating.

98

Nameof
highlighted
Truss

Figure70:Namesweregiventotrussesinthemodelthatcouldthenbecalledupautomaticallyonatruss
elevationandtrussschedule.

Locationof
thetruss

Nameof
thetruss

Figure 71: Example of a truss elevation showing the name of the truss and where it is located. The truss
nameandlocationappearedautomaticallyondrawingsusingspecificattributesaddedtothemodel.

99

Names of
Trusses:T
61, T66,
T51

Figure72:Exampleofatrussschedulewhichisaplandrawingshowingthelocationsofsteeltrusses.The
trussnamesareaddedautomatically.

Thishighlightedthat
thememberssize
camefromSAP

Figure73:Propertiesaddedtomembersinordertodifferentiatetheanalysisprogramused.Thisattribute
would help to filter members out for export to specific analysis programs. The member shown would be
exportedtoaSAPanalysismodelfordesign.

100


Figure 74: Members shown in yellow represent the members that have been updated to match current
geometryandsizes.Allothercolouredmembersstillrequireupdating.

CoordinationbetweenConsultants
BIM enabled effective coordination between the architect, design consultants, and contractor on
thisproject,whichwascriticalforthetimelydeliveryofthisfacility.
StructuralandArchitecturalCoordination
Therewasopenandefficientcommunicationandcoordinationbetweenthestructuralengineerand
thearchitect.Figure75presentsasnapshotofthearchitects3Dmodeloftheroofgeometry.Itwas
alargebenefittohaveopensharingofmodelsbetweenthetwoconsultantsasthisisoftennotthe
case on other projects. The process of sharing the models involved the architect initially creating
their model in Revit Architecture. Once created, they would export their model in a 3D drawing
format (dwg) which could be then imported into the Tekla Structures model. The architect would
alsosenda2Ddrawingwithkeyworkpointsinorderforthestructuralengineertonotonlylineup
the model, but also double check the workpoints. Once the model was imported correctly, the
structural engineer used it as a reference surface in order to model their structural frame. This
process would go through multiple iterations as the design evolved. Throughout the process, the
architect would also import an exported 3D drawing of the structure, which they would use to
compareandintegratewiththeirowndesign.

Figure75:Architects3Dplanemodelwhichtheengineersalignedtheirmembersto.

101

StructurralandMech
hanicalCoord
dination
The mecchanical enggineers used
d 2D and 3D
D software. The
T 3D softw
ware used did
d not havee a good
interfaceeforimporttinglargemo
odels,andaasaresult,theyhadtorresorttousiingthe2Dstructural
plans in
nstead of takking advantaage of the 3D
3 structuraal model. Ho
owever, theyy were ablee to take
advantageofthe3D
Dstructural modelbyco
omparingtheeir3Dmech
hanicallayou
utwiththestructural
model in Navisworkks. The mecchanical trad
de Fred Welsh continueed with the 3D modelin
ng of the
mechanicalonthep
project,creattingmoreofanasbuiltm
modelassho
owninFiguree76.

Figure76
6:CentralPlan
ntphoto(leftt)andmodel((right)created
dbythemech
hanicaltradeFredWelsh.

StructurralandGeneralContracto
orCoordinattion
Thecontractorwas alargesupp
porterofBIM
Mtechnologyonthisjob
b.Figure77 showsasnaapshotof
the 4D model creaated using Navisworks
N
Timeliner.
T
The 4D mo
odel was creeated by linking the
contracttors schedu
ule with the consultan
nts 3D mod
dels that were
w
imported into Naavisworks
Timelineer. The model was main
nly used to plan
p
the con
nstruction an
nd erection of the concrete and
steel an
nd to communicate the construction plan and schedule to
o all the sub
bcontractors on the
project. Further, thee 4D model was used in
n a number of other waays includingg the plannin
ng of the
installation of the green
g
roof and identifyin
ng the temp
porary bracin
ng requirements throughout the
erection
n of the buillding. The general contractor also used
u
Navisw
works clash detective
d
to
o identify
conflictssbetweenth
hearchitectu
uralandstruccturalmodellsandthemechanicaltraadesmodel..

Figure77
7:4DmodelccreatedinNavvisworks.

102

Quantitytakeoff(structuralonly)
Performingquantitytakeoffisatimeconsumingprocessthatisparticularlychalleningoncomplex
projectssuchastheconventioncentre.Onthisprojectthestructuralengineerwasabletousethe
Teklastructuralmodeltogeneratelistsofsizesandweightsofsteelinanyspecificareaofthemodel
atanygiventime,whichwasbeneficialforowner,thestructuralengineer,andthecostestimating
consultant. A report could be generated at any time that would provide the breakdown of each
members individual weight and the combined weight of all the members in any selected group
(Figure78).

Individual
Member
Weights

TotalMember
Weights

MemberSize

Figure78:Areportthatwasgeneratedfromthehighlightedmemberslistingsizes,individualweightsand
totalweights.

Costestimateswerederivedbyapplyingaunitratecosttotheassociatedsteelweightsandadding
forsuchfactorsasconnectiondetailsandcontingency.Weightswerecheckedonaweeklybasisto
makesurethatthestructuralengineersdesignwasonbudget,andtokeeptheclientabreastofany
largevariations.Thedifferencebetweentheestimatedandactualmaterialweightoftheprojectwas
verysmallastheoriginalestimatorhadvastexperienceinlargesteelprojects.Theunitpriceofsteel

103

hadjustgonethrougghalargerisseinpriceup
ptothestarttofthedesiggnstageoftheproject.H
However,
from thee start of deesign througgh the time steel fabricaation bids were
w
submitted, the unit price of
steelrem
mainedfairlyystable.
4DCoorrdinationofSteelandCo
oncrete
Normallyerectionofthesteelandpouringo
oftheconcreeteforabuildingwouldbeplannedfromthe
2D strucctural drawin
ngs. On this project, ere
ection planning was accomplished using
u
4D modeling in
Naviswo
orksTimelineer.Tocreateethismodelthestructuraalengineeraandgeneralcontractorh
hadtogo
throughanumberofstepsthataaresummarizedbelow:
odelinTeklaaintosegmentsthat
1. Thestructurralengineerinitiallyhadtodivideupthesteelmo
matchedtheezonesofsteelerection(Figure79).Theengineeeralsomodeeledtheconccretein
zonesprevio
ouslydefined
dbytheconttractorbasedonplanned
dpours.
2. Thestructurralengineerexportedtheeindividualssegments(stteelandconcrete)oftheeir3D
modelintoaaformatsup
pportedbyNavisworksTiimeliner.
3. Atotalof13
30modelsweerethenimp
portedintoN
Navisworksaandlinkedto
oascheduletthat
consistedoffboththesteeelerectionschedule(crreatedbytheesteelfabriccator)andthe
concretepourschedule(createdbytheGeneralContractor)forcreationofthe4Dm
model
(Figure80).

D
Division#
aassignedto
ssteel

Figure79
9:Divisionnumberswereaassignedtoth
hesteelinTekklaStructuresstosupporte
exportingto
NavisworksTimelinerrfor4Dmode
elingofsteelaandconcretework.

104

Figure80
0:4Dvisualizaationshowingg:(1)twozon
nesofsteelerrected;(2)approximatelyh
halfthesteelstructure
andconccretepoursco
onstructed;(3
3)thecompletionoftheste
eelandconcrretestructure
e.

105

4DAnalysisforTem
mporaryBraccing
engineerusin
ngthe4Dm
modeltoreviiewthestructurefor
Thefinaalstageconssistedofthestructurale
stability purposes.TThistaskinvo
olvedreview
wingthemod
delatdiffere
enttimesdurringtheconsstruction
period to
t establish when tempo
orary bracing was required for main
ntaining the structures stability.
Therequ
uirementsfo
ortemporaryybracingwerecommunicatedthrouggh2Dmarkeedupviewpo
ointsthat
wereexporteddirecctlyfromthe4Dmodel(FFigure81).

Lateral bracing
d
required

Figure81
1:Engineerstepsthroughtthe4Dmodelltoidentifyw
wheretemporrarylateralbrracingisrequiired
duringco
onstruction.

Issuingtthe3DStruccturalModell
Issuingtthestructuraalmodelinvvolvedaveryysystematiccprocessthaatincludedttrackingmem
mbersby
phase numbers,
n
collours, and isssue numbers. These iteems were keey in maintaaining a fastttracked
paceontheproject.
owingprocessswasfollow
wedinordertoissuethe3Dstructuraalmodel:
Thefollo

1. Enggineercreateesthemodellwithcorrecctsizesandggeometry
2. Enggineerreleassesthemodeelindefinedsectorsforssteeldetailerrstoconnecttandcreateshop
drawings
3. Mo
odelistrackeedusingnum
merousmetho
odsincludinggphases,collours,andasectorlayou
utand
issu
uenumbersw
whichwillbeediscussedffurther:
Phases:Each
hmemberin
nthemodelh
hadaphaseaddedtoitttokeeptrackkofthechan
ngesthat
occurred sin
nce the prevvious issue, such as phaase 1 = delleted memb
ber, phase 2
2 = new
member,ph
hase3=pro
ofilechanged
d,etc.(Figurre82).
Colours:Dueetothefasttrackednattureofthisp
project,thed
designwasb
brokenupan
ndissued
in smaller packages th
hat were co
olourcoded to identify the status of design ffor each
member.Th
hiscolourco
odedstatus indicatedwh
hichmemberswerecorrrect,whichm
members
were almosst complete (correctly sized memb
bers with in
ncorrect geo
ometry), an
nd which
members were
w
on hold
d (members with incorrrect sizes an
nd geometryy) (Figure 83
3). These

106

colours gave the detailers a clear visual of which members could be worked on (finalized
members), which members could be used for material takeoff (almost complete), and
whichmembersmustbeleftuntouched(onhold).Themostimportantpartofthiscolour
codingschemewasthemembersthatwerecorrectlysizedwithincorrectgeometry.These
members were crucial because the sizes enabled the detailer/fabricator to order the steel
longbeforeitgotdetailedensuringmaterialavailability.
SectorLayout:asectorlayoutwasfirstestablishedshowingwhichareaswouldbereleased
at a specific point in time (Figure 84). The sector layout shows what steel is released in a
specificsector(issue).Thesimpleststeeltofabricatewasreleasedinitiallysinceitincluded
thelargestvolume,followedbythesmalleramountofmorecomplexpiecesofsteel.
Sector Issue Numbers: once the sector layout was established the sector (issue) numbers
wereassignedtothememberswithineachspecifiedsector.Thesenumberswereinputinto
thememberspropertiesinaspecifiedattributeboxtitledissue#(Figure85).Byentering
the issue number in the attribute boxes of a group of members you can easily select a
certainsectorusingaselectfilterandissueittothedetailer.Themembersareexportedas
a small Tekla model that the detailer can import into their large Tekla model. Also using
filters,youcanidentifyifthereareanymistakesinhowthesectorsweredefined.Thelead
structural engineer would go over each individual sector before it got issued, to look for
incorrectsizesorgeometry.

107

Phase
number

Phase
Description

Datethat
Phaseis
issued

Figure82:Listofthedifferentphasesthatwereusedinthemodel.Witheachphasethereisanassociated
phasenumber,phasedescription,andissuedate.

108


Figure83:Thisgroupofmembersmakesupasectorthatwillbeissuedtothedetailers.Thecoloursletthe
detailerknowwhichmemberstheycouldworkonandwhichonestheyshouldleavealone.

Sector#1

Sector#14

Figure84:Sectorlayoutplanthatshowsspecificsectornumbers(1,14,etc.)forareasofsteel.

109

Highlighted
membersissue
number:30

Figure85:Issuenumberswereassignedtomemberswithinaspecificsectorarea(e.g.anymemberinsector
30wasassignedtheissue#30).

VirtualShopDrawingApprovalProcess
Theshopdrawingapprovalprocesswasapaperlessprocedurethatinvolvedcheckingthe3Dmodel.
Thissavedvaluabletimebecausetheengineernolongerhadtolookatthousandsofindividualshop

110

drawings,thenfindthatshopdrawingonthesteeldetailererectiondrawing,andthencompareit
withtheengineersstructuraldrawings.
Afterthemodelwasdetailed,itneededtobeapprovedbyfourconsultants:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Architect: Checked the correctness of the geometry, which was accomplished by overlaying
theirarchitecturalRevitmodelwiththeengineeringTeklamodel.
MechanicalEngineer:Checkedforclashesbetweenthemechanicalsystemsandthestructural
systems.
Contractor: Evaluated the design for constructability. After establishing constructability, the
contractorcouldstartplanningtheerectionprocedure.
Structural Engineer: Checked for correct member size, grade of material, and moment
connectionsasrequired.

Membersize
ofhighlighted
member

Whetherthe
memberis
approvedornot
Dateof
review

Gradeof
Material

Engineer
Reviewers
initials

Commentsabout
review

Figure86:Virtualapprovalprocessforeachmemberinthemodel,theengineerhadtoentertheirinitial,
whethertheyapprovethememberornot,thedateofreview,andanycomments.

Figure86showsthedifferentinformationinputintothemodelaspartofthevirtualshopdrawing
review.Thefollowingdescribestheprocessthatwasfollowed:

1. Theapproverinputtheirinitials,statedwhetherthememberwasapprovedornot,andadded
theircommentsineachmemberspropertiesbox.
2. A spreadsheet summarizing the Engineers review for approval was created. (Figure 87). This
spreadsheetshowedthememberIDnumber,statedwhetherthememberwascorrectornot

111

3.

(revviewstatus),,listedanyccommentsaattachedtottheincorrecttmembers, andprovideedadate
forwhenthem
memberwasrreviewed.
Theesecommentswerethen
nassociatedwithacertaincolourintthemodelto
oprovideavvisual
rep
presentationofthestatussoftheprojeect(Figure8
88).

Membe
erID#

ReviewSStatus#

Review
wDate

Com
mments

Figure87
7:Reportgeneratedfromtthemodelsum
mmarizingtheereviewofeaachmember.

Figure88
8:Visualizatio
onoftherevie
ewedmodel.

Informatio nExchange
e
Themod
delsweresh
haredusing anftpsitem
maintainedb
bythearchittect.Emailw
wasalsoused
dforthe
exchangge of modelss, especiallyy in the virtu
ual approval process. One
O of the main
m
benefitts of this
process was the facct that the approval
a
draawings could
d be sent to all the consultants at one
o time
insteadofhardcopyydrawingshaavingtogoffromoneoffficetovariou
uslocations.
3.4.3 ORGANIZA
ATION
ContractuaalRelationsships
There were
w
no speecial contracctual relation
nships betw
ween the parties that detailed
d
speccific BIM
requirem
ments.Thep
projectwaso
ofatraditionalDesignBidBuild form.Howeever,thepro
ojectwas
differentinthesenssethatthem
modelplayedanimportan
ntpartinhowthisprojecctwastendeered.The

112

modelwasimportantinthefollowingtwoareas:1)theSteelFabricatorandtheDetailingteamhad
tousethesameBIMsoftware(TeklaStructures)thatwasusedbythestructuralEngineer,inorderto
facilitatethecontractdrawingsubmissionprocessandtheshopdrawingreviewprocess,and2)the
SteelFabricatorandtheDetailingteamreceivedthe3Dmodelwiththecontractdrawingsatthebid
stage to help facilitate a shorter tender period by allowing automatic quantity takeoffs and
providingbettervisualizationoftheproject.
3.4.4 PROCESSES
ProjectExecutionPlanning
IntermsoftheuseofBIMinthedesignphase,therewasnoexactplanofhowtouseBIMbutmore
ofamandatethat3Dmodelingmustbeconductedbyallparticipants.Thisresultedinmodelsbeing
exchangedonaregularbasisbetweenalloftheconsultantsespeciallythearchitect,thestructural
engineerandthemechanicalengineer.
Intheapprovalphaseoftheproject,PCLcreatedadetailedflowchartofthevirtualapprovalprocess
(Figure89)thatwasusedasaguidebyalltheconsultantsandtradesinvolvedintheprocess.

Figure89:PCLsshopdrawingreviewflowchartusedasaguideforconductingtheVirtualApprovalprocess

113

Workflows
Oneofthemainissuesencounteredonthisprojectwasthesubjectofmodelownership.Thiscame
intoplayintheworkflowsbecausethestructuralengineerreleasedtheirstructuralsteelstickmodel
to the steel detailer to model in connections and create shop drawings for fabrication. On this
project,theprocessofmodelownershipconsistedofthestructuralengineerreleasingtheirmodel
atthetenderissue.Betweenthetenderissueandtheawardofthecontracttothesteelfabricator
anddetailer,thestructuralengineercontinuedtodevelopthemodel.Oncethejobwasawardedthe
model was passed off to the steel detailer in order to create an advanced bill of material to pre
ordertherawsteel.Themodelwasthenreturnedtothestructuralengineertofinalizethedesign
beforeissuingforconstruction.
3.4.5 EVALUATION
Thefollowingsectionsoutlinethebenefits,challengesandlessonslearnedwithparticularemphasis
onthescoperelatedtothedesignandconstructionofthesteelstructure.
Benefits

Understanding the complex geometry during the design phase: The senior structural
engineerwasabletoidentifydesignissuesmuchearlierbyusingthestructuralBIMmodel.

Elimination/majorreductionofshopdrawing:Thevirtualapprovalprocesseliminatedthe
useofshopdrawingsduringthereviewprocessthoughshopdrawingswerestillcreatedfor
steel fabrication purposes. Because of the virtual approval process, shop drawings were
createdafterthemodelwascheckedwhicheliminatedreworkthatoftenresultswhenthe
physicalshopdrawingsareusedintheapprovalprocess.

Increased coordination among consultants during design phase: Working with the 3D
modelsfacilitatedopencoordinationandcommunicationbetweenalltheconsultants.

Improvedcoordinationbetweendesignandconstruction:Themechanicaltradewasableto
develop the asbuilt 3D models ofthe centralplantand mechanicalpiping throughout the
building.ThecontractorusedthismodelforclashdetectionpurposeswiththeArchitectural
andStructuralmodels.

Increasedabilitytofasttracktheprojectthroughareareleases:Thestructuralmodelwas
initiallyissuedinindividualsegmentswhichmatchedthesteelerectionscheme.

Able to identify changes in design more quickly: The visualization and enhanced
collaboration enabled by BIM allowed the project team to identify design changes and
visualizepotentialimpactsmoreefficiently.

Automaticquantitytakeoffsofthesteelstructuresavedconsiderabletime:Thestructural
modelcontainedmaterialweightsthatwereexportedandused withthemostrecentunit
costdatatohelpverifybudgetcompliancethroughoutdesign.

More accurate bids: The structural model was issued with the drawings in the tender
package, which enhanced the accuracy of the bids and shortened the time required for
bidding.

114

Challenges

Lackofclarityconcerningwhoownedthemodel:Themodelwasoriginallyissuedwiththe
drawingsatthetenderstageoftheproject.Themodelwasfurtherexchangedanumberof
timesbeforetheissueforconstruction.Clearhandoffprocedurewithpreplannedtimelines
wouldhaveimprovedtheprocessandsavedconfusion.

Clarityinscopeofmodeling:Thescopeofthestructuralmodelwasnotclearlydefinedat
theoutsetof the project. The general consensus wasthat a structuralengineer must only
release a stick model, which means only the main pieces (i.e., beams, columns, bracing,
etc.).Thereweremanydetailsthatneededtobeaddedtothemodel,includingconnections,
escalatorsupports,stairstringers,handrail,edgeangles,etc.Clearscopeofthemodelingis
requiredtocommunicatewhichpartyisresponsibleformodelingthedetails.

Additional coordination is required: Because both the model and drawings were issued
together,andonlytheelevationdrawingswereissueddirectlyfromthemodel,theother2D
drawingshadtobecomparedandcheckedwiththe3Dmodel.

Additionaltimemayberequired:BIMprobablytookmoretimethanitwouldtocreate2D
drawings for a project. However the improved collaboration, improved visualization, and
improved reduction in RFIs far outweigh the early increased time and costs in the design
phase.

Training is required for all involved: Training and experience in BIMwas essential for the
success of the project. If project participants do not have adequate modeling experience,
employmentofmodelconsultantsishighlyencouraged.Forthestructuralengineeringfirm,
therewasanexperiencedstructuralmodeleremployed.IntermsoftheArchitect,theyhad
not performed 3D modeling previous to this project, however, they employed a BIM
consultanttohelpthemimplementthesoftwareintheirofficeandontheproject.

Changes to the plan may require changes to the model: Often during the construction
phase, unofficial sketches or solutions are incorporated in the field. It is imperative to
includethesemodificationsinthemodeltoensureaccuraterepresentation.
LessonsLearned

Make sure model ownership is discussed early on: Model ownership can become a
contentiousissueifadequateattentionisnotpaid.Forexample,itisveryimportanttoshow
towhatscopeandlevelofdetailtheconsultantwillcontributetothemodel,and atwhat
pointthatmodelishandedofftothedownstreamdiscipline.Onthisproject,themodelwas
passedbackandforthbetweenthestructuralconsultantandthefabricator,whichmayhave
beenavoidediftherewasaclearpointofhandoff.

Bewaryofgrowingpainsforallpartiesinvolved:Adequatetimeneedstobeplannedfor
companiestolearnnewsoftwareandlearnnewwaysofworkingwhenitcomestoBuilding
Information Modeling. There will be times when problems arise, but its important to be
willingtopushpasttheseissues.

The contractor should be selected early. It is important for the contractor to be chosen
earlyoninthedesignphasetoensurethattheyareworkingcloselywiththeconsultantsand
addingconstructionknowledgeduringthisphase.

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3.4.6 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Chami, Camille. (2009) Vancouver Convention Centre West Broadcast and Media Center for the
Olympics.
Accessed
on
November
24,
2011.
Retrieved
from
http://www.archinnovations.com/featuredprojects/civic/vancouverconventioncentrewest/
Naturally:Wood. (2010) Vancouver Convention Centre: Commerce, Public Space and the
Environment. Case study. Accessed on November 24, 2011. Retrieved from
http://www.naturallywood.com/sites/default/files/VancouverConventionCentreCdase
Study.pdf

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3.5

UNIVERSITDEMONTRALwithARCHIDATA(QUEBEC)

Thisprojectwaschosenasabestpracticecasestudyforthefollowingreasons:

ItprovidesanexcellentexampleofBIMuseforBuildingOperationsandManagement.
ItdemonstratesavarietyofwaysthatBIMcanbeusedforanownerwithalargerealestate
portfolio.
It illustrates the usefulness of BIM data georeferenced and integrated in an intelligent
VirtualPlanroom.
It demonstrates the value of using open standards like IFC to provide an application
independentsolutionforworkingwithBIM.
Itutilizesaninnovativeapproachtofacilitatethereuseoflegacydata.

3.5.1 PROJECTDESCRIPTION
ThiscasestudyfocusesontheapplicationofBIMforOperationsandPlanningforalargeowner,the
UniversitdeMontral(UdeM).UdeMworkedverycloselywithArchiDATAtodevelopthecampus
model to supporta variety of facility management functions (Figure 90). ArchiDATA is a software
developerandserviceproviderthatoffersaninnovativetechnologyforconverting2DCADdrawings
toBIM,aswellasasystemforspacemanagementandbuildingoperations.ThevisionoftheUdeM
is to adopt BIM to optimise operational efficiency and provide better access to the building
information on campus. The Buildings Branch, Direction des Immeubles (DI), is responsible for
operations, planning and space management on campus. They manage a real estate portfolio of
about80buildingsscatteredacrosstheuniversitys700,000m2campus.ArchiDATAwaschosenas
theirtechnologyofchoicebecauseitofferedthecapabilitytokeepplansuptodateandtogenerate
reportsonmodificationsofthebuildingsonaperiodicbasis.Thisprojectisanexampleofadvanced
BIMuseforbuildingoperationsmanagement.

Figure90:ModelofthemaincampusofUniversitdeMontral.

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UdeM:TheOwnersPerspective

The initial mandate was to eliminate paper plans and to automatically generate reports for the
Ministry of Education. From there, ArchiDATA was requested to produce a BIM for building
operationsmanagement.ThelongtermobjectiveofUdeMistoprovidenecessaryinformationto
alltheusersthroughthe3DBIMenvironment(Figure91).ThereareseveralArchiDATAusersatthe
UdeM, including the building owners, thebuilding operation managers,planners, security and fire
prevention, the project managers and about 100 university staff users. There are also about 130
externaluserssuchasarchitectsandengineerswhousethesystemonaregularbasis.

Figure91:UdeMvisionoftheBIMenvironment.

BIMguidelinesandspecificationswillbedraftedtoensureproperandconsistentBIMdevelopment
andintegrationwiththeexistingUdeMrepository.Anynewprojectoncampuswillmostlikelybe
deliveredusingBIMandwillfollowthese guidelinesandspecifications.BIMsusedduringprevious
constructionphaseswillbemodifiedslightlytosuitthepurposesofBuildingOperations.ArchiDATA
willberesponsibleforperformingthesemodificationsandforcreatingtheMasterPlan.Theusers
willbeabletoview2Dplans,however,thesewillbeintelligent2DmodelsasArchiDATAaddsaGIS
layerontheAutoCADplans.
Thetask to convert2D paperorelectronic drawingstoBIM started in 2005. The initial dataentry
worktookanumberofmonthsandrequiredseveralemployees.Now,onlyonepersonisneededto
keeptheBIMuptodateandtogeneratethenecessaryreports.
ThereisnodeadlinesetforthecompleteBIMadoption.Theadministrationsupportsthisplanbut
cannotimposeitquickly,partiallybecauseoftheunions.Someprojectmanagersareconvincedthat
BIMisthefuture,butthereareseveralwhothinkitistooearlytoadoptthisnewtechnologyand
donotwanttobethefirsttoadoptastheybelievethetechnologyisnotyetwelltested.

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ArchiData:TheSoftwareDeveloper/ServiceProviderPerspective
ArchiDATA offers an innovative technology for converting 2D CAD drawings to BIM, as well as, a
systemforSpaceManagementandBuildingOperations:ArchiDATAInc.isasoftwarecompanythat
has developed proprietary technology to dynamically generate accurate and reliable real estate
managementdatafrompaperandAutoCADarchitecturalandengineeringplans.ArchiDATA'sSpace
and Plan Management Solution provides a webbased database of architectural and engineering
planswhereconstruction,property,leasingandassetmanagersaswellasthirdpartyprofessionals
canaccessthemostrecentversionofplans.(ArchiDATAWebsite,accessedonNov.2011)
ArchiDATA started about 15 years ago offering building information for space management. This
information was based on 2D CAD plans. This service is targeted for building operations
managementwheretheuserneedsinformationonthespacelimitedbywallsandpartitions:itsuse,
equipment,finishes,maintenanceschedules,etc.WiththeemergenceofIFCastheopenstandard
forBIM,ArchiDatadevelopedimport/exportcapabilitiestoIFC.Asaresult,ArchiDATAiscapableof
integratingwithanumberofIFCbasedsoftware,suchasRevit,Navisworks,andSolibri,toshareand
communicatevariousbuildinginformation.Theinformationisgeoreferencedandcanbeseenin3D
withSolibriModelViewer,aswellas,onGoogleEarth.
TheCADtoBIMconvertordevelopedbyArchiDATAoffersanalternativetolaserscanning.Withan
alreadyestablishedupdatingprocedure,theasbuiltmodelscreatedwithArchiDATAaretypically
keptcurrentwith9095%accuracylevels.
3.5.2 TECHNOLOGY
AccordingtoArchiDATAswebsite:

ArchiDATA offers a suite of webbased modules that meet the specific needs of property
managers. Hence, our clients can integrate the modules according to their management
priorities during the following phases: planning, design, construction, leasing and facility
management.
The ArchiDATA Solution is based on a proprietary GIS technology that provides a secure
Webbased (https) Virtual Plan Room and BIM (Building Information Model 3D). This
collaborative tool enables all professionals involved in property and construction
managementtoaccessbuildingplansandtechnicaldocuments.
TheArchiDATAsoftwareconvertspaperorAutoCADplansintoalphanumericdatatofeed
leasing, facility and asset management systems to ensure best practices and enhance
corporategovernance.TheArchiDATASystemispositionedbetweenAutoCADandERPsand
IWMS(IntegratedWorkplaceManagementSystems)andensuresdataintegrity.

TheintegratedsystemofArchiDATAcanbeusedforthefollowingpurposes:

UnifiedBuildingandFacilitiesInformationtoprovidesecure,quickandeasyaccesstothe
latestuptodateinformation.
SpaceManagementtoidentify,visualize,locate,andarchivespacesaccordingtotheir
purpose;theabilitytoquicklygenerate2Dand3Dreports.

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FacilitiesManagementtoidentifyandlocateequipmentonabuilding,floor,roomor
workstationeven;togeneratecomprehensivemanagementreports;toseamlesslyintegrate
andexchangedatawithexistingsystems.
LeasingManagementtogeneratecolorcodedstackingandblockingplansofspaceswith
leaseexpirydatesandoptions;togeneratecomprehensiveleasingspecificationssheetswith
dynamicfloorplans.
PortfolioManagementtoapplyastandardizedmanagementmethodtoallbuildings,
allowingmanagerstomakecomparisons;toquicklyvisualizeandoptimizeallrealestate
assets.
ProjectManagementtoallowsettingupconstructionorrenovationprojectsby
distributingplansonline;tocreatevirtualworkteamsduringtheconceptionandexecution
ofprojects;tomaintaincentralizedrecordsofconstructionprojects.
ScenarioPlanningManagementpermittingtomoveanentireunittoanewwingor
buildingincludingpeople,equipmentandfurniture(online);tohaveallnecessarydatato
planyourrelocationproject;tosimulatevariationsinunitsurfaces/areas.
LiveWayfindingtogeneratearouteforauserorvisitorthatwishestobedirectedtoa
service,departmentorroom;tofacilitatetheupdatingofyoursignagesystemwith
ArchiDATAsSpaceManagementModule;tolinkyourcalendarofactivitiestotheinteractive
signagesystem.

The UdeM was mainly interested in the functionality related to operating and managing their
campus, which included: Unified Building and Facilities Information, Space Management, Facilities
Management, and Scenario Planning Management. The Project Management Module will also be
partiallyusedfornewconstructionprojectsattheuniversityinthenearfuture.
TheArchiDATAplatformisinstalledonaserver,wherealltheplansandmodelsoftheVirtualPlan
Roomarealsostored.Thosewhoinputinformationintothesystemrequirecopiesoftheprogram
installedontheirmachines.Others,whoareonlyinterestedinviewingtheinformation,haveaccess
fromanywhereintheworldaslongastheyhaveaninternetconnection.
TwomodulesoftheArchiDATAplatformarereviewedinthiscasestudy:
TheIntelligentVirtualPlanRoom
TheSpaceandFacilitiesManagementModule
TheVirtualPlanRoom
The Intelligent Virtual Plan Room is a structured archiving system that includes plans from all
disciplines.Itoffersasearchenginesothatinformationcanbeidentifiedandlocatedeasily.Initially
2D CAD drawings are converted to intelligent 2D CAD drawings. Intelligent information is
manually added to the drawings, which includes space zones, smart tags for equipment, and fire
protection systems. These 2D intelligent drawings are then combined using ArchiDATA into a 3D
model by providing some further user input, such as the height between the floors. The model is
thengeoreferencedanduploadedtoGoogleEarthonaprivateserver.Thisinformationcanthen
beusedforbuildingmanagementusingMaximo,forprojectmanagementusingPrimavera,andfor
designandconstructionmanagementusingRevit,forexample.

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Allexistingpaperdrrawings,AutoCADdrawin
ngs(.dwg),aandBIMmodelsareorgaanizedintheeVirtual
PlanRoo
om(Figure 92).Access totheVirtualPlanRoom
missecured
dandspecifiicrightsare givento
each useer regardingg data they can
c view or use. The 3D
D IFC modelss created byy ArchiDATA are also
included
dintheVirtu
ualPlanRoom
m,asshowninFigure93.

Figure92
2:VirtualPlanRoom:doccumentstose
elect(left)and
dinformationontheselectteddocument(right)

Figure93
3:Createdmo
odelsareuplo
oadedintheVirtualPlanR
Room

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The IFCbased BIM is created based on the extracted data. The building objects are organized
according to Uniformat. The object classes comply with the IFC standard. The hierarchy of
informationallowsnavigationthroughacomplexfacilityatvariouslevels:building,zone,roomand
evenasinglepieceoffurnitureorequipment(Figure94).ThemodelscanbeviewedwiththeSolibri
ModelVieweratthevariouslevelsofdetail(Figure95andFigure96).

Figure94:Hierarchyofspacesinabuilding

Figure95:Viewofapavilion(spaces)

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Figure96:Viewofthespacesofascientificlaboratory.

Themodelsarepositionedrelativetooneanotherwiththehelpofgeoreferencing(Figure90and
Figure97).

Figure97:OverviewofthemaincampusofUniversitdeMontralinGoogleEarth

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BuildingOperationManagement
ThebuildingcanbemanagedthroughtheArchiDATASolutionwhichprovidesinformationatvarious
levelsofdetail.Asearchengineandhyperlinksareavailableforeasynavigation.Theplansandthe
models contain hyperlinks to other relevant documents such as data sheets, photos, and
specifications.Thisallowsthedocumentandmodelstobesmallerinsizeandfastertouseandthe
supplementaryinformationavailableasexternalreferenceifneeded(Figure98).

Figure98:Hyperlinksexistforaccesstofurtherinformation(left);informationdisplayedasrequired(right).

Pictures taken in certain areas of the buildings are another example of the type of information
accessiblethroughhyperlinks(Figure99).

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Figure99:Apictureofthebuildinginterioraccessiblefromthemodelthroughahyperlink.

The ArchiDATA Solution is capable of generating various reports (Figure 100). The users at the
UniversitdeMontralusethisfeaturemainlytogeneratereportsfortheMinistryofEducationof
Quebec.

Figure100:Areportprovidingalistofselectedspaces.

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AnotherinterestinguseoftheArchiDATASolutionisthescenariostool.Ascenarioiscreatedfor
eachmodification(e.g.construction)andtheoriginalplansandmodelsarekeptforreference.After
completionofthemodification,themainmodelandtheMasterPlanareupdated.
OwnerRequirements
TheOwnerhasrequestedspecificterminologyfromtheMinistryofEducationandspacecategories
definedbytheUdeMbeusedonthedrawingsandinthemodels.Theuniversityisalsoplanningto
use BIM for future projects. Specifications and guidelines will be developed for submission to the
designers andcontractors.Thatwillensuremodeling isperformed in a manner that is compatible
with the ArchiDATA application but not in a limiting or restrictive manner to the designers and
contractors.
3.5.3 ORGANIZATION
OwnerConsiderations
For clients who own a large real estate portfolio, migration to a full BIM environment is a major
challenge.First,theexistinginformationislargelypaperbasedoravailableinelectronicformatsthat
are not readily compatible with todays technology. Data repackaging and transfer can be costly
operations.Second, BIMtechnologies used for design andconstructioncan also becostly,require
significant learningcurves,and are not welladaptedtoasset and facilitymanagement.Third, BIM
technologiesareevolvingandrequirechangesinworkpractices.
ArchiDATAprovidesasolutiontodealwiththesechallenges.Itoffersdataconversionandtransfer,a
data repository with a tailored webbased application to access and use the data, and
training/maintenancestaff.ArchiDATAandtheclientworkedinclosecollaborationthroughregular
consultationstohelpwiththetransition.
LegalConsiderations
OneofthemajorissuesfacedistheresistancefromthedesignerstohandovertheBIMtotheclient.
For example, for a new development at the UdeM which was designed using BIM, only the 2D
documents were submitted to the client. As the turnover of the BIM was not mandated in the
contract,theengineeringcompanyrefusedtodoso.Themainreasonbehindthisisthatcompanies
considertheBIMasadocumentcontainingproprietarydata.ArchiDATAsapproachistoexcludethe
proprietarydatafromthemodelsusingIFCprotocolbeforeturnover.Thiswayallpartiesarekept
satisfied.
3.5.4 PROCESSES
ExistingpaperanddigitaldrawingsofthebuildingsareusedforsemiautomaticgenerationofaBIM
model. Information such as location, systems (e.g. mechanical, electrical or architectural), content
(e.g.elevation,sections,details)anddatesaremanuallyinputontothe2Ddrawings.Thedrawings
arethenprocessedthroughtheArchiDATASolutionwhichanalysesandextractsdatafromthe2D
drawings. Floor heights are entered manually and the 3D representation of the building spaces is

126

then automatically created. Plans and models are archived and managed in the IntelligentVirtual
PlanRoom.BuildingoperationsandequipmentmaintenanceisthenhandledusingtheBIMmodels.
TheBIMmodelsareupdatedwhenthebuildingsaremodified.Historyofallmodificationsiskeptin
scenarios,whichalsocontainstheoriginalplansandmodels.
ModelTransferandManagement
The main source of data at the UdeM is currently the Master Plan. All modifications to the BIM
models are therefore entered into the Master Plan. When new building designs are completed in
BIM,therequirementsfortheBIMmodelneedtobeclearlycommunicated.
TheoriginalBIM,whichistypicallycreatedinRevit,willnotbedirectlyusedforbuildingoperations
management. This is because the original BIM contains extensive data that is not useful to
ArchiDATA. Instead, a filtered model is generated containing only the necessary information. This
results in a normalized model which is free of any proprietary information. The original model is
keptintheVirtualPlanRoomandcanalwaysbeaccessedifneeded.
Workflows
Initially there were about 5 to 6 people adding data to the existing AutoCAD plans. This data
included: spaces, areas, heights between floors, UdeM and Ministry of Education categories. With
the added data, the existing AutoCAD plans are converted to intelligent 2D plans or to 3D IFC
modelswhichcanbeviewedusingSolibriModelViewer.Theusersinterviewedmentionedthatthey
donotusethe3Dmodeltoolastheintelligent2Dplansmeettheirpurposes.
Fire Protection and Security Department manage the changes in their equipment, as well as, the
presence of asbestos in the buildings. Specific information about each space is sent to Maximo
GMAOsoftware.
Someofthespaceinformationislinkedtootherlivedocumentssuchasthetelephonedirectory.
These documents often do not get updated regularly, which leaves the users with inaccurate or
outdatedinformation.Thesedocumentsshouldbeidentifiedandtheirregularmaintenanceshould
beensured.DataconversionisneededbeforeuploadingtheinformationintoCOBA,theelectronic
reporting system used by the Ministry of Education of Quebec. Before ArchiDATA existed, double
entry of data was required: once into the plan and another time into COBA. Now, data is only
enteredonceusingInterZonewhichthenautomaticallysendsittobothArchiDATAandCOBA.
ArchiDATA managers at the UdeM have already created some written procedures to facilitate
communication to the users. These include procedures for data entry, drawing submissions and
drawingretrieval.Someoftheseproceduresareexplainedinmoredetailinthenextsection.
ProceduresforUploadingaPlanintotheVirtualPlanRoom
ArchiDATAs InterPlan module (Figure 101) is used for uploading new and updated plans into the
VirtualPlanRoom.

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Figure101:ArchiDATAInterPlanmoduleforuploadingnewandupdatedplans.

Whenadocumentisabouttogetuploaded,itisveryimportanttoinputacertainsetofinformation
inInterPlan.Amongtheseinformationincludethefloorandthelocationwithinthefloor(horizontal
andverticalaxes)wherethedocumentbelongsto(Figure102).Thisinformationisrequiredforthe
software to understand the relative location of this drawing compared to the other drawings
uploaded.FurtherinformationisinputasshowninFigure103.

Figure102:RequestedlocationinformationuponuploadingadocumentintoInterPlan.

Figure103:RequestedinformationuponuploadingadocumentintoInterPlan.

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ProcedureforConvertingDatafromInterzonetoCOBA:
TheusershouldinitiallymakesurethatInterZonecontainsallthelatestdata.Alldocuments,fromall
thecampuses,shouldbelinkedtooneproject.AftersomemanipulationsinInterZone(Figure104),
theinformationcanbeexportedintotextfiles.

Figure104:ArchiDATAinterfaceoftheInterZonemodule.

The exported files from InterZone are then imported to COBA. After following a number of easy
stepsinCOBAthedataisreadyforandaccessiblebytheMinistryofEducation(Figure105).

Figure105:COBAinterfaceformakingthedataavailabletoMinistryofEducation.

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AccordingtoArchiDATAusers,thisprocedureisatleast50percentquickerforconvertingdatathan
thetraditionalpractice.ReportsareinstantlygeneratedfromCOBAorfromtheBIMmodelandany
requestedinformationcanbeexportedinExcel.
AccessingtheBIMthroughtheIntranetsystem
Various data can be retrieved through the ArchiDATA Building Intranet at the UdeM. Data for
individual spaces can be viewed as either alphanumeric tables or as graphical representation
containingsmarttags(Figure106).Byclickingasmarttag,informationassociatedwiththetagwill
beshown.ThiscouldbeinformationontheweboranHTMLdatasheetcontainingapicture.

Figure106:Occupancydiagramandacolorcodedplan.

IFCVisualisation
TheIFCmodelfilescanbeviewedusingSolibriModelViewer.Themodelscanbefilteredaccording
totheiruses,functions,andothersuchattributes(Figure107).HVACandfireprotectionequipment
symbolsareplacedontheexactlocationwheretheequipmentislocated.Eachsymbolhaslinksto
specific information, such as maintenance records, about the associated equipment. Further,
informationavailableontheintranetarealsoavailableontheSolibriModelViewer.

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Figure107:SolibriModelViewerfilteringcapabilityunfilteredbuildingzone(top);filteredspaces(bottom
left);filteredsinglespacewithassociatedequipment(bottomright)

MaintainingandUsingtheBIMmodel
The IFC models can be given to the designers when an addition to a building is planned. The
designerswill work on acommon dataplatformusing the software oftheir choice. Oncethenew
projectisdesigned,themodificationstothebuildingareaddedtothemainBIM.Onlytherelevant
information is added. The original models and plans are archived in scenarios for future use as
necessary.Theexchangeofinformationcontinuesthroughoutthebuildingslifecycle.at
InformationExchange
Informationexchangetakesplacebetweenvaryingparticipantsandatvariouslevels.
InformationexchangebetweenArchiDATAandUdeM:Atthebeginning,oneUdeMuserwasatthe
ArchiDATAheadofficetoconfigurethesoftwareandlearnhowitworks.Currently,oneArchiDATA
employeemonitorstheupdatestothemodelsonceevery23months.Thispersonchecksforany
data error or inconsistencies and ensures integrity is maintained in the system. The ArchiDATA
convertorwillautomaticallysignalanyerrorsthatitmightfindintheplans.
InformationexchangebetweenArchDATAanddesigners:TheArchiDATABIMmodelswillserveasa
starting point for new project designs. Completed design models will be filtered to remove
unnecessaryinformationbeforeuploadingintoArchiDATA.
InformationexchangebetweenthevariousdepartmentsattheUdeM:WiththehelpofArchiDATA
thereisnowmuchmoreinformationexchangedbetweenthevariousdepartmentsattheUdeM.
3.5.5 EVALUATION
ThisprojectisanexcellentexampleofBIMuseforBuildingOperationsandSpaceManagement.
Benefits
ThefollowinghighlightssomeofthebenefitsofemployingArchiDATA:

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TheUdeMnowhasaunifiedinformationplatformforplansanddataforallitsbuildings.
Allinformationisuptodatetoamuchlargerextentthanbefore(approximately95%).
ArchiDATAsavestimeandmoneyfordataentry.
Dataextractionispartiallyautomated.
Buildingsaregeoreferencedandcanbevisualizedandmanipulatedin3D.
Information about the building equipment and their maintenance records are available
withintheunifiedmodel.
TheusersfindArchiDATAtobeasuperbprogram.
LessonsLearnedandFutureRequirements

Thefollowingprovidessomelessonslearnedandapathforward:

Someusersbelievethatthesystemcouldbemoreuserfriendly.Theyareaskingforamore
definedandaneasierdataentrysystem.
Another way to improve the platform is to have a better system of signalling which
information is considered necessary. That is to find a system which obliges the different
stakeholderstousetheArchiDATAsolution.Accordingtotheusers,thisistheonlywayto
makeBIMtrulyintegrated.
They are working to automate some of the extraction of relevant data when creating the
BIM.2DplanswillautomaticallybegeneratedfromRevit.
In the future, master plans will be replaced by a BIM model as the main reference.
Coordinationbetweenstakeholderswillbemuchbetterandworkwillnotbeduplicated.

3.5.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to thank Genevive Tremblay and Dominic Dubuc of ArchiDATA, as well as Jean
PhilippeCyrandRobinBlangerfromtheDirectiondesImmeublesoftheUniversitdeMontralfor
theirtimeandinput.
3.5.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Websitesreferenced:
http://www.archidata.com

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3.6

COARCHITECTUREARCHITECTURALPRACTICE(QUEBEC)

ThearchitecturalpracticeofCoarchitecturefeaturesthefollowingBestPractices:
Integrateddesignprocess
Environmentaloptimisationofthedesignfromtheverybeginningoftheproject
Ownerinvolvement
BIMusedforarchitecture,structureandMEP.
3.6.1 PROJECTDESCRIPTION
This case study focuses on the use of BIM related tools from an architectural firms perspective:
Coarchitecture, city of Quebec. Coarchitecture specializes in the design of highperformance
buildings. Their aim is to use BIM early on in their projects for design optimisation and improved
collaboration between disciplines. Two specific projects are chosen as examples to illustrate the
different stages of BIM maturity: 1) a Building for a Biotechnology Company in SteFoy at the
beginningoftheBIMadoptionprocessand2)theDesjardinsHeadquartersinLevis.Furthertothe
BIMevolutionatCoarchitecture,wewillhighlightsomeemergingbestpracticestheyaredeveloping
to optimize the conceptual design process using design and simulation tools. Committed to
sustainable buildings, Coarchitecture performs energy and usercomfort analyses at the very
beginningofthedesignprocess,thusallowingthesefactorstohaveamajorimpactontheprojects
architecture. Specific simulation tools are used, as performance simulations are still not well
integratedwithBIMsoftware.
CompanyDescription

Name: Coarchitecture(previouslyHudonJulienAssocis).
Location: Quebec,Canada
Size:
Approximately35employees
Disciplines:
1mechanicalengineer
15architects,severalwithexpertiseinlowenergybuildingsandbioclimaticarchitecture,
naturallighting,andLEEDaccreditedprofessionals,and
15technicians.
External collaborators: A landscape architect and an interior designer are regular collaborators of
thecompany.
AdditionalDetails:
Integrateddesignprocess(IDP)isaregularpracticeatCoarchitecture.
Performancesimulation(energy,light,andthermal)isperformedearlyoneachproject.
Since2007thecompanyhasusedBIMfortheirprojects.
PhilosophyoftheCompany:
Sustainabilityinsocial,economicandenvironmentalaspects.
Integrateddesignprocess(IDP).
Softwaresimulationofbuildingperformance(onurbanlevel,landscape,usercomfort,
reductionofenergyuse,etc.):

133

o
o

Specialattentiontouserscomfort:naturallight,viewstotheexterior,glarecontrol,
thermalcomfort,qualityofair.
Optimizationoftheenergyefficiencyofthebuilding:reductionofenergyneeds
(highperformanceenvelope,thermalmass);simulationofenergyperformanceof
passiveandactivesystemsfromtheverybeginningoftheIDP;searchofsynergies
betweensystems;conceptualalternativessimulation.
Naturalventilationcombinedwiththeprincipleofairstratification.

Project1:BIOTECHNOLOGYBUILDINGFORGLAXOSMITHKLINE
Timeline:
Location:
Totalbuiltarea:
Client:
Architects:
StructuralEngineer:
MEP:
Contractor:

20062011
Quebec(SainteFoy)
3,623m,administrativebuilding
BiotechnologyCompany
Coarchitecture
SDK
Mcaniquelectrique,PageauMorelAssocis
Verreault

Context
Theclientinitiatedanarchitecturalcompetitionwiththedesiretobuildadistinctiveofficebuilding
thatwasexamplaryinenergyperformance.LEEDGoldcertificationistargeted.Theproposalfrom
Hudon Julien Associes won the competition. The exterior envelop of their building design is
innovative(Figure108),aswellastheirinteriordesign.Interiorworkspacesareorganizedaroundan
atrium that offers transitional interactive zones promoting collaboration (Figure 109). 3D
visualization tools and Building performance simulations were extensively used from the very
beginningofthisproject.

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Figure108RenderedImageoftheBiotechnologyBuilding

The objective was to design a building that would become an architectural reference for Nordic
climate a lighthouse building, which was evident from the complete transparency of the main
faade.Duetothistransparency,thewarmatmospherecreatedbytheinteriorwoodenstructure,
canbefeltfromtheoutside.

Figure109:InteriorviewoftheBiotechnologyBuilding

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SustainableBuildingStrategies
Formandorientationofthebuilding:Toavoidoverheating,thearchitectsdesignedalongbuilding
withitslong facade facingsouthallowingefficientuseof sun shading.This faadeiscomprisedof
twolayersofglasswhichsignificantlyincreasesthermalresistanceandintegratessolaroccultation
making the indoor environment comfortable for the occupants. The building structure is made of
certifiedwood,whichisthemostecologicaloptionandoffersawarmandrichinterioratmosphere
(Figure110).

Figure110:Interiorswoodenstructure(left);Exteriorsdoublefaade(right)

Ventilation:The domed roof over the atrium creates stratification of hot air, ensuring removal of
staleairandheatrecovery(Figure111).

Figure 111: Ventilation and cooling during the Summer (left); Ventilation and heating during the Winter
(right)

Thermalcomfort:Aradiantheatingsystemcompensatesforthecoolfloorsalongthelargewindows
during the winter months. The occupants would have their lower bodies warm and their upper

136

bodies cool. These are the conditions that ensure maximum comfort which in turn improves
performanceontheworkplace.
Optimisation of energy consumption: The application of thesebest practices forsustainable
architectureallowedimprovedoccupantcomfortwhilereducingenergydemand.Theymadeuseof
adoubleskinfaadewithheatconservationornaturalextractionwhenneeded.
Mechanicalsystems:Thearchitectsrecognizedthatittakesfourteentimesmoreenergytomoveair
thantomoveliquids.Fromthegeothermalwells,then,theheatedliquidcirculatesinthefloorsand
thecooledliquidcirculatesinthechilledbeamsoftheceiling.Thissystemisusedforthefirsttimein
Quebec. In addition, the mechanical systems have been designed so as to leave the roof free of
mechanicalequipment,preservingtheaestheticsofthearchitecturalconcept(Figure112).

Figure112:Interiorviewtotheroofstructure.

The principle of dynamic thermal mass can also be easily integrated by simply adding a bank of
energy (water tank or phasechange material) in the residual spaces in the basement, further
improvingtheenergyefficiencyofthebuilding,assessedat55%.
Site: the building is embedded within a green landscape as shown in Figure 113. The site, thus,
providesanidealspaceforexternalmeetings,relaxationandphysicalactivities.

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Figure113:BiotechnologyBuildingsitelayout

Project2:DESJARDINSHEADQUARTERSINLEVIS
Timeline:
Location:
Totalbuiltarea:
Deliverymode:
Client:
StructuralEngineer:
MEP:
Contractor:

20082011(constructionbegunmidAugust2011)
Levis,Quebec,Canada
28,000m2,administrativebuilding
constructionmanagement
DesjardinsScuritFinancire
BPR
Mcaniquelectrique/Roche
Pomerleau

Context
The project included restructuring of Desjardins Headquarter campus in Levis, Quebec and an
additional1,000newworkplaces.Abetterworkingenvironmentfortheemployeesisexpected,as
well as providing better public spaces for the surrounding residents through interventions at the
urbanlevel.
Inthisproject,Coarchitectureusedbuildingperformancesimulationfromtheoutsetofdesign.Revit
Architecturewasusedaftertheformofthebuildingwasrelativelydecided.TheRevitplatformwas
usedfordesignintegrationwiththeotherdisciplinescivil,structure,andMEP.
The restructuring of the campus is a good example of contribution to urban intensification. The
project provides numerous measures encouraging the use of alternative transportation for
Desjardins employees, including a metrobus station for 5,000 employees, links to bicycle and
pedestrianpaths,internalstorageforbikes,specialparkingforcarpooling,andcloseservicessuch
as restaurants, a convenience store, and gym. The project will also improve the aesthetics of the
campusbyaddingagreenlandscapeandincreasedpedestriansecurity(Figure114).

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Figure114:CampusofDesjardinsHeadquarters

TheprojecttargetsLEEDNCGoldandusesthefollowingstrategiestoachieveit:
Efficient water management: the target was to lower water consumption in the building by 40
percent.
Green roof:thenewbuildinghastwo greenroofs(Figure114).One,withvegetation,willbeover
thebasilarandextendsbeyondtheofficetower.Theotherisareflectivetypeofroofthatisabove

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thetowerwhereitwillnotbevisible.ThesemeasuresareencouragedbytheLEEDsystemwillhelp
reduceheatislandsonthecampus.
Wastemanagement:AspartofLEEDcertification,theprojectwilldivert75%ofitswastefromthe
city landfills. In addition, the new building will be equipped with an avantgarde wasterecycling
systemthatwillbemaintainedthroughoutoperation.Compostablematerialsfromthecafeteriaand
workareaswillbecollected.
3.6.2 TECHNOLOGY
ScopeofModeling
Thescopeofmodelingvariesdependingontheprojectphase.
Coarchitecture creates simulation models during the conceptual stages of the design to evaluate
different options. As the project progresses and decisions are made, the models become more
detailed. Figure 115 shows snapshots of natural light simulation performed during the conceptual
stagesoftheBiotechnologyproject.Specificmodels,suchasthenaturallightsimulationshownin
Figure116,weremadeinordertosatisfytherequirementsoftheLEEDcertification.

Figure115:NaturallightsimulationatconceptualstageoftheBiotechnologyproject:Northside(left);South
side(right).

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Figure116:NaturallightsimulationforLEEDcredit(Biotechnologyproject).

A detailed Revit model was created for project coordination and for generation of construction
documentation,asshowninFigure117.

Figure117:RevitmodeloftheDesjardinsHeadquartersbuilding

LevelofBIM
BasedonDPRs4levelsofBIM,themodelscreatedbyCoarchitecturearetypicallyLevel1orLevel2.
Based on AIA levels of detail, depending on the stage and the purpose of the models, they range
betweenLOD100toLOD300.
TechnologyUsed
The following presents the various software and tools that are typically used by Coarchitecture
duringitsprojects:

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Architecture:
Forpreliminarydesignandformgenerationthefollowingsoftwareareused:

Preliminarydesign:SketchupandAutoCAD.
Photorealistrendering:Sketchup,LightWaveandPhotoshop(forthefinalambiance).
Energysimulation:eQuestandDerob(simulationofthermalmasseffect).
Light:Radiance,DaySym,andEcotect.

Eventhoughthemodelhastogetrecreatedineachoftheabovesoftwareseparatelyforaspecific
analysis,thearchitectsfinditworthwhiletodoso.Atabout1015percentintotheproject,andonly
aftersomekeydecisionsaremade,themodeliscreatedinRevitwherefurtherdetailsareadded.
Thefollowingsectionsdescribetheenergyandlightsimulationsinmoredetail.
EQUEST:
SimpleandquickmodelsaretypicallycreatedineQuestwherealternativedesignsarecompared
basedonenergyconsumption.Itisnotthepurposetoobtaintheexactvalueofthebuildings
energyconsumption,buttooptimizetheform,orientationandenvelopeofthebuilding.Atthe
Biotechnologybuildingproject,modelsweremadeinEcotect,RadianceandDaySymtosimulate
naturallight.
DerobLTH:
DerobLTHisadynamicanddetailedenergysimulationtooloriginallydevelopedatAustinSchoolof
Architecture, University of Texas and further developed at Lund Institute of Technology. It has
accuratemodelstocalculatetheinfluenceofsolargainsandshadingdevicesontheenergybalance
inthebuilding.Thebuildingismodelledin3D,anecessaryconditionforaccuratecalculationsofthe
distribution of solar insulation and temperatures in the room and its surfaces. DEROBLTH can
manage rooms with irregular geometries, buildings with several zones and calculate peak loads,
energydemand,temperaturesandthermalcomfortforabuilding.HVACcomponentscanhowever
notbemodelled(DerobLTHWebsite,AccessedonNov.2011).
Coarchitecture uses this software to evaluate the impact of shading devices on the energy
consumption for the cooling system (Figure 118) and on the temperature of the curtain window
glazing(Figure119).

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Figure 118: Cooling energy consumption in the cafeteria in June with (dark) and without (light) exterior
pergola

Figure 119: Temperature of the surface of the curtain window glazing (oriented to the South) with and
withoutexteriorpergola.

Ecotect
Ecotect,accordingtotheUSDepartmentofEnergy,isacompleteenvironmentaldesigntoolwhich
couplesanintuitive3Dmodellinginterfacewithextensivesolar,thermal,lighting,acousticandcost
analysisfunctions.ECOTECTisoneofthefewtoolsinwhichperformanceanalysisissimple,accurate
and most importantly, visually responsive. ECOTECT is driven by the concept that environmental
designprinciplesaremosteffectivelyaddressedduringtheconceptualstagesofdesign.Thesoftware
respondstothisbyprovidingessentialvisualandanalyticalfeedbackfromeventhesimplestsketch
model,progressivelyguidingthedesignprocessasmoredetailedinformationbecomesavailable.Its
extensive export facilities also make final design validation much simpler by interfacing with
Radiance, EnergyPlus and many other focused analysis tools. (US Department of Energy Website,
accessedonNov.2011)

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Figure120:LeftStudyofshadingandreflectingdevices:themodel;Rightoccultationfromtheshading
(green)andeffectofthetablet(yellow).

Radiance
Radianceisanadvancedlightingsimulationandrenderingpackage.Itcalculatesspectralradiance
values (luminance & color) and spectral irradiance (luminance & color) for interior and exterior
spacesconsideringelectriclighting,daylightandinterreflection.Itisusedbyarchitectsanddesigners
topreviewillumination,visualqualityandappearanceofdesignspaces.(USDepartmentofEnergy
Website, accessed on Nov. 2011) Natural as well as artificial light renderings and graphics help in
decisionmaking during the building design process. Figure 121, Figure 122, and Figure 123 show
someexamplesofthetypeofanalysisthatcouldbedoneinRadiance.

Figure121:GraphicsgeneratedwithRadiance:comparisonbetweenacloudy(above)andasunny(below)
skyilluminationonanoffice(SW).

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Figure122:Comparisonsofnaturallighting(Radiance):reference(L)andrecommended(R)workplace.

Figure123:Comparisonofnaturallightingbetweenusingdifferentglassforthewindows(Radiance).

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Window
Window is open source software developed in a research laboratory (LBNL) at the Berkeley,
University of California. It calculates thermal performance of fenestration products and analyses
heattransfer.
CoarchitectureusesWindowfordetailedanalysisofthewindowglazingdependingonthelayersof
composition(Figure124).

Figure124:Propertiesofawindowglazing:tablesgeneratedwiththeWindow.

Therm
Therm is also an opensource software developed by the LBNL. It performs analysis of two
dimensional heat transfer through building products and includes a graphical user interface that
allowsuserstodrawcrosssectionsoffenestration andotherbuildingproducts,whichcanthenbe
analyzedby an automaticmesh generator andfiniteelement heattransferalgorithms.Resultsare
displayed graphically. (US Department of Energy Website, accessed on Nov. 2011) Therm can

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integratethedetailedresultsoftheWindowsoftwareandcombinethemwiththewindowsframe
tosimulatethethermalperformanceofthewholewindow.

Figure 125: Graphics generated from Therm presenting heat transfer around a window with different
colorspresentingtemperaturevariations.

CFD(FLOVENT)
On the basis of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Flovent calculates airflow, heat transfer and
contaminationdistributionforbuiltenvironments.
Coarchitectureusesthissoftwaretodetermineairflowdirection,speedandtemperatureaswellto
calculatequantityofairmovementfromonespacetoanother(Figure126).

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Figure 126: Spatial representation of speed and temperature of air near an open window: speed vectors
(above);speedcontours(below)

Revit
Revit Architecture, Structure and MEP were used for design coordination, for generation of
constructiondocuments,aswellas,forclashdetection(Figure127).

Figure127:CombinedRevitmodel.

StructuralandMEP
The structural engineers have been using BIM since 2006. In the case of the Desjardins
Headquarters, the project was originated in BIM after the establishment of the structural system.
Models were synchronized with other disciplines for design coordination and clash detection. The
MEPdesignswerealsomodeledinRevit.Allprofessionalsunderlinedtheadvantagesofworkingon
acommonmodel.
ClashDetectionWithRevit
Revitwasusedforclashdetectionbetweenthevariousdesignmodels:Architecture,Structureand
MEP (Figure 128). Although Navisworks is considered to be superior software for clash detection,
theyfoundclashdetectionwithRevittobeverybeneficialinincreasingdesignqualityandreducing
conflicts.

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Figure128:InterferencereportforClashDetectionfromRevit.

InformationExchange
The company has the appropriate number of Revit licences, but finds the price of the software
ratherhigh.Lackofcompatibilitywithpreviousversionsisalsoattimesproblematic.
AsecureSharePointsiteissetupforinformationexchangewithexternalcollaborators.Fileswere
updatedeveryFridayatnoonandwereupdatedmorefrequentlywhennecessary.
CoarchitecturemaintainsthemodelinseveralRevitversionsconcurrentlytobeabletocollaborate
withthevariouscompaniesindependentoftheversiontheyuse.
3.6.3 ORGANIZATION
Coarchitecture strives to employ an integrated design process on all of its projects. IDP is used
internallybetweenCoarchitecturesdifferentdisciplinespecialtiesandexternallywithotherproject
participantsandclients.
During the competition phase for project award, the team will sometimes incorporate the
mechanicalsystemswithinthearchitecturaldesign.Energyconsumptionandusercomfortanalysis
isperformedforvariousalternatives.Themechanicalengineeringfirmisoftenonthecompetition

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team.ThisisnotidealastheIDPprocessrequiresinvolvementandcollaborationofthekeyproject
playersfromtheoutset.
The specific requirements and the maturity of the client are extremely important for a project. A
client concerned with the comfort of the user will be more focused on developing innovative
solutions andwouldbe inclinedtopaymoreforsimulationsofbuildingperformance.Suchclients
also have a more longterm perspective on profit and are ready to invest more now with the
expectationofsavingmoreinthefuture.
BIMExpertise
CoarchitecturehasbeenusingRevitastheirBIMplatformsince2007.In2007/2008Coarchitecture
triedtouseRevitfromtheoutsetofeverydesignprocessbutfounditveryheavy,whichtheysaid
waskillingthecreativeprocess.However,itshouldbenotedthattheconceptualmodelingmodule
of Revit has been considerably developed since the 2009 version. Currently, Coarchitecture starts
employingRevitafterpreliminarydesigniscomplete.Thestructuralandmechanicaldisciplinesare
normallypartoftheBIMprocess.
TrainingoftheTeam
CurrentlyatCoarchitecturefifteenpeopleuseRevitwithvaryinglevelsofproficiencieswith1to3
years of experience. Back in 2007/2008 the company was considered as a pioneer in BIM
technologiesinQuebecandwerefacedwithalackofavailableexpertise.Now,theyorganizehalf
day courses in theiroffice instructedbyBIM experts. They have noticedthat greenprofessionals
straightoutofschoolarebothfamiliarandenthusiasticaboutBIM.Further,itseemstothemthat
thosewithoutAutoCadexperienceareabletodevelopBIMexpertisequicker.
3.6.4 PROCESSES
ProjectExecutionPlanning
The organisation at Coarchitecture is rather horizontal. Architects and technicians work together
throughoutthedesignprocesswiththetechnicianslesspresentatthebeginningofaprojectandthe
architectslesspresenttowardstheend.
ThereisaProjectmanagerforeachproject.NoBIMmanagerisneededaseachteammanagesits
modelinaspecificway.AccordingtoCoarchitecture,BIMmanagersareonlyrequiredwheneither
theprojectmembersarenotwelltrainedinBIMpracticesorwhentheclientisgoingthroughaBIM
adoption process. At Coarchitecture, modeling is performed based on a set of office standards to
ensureconformityandconsistency.
A Work Group develops the standard for office practice. This group meets every two weeks to
brainstormandfurtherdevelopthestandards.Further,onepersonfromeachprojectteamhasthe
responsibilitytocleanthemodel,asnecessary.
There is no BIM execution plan for each project. But at the beginning of each project, there is a
coordinationkickoffmeetingwiththeengineersoftheteam.Commonparametersoftheproject,

150

software versions to be used, axes, levels, work sharing and phases are among the themes
discussed.
Workflows
InthefirststageoftheIDP,Coarchitectureintegratesactiveandpassivesystemsonapreliminary
basis.Thus,theycancapturethesynergiesbetweenthevariousbuildingsystemsandaddvalueto
theproject.Toachievethis goalwithoutsacrificingtheaestheticqualityofthe architectureinthe
contextofIDP,theyschematicallysimulatethebuildingperformanceofeachconceptualalternative.
Bycomparingthem,withoutseekingtoestablishtheiractualconsumption,itispossibletooptimize
thedesignandtoensuregoodenergyperformance,occupantcomfortandharmoniousintegration
ofthemechanicalsystemintheformofthebuilding.
Definingandoptimizingthefunctionalprogramofthebuildingisamajorprerequisiteforthesuccess
of the project and often allows saving resources. This is best resolved during design workshops
(charrettes).
Charrettes are organized for each project Coarchitecture is involved in. Normally they include the
client,theoperationsmanager,theengineers(structural,electrical,mechanicalandcivil),and,the
landscapearchitects.Duringthecharrettes,SketchUpismostoftenused.Simulationsdonebythe
mechanicalengineerofCoarchitecturearealsomanipulatedinrealtimeduringthisprocessinorder
to discuss the building orientation, glazing, and sunshades. EQuest is also often used for the
calculationoftheenergychargesofthebuilding.
Insomecases,Coarchitectureundertakesresearchanddevelopmentonspecifictopicsinorderto
findthebestdesignoption(e.g.sunoccultationsystemforthewindows).
ThemodelinRevitismostoftenconstructedbasedonplansimportedfromAutoCAD,or3Dmodels
startedinSketchUp.
BIMStandards
Common parameters of the project are established at a coordination meeting at the beginning of
the project. BIM Standards are being developed for the office, containing object libraries and
templates.Thisprocessisverytimeconsuming.
CoarchitecturesharestheirBIMmodelintheconsortiumsandwiththeotherdisciplinesinvolvedin
theproject.Thisallowslatetechnologyadopterstoprofitfromtheearlyadopters.
Internally,theyhaveacentralizedRevitmodelandthecoordinationisinrealtime.OneveryFriday
noon, the members from the external companies upload their models on a SharePoint site. The
externalmodels(structure,MEP)arethencombinedwiththemastermodel.

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3.6.5 EVALUATION
Thefollowingsectionssummarizethebenefitsandchallenges:
Benefits
Basedon interviews with theprojectparticipants, themost important benefits fromutilizingBIM
enabledtechnologiesareasfollows:

Betterenvironmentalandenergyperformanceofthebuilding
Improvedefficiencyindesign
Fewerdesigncoordinationproblems
Lesserrorsontheconstructionsite
Increasedcollaboration

Coarchitecturefindsitverybeneficialtoworkonacommonmodel.TheyseeBIMasaremedyfor
thefragmentationoftheengineeringandconstructionindustry.TheybelievethatBIMandIDPbring
project participants from various companies together and promote collaboration. When observed
theseprojectparticipantsinteractasiftheyareallpartofonecompany.Theclientistheultimate
winnerasamorereliabledesignisdeliveredfasterwithlesscost.Thearchitectsevaluatetheuseof
Revitasnotnecessarilyprofitableforthembutdefinitelyprofitablefortheproject.Therearefewer
changesandfewererrorsduringtheconstruction.
Insummary,BIMprojectsaregenerallycharacterizedby:

Improvedprojectoutcomes:fewerRFIsandfieldcoordinationproblems
Easiercoordinationofdifferentsoftwareproductsandprojectpersonnel
Improvedefficiency,productionandtimesavings
Improvedcommunicationbetweenarchitectsandowners
Improvedqualitycontrolandimprovedaccuracy
Quickreactiontodesignchanges
Keepingpacewithcompetitionandothersinthemarketplace
Positiveimpactonwinningprojects
Discoveryofdesignerrorsandomissionsbeforeconstruction
Clashdetectionandavoidance
Challenges

ThebiggestchallengeforQuebecistoinvolvethebiggerclientsintheBIMprocess.Fornow,their
interest is quite low and the advantages are not yet clear to them. General Contractors and
subcontractors also need to become involved and contribute to the collaborative process and the
modelingcreation.
3.6.6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
SpecialthankstoNormandHudon(Architect)andSbastienVachon(TechnicalTeamLead)from
Coarchitectureforprovidingvaluableinformationforwritingthiscasestudy.

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3.6.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY
AutodeskEcotectAnalysis,Web,4Oct2011.
<http://usa.autodesk.com/adsk/servlet/pc/index?siteID=123112&id=12602821>
Coarchitecture,Portfolio,Web,4Oct2011.
<http://www.coarchitecture.com/fr/portfolio/administratif/entrepriseenbiotechnologieaquebec>
DerobLTH,Web,30Sept2011.<http://www.ebd.lth.se/english/software/derob_lth/>
FloVENT,CFDsoftware,Web,6Oct2011.<http://www.mentor.com/products/mechanical/products/flovent>
RadianceSyntheticImagingSystem,Web,5Oct2011.<http://radsite.lbl.gov/radiance/HOME.html>
Therm,Web,5Oct2011.<http://windows.lbl.gov/software/therm/therm.html>
Window,Web,6Oct2011.<http://windows.lbl.gov/software/window/window.html>

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3.7

CAPITOLTHEATRE(ALBERTA)

Thisprojectwasselectedasabestpracticecasestudyforthefollowingreasons:

Progressivecoordinationminimizinginterferences
Digitalshopdrawingreviews
UseofVirtualRequestsforInformation
Thelevelofdetailmodeledforselectsystems
Extensiveinformationsharingandexchange
UseoftheopenstandardIFCfileformatforinformationexchangeandcoordinationwitha
SinglePurposeUnifiedRevit

3.7.1 PROJECTDESCRIPTION
ThenewCapitolTheatreisan authenticreplication oftheoriginal1920sAllenBrothersCinema
that once stood on Jasper Avenue and 100 Street in Edmonton (the original building is shown in
Figure 129). This 2story, 14,000sf (1300m2) recreational facility is one of many projects for Fort
EdmontonPark.Itisanew243seatfacilitythatincludesstateoftheartsound,lightingandF/X.A
4Dtheatreisalsoavailableformodestlivetheatreproductions,cinemaandspeakingengagements.

Figure129:TheoriginalhistoricCapitolTheatrebuilding

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Capitol Theatre was a fasttrack project, with only 12 months from the start of design to opening
night.Constructionbeganinthesummerof2010andthefacilitywascompletedonschedulebylate
summer2011.Thebasebuildingconstructionbudgetwas$7Million.
ThefollowingorganizationswereinvolvedwiththedeliveryoftheCapitolTheatreproject:

Client:
Architect:
EngineeringLtd.)
Structural:
Civil:
MEP:
Construction:
SteelContractor:

FortEdmontonManagementCompanyandCityofEdmonton
Allan Partridge HIP Architects (now with Group2 Architecture
StantecConsulting
V3Companies
WilliamsEngineeringCanada
PCLManagementInc.
SupremeGroup

The design team collaborated to push modern methods of construction in the local marketplace
utilising BIM. In the Design Phase, a Revit Architectural model was developed, and the architect
acted as the BIM manager. Early decisions were made on the foundation design and the
superstructure.Tomitigateagainstpotentialscheduleslippage,thesteelfabricatorwasappointed
asaDesignAssistroletoparticipateintheprojectspeciallyforconstructabilitypurposes.Together
withthearchitectandtheengineer,theyelaboratedthemodeltocreateavirtualsteelmodelof
thebuildinginRevit,downtotheconnectionbolts.Themodelingofthearchitectureandstructure
wascompletedusingavarietyofBIMenabledtechnologies.
The steel fabricator played the role of BIM manager in the Detailed Design Phase due to their
experience with BIMenabled technologies, software interoperability, and steel detailing. Knowing
howbuildingcomponentswillbebuiltallows fordesigndevelopmentwhilethereisstilltimeto
explore alternatives accordingly. The steel fabricator was recommended to the client due to a
previoussuccessfulexperienceonacomplexproject.
3.7.2 TECHNOLOGY
The architect acted as a prime consultant and used Revit Architecture to build the model. The
Structural engineering team designed the building model using Revit 2010 and used SAP 2000 for
design analysisandsizing.Revit productswerealsousedtocreatetheBIMforthe MEPsystems.
The BIM was created and kept current in a Single Purpose Unified Revit (SPUR) central file with
accessprovidedtotheteamthroughRiverbedtechnology.Thesteelfabricator,however,usedTekla
andhadtocreateimportableIFC(IndustryFoundationClasses)filesforuploadingtotheSPUR.The
originalTeklafilesufficedforusewiththeCNCmachineforfabrication.ThefabricatorsTeklamodel
became the focal point for structural design development and it was the fabricators Tekla model
thatwassharedwiththeSPURtocommunicatethedetaildesignofthestructure.

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TechnologyUsed
Table13providescommonlyusedsoftwareontheCapitolTheatreproject:
Table13:CommonlyusedsoftwareontheCapitolTheatreproject
ApplicationArea
SoftwareTool
BIMModelGenerationTools
Architecture
RevitArchitecture
3DStudioMax
Civil 3D and digital scanning of
surroundingbuildings
Structural
RevitStructure
TeklaStructures
MEP
RevitMEP
FireSprinkler
2D

AutoSPRINKVR
BIMRelatedTools
SprinkCAD

Fabrication

TeklaStructures

Detailing

TeklaStructures

Coordination

AnalysisTools
ETABS
SAP2000
Navisworks

SurveyControl

Trimble

QuantityTakeOff

QuantityTakeOff2011

Structural

ScopeofModeling
TheinitialarchitecturalmodelwasdevelopedbytheArchitectusinghistoricalrecordsandwasthe
basis of feasibility studies and conceptual design. The architect, as the BIM manager, assigned
worksets within the SPUR file to the Structural, MEP, and speciality design engineers. Each
disciplinewasthengivenrightstocontrolthebuildingcomponents(i.e.workset)specifictotheir
discipline. For example, the architect was not able to move the structural columns in the model
withoutthepermissionofthestructuralengineer.Thepurposewastopreservemodelintegrityand
ensureaccountability.TheRevitmodelwascurrentthroughtheconstructionphaseoftheproject.
The Structural engineer modelled the buildings primary structural system, including pile
foundations, concrete pads and footings, slabs, and the primary steelwork, including columns,
beams, bracing, flooring systems, roofing deck systems and the primary components of the
staircases.Thefabricatorfurtherdevelopedthemodelbyaddingtheconnectiondetailsresultingin
avirtualmodelconsistentwithwhatwastobebuiltonsite.
TheMEPsystemsweredesignedintheSPURmodelusingtheRevitmodelcreatedbytheArchitect.
Thearchitectassignedtherelatedworksetstothebuildingsystemsengineers.Themechanicalteam
subdividedtheRevitModeltoeachfloorandthenintozonesforeasiermanipulationandanalysisof

156

the HVAC system. The MEP designs were imported to Tekla for constructability analysis, which
includedensuringadequateclearanceforairductsandclashfreeroutes.Inaddition,miscellaneous
componentstosupporttheMEPsystems(i.e.metalsupportforducts,lightingandsoundfixtures)
wereaddedtotheprefabricationmetalworkwhichsavedtimeandincreasedqualityandsafetyon
theconstructionsite.
LevelofBIM
This section provides information on the Level of Detail achieved in the models based on DPRs
definitionofthe4levelsofdetail.
Structural:thestructuralengineersmainlyachievedaLevel3model.Withdetailsaddedbythesteel
fabricator,aLevel4modelwasachievedthesteelstructure.
MEP: the design engineers achieved a Level 2 model. A Level 3 model was achieved when more
detail was added during the coordination phase for reducing RFIs and changes on the field and
improvingsitelogistics.
Themodelsweredetailedtoalevelthatallowedfordetailed4Dsimulations,creationof3Dasbuilt
models,andtheabilitytopullaccuratequantitytrends.
ModelDevelopment
Essentially two BIM virtual environments were setup for the purposes of this project. This was
mainly a result of having two experienced players on the project: the architect and the steel
fabricator.Error!Referencesourcenotfound.showshowthesetwomodelsandthevariousother
disciplinemodelscorrelated.
FirstBIM(theSPUR)
During the design phase, the SPUR file (Revit Architecture) created by the architect was used.
CoordinationwasrathersmoothastheStructuralandMEPengineersalsousedRevitproducts.Tekla
wasalsoused,whichisIFCcertifiedandinteroperablewithRevit.RevitStructurewas,however,not
compatible with SAP 2000 which had to be used for conducting structural analysis and members
sizing.Oncethestructuralanalysiswasundertaken,themembersizingwasmanuallyinputintothe
RevitStructuremodel.FullinteroperabilitywashencenotachievedbetweentheBIMandanalysis
tools.
EnhancedBIM
The manufacturing Tekla 3DMM model is interoperable with CNC systems (Computer Numerically
Controlled)usedforfabricationofsteel.TheTeklaplatformcommunicatednotonlywiththeCNC
machine(forcuttingandfabricatingsteel),butalsowithRevitArchitecture.WhileRevitArchitecture
providedaninteroperableplatformforthearchitecttocoordinatewithRevitStructure,RevitMEP
andspecialityproductionfiles(e.g.lightingandfurniture),theTeklaplatformprovidedthesamefor
thesteelfabricator.

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Figure130:Diagramoftheusedmodelsandtheircorrelation.
UsesofModels
ThefollowingsectionsdescribethedifferentwaysthattheBIMwasusedonthisproject.
StructuralDesignandSteelDetailing
Thisdesignmodelswereusedmainlytocommunicatewiththeclient,validatethespatialprogram,
conduct site verification, and to create 2D and 3D drawings of schematic design, design
developmentandconstructiondocuments.
One of the most important uses of Enhanced BIM on this project was the capability of structural
detailingrequiredforthesteelfabricationshop.Bymodelingthestructuraldetails,conflictswiththe
architecturalandMEPsystemswereidentifiedearlyonwhichinmanyinstancesresultedinresizing
of the structural member. This model was also beneficial in adding miscellaneous steel work that
helps constructing building components for all disciplines. Figure 131 is an illustration of a steel
detailingcomponentthatwasfedbackintotheRevitStructuremodel.

158


Figure1
131:Detailoffstructuralssteelworkth
hatwasinco
orporatedinttotheRevitStructurem
model.
ConstructionCoordiination
odelwasexp
portedtoTrim
mbleequipm
mentforutiliizingGPS
Duringttheconstructtionphase,ttheTeklamo
positioningonpiles andfoundattionsforenssuringaccuraacy(Figure1
132).Thesteelfabricato
orplayed
a leadin
detailed
ng role during the consstruction phase in coorrdinating thee building components
c
design information and sequen
nce of construction betw
ween the ke
ey trades. The
T steel contractor,
SupremeeGroup,hadtheabilityytoeffectiveelyreceive,ffilter,processsandexecu
uteinformationfrom
varying sources.Th
heywerealso
oabletoadviseonthe mostefficien
ntpathforw
wardbyreceivingthe
informattion early and exploringg different options,
o
which helped mitigate
m
pote
ential impaccts. This
process picked up errors that would have
e delayed th
he steel erection by at least a weeek when
discoverredonsite,aandthetechnologywasq
quicklyadop
ptedintoworrkflow.

Figure1
132:Trimbleusedtoveriifyanchorbo
oltspriortofinalizationofbaseplattes.

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ClashDetection
ClashdetectionwasperformedusingtheSPURwithbothRevitArchitectureandRevitMEPmodels,
aswellas,theTeklaIFCfile.Thearchitecturalmodelwasusedextensivelytocoordinatebetween
MEP,thestructure(fabricationmodelratherthanthedesignmodel)andthebuildingenvelope.The
MEP 3D components for the construction phase were also adjusted using the IFC (exported from
Tekla) model after coordination with the Steel Fabricator. Clash detection and visual audit of the
construction elements were routinely conducted. Information was quickly communicated with
appropriate project members for timely decisions, which allowed for immediate change
implementation.Intraditionalprojectdeliverymodes,onlyexperiencedteammemberscandetect
anomalies,whereasonaBIMplatform,evenmodelerscanperformsuchqualitycontroltaskstoan
extent.Figure133showsthemodelwiththestructuraldesignmodelturnedoffandtheIFCmodel
(exportedfromTekla)importedbackintotheSPUR.

Figure 133: Tekla Model (integrated into BIM) that allows easy visual auditing of all design
components
IdentifyingPotentialCoordinationProblems
Owningworksetswithinthemodelwasratherauniqueapproachtocoordinateddesign.Ofteneach
discipline works on their disciplinespecific model in isolation, with integration taking place on a
periodicbasis(e.g.weekly)formultidisciplinarycoordinationandconflictresolution.Onthisproject,
there was one model (i.e. the SPUR), which included all disciplines. The designers could therefore
seethedesignscompletedbyotherdisciplinesastheywereprogressingwiththeirowndisciplines
model. Integrity of data was also maintained as each discipline could only modify the model

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componentsrelatedtotheirowndesign.Inother words,onlyviewaccess wasgranted tomodel


components of other disciplines. Hence, not only the number of field conflicts was reduced by
coordination and conflict detection,but alsothenumber ofvirtual conflicts was reduced as they
wererecognizedimmediately,ratherthanwaitinguntilthenextmultidisciplinarymodelintegration.
QuantityTakeoff
QuantityTakeOff2011wasusedforexportingmaterialquantitiesfromthemodel.
VirtualRequestforInformation(V_RFI)
RFIs were viewed rather differently on this project. Instead of having the mindset that fewer RFIs
representabetterproject,theyconsideredV_RFIsaspositivecommunicationtool.AV_RFItemplate
was devised which relies much less on descriptive paragraphs but rather on model shots of the
conflictathand(Figure134).TheseV_RFIswereconsideredasperhapsmultidirectionalcompared
tothetraditionallinearcontractortoconsultantflow.

Figure134:VirtualRequestforInformationTemplate
4DSimulationoftheConstructionProcess
The Construction Manager used the BIM with its own worksets to establish a rudimentary 4D
approachbylinkingsomeelementsintotheconstructionschedule.
IntegratedDeliverables
Theywereabletousethefabricationmodeltoeliminategeneralinterference,coordinatedeflection
locations,whichwasinvaluableforbuildingenvelopecoordination(Figure135).

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Figure135:Integrateddeliverablesenhancedcoordinationofrelatedsystems,suchasthebuilding
envelope.
InformationExchange
On this project, the architect correctly understood the true value of BIM as information (i.e.
metadata) rather than falling into the modelling mindset. The information infrastructure was
focusedonaDataCentricapproachversusaDocumentCentricapproach.Inotherwords,thefocus
wasontheactofbuildingandnotcreatingdocuments.Havingthisconceptinmind,theinformation
availableinthevirtualworldmimicstherealworldactivities.
ToachievetheDataCentricapproach,aWANsystemwassetup,optimizedandcoordinatedwithIT.
The system only uploaded the changes to a saved Revit file back to the servers. Further, a robust
Navisworkstechnologywasadopted.
The Tekla model was periodically exported (as an IFC file) and was integrated with the SPUR to
minimizepotentialfieldconflicts.ThesteelfabricatoraccessedthecentralfileusingRevitStructure
to coordinate with the architect. Multidisciplinary BIM coordination was performed using the
central file model except for the CNC. CNC was used for steel fabrication and was connected and
interoperablewiththeTeklamodelonly.TherewerenopapershopdrawingscreatedontheCapitol
projectasitwasallhandleddigitally.
3.7.3 Organization
ThissectiondescribesthelevelsofBIMmaturityofeachofthefirms,thecontractualrelationships
andlegalconsiderations.

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BIMMaturity
BIMexpertiseofthedifferentpartiesinvolvedintheprojectisasfollow:

ArchitecturalTeam8years
StructuralTeam: 5years
MEPTeam:
3years
CM:

3years
ContractualRelationships

The architectural and engineering contractual relationship was a modified AIA Integrated Project
Delivery (IPD) anddepended on RAIC documents 7 and 9. CCDC 5Awas used as the construction
managementcontract.
Thecontractualrelationship wasestablished as a modified traditional AEC approachof DesignBid
BuildwithIPDlite.Theactualdesignandconstructionrelationship,duetoBIMimplementation,was
a fast track integrated design process. In reality, it was closer to DesignBuild relationship as the
design assist on structural steel was completed before completing demolition and hazmat, and
beforecompletingtheConstructionDocumentstoreduceriskassociatedwithrenovations.TheCM
budgetedthebuildingatSD,DDandCD.

The main difference between IPD and traditional project delivery practice is bringing on board, at
earlystages,alldisciplinesincludingthecontractorsandfabricators.Thisrequiresatypeofcontract
thatisdifferentinitsarrangementinordertoaccommodateearlycontributionsfromallparties.The
contractinthiscasestudydidnotincludesuchclausesforthisearlycontribution,nordiditinclude
sharedrisk,sharedrewardclauses.
LegalConsiderations
There is often ambiguity in BIMproject contracts with respect to ownership of the models and
drawings. In traditional practice, designers are used to own the 2D drawings produced by their
discipline, whereas on BIM projects, the ownership of elements of the BIM and snapshots of
progress in the Revit environment are more complex and require careful consideration during
contract negotiations. On this project, the ownership of all data contained in the BIMs and other
deliverablescreated,remainthepropertyoftheclient.
In practice, an IPD arrangement presents a blurred line between the responsibilities of the
consultants, subconsultants, contractors, and subcontractors. For example, consider a structural
steelfabricator,whichhastypicallybeenasubcontractorpaidbythegeneralcontractor,becoming
part of and contributing to the design. Upon completion of design, there will be ambiguity with
regards to the amount of compensation the fabricator in entitled to for design efforts. Further
ambiguity exists regarding the entity that the fabricator should seek reimbursement from. In this
case, its not clear whether it is the general contractor or the owner who is responsible for
compensation.

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OntheCapitolTheatreproject,thefabricatorcontributedconsiderablymoreresourcesandeffortto
the design phase than anticipated. The fabricator, however, was not able to recover all of its
associateddesigncosts.Weunderstandthatacertaindegreeofcoordinationandalsocreationofa
3DMM are typically part of a fabricators role. If coordination efforts were properly balanced
betweentheengineerandthefabricator,the3DMMshouldhavebeensharedthroughBIMwithout
majorimpacttothefabricatorstypicalworkload.
3.7.4 Processes
ProjectExecutionPlanning
Theestablishedprocessesonthisprojectallowedforalargernumberofentitiestobeincludedand
participate in the design process. Important modifications to design were made earlier during the
design phase as all major players were present. Constructability reviews and the coordination
process proved invaluable to the project. The building models and files were coordinated and
checked by both the architect and the designer at the fabrication shop. Figure 136 shows the
differentBIMenabledinteractionsbetweenthedifferentstakeholdersonthisproject.

Figure136:InteractionbetweenthedifferentmodelsontheCapitolTheatreproject

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ProcessEfficiency
Fromtheviewoforganizationalconsiderations,theCapitolTheatreprojectwasnotsetupinaway
that allowed for efficient use of BIM. The collaborative process that BIM brought to the project
resultedinafasterthananticipatedprogressduringthedesignphase.Atthetimewhenthesteel
designwasatastagereadyforfabricationtherewerestillnocontractsinplacetoallowforthat.No
contractsexistedbetweeneitherofthesteelfabricatorandthegeneralcontractor,orbetweenthe
general contractor and the owner. This resulted in a cease of progress for 6 weeks in order to
negotiatethecontractsneededformovingforward.Thisprocesstooklongerthanthe4weeksthat
tooktoprogressfrom30percentdesigndrawingstoshopdrawings.
Further, the efficiency of the process was affected by the lack of interoperability found between
SAP2000 and Revit Structure 2010. As previously mentioned, the model components were
transferred from Revit Structure to SAP2000 for member sizing and load analysis. The resulting
membersizesdidnothowevergetcommunicatedbacktoRevitStructureseamlessly.Infact,each
membersizinghadtobemanuallyinputbackinRevitStructurewhichprovedtimeconsumingand
inefficient.TheevolutionoftheRevitmodeldidnotlenditselftosubsequentreiterationsbetween
the two models. With proper planning, interoperability issues such as this one can potentially be
minimized.

Figure137:3DstructuralmodelinAutodeskRevit
PlanningBIMUsesandtheRoleofaBIMManager
The Prime Consultant suggested BIM to the extent of their expertise and experience based on
previous projects. While the project had two BIM environments running concurrently,
interoperability and high level of coordination helped establish the roles and the extent of each
model. The Revit architecture model played a major role in the overall coordination during the
initial stages of the design. The Tekla model was crucial in streamlining and carrying out activities

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related to structural design anddetailing. The Tekla modelwas used untilthe finalstages of steel
manufacturing and building construction. The IFC exported from the Tekla model ended up being
theprimaryBIMforallcoordinationbetweenarchitecture,MEP,andthespecialitydesignsasitalso
providedsupportandsolutionstotheconstructionmethods.
Workflows
Findbelowtheworkflowsandprocessesusedtodevelopthemodels:

Architect/Civil/Structure team was involved early to design the civil, sub/superstructure


andthegeneralbuildingenvelopesystems.
Developmentoftenderpackagesfollowedtofacilitatebothfasttrackandbudget/schedule
riskmitigation.
DesignAssistprocessstartedtoevolvethestructuralsteeldesignmodelintothestructural
steelfabricationmodel.
Signoffswerecompletedbytheclientandtheteamonthefabricationmodel.
Architect/MEP team developed the fit up package and mitigated coordination risk by
performingfrequentclashdetectionexercises.
MEPteamwasinvolvedearlytodetermineheadendsizeswithnoconsiderabledetail.
Integration of rigging and F/X is possible as these specialists work at a Parametric Solids
Modeling(PSM)levelwhichiscompatiblewithBIM.
Utilized BIM for the process of 3D control and scheduling on site. Virtual RFI process was
adopted to virtually design/construct the major scope of work. Further, 2week work
packageintegrationwasachieved.

InformationExchangeProcessandProtocols

The architect created the SPUR that allowed for live information exchange by all BIM players
includingstructural,MEPandthespecialitydesigners.Eachcouldaccessandmakechangestotheir
sections (i.e. worksets) of the model based on authority granted. The Tekla model, on the other
hand,communicatedtheSPUR,RevitStructureandtheCNCmachineforproduction.
ThemodelsinRevitweresubdividedperfloorandintozonesforeasiermanipulationandanalysisby
themechanicalteamforHVACdesign.TheTeklamodeldidnotneedsubdividingbecauseworking
andanalysiswasquickenoughwiththeentiremodel.
1.1.1.

Evaluation

Eventhoughtheprocessandimplementationfacedchallenges,positiveresultswereaccomplished
duetothefollowing:
Theteam playersunderstoodtherequirementfor BIMimplementationand supportedthe
ideaeventhoughtheownerdidnotaskforit.
Two different organizations with the necessary expertise managed the BIM at different
stagesintheproject.

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Theteamplayersweremotivated,engagedintheproject,andhadahighdegreeoftrustand
mutualrespect.
Theconsiderablywellestablishedmethodologyofwork(technicalskills,workflows,etc.).
Thejointexpertiseindesign,technology,managementandconstructionoftheteam.
Benefits
BIMwasdefinedbythestakeholders,intheinterviewsession,asatoolthatfosterscollaboration.
ThefollowinglistprovidessomeofthekeybenefitsrealizedasaresultofusingBIMonthisproject:

SignificantlyreducedRequestforInformationandChangeOrders:theprojectwasfinished
with0RFIsand4ChangeOrders(2ofwhichwerecostsavings).
Onbudget(i.e.only0.5%overbudget)andonscheduledeliveryoftheproject.
Efficiency during the design stage resulted in a significant time saving as erection of
structuralsteelstarted4monthsearlierthanthetraditionalpractice.
ProcessstartedinJulybasedon50%DDmodel10%budgetatriskwasestablishedwhere
StructureSteelfinalizedat8%additionalcostwhichis2%lowertheanticipatedrisk.
85%costreductioncomparedtotraditionalpracticesforconstructionofmetalconnections,
metalframes,andothermiscellaneouselements.
Alldrawingdeliverablesweredonedigitally(i.e.papershopdrawingswerenotcreated).
Reduced Architectural and Engineering time in CD/CA compared to a comparable project
deliveredthroughtraditionalpractice.
Budgetandscheduleriskmitigationon75%ofthebudgetstructure,MEPandenvelope.
Focused two week lookahead meetings rather than chasing individuals to correct
problems(i.e.moreproactiveandlessreactive).
Very few surprises were observed as considerable coordination took place in the virtual
design/constructenvironmentwiththeAECteambeforeconstruction/assemblystartedon
site.
Increasedonsitesafetyasaccuracyofdesignwashigher.
Higherlevelofprefabrication,resultinginhigherqualityandbetterproductivity.
Nolitigation.
Challenges
BIMwasproposedasatoolthatcouldminimizeinefficienciesandreduceprojectcostandschedule.
ThiswasachievedontheCapitolProjectthroughthecollaborativeintegratedprocessthatenabled
realtimecommunicationandconflictresolution.However,thecontractclausesregardingscopeand
reimbursement were based on more traditional design and delivery models. This resulted in the
design team absorbing some of the cost associated with the condensed design and construction
schedule that BIM allowed for. The steel fabricator ended up taking full responsibility for the
creationofthestructuralmodeldetailing.Notonlycoordinationwascarriedout,butconstructability
analysiswasalsoperformedtomaximizetheextentoftheprefabrication.Thisresultedinreduced
constructioncostandschedule,andimprovedsitesafety.
Thefollowingprovidessomeofthechallengesonthisproject:

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WhiletheSPURfileallowedthedesignteammemberstocollaborateeffectively,itwasnot
compatiblewithSAP2000andCNCfabrication.
Tracking progress and understanding the changes in the model were often difficult to
understand. 2D documents were used for documenting progress and communication
purposes.
LessonsLearned

ImplementationofBIMontheCapitolprojectprovedquitebeneficial.However,thereismuchroom
forimprovement.Thefollowingofferssomelessonslearned:

1.1.2.

Earlyengagementofallessentialparties,particularlythoseresponsibleforconstruction,on
aBIMprocessisvital.
Combining a traditional CAD process with BIM is risky and should be avoided as much as
possible.
BIMmanagementexpensesshouldbeconsideredwhenbiddingforBIMprojects.
Scheduleandcashflowshouldbeadjustedtoaccommodatefortheinitialintegrationofa
BIMplatformontheproject.
InteroperabilityandfamiliarityofsoftwareiscrucialforsuccessfulimplementationofBIM.
Adequatepreplanningshouldbedonepriortoprojectkickoff.
Acknowledgements

Wewouldliketothankthefollowingpeoplefortheirtimeandinput:

Allan Partridge, Principal, Group2 Architecture Engineering Ltd. (formerly with HIP
Architects)
ScottCameron,SupremeSteelLP
ManojMistry,Principle,Stantec

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SUMMARYOFBESTPRACTICESEXTRAPOLATEDFROMALLCASESTUDIES

Thissectionpresentsbestpracticesandlessonslearnedfromourcasestudiesandothersources.It
isorganizedaccordingtothethreedimensionsofourframework,i.e.Technology,Organizationand
Process. It is our belief that successful implementation of BIM requires a balance between these
three dimensions.The following sections describe thebestpractices firstsummarizing thekey
takeaways,andthendiscussingthedifferencesbetweenwhatweseeascommonpracticeandthe
moreidealbestpractice.
4.1

TECHNOLOGY

The following summarizes critical success factors to ensure that technology will provide the
expectedbenefitstoallthemembersinthesupplychain:
1) Owner:Specifyclear,complete,andopenrequirements.Theintentistoprovideclearand
completerequirementswithoutlimitingthesoftwarechoicesoftheteam.Forexample,ifa
Revit file is mandated by the owner, this might limit the structural or mechanical
contractorsabilitytofabricatefromthatmodel.
2) Owner/Project Team: determine uses/purposes of the model. It is important that
everyoneagreeandcommitearlyintheprojectonhowthemodel(s)willbeusedandfor
whatpurposetoensurethattherightmodeliscreatedattherighttimeforallintended
consumersofthatmodel.
3) Owner/ProjectTeam:fortheuses/purposesidentifiedin(2),determinethescopeofthe
model and the level of detail of the modeling effort required to support each purpose.
According to DPR Construction (Sutter Health case study), the disconnect between the
purposeandhowthemodeliscreatedisoneofthesinglebiggestsourcesoffrustrationon
BIMprojects.
4) ProjectTeam:decideattheoutsetonwhichsetoftechnologiestobeused.Itsimportant
to understand the technology preferences of the project team to work out any
interoperabilityissuesthatmayexist.Althoughstandardfileexchangeformatsaremaking
this easier (e.g., IFC), these issues still persist. Another consideration is identifying the
necessaryleveloftrainingthatmaybeneeded.
5) Project Team: set up the necessary information infrastructure to support the modeling
requirements for the project. BIMprojects generate a significantamountofdata so it is
critical that the project team consider how this information will be shared and managed
during the course of the project. Many have found that FTP sites are insufficient for
handlingthelargefilesizesandthedegreeofcollaborationrequired.
6) DesignTeam:considerdownstreamusersofthemodel.Animportantconsiderationisthat
thecreatorsofthemodelsmaynotbethedirectbeneficiariesofthemodel.Downstream
users, therefore, may need to provide input on how a model is developed to suit their
purposes. For example, energy analysis requires the modeling of spaces and using the
modelforcostestimatingmayrequireadditionalpropertiesinthemodel.Facilitymanagers
inparticularshouldcontributetothescopingofthemodels.
7) ConstructionTeam:focusonmodelingelementsthatcanpotentiallycreateanissueinthe
field.Whenassessingwhattomodeltosupportconstruction,itisbesttothinkaboutthe

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elements that could cause field issues rather than the size of the element (e.g., model
nothing smaller than 11/2 diameter). Experts (e.g., DPR Construction) have found that
smallelementscanhaveabigimpact(Lambet.al.,2009).
4.1.1 DiscussionBestPracticeVs.CommonPractice
Commonpractice:BIMlacartepickingandchoosingaBIMapplicationastheprojectprogresses
withoutsufficientthoughtandplanning.Itisquitedifficulttoplanwhenthedestinationisnotclear.
Efforts are wasted and frustration reduces team motivation and performance. Best practice: first
identifytheexpectedoutcome,seconddeviseaprocessforachievingit,thirdselectthetechnology
(SutterHealth,R2,Intellibuild,VancouverConventionCentre).
Common practice: client requesting BIM without defining what they want (format requirements,
types of analyses to be conducted, etc) because they dont have the expertise. Best practice: hire
expertsinthefieldtohelpownersconfigureandmanagetheBIMprocess(intelibuild)oroutsource
themanagementtoafirmspecializedinthisfield(Archidata/UniversityofMontreal).
Common practice: making do, i.e. start by acquiring BIM software, asking staff to learn it by
themselves and upgrade hardware when in crisis. Best practice: (1) define the collaborative
infrastructure (Capital Theatre), (2) provide professional training and coaching to the staff
(Coarchitecture), (3) have BIM managers identify the most appropriate technologies for the
collaborativework(Intelibuild)
Common practice: focus on a proprietary technology from a unique vendor to reduce transfer
informationfrom2DlegacytoBIM.Bestpractice:(1)OpenBIM(i.e.,IndustryFoundationClassesor
IFC) permits one to choose the set of most appropriate software to obtain the desired outcome
(SutterHealth,CapitalTheatre).(2)SometimesBIMtechnologyisnotmatureenoughtodothejob,
especiallyatthefrontend.Itisbettertochoosethebestsuitedtechnologiestodevelopandthen
movetoappropriateBIMtechnologywhenitwillbeavailable(Coarchitecture).
Lack of practice: BIM is great for new buildings. However, the majority or projects are about
retrofitting, adding to existing. For the client, having two sets of technology (CAD and paper for
existing/BIM repository for new projects) to manage their building could become a management
nightmare. Best practice: (1) use laserscanning technology to map the building to be
retrofitted/expanded(SutterHealth).Pricesaregoingdownandexpertiseisbuildingupfromthird
partiestoprovidethistypeofservice;(2)acquireservicesfortransferofinformationfromlegacyin
ordertoprovidedatareadablebyBIMsoftwarethroughexchangeprotocolslikeOpenBIMorCOBIE
(Archidata/universityofMontreal).
4.2

ORGANIZATION

OrganizationisparamounttoreapthebenefitsofBIM,however,itisthelesswellmanagedofthe
three dimensions,particularly forCanadian projects. As assertedin the NIST reportonthe costof
interoperability,themostimportantbenefitofBIMisforthemanagementofthefacilities.Andas
indicatedbypeoplefromthesupplychainduringtheinterviews,itistheclientwhobenefitsfrom
theuseofBIMwithinthedesignandconstructionprocess.Therefore,bestpracticesformaximizing
BIMoutcomesare:

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1) Owner: rethink the organizational structure/practices for managing its construction


projectsandrealestateportfolio.Ownersupportandleadershipiscriticalforensuringthat
BIMprojectsarestructuredinawaythatbothoptimizesBIMfortheprojectlifecycleand
thelongtermuseoftheBIMmodelforfacilitiesmanagement.
2) Owner/ProjectTeam:earlyinvolvementofallkeydisciplinesisessential.Tooptimizethe
downstreamusesofthemodel,allkeydisciplinesshouldprovideinputonitsdevelopment,
including the contractor, major subtrades and members of the facility management team
thatwillbemaintainingthebuiltfacility.
3) Owner: create the appropriate context for collaborative BIM. Team members should be
incentivized to collaborate. Proper consideration is required in terms of compensation
schemes and contracts should be developed to support a collaborative BIM process (e.g.,
IPD).
4) Owner/Project Team: rethink the assignment of modeling responsibilities. Often, the
models created by consultants are not suitable for construction uses. For example, the
models created by mechanical consultants may not support fabrication by mechanical
contractors,significantlylimitingthebenefitsofthemodel.AccordingtoDPRConstruction,
WHOcreatestheBIMisasimportantasWHATyouwanttomodel(Lambet.al.,2009).
5) Owner: ensure that all the members of the project team have an appropriate level of
maturityintheuseofcollaborativeBIM.Ataminimum,limitthenumberoffirmsthatare
new to BIM, and ensure proper training is provided to those firms that are just getting
started.
6) Owner/supply chain: consider training, learning curve and resistance to change. The
transitionfromatraditionaltoanintegratedprojectdeliveryissignificantandtherewillbe
resistance.Theimportantthingistorecognizethatthisisinevitableandtoplanforit.
7) Supplychain:redefineorganizationalstructureandinteractionswithinandbetweenfirms.
FirmsimplementingBIMneedtothinkstrategicallyabouttheBIMimplementationprocess
withintheirfirmanddeveloplongtermstrategicplans.
8) Owner/supply chain: document the benefits and challenges of BIM. To facilitate and
encourageBIMadoptioninCanada,morecasestudiesareneededtodocumentthebenefits
andchallengesofBIMimplementation.SeveralfirmsintheUStookaleadershippositionin
thisway,includingDPRandMortensonConstruction,andthissharingofexperiencehelped
todriveBIMadoptionrates.
4.2.1 DiscussionBestPracticeVs.CommonPractice
Common practice: Solving new problems with old solutions usually doesnt work. BIM is a shared
modeltobeworkedonbyteams.Thetraditionalorganizationalstructureisfunctional,meaningthat
work is divided in a hierarchy of functions and related tasks. Also the client requires BIM but still
usesafragmentedprocurementmodeanddoesnotwanttopaymoreforthisservice.Thesedont
workwellwithcollaborativeBIM.Bestpractice:(1)redefiningtherelationshipbetweentheclient
and the supply chain through an Integrated Project Delivery contract (Sutter Health) or use
negotiated procurement methods like construction management (Vancouver Convention Centre,
Coarchitecture), (2) define a roadmap for progressive migration of organizational structure and
practicesfromalegacysystemtoBIM(UniversityofMontreal).

171

Commonpractice:BIMproficiencyisnotpartofthecriteriaforselectingtheteamorifitis,thereis
no validation process to ensure that the firms have the expected BIM capabilities and resources.
Best practice: requiring a minimum level of maturity and measuring it using independent
verification,auditsorquestionnaires(SutterHealth,R2).
Common practice: not measuring, sharing the information about the benefits of BIM. One of the
findingsinthisresearchisthelackofeffortsindocumentingBIMprojectsinCanada.Also,littleis
doneinmeasuringBIMimplementationcostsandbenefits.Bestpractices:(1)prepareandfollow
up a BIM business case (Sutter Health, R2), (2) measure, document, and inform i.e. return on
investment,reductioninRFI,changeorders...(SutterHealth,R2)
Common practice: consider BIM as solely added software to the cocktail of technologies of the
organization. BIM is considered by experts as a paradigm shift in business practices (McGrawHill
2009). Integrating BIM means new and revised roles and relationships; rethinking the chain of
command from hierarchical decisionmaking to selfmanaged teams. People fear uncertainties
relatedtothesechanges.Bestpractice:(1)managetheorganizationaltransformationrelatedtoBIM
implementationsopeopleacknowledgethebenefitsnotonlyfortheirfirmbutalsoforthesupply
chain (Sutter Health, Coarchitecture); (2) manage the transition by adopting short learning curve
technologiestohelpstaffdiscovertheadvantagesofadaptingtotheBIMworkingenvironment,i.e.
using browsers as an interface to access building information and data generated by BIM tools
(UniversityofMontreal).
4.3

PROCESSANDPROTOCOLS

BIM benefits are at two levels: increasethe value ofthe outcome (the end product); improve the
efficacy and the efficiency of the process. Process and protocols must be developed and
implementedtomaximizethesebenefits.

Owner/supplychain:deviseandagreeonsharedgoalsregardingwhatisexpectedtobe
achieved.Beingclearaboutthegoalsandscopeofthemodelingeffortandmanagingthe
expectationsofallpartiesiscriticalonBIMprojects.
Supplychain:deviseandagreeonaBIMexecutionplan.AnessentialfirststepinanyBIM
project is to develop a BIM execution plan. There are now many guidelines that are
publicallyavailabletohelpprojectteamstocraftanexecutionplanfortheirproject(Refer
toSection2ofthisreportforexamples).
Supply chain: clearly define roles and responsibilities including handoffs between
disciplines. On collaborative BIM projects there are new roles and a blurring of
responsibilities, particularly as downstream trades start to contribute to model
development.
Supplychain:manageworkflow,dataflowandinformationsharing.Duetothesignificant
shifts in workflow and the timing of activities and decisionmaking, significant effort is
requiredtomanagethemodeldevelopmentprocess.
Supplychain:managethecoordinationprocess.CoordinatingaprojectwithBIMrequires
proper management to ensure that the right models are developed at the right time, to
ensurethatthemodelsfittogetherappropriately,andtoensurethatresultsandcoursesof
actionareproperlydocumentedandcommunicated.
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Client/Project team: expert knowledge is still required to validate outputs. BIM isonlya
tool. The accuracy of the models and any analysis based on these models must still be
validatedbyexpertsinthefield.

4.3.1 DiscussionBestPracticeVs.CommonPractice
Commonpractice:prescribingtheuseofBIMwithnodefinedpurpose.Membersofthesupplychain
considerthatBIMisanextraeffort.Itisimportanttomotivatethesupplychain(andalsotheclient
team)toknowwhytheyshouldputthisextraanddeterminetogetherhowfartheyexpect/wantto
go. Best practice: shared goals and objectives are clearly defined as part of the IDP relational
contract(Sutter),orinanIPDliteorganizationalstructure(CapitalTheatre).
Commonpractice:aprojectbyprojecttrialanderrorprocessinBIMimplementationandusewith
no process to document lessons learned. Best practice: deriving standard and execution plans
already available fromuniversities, associationsoragencies, and updatethem in aregularfashion
throughlessonslearned(DPRConstruction,MortensonConstruction,Coarchitecture).
Common practice: no leader or too many leaders in managing the development and use of the
model(s). Best practice: In collaborative, BIM the project team should function as a team with a
leaderthathelpsdevisestrategies,makesurethateffortsareproperlycoordinated,andfollowthe
plan(SutterHealthandR2projects).
Commonpractice:ftpsiteforinformationsharing,whichisclumsyandlimitedtowarehousingfiles.
Best practice Coarchitecture: Sharepoint content management platform provides tracking of
documentsupdates,discussionboards,calendar,etctofacilitatecoordinationwithinateamthatis
notcollocated.CapitalTheatre:electronicexchangeplatform.SutterHealth:BentleyProjectWise.
Commonpractice:leaveBIMtothehandsofmodellers.BIMisnotanelectronicdrawingboardbuta
setofsophisticateddesigntools.Expertjudgmentisrequired.Forexample,clashdetectionisgreat
and is considered as one of the most valueadded feature of BIM. However, it doesnt detect
anomaliesandcangenerateatremendousamountoffalseconflicts.Bestpractice:formalprocesses
and procedures are in place to manage and document the coordination process. For example,
statutory clash detection and walkthrough into the model (weekly or byweekly) involving
representativesofalldisciplines(Intelibuild,Sutter,R2).

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CONCLUSIONSANDNEXTSTEPS

This report has tried to show that although BIM is quite new in the Canadian landscape, there
alreadyexistsalotofinformation(guidelinesandstandards)fromothercountries,whichareeasily
available from the web. However, context is paramount in construction, since there are major
differencesinthestructureandcultureoftheindustryfromonecountrytoanotherandinCanada,
from one province to another. It was important to us to first capture the essence of this
internationalefforttomakesenseanddocumentonhowBIMischangingourindustryintoaneasy
to understand framework; second to make them tangible through the description of cases that
outline some or many of these best practices while also presenting lessons learned in thriving to
adoptandimplementBIMinprojects.
ThisreportshouldnonethelessbeconsideredasasteptowardsbuildingamatureCanadianindustry
inusingBIM.Therearemajorchallengesaheadregardingprocurementandeducation.Toreapthe
full benefits of BIM, contracts encouraging collaboration and partnership such as IDP should be
adopted.Propertrainingattheuniversityandprofessionallevelshastobeinitiated.BIMhastobe
builtaroundtrustandsharing.Thereisalsoaneedofaculturalshifttobringcloserresearchersand
theindustry.Theindustryneedshighlyqualifiedpersonnel(HQP)tohelpthemnavigateinthisnew
business environment.Onthe other hand,researchers, in order totrain these HQP, needtobuild
thenewBIMbodyofknowledgefromthelessonslearnedintheindustry.
There are now several BIM initiatives in specific regions around the world that provide a useful
starting point and a path forward for Canada. In the US, the General Services Administrations
requirementforBIMsince2007hasbeenasignificantdriverinBIMadoption,whichwedescribedin
Chapter 2. Critical to their success was the GSAs BIM guidelines that they developed for specific
areasofapplicationforBIMimplementation.TheUKinitiativeprovidesanexcellentexampleofa
thoughtful, deliberate and wellresourced process that the government can initiate to investigate
theappropriateapplicationofBIMforpublicprojects,andtodevelopalongtermstrategyforhow
tohelptheindustrymakethetransitiontothisnewwayofworking.
InCanada,thegovernmentofAlberta is leadingthewayin its initiativestosupportits industryin
adoptingBIM,involvinguniversitiestoparticipateinthis process.Additionaleffortsareneededto
develop a strategy for driving BIM adoption (similar to the UKs strategy report), continue to
documentemergingbestpracticesinCanadianBIMprojects,andtodevelopandformalizetoolsto
helpindustrymeasuretheirperformanceandmaturityinusingBIM.

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RECOMMENDEDREADINGANDSOMERELEVANTWEBSITES

AmericanInstituteofArchitects(2007).IntegratedProjectDelivery:AGuide,Version1:
http://www.aia.org/contractdocs/AIAS077630
Ashcraft,Howard.BuildingInformationModeling:AFrameworkforCollaboration,Construction
Lawyer,Volume28,Number3,2008.
AssociatedGeneralContractorsofAmerica(AGC)(2006).TheContractorsGuidetoBIM:Edition1:
http://www.agc.org/cs/industry_topics/technology/building_information_modeling
BIMIndustryWorkingGroup,DepartmentforBusiness,InnovationandSkills(BIS),UnitedKingdom
(2011).AreportfortheGovernmentConstructionClientGroupBuildingInformation
Modelling(BIM)WorkingPartyStrategyPaper.Availableonlineat:
(https://connect.innovateuk.org/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=6842e02020df4449
881708ce2ba9ef7c&groupId=68909.
ComputerIntegratedConstructionResearchProgram(CIC).(2010).BIMProjectExecutionPlanning
GuideVersion2.0,ThePennsylvaniaStateUniversity,UniversityPark,PA,USA.Available
onlineat:http://bim.psu.edu/Project/resources/default.aspx.
CabinetOffice,UnitedKingdom(2011).GovernmentConstructionStrategyReport.Availableonline
at:http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/sites/default/files/resources/Government
ConstructionStrategy.pdf.
CooperativeResearchCentre(CRC)forConstructionInnovation.(2009).NationalGuidelinesfor
DigitalModeling,Brisbane,Australia.Availableonlineat:http://www.construction
innovation.info/images/pdfs/BIM_Guidelines_Book_191109_lores.pdf.
CooperativeResearchCentre(CRC)forConstructionInnovation.(2009).NationalGuidelinesfor
DigitalModeling:CaseStudies,Brisbane,Australia.Availableonlineat:
http://www.construction
innovation.info/images/pdfs/BIM_CaseStudies_Book_191109_lores.pdf.
GeneralServicesAdministration(GSA).(2011).3D4DBuildingInformationModelingGuides.
Availableonlineat:http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/105075
Hartmann,TimoandFischer,Martin(2008).ApplicationsofBIMandHurdlesforWidespread
AdoptionofBIM2007AISCACCLeConstructionRoundtableEventReport,Stanford
University,CIFEWorkingPaper#WP105.Availableonlineat:
http://cife.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/WP105.pdf.
KhanzodeA,FischerM,ReedD(2008)BenefitsandLessonsLearnedofImplementingBuildingVirtual
DesignandConstruction(VDC)TechnologiesforCoordinationofMechanical,Electrical,and
Plumbing(MEP)SystemsonaLargeHealthcareProject,ITconVol.13,SpecialIssueCase
studiesofBIMuse,pg.324342,http://www.itcon.org/2008/22.
McGrawHillConstruction(2008).BuildingInformation:TransformingdesignConstructiontoAchieve
GreaterIndustryProductivity,SmartMarketReport.Availableonlineat:
http://www.bim.construction.com/research/.
McGrawHillConstruction(2009).TheBusinessValueofBIM:GettingBuildingInformationModeling
totheBottomLine,SmartMarketReport.Availableonlineat:
http://www.bim.construction.com/research/.

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StaubFrench,SherylandKhanzode,Atul.(2007).3Dand4DModelingForDesignandConstruction
Coordination:IssuesandLessonsLearned,JournalofInformationTechnologyin
Construction,Vol.12,381407.[Availableat:
http://www.itcon.org/data/works/att/2007_26.content.07145.pdf]

6.1

Someusefulwebsites:

CanadaBIMCouncil:www.canbim.com/
InstituteforBIMinCanada:www.ibcbim.ca
buildingSMARTalliance:www.buildingsmartalliance.org
NationalBIMStandard:www.wbdg.org/bim/nbims.php
JournalofBIM:www.wbdg.org/references/jbim.php
Fiatech:www.fiatech.org
VirtualBuildersRoundtable:www.virtualbuilders.org
ConstructionUsersRoundtable:www.curt.org
GSABIMGuidelines:www.gsa.gov/bim
BIMForum:http://bimforum.org
EngineeringNewsRecordBIMSection:http://enr.construction.com/technology/bim/

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