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TABLE OF CONTENT

TABLE OF CONTENT..................................................................................................1
A. INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................2
B. DISCUSSION
1. How is speech sound produced.........................................................................3
2. Planning and Execution.....................................................................................3
2.1 Discourse Plan........................................................................................3
2.2 Sentence Plan.........................................................................................4
2.3 Constituent Plan.....................................................................................4
2.4 Articulatory Program.............................................................................5
2.5 Articulation.............................................................................................5
3. Sources of Planning Difficulity.........................................................................5
C. CONCLUSION
BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. INTRODUCTION
1

Speech production is a process that begin when the talker formulate the message in
his or her mind to transmit to the listener via speech. The next step in this process is the
conversion of the message into the message code. This corresponds to converting the
message into a set of phoneme sequences corresponding to the sounds that make up the
words, along with prosody (syntax) markers denoting duration of sounds, loudness o sounds,
and pitch associated with the sounds ( Rabiner& Juang 1993).
Although there has been less research on language production than on language
comprehension. The investigation of production is perceived to be more difficult than the
investigation of comprehension, primarily because it is difficult to control the input in
experiments on production. It is relatively easy to control the frequency, iageability, and
visual appearance (or any other aspect that is considered important) of the materials of word
recognition experiments, but our thoughts are much harder to control experimentally (Harley
2001).

B. DISCUSSION
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1. How is speech sound produced


The human apparatus concerned with speech production and perception is complex
and uses many important organs - The lungs, mouth, nose, ears controlling muscles and the
brain (Thomas, 1986). It is remarkable that this apparatus has developed to enable not only
the speech production but also serves other purposes such as breathing or eating. It was
discovered that various specific areas in the brain are regarded to be of prime importance for
speech and language. These are called the speech centers - damages to any of these areas
causes disruption to speech.

(Figure 1 Speech production organ)

The vocal tract and vocal cord play a major role in speech production. Hardcastle
(1976) stated that the vocal tract consists of several organs and muscles which are regularly
monitored and carefully controlled by the speech centers. The precise controlling is achieved
by internal feedback in the brain. As an example auditory feedback helps us to ensure that we
are producing the correct speech sounds and that they are of the correct intensity for the
environment. Speech sounds are produced when air is exhaled from the lungs and causes
either vibration of vocal cord or turbulence at some point of contractions in the vocal tract.
The shape of the vocal tract influences the sound harmonics. The way in which the vocal cord
is vibrated and the shape of the vocal tract is varied in order to produce a range of speech
sounds with which we are familiar.
2. Planning and Execution
Producing speech in human mechanism is a bit complex and structured. It can be
investigated from the process of speech prodection. According to Clark and Clark in
(Fauziati, 2013:83) stated that at least human need process to produce speech and he has
classifed into five process before it is realeased as follows: Discourse Plan, Sentence Plan,
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Constituent Plan, Articulatory Program Plan And Articulation.


2.1 Discourse Plan
In discourse plan, speakers detemermine what kind of discourse they are going to involve, for
instance they are going to give isntruction, to explain the event, describe an object and others.
Actually every discourse has different structure and utterances they produce. and It should
match with discourse. The structure of a story for example, consists of a setting and followed
by an episode and the episode consists of a couple possibilities. Clark and Clark in (Fauziati,
2013: 84).
2.2 Sentence Plan
The next process is sentence plan. After the speakers have decided on the discourse,
then they have to pick the right sentence suitable wih the discourse. Hey have to decie the
speech act, what to put as a subject, a predicate, an object etc. They also have to decide how
they want to convey the message directly or indirectly.
In planning sentence, speakers possess three options to pick up : the propositional
content, the illucotionary content and the thematic structure.
1. Propositional Content
The states or events the speakers talk about (the some things that they talk about)
2. Illocutionary Content
In illocutionary content, it deals with the speakers want to deal with, for instance
whether they want to make assertation, a question a request and others. That reflect
the speech act that the speakers intend to make.
3. Thematic structure
In this phase, the speakers judgements about the listeners mental state. They have to
keep track what the listeners already know and what they do not know. The speakers
must adjust their sentences to match what they think their listeners know and do not
know.
In general thematic structure has three main functions: 1. To convey given
information and new information. 2. To convey the suject and predicate and 3. to
convey frame and insert
2.3 Constituent Plan
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The third phase is the contituent plans. When the listeners have determined on the kind of a
sentence, they tehn can begin planning its contituent. In so doing they must pick up teh right
words, phrases and idioms and put them in right order. Gerally, the speakers plan more than
one words at a time and not the whole sentence at once.
2.4 Articulatory Program
Articulatory program is the next process. Afer specific words , phrases are chosen, the
speakers then put them into an articulatory program in a working memory which can hold all
the words of a planned contituent. Articulatory program contains the phonetic segment, stress
and intonation. Patterns which are to be executed in the units of articulatory program
comprises of distinctive features (like voicing), phonetic segments(like d,t,k), syllables (like
bro-sis), words (like broken) and larger contituent (like the broken promis). Clark and Clark
in Fauziati 2013: 85).
2.5 Articulation
The final process is the articulation. It is the execution of the contents of the articulatory
program. It tells the articulatory muscles what they should do and when. This process resilts
in audible sounds, the speech the speakers intend to produce. Clark and Clark in (Fauziati,
2013:85).
3. Sources of planning difficulty
Producing a speech and making a planning as part of speech production need time.
Moreover, in current situation the speakers will much more time to convey or express
sentence even a single word. Rochester has classified three possible sources of planning
difficulty based his research on speech errror. Those are cognitive reasons, anxiety, and social
reasons.
The fiirst source of planning difficulty is called cognitive difficulty. People usually
take longer time to produce sentences which deal with abstract than concrete ones.
The second source is anxiety. Situational anxiety often becomes the source difficlty in
speech plan. When people are anxious they become tense and their planning and execution of
speech become less efficient.
The finla source of difficulty is social factor. For example, speech plan seems difficult
whhen cnversation takes place under pressure.
C. CONCLUSION
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The study of language and speech production is concerned with how a speaker turns a
mental concept into a spoken utterance. In order to do this, less direct methods must be used
to gain insights into how this is accomplished. Actually speakers need thoughtful planning
before executing the speech they want to produce. The speech production follows at least two
process; planning and execution.
In planning and executing speech, speakers go though severl process such as
discourse plan, sentence plan, constituent plan, articulatory program and articulation. When
speaking , speakers take the already formulated plans and execute them. Speech goes quite
smoohly is called ideal delivery. However, not all goes well in everyday speech. The actual
speech execution is often filled with error because of intermixture between planning and
execution.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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Fauziati, Endang (2013). Psycholinguistics; an Introduction. Era Pustaka Utama


Hardcastle : Physiology of Speech production. Academic press Inc( London ).1976
Harley, T. (2001). The Psychology of Language. Sussex: Psychology Press.
Rabiner, L. R., & Juang, B. H. (1993). Fundamentals of speech recognition Englewood Cliffs,
N.J: PTR Prentice Hall.
Thomas, W.Parsons : Voice and Speech Processing . McGraw-Hill,Inc.1986.