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Energy-Efficient Steam Systems

Introduction

Air, water and steam are three media commonly used to distribute
heat to process loads. However, steam has several advantages
compared to hot air and hot water. These advantages include.

the heat carrying capacity of steam is much greater than air or


water

steam provides its own locomotive force.

steam provides heat at a constant temperature


To illustrate these advantages, consider the quantities of air, hot water
and steam required to transfer 1,000,000 Btu/hr of heat to a process.
If 100 psig steam were condensed in a heat exchanger, the mass flow
rate of steam required to transfer 1,000,000Btu/hr of heat would be
about:
Msteam = Q / hfg = 1,000,000 Btu/hr / 881 Btu/lb = 1,135 lb/hr
If the temperature of hot water dropped by 100 F as it passed through
a heat exchanger, the mass flow rate of water to transfer the same
amount of heat would be about nine times as much as steam:
Mwater = Q / (cp x dt) = 1,000,000 Btu/hr / (1 Btu/lb-F x 100 F) =
10,000 lb/hr
If the temperature of hot air dropped by 100 F as it passed through a
heat exchanger, the mass flow rate of air to transfer the same amount
of heat with the same temperature difference would be about 34 times
as much as steam:
Mair = Q / (cp x dt) = 1,000,000 Btu/hr / (0.26 Btu/lb-F x 100 F) =
38,500 lb/hr

The higher flow rates required by water and air require pipes and ducts
with larger diameters than steam pipes, which increases first cost and
heat loss. In addition, air and water do not propel themselves. Thus,
hot air and water distribution systems require fans or pumps, whereas
a steam distribution system does not require any additional propulsion
for outgoing steam and a very small pumping system for returning the
condensate to the boiler. Finally, because steam condenses at a
constant temperature, 100-psig steam could heat a process stream to
a maximum temperature of 338 F which is the temperature of the
steam. On the other hand, the temperature of water and air decrease
as heat is transferred; thus, if the heat in these examples was
delivered by a cross-flow heat exchanger, the maximum temperature
of the process stream would be 100 F less than the incoming
temperature of the air or water. Because of these advantages, steam
is the most widely used heat-carrying medium in the world.

Principles of Energy-Efficient Steam Systems


Energy Balance Approach
The figure below shows the primary energy flows into and out of a
steam system.

Figure 1. Basic steam system.


Heat from combustion of fuel, Qfuel, is added to the boiler, which
generates saturated steam at a discharge pressure P2. Some steam is
discharged from boiler as blowdown to reduce the concentration of
minerals in the steam. The boiler losses some heat, Qb, through the
shell. The steam may pass through an adiabatic throttling valve to
reduce the pressure of steam to P3. Some heat is lost heat from the
steam pipes, Qsp. As the steam delivers heat to one or more
processes, Qprocess, the steam vapor condenses. The steam trap
2

discharges condensate, 5, into the condensate return line. Some


steam may bypass the process and flow directly into the condensate
return line, 4L, if steam trap(s) fail open. Some heat is lost from the
condensate pipes, Qcp. The deareator tank pressure, Pda, is generally
maintained slightly above ambient pressure. As the pressure of
condensate is reduced to the pressure of the deareator tank, some
condensate vaporizes and is lost as flash vapor, av. The remaining
liquid condensate is mixed with makeup water, 0, in the deaerator
tank. Some heat is lost from the deaerator tank, Qda. The pressure of
the feed water from the dearator tank, al, is raised to the pressure of
the boiler by the feed water pump. The feedwater may be preheated
by an economizer, which reclaims heat from exhaust gasses, before
entering the boiler, 1e.
Thermodynamic state points of the steam in this system are shown
below on a temperature versus entropy diagram. In the diagram below
feed water pump work and heat loss from steam pipes, condensate
pipes, deaerator tank and boiler are assumed to be negligible. The
steam leaves the boiler as 200 psia saturated vapor at 2. The pressure
is reduced to 100 psia at constant enthalpy at 3 by the throttling valve.
Steam condenses at constant pressure in the process heat exchanger
and leaves the steam trap at 5 as a saturated liquid. The dearator
operates at 20 psia. The condensate at 7 losses pressure in a constant
enthalpy process to become some combination, Xc, of liquid and vapor.
Flash vapor leaves the deaerator tank at av. Makeup water enters the
deaerator at 0, mixes with the liquid condensate and leaves leaves the
deaerator tank at al. Pre-heated feed water leaves the economizer at
1e, before entering the boiler.

Thus, energy enters a steam system as:

Fuel and combustion air


Makeup water
Pump work

Energy leaves a steam system as:

Useful heat to the process


Exhaust air
Blowdown
Condensate loss
Flash vapor loss
Heat loss from the boiler, steam pipes, condensate pipes and
deaerator tank.

Fuel use is reduced by reducing these losses.


Opportunities for Improving the Energy-Efficiency of Steam Systems
These principles can be organized using the inside-out approach, which
sequentially reduces end-use energy, distribution energy, and primary
conversion energy. Combining the energy balance and inside-out

approach, common opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of


steam systems are:
End Use
Improve process control to reduce steam demand
Insulate hot surfaces
Insulate open tanks
Employ counter-flow rinsing
Employ counter-flow heat exchange
Distribution
Insulate steam pipes and condensate pipes
Throttle steam to minimum pressure required by each end-use to
reduce flash loss and conductive heat loss
Fix steam traps
Close condensate return to reduce flash loss
Conversion
Turn off and valve off boiler(s) when not in use
Insulate deaerator tank and boiler to reduce heat loss
Reduce steam pressure to increase efficiency and reduce heat
loss
Improve water treatment to reduce scaling and improve
efficiency
Descale boiler to improve efficiency
Reduce excess air across firing range
Control combustion air based on oxygen in exhaust
Operate multiple boilers at even firing rates
Avoid on/off firing
Eliminate stack effect loss by installing stack damper on
atmospheric boilers
Employ automatic blowdown control
Reclaim blowdown flash
Preheat feedwater with economizer
The remainder of the chapter describes steam system components,
discusses fundamentals needed to quantify these savings
opportunities, describes individual savings opportunities, and
introduces an integrated steam system model to capture synergistic
effects.

Steam System Components


Boilers and Steam Generators
Steam boilers are broadly classified as fire-tube or water-tube
boilers. In fire tube boilers, the boiler shell contains the water/steam
and hot combustion gasses pass through the tubes to heat the
water/steam. In water-tube boilers, the water/steam passes through
tubes and the hot combustion gasses pass through shell of the boiler.

Schematic of fire-tube boiler.


Source :
http://www.energysolutionscenter.or
g

Cut-away view of water-tube


boiler
Source :
http://www.energysolutionscent
er.org

Fire-tube boilers are popular for smaller applications requiring


saturated steam at less than 150 psig because of their low first cost
and durability. The large volume of water/steam serves as thermal
mass which enhances steady operation. However, because the steam
is generated on the shell side, the shell itself is a pressure vessel,
making it difficult to generate steam at high pressures. In addition, the
large surface area causes relatively large heat loss, which varies from
about 0.5% of input energy at full-fire to a much higher fraction at low
loads.
For high-pressure applications, it is easier to construct small diameter
tubes to handle the high pressures of the steam than an entire boiler
shell. In addition, the tubes can be configured to pass through hightemperature combustion gasses before exiting the boiler to create
superheated steam. Thus, most high-pressure applications like power
generation, which benefits from dry, high-temperature, super-heated
steam at pressures up to 3,000 psig, use water-tube boilers.

Steam generators are like water-tube boilers, except that they are
made from light- weight materials. In many jurisdictions, the lack of a
dedicated pressure vessel enables steam generators to be used
without a boiler operator. The light weight materials and absence of a
large holding tank allow steam generators to come up to pressure
quickly in a manner of minutes. This enables steam-generators to be
turned on and off as needed, reducing standby losses. Installing the
water-tubes in a counter-flow configuration to the path of the
combustion gasses increases thermal efficiency.

Source: http://www.claytonindustries.com
Deaerator Tanks
Makeup water and condensate contain dissolved oxygen, carbon
dioxide and ammonia. These dissolved gasses reduce the conductivity
of the steam and hence its ability to transfer heat. More importantly,
oxygen is highly corrosive and leads to pitting and possible system
failure. Economizers are particularly susceptible to oxygen pitting. For
these reasons, oxygen is typically removed from steam systems by a
deaerator.
A deaerator works by spraying makeup water into a steam
environment and heating the makeup water to within about 5 F of
saturation temperature. At this temperature, the solubility of oxygen is
low and the makeup water contains very little oxygen. Oxygen and
flash vapor are vented to atmosphere. To function effectively, the
pressure of the dearator can only be a few psi above ambient pressure,
or else the oxygen will be forced back into the water.

Thottling Valves
Boilers are generally designed to operate at a specific pressure. For
safety reasons, boilers should never be operated above the rated
pressure. If the pressure of steam needed at the application is less
than the rated pressure of the boiler, the boiler can be operated at less
than the design pressure or the boiler can be operated at the design
pressure and the pressure of steam reduced through a valve located
between the boiler and the application. Operating at a lower pressure
will slightly increase the efficiency of the boiler because of the
decreased steam temperature and subsequent boiler skin losses.
However, it may also cause problems such as raising the level of water
in the boiler and reduced boiler heating capacity. A primary advantage
for operating the boiler at the design pressure and then reducing the
pressure through a valve is that the steam exiting the valve will be
slightly super heated, resulting in less water in the steam lines and
heat exchangers. Because of this, some consultants recommend that
steam boilers be operated at their design pressure, even if the steam is
to be used at lower pressures in the plant.
Steam Piping Systems
Steam is generally distributed to the plant through one or more large
steam mains which connect to smaller branch pipes. Condensate is
produced and carried along with the steam as steam condenses on the
inside surface of the pipes. Excess condensate can block steam flow
and cause serious pipe erosion. Thus, drip stations need to be
installed at all low points and ends of all mains at intervals of about
100 feet along the main. A drip station consists of a vertical section of
pipe at least 18 inches long installed on the underside of the main and
connected to a steam trap. Strainers should also be installed along the
piping system to filter out scale and solid contaminants.
The velocity of steam out of the boiler is determined by the outlet
nozzle. It is common practice to design piping systems for spaceheating applications for a velocity of about 6,000 ft/min and piping
systems for process-heating applications for a velocity of about 10,000
ft/min. Lower velocities reduce pressure loss, pipe erosion, water
hammer and noise as well as providing more efficient condensate
drainage.
As steam condenses on a cold surface a thin film of condensate is
produced and any air entrained with the steam is released. Air in a
steam system steam causes two major problems. First, even a thin
layer of air on a heat transfer surface, dramatically reduces the heat
transfer across the surface (See figure below). For example a layer of
air 0.04 inches thick adds the same thermal resistance as a layer of
water 1 inch thick or a layer of iron 4.3 feet thick. Second, when air is
8

absorbed into condensate carbolic acid is produced. This acid can


attack piping and heat exchange surfaces. To reduce air in the piping
system, thermostatic air vents should be installed at high points, the
end of steam mains and on all heat exchange equipment.
Steam Traps
As steam delivers heat through a heat exchanger, the steam vapor
condenses to a liquid. Steam traps are located downstream of heat
exchangers and discharge the condensate into the condensate return
line while preventing steam vapor from passing through.
The four most common types of steam traps are:

Inverted bucket.
Float + thermostatic
Thermostatic
Thermodynamic

Source: Grainger Catalog, 2000-2001


Condensate Return Tanks
Condensate return tanks collect condensate discharged from steam
traps. In open condensate return systems, the condensate return tank
is open to the environment and condensate is pumped back to the
boiler. The enthalpy of condensate at atmospheric pressure is
substantially less than the enthalpy of condensate at the operating
pressure of a steam system. Thus, the energy released as the pressure
of condensate falls to atmospheric pressure, vaporizes some of the
condensate into flash steam, which is discharged to atmosphere.
In closed condensate return systems, steam pressure forces the
condensate all the way back to the deaerator tank. Thus, in closed
systems, flash steam is created as the pressure of condensate falls to
the pressure of the deaerator tank, and is discharged to atmosphere
from the deaerator rather than the condensate return tank.

Steam Metering
Steam metering is expensive, but gives valuable information for
managing a steam system. Most steam meters work by measuring the
pressure difference across a pressure reduction valve and comparing
the output to calibrated values. High-quality steam metering devices
for a 4-inch steam pipe cost about $4,000.

Insulate Pipes, Tanks and Hot Surfaces


Uninsulated steam pipes, condensate return pipes, condensate return
tanks, deaerator tanks and process tanks lose heat to the surrounding
by convection and radiation. Insulating these surfaces reduces steam
use and the risk of burns.

Well-insulated steam pipes

Uninsulated condensate return


tank

The method that follows describes how to calculate energy savings


from insulating hot surfaces, while explicitly taking radiation and the
dependence of the convection coefficient on surface temperature into
account. The required input variables for this procedure are easily
measured in the field.
To calculate heat loss savings, the heat loss from both the uninsulated
surface and from the surface with the proposed insulation must be
calculated. The savings from adding insulation are difference between
the uninsulated and insulated heat loss.
Qsavings = Quninsulated Qinsulated

(1)

Hot surfaces lose heat to the surroundings via convection and


radiation. The equation for heat loss, Q, to the surroundings at Ta, from
a hot surface at Ts, with area A is:
Quninsulated = h A (Ts Ta) + A (Ts4 Ta4)

(2)
10

where h is the convection coefficient, is the Stefan-Boltzman constant


(0.1714 10-8 Btu/ft2-hr-R4, or 5.67 10-8 W/m2-K4), is the emissivity of
the surface. Very shiny surfaces have emissivities of about 0.1; dark or
rough surfaces have emissivities of about 0.9.
The flow of air over warm surfaces is due to the buoyancy of warm air
next to the surface compared to the cooler surrounding air. For
surfaces a few degrees warmer than the surrounding air, the natural
convection coefficient is about 1.5 Btu/ft2-hr-F (8.5 W/m2-K) (Mitchell,
1983 [9]). However, as the surface temperature increases, so does the
buoyancy effect and convection coefficient. To account for this effect,
the value of the convection coefficient can be approximated as a
function of the orientation and vertical dimension of the surface, and
the temperature difference between the surface and the surrounding
air (ASHRAE Fundamentals, 1989). The appropriate relation depends
on whether the air flow is laminar or turbulent. Dimensional
approximations for determining whether the flow is laminar or
turbulent are shown in Equation 3. In these relations, L is the
characteristic length (ft) in the vertical direction and T is temperature
difference between the surface, Ts, and the surrounding air, Ta (F).
Laminar: L3 T < 63

Turbulent: L3 T > 63

(3)

After the nature of the flow is determined, the convection coefficient


can be estimated using the relations in Equation 4 (ASHRAE
Fundamentals, 1989 [1]). In these relations, L is the length (ft) in the
vertical direction, D is the diameter (ft), B is tilt angle of the surface
from horizontal, and h is convection coefficient (Btu/hr-ft2-F). For use
with SI units, the proper conversion would need to be made (1 Btu/hrft2-F = 5.678 W/m2-K).
Horizontal Surfaces Losing Heat Upwards:
hlam = 0.27 (T / L) 0.25; htur = 0.22 (T) 0.33
Tilted/Vertical Surfaces:
hlam =0.29 [T (sin B) / L]

0.25

; htur =0.19 [T (sin B)]0.33

Horizontal Pipes and Cylinders:


hlam = 0.27 (T / D) 0.25; htur = 0.18 (T)

0.33

(4)

Using these relations, Equation 2 can be solved for Quninsulated to


calculate the current heat loss. Similarly, heat loss from the insulated
surface can be calculated from:

11

Qinsulated = h ATi Ta A (Ti4 Ta4)

(5)

where Ti is the temperature of the outside surface of the insulation.


Unfortunately, in Equation 5, the values of Ti and h are not known. To
determine Ti and h, the first step is to determine the thermal resistance
of the current wall, Rc, based on the temperature of the fluid inside the
heating system, Tf, and the current surface temperature Ts. Thermal
resistance of the current wall includes both the conduction thermal
resistance through the wall and the convection thermal resistance at
the walls inner surface.
Quninsulated = A (Tf Ts) / Rc

(6)

Next, an equation can be written from a steady-state energy balance


on the surface of the insulation:
Qcnd,in Qcnv,out Qrad,out = A (Tf Ti) / (Rc +Ri) - h A (Ti Ta) - A
(Ti4 Ta4) = 0 (7)
where Ri is the thermal resistance of the insulation. The relations for
convection coefficient as a function of the temperature difference
between Ti and Ta form a second equation. Thus, this system has two
equations (Equation 4 and Equation 7) and two unknowns and can be
solved to determine Ti and h.
An easy way to solve this system of equations is to guess a value for T i,
calculate the convection coefficient h using Equation 4, then substitute
Ti and h into Equation 7. The left side of Equation 7 will evaluate to 0
when Ti is correct. Hence, the system of equations can be solved by
repeating this process with guesses for Ti until Equation 7 converges to
close to 0. The final values of Ti and h can then be substituted into
Equation 5 to find Qinsulated. The heat loss savings, Qsav is the difference
between Quninsulated and Qinsulated.
Example
The surface temperature of 100 ft of 0.5 ft diameter un-insulated pipe
carrying condensate at 200 F is 180 F. The pipe is located in a room
with air and surroundings at 70 F. The surface emissivity of the pipe is
0.70. Calculate convection, radiation and total heat loss from the pipe
(Btu/hr). The pipe is insulated with 2 inches on insulation with thermal
resistance R = 2 hr-ft2-F/Btu per inch. The surface emissivity of the
insulation is 0.70. Calculate convection, radiation and total heat loss
from the insulated pipe (Btu/hr). Calculate the heat loss and fuel

12

savings from insulating the pipe (Btu/hr) if the efficiency of the steam
system is 70%.
Input data are:

Calculations of current heat loss and thermal resistance of the pipe, Rp,
are:

Note that radiation loss is approximately equal to convection heat loss;


thus, neglecting radiation loss significantly underestimates total heat
loss.
To calculate the heat loss with insulation, an iterative method is used in
which the surface temperature of the insulation, Ti, is guessed until the
energy balance Equation 7 is satisfied. Equation 7 is satisfied when:
EB(Ti) = A (Tf Ti) / (Rp +Ri) - h A (Ti Ta) - A (Ti4 Ta4) = 0

13

In the calculations below, Ti = 89.9 F gave EB(Ti) = 0.22, which is close


to zero. After Ti is known, the heat loss can be calculated as:

Thus, the heat loss, Qsav, and fuel, Qf,sav, savings from adding
insulation would be:

The same method can be used to calculate heat loss, and the savings
from insulating, walls of steam-heated tanks. The only modifications
required are when calculating the convection coefficient. When
determining whether the flow of air is laminar of turbulent, the
effective length is the wall height instead of pipe diameter, and the
relation for convection coefficient is for vertical surfaces instead of
pipes.
Example
The surface temperature of a steam-heated, un-insulated rectangular
tank with four walls with height 4 ft and length 8 ft is 160 F. The
temperature of fluid in the tank is 180 F, and the temperature of the air
and surroundings is 70 F. The surface emissivity of the tank is 0.70.
Calculate convection, radiation and total heat loss from the tank walls
(Btu/hr). The tank walls are insulated with 1 inch on insulation with
thermal resistance R = 2 hr-ft2-F/Btu per inch. The surface emissivity
of the insulation is 0.70. Calculate convection, radiation and total heat
loss from the insulated tank walls (Btu/hr). Calculate the heat loss and

14

fuel savings from insulating the tank walls (Btu/hr) if the efficiency of
the steam system is 75%.
Input data are:

Calculations of current heat loss and thermal resistance of the wall,


Rw, are:

Note that radiation loss is less than convection heat loss at these
relatively low temperature differences between the surface and air.
To calculate the heat loss with insulation, an iterative method is used in
which the surface temperature of the insulation, Ti, is guessed until the
energy balance Equation 7 is satisfied. Equation 7 is satisfied when:
EB(Ti) = A (Tf Ti) / (Rw +Ri) - h A (Ti Ta) - A (Ti4 Ta4) = 0

15

In the calculations below, Ti = 99.3 F gives EB(Ti) = 3.53, which is


close to zero. After Ti is known, the heat loss can be calculated as:

Thus, the heat loss, Qsav, and fuel savings, Qf,sav, from adding
insulation would be:

Cover Open Tanks


In open tanks, the total heat loss is the sum of heat loss through
convection, radiation and evaporation. These losses can be
significantly reduced by adding a cover or floats to the tank.

Convection, radiation and evaporation heat loss is reduced by covering


open tanks.

16

Fix Steam Traps


Steam traps are automatic valves that discharge condensate from a
steam line without discharging steam. If the trap fails open, steam
escapes into the condensate return pipe without being utilized in the
process. If it fails closed, condensate fills the heat exchanger and
chokes-off heat to process. Fixing failed steam traps is usually highly
cost-effective.
Steam traps are designed to operate about 10 years, but can fail
sooner due to contamination, improper application, and other reasons.
Steam traps can fail open or closed. If a steam trap fails open, it
allows steam to pass through the trap; hence the energy value of the
steam is completely wasted. If a trap fails closed, condensate will
back up into the piping (which reduces steam flow, inhibits valve
function and causes pipe erosion) and/or flood the heat exchanger
(which reduces or eliminates effective heat transfer). Because of these
problems, it is recommended that all traps be tested at least once per
year. The most common methods of identifying failed-open steam
traps are:

Ultrasonic sensor
Temperature sensor
Excess flash

Ultrasonic Sensor: Ultrasonic sensors amplify high frequency noise


from steam and condensate flow into the audible spectrum. Thus, an
analyst can determine whether steam and condensate is being
discharged through the trap by listening to the condensate side of a
steam trap. If the discharge is continuous, it could indicate that the
trap has failed open. If no discharge can be sensed, it may indicate
that the trap has failed closed.
Properly functioning inverted bucket, IB, and thermodynamic, TD, traps
discharge condensate intermittently. Thus, a continuous discharge
indicates that these types of traps have failed open. Properly
functioning float and thermostatic, FT, and thermostatic, TS, traps
discharge condensate continuously. Thus, the failure of these types of
traps cannot be diagnosed by listening for continuous discharge. The
four types of steam traps can be identified by their distinctive shapes
and nameplates.
Temperature Sensor: Infrared temperature sensors can detect the
temperature on the steam and condensate sides of steam traps.
Properly functioning traps are generally warm on both sides, but hotter
on the steam side than the condensate side. A trap that is equally hot

17

on both sides may have failed open. A trap which is cold on both sides
may have failed closed and be flooded with water.
Flash: The enthalpy of condensate at atmospheric pressure is
substantially less than the enthalpy of condensate at the operating
pressure of a steam system. Thus, the energy released as the pressure
of condensate falls to atmospheric pressure, vaporizes some of the
condensate into flash steam. The quantity of condensate flashed
to vapor dramatically increases when live steam enters the condensate
return system. Thus, increased flash from the condensate return or
deaerator tank is an indicator of failed-open steam traps.
Estimating Savings from Repairing Steam Traps
The rate of steam loss through a leaking trap depends on the size of
the condensate orifice in the trap. Orifice size is a function of the size
of the trap and the differential pressure between the steam and
condenstate lines that the trap was designed for. Orifice sizes for
Sprirax Sarco float+thermostatic and inverted-bucket traps are listed
below. Orifice sizes for thermostatic and thermodynamic traps are
generally not specified; however the effective orifice size is similar to
the orifice size for inverted bucket and float+thermostatic traps.

The rate of steam loss through an orifice is given by:


Steam flow (lb/hr) = 24.24 lb/(hr-psia-in2) x P psia x [D inch]2 x C

18

where P is the pressure of the steam, D is the diameter of the orifice


and C is the fraction of the orifice that is open (Design of Fluid
Systems: Hook-ups, Spirax-Sarco, 2000, pg. 57).
In many cases, leaking steam traps are identified using an ultrasonic
sensor and/or by measuring temperatures on both sides of the trap.
Large leaks typically make more noise and create higher downstream
temperatures than small leaks. Thus, experienced personnel often
estimate the fraction of the orifice that is open using these indicators.
Example
Calculate savings from replacing a failed 0.5-inch inverted bucket trap
rated at 180 psi if actual steam pressure is 120 psig. The orifice is
estimated to be 50% open. The steam system operates 6,000 hours
per year and the cost of fuel is $10 /mmBtu. 100% of the condensate
is returned at 200 F. The overall efficiency of the boiler is 80%.
From the table above, the orifice size for this trap is 1/32-inch.
Assuming that the orifice is 50% open, the steam loss through the
leaking trap is about:
24.24 lb/(hr-psia-in2) x )120 + 14.7) psia x [0.0938 inch]2 x 50% =
14.36 lb/hr
The latent heat of steam at 120 psig is about 872 Btu/lb and the
saturation temperature is about 350 F. The natural gas savings from
fixing the steam trap would be about:
14.36 lb/hr [872 Btu/lb + 1 Btu/lb-F (350 200) F] 6,000 hr/yr / 80%
= 110 mmBtu/yr
110 mmBtu/yr x $10 / mmBtu = $1,100 /yr
An inverted-bucket steam trap for -inch pipe connections with a
maximum operating pressure of 125 psig costs about $100. If the
labor cost of installing a new trap is $50, the simple payback would be
about:
SP = $150 / $1,100 /yr x 12 months/yr = 1.63 months

Reduce Steam Pressure


Generating steam at unnecessarily high pressures decreases boiler
efficiency, increases heat loss from steam pipes and increases flash
loss. Reducing boiler pressure to match the highest required process

19

temperature decreases these losses. Moreover, reducing steam


pressure to match the local required process temperature reduces flash
loss. Thus, always produce and supply steam at the minimum pressure
required to meet the process temperature requirement.

Install Automatic Blowdown Controls


Blowdown is the practice of expelling steam to reduce contaminant
build ups. Blow down can occur from the surface and/or bottom of the
boiler. Typical blowdown rates range from 4% to 8% of boiler feedwater. Blowdown may be manual or automatic. Manual blowdown
relies on intuition or periodic testing to determine when the
concentration of contaminants is high enough to warrant blowdown.
Manual blowdown virtually always results in either excess blowdown
that wastes energy or insufficient blow down that creates excess scale
on heat transfer surfaces and reduces boiler efficiency. Automatic
blowdown controls monitor the conductivity of the water in the boiler
and open the blowdown valve as needed to maintain the conductivity
within a specified range. Optimizing the quantity of blow down using
automatic controls reduces energy, water and water treatment costs.

Combustion Efficiency
Boilers typically employ combustion to covert fuel energy into high
temperature thermal energy.
This section describes natural gas
combustion and how to calculate combustion air flow, combustion
temperature and the efficiency of the process. These results are used
extensively throughout this chapter.
The minimum amount of air required for complete combustion is called
the stoichiometric air. Air consists of about 1 mole of oxygen to 3.76
moles of nitrogen. Assuming that natural gas is made up of 100%
methane, the equation for the stoichiometric combustion of natural gas
with air is:
CH4 + 2 (O2 + 3.76 N2) CO2 + 2 H2O +7.52 N2
(17)
The ratio of the mass of air required to completely combust a given
mass of fuel is called the stoichiometric air to fuel ratio, AFs. AFs can
be calculated using the molecular masses of the air and fuel at
stoichiometric conditions. For combustion of natural gas in air, AFs is
about:

20

AFs = Mair,s / Mng,s = 2[ (2 x 16) + (3.76 x 2 x 14)] / [12 + (4 x 1)] =


17.2
The quantity of air supplied in excess of stoichiometric air is called
excess combustion air, ECA. Excess combustion air can be written in
terms of the stoichiometric air to fuel ratio, AFs, the combustion air
mass flow rate, mca, and natural gas mass flow rate, mng.
ECA = [(mca / mng) / AFs] 1
(18)
Large quantities of excess air dilute combustion gasses and lower the
temperature of the gasses, which results in decreased efficiency. The
energy input, Qin, to a combustion chamber is the product of the
natural gas mass flow rate, mng, and the higher heating value of
natural gas, HHV, which is about 23,900 Btu/lbm.
Qin = mng HHV
(19)
The mass flow rate of the combustion gasses, m g, is the sum of the
natural gas mass flow rate, mng, and combustion air mass flow rate,
mca.
mg = mng + mca
(20)
The temperature of combustion, Tc, can be calculated from an energy
balance on the combustion chamber, where the chemical energy
released during combustion is converted into sensible energy gain of
the gasses.
The energy balance reduces to the terms of inlet
combustion air temperature, Tca, lower heating value of natural gas
(21,500 Btu/lbm), excess combustion air, ECA, stoichiometric air fuel
ratio, AFs, and specific heat of combustion gasses, Cp g (0.30 Btu/lbmF). Combustion temperature, Tc, is calculated in terms of these easily
measured values as:
Tc = Tca + LHV / [{1 + (1 + ECA) AFs} Cpg]
(21)
The combustion efficiency, is the ratio of energy delivered to the
system to the total fuel energy supplied. The energy delivered to the
system is the energy loss of combustion gasses. The energy loss of
the combustion gasses can be expressed as the product of the mass
flow rate, specific heat and temperature drop of the gasses. The total

21

energy fuel energy supplied is the higher heating value of the fuel.
Using this approach, the combustion efficiency, is:
= [{1 + (1 + ECA) AFs} Cpg (Tc Tex)] / HHV
(22)
The dew-point temperature of products of combustion is about 140 F.
If the products of combustion leave the process at temperature of less
than the dew-point temperature the water vapor will condense to a
liquid and release energy. To include this effect, the efficiency equation
can be written:
If Tex > 140 F then hfg = 0 Else hfg = HHV LHV
= [{1 + (1 + ECA) AFs} Cpg (Tc Tex) + hfg] / HHV
(22b)
The three required input values for computing combustion efficiency,
entering combustion air temperature, T ca, exhaust gas temperature,
Tex, and excess combustion air, ECA, can be measured using a
combustion analyzer. The quantity of excess air in the combustion
gasses is sometimes expressed as fraction oxygen. For methane
(natural gas) the conversion between fraction oxygen, FO 2, and excess
combustion air, ECA, are:
FO2 = 2 ECA / (10.52 + 9.52 ECA)
(23)

ECA = 10.52 FO2 / (2 9.52 FO2)

Example
A boiler consumes 100,000 Btu/hr of natural gas. An analysis of the
exhaust gasses finds that the fraction of excess air is 30% and the
temperature of the exhaust gasses is 500 F. Calculate combustion air
flow (lb/hr), exhaust gas flow (lb/hr), combustion temperature (F) and
the combustion efficiency.

22

Thus, mass flow rate of combustion air is 94 lb/hr and the mass flow
rate of the combustion gasses is 98 lb/hr.

Thus, the combustion efficiency is 77.3%.

23

The relationship between excess air, exhaust temperature and


combustion efficiency using this method is shown in the graph below.
Efficiency decreases with increasing excess air and increasing exhaust
air temperature.

Reduce Excess Air by Adjusting Combustion Air


Linkages

Most boilers use linkages that connect natural gas supply valves with
combustion air inlet dampers. As the natural gas valve closes, the
mechanical linkages close dampers on the combustion air supply to
attempt to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio. If the exhaust gasses
contain too much excess air, the linkages can be adjusted to tune the
air/fuel ratio so that the exhaust gasses contain about 10% excess air.

Mechanical linkages vary the position of the inlet air damper with
natural gas supply.
24

Example
A boiler burns 2,000 mmBtu of natural gas per year at a cost of $10
/mmBtu. The average temperature of the incoming combustion air is
70 F and the average temperature of the exhaust is 450 F. The fraction
excess air in the exhaust is measured to be 50%, but is reduced to
10% by adjusting the inlet combustion air dampers. Calculate a) the
projected annual cost savings ($/yr) and b) the projected savings as a
percent of current annual natural gas use.
The initial efficiency is:

The new efficiency is:

25

The heating energy delivered to the process, Qp, is the product of the
initial fuel use, Qf1, and the initial efficiency, Eff1.
Qp = Qf,1 x Eff1
The heating energy delivered to the process remains constant. The
new fuel use, Qf2, with the higher efficiency, Eff2, is:
Qf,2 = Qp / Eff2
The fuel use savings, Qf,sav, would be:
Qf,sav = Qf,1 - Qf,2

26

Unfortunately, the linkages between the fuel valve and combustion air
dampers seldom function perfectly. Thus, the air/fuel ratio is seldom
held constant over the firing range. For example, the figure below
shows that excess air varies from 120% at low fire to 38% at mid file to
42% at high fire. This indicates that the linkages were incapable of
sufficiently reducing combustion air to match fuel supply at low fire.
The high level of excess air at low fire causes the efficiency of the
boiler to drop, even though the lower exhaust temperature should
drive the efficiency higher. In cases like this, it is often very difficult to
adjust the linkages so that excess air is constant at 10% at all firing
levels. However, it is usually possible to adjust the linkages so that the
minimum level of excess air is about 10%, and the excess air at other
firing rates drops by about the same percentage.

Example
A boiler operates 4,000 hours per year at low fire, 2,000 hours per year
at mid fire, and 2,000 hours per year at high fire with excess air and
exhaust temperatures shown in the figure above. Boiler fuel
consumption is 4 mmBtu/hr at low fire, 12 mmBtu/hr at mid fire, and
20 mmBtu/hr at high fire. Ambient temperature is 70 F. Calculate
annual fuel energy savings (mmBtu/year) from adjusting the linkages
so the minimum excess air is 10%, and the excess air at other firing
rates is decreased by the same percentage.

27

The initial combustion efficiencies, Eff1, are:

Minimum excess air is 38% at mid-fire. If the linkages were adjusted so


the excess air was 10% at mid-fire, the reduction in excess air would
be 28%. If the excess air at all firing rates was reduced by 28%, the
new levels of excess air would be 84% at low fire, 10% at mid fire and
14% at high fire. The new combustion efficiencies, Eff2, at these firing
rates and temperatures would be:

The heating energy delivered to the process, Qp, is the product of the
initial fuel use, Qf1, and the initial efficiency, Eff1.
Qp = Qf,1 x Eff1

28

The heating energy delivered to the process remains constant after the
efficiency is improved. The new fuel use, Qf2, with the higher
efficiency, Eff2, is:
Qf,2 = Qp / Eff2
The fuel use savings, Qf,sav, would be:
Qf,sav = Qf,1 - Qf,2

Thus, in this example, simply reducing excess air by adjusting the


linkages reduced fuel use by 1.6%.

Install O2 Trim Controls


Most boilers use linkages that connect natural gas supply valves with
combustion air inlet dampers. Unfortunately, the linkages do not
function perfectly, and the air/fuel ratio is seldom held constant over
the firing range. O2 trim combustion controls measure the oxygen in
the exhaust gasses to regulate combustion intake air to maintain about
10% excess air across the entire firing range. O2 trim controls cost
about $30,000 and require periodic calibration which costs about
$2,000 per year. Thus, O2 trim combustion controls are most costeffective for boilers that operate all year long.

29

O2 trim system to continually vary combustion air

Example
A boiler operates 4,000 hours per year at low fire, 2,000 hours per year
at mid fire, and 2,000 hours per year at high fire with excess air and
exhaust temperatures shown in the figure below. Boiler fuel
consumption is 4 mmBtu/hr at low fire, 12 mmBtu/hr at mid fire, and
20 mmBtu/hr at high fire. Ambient temperature is 70 F. Calculate
annual fuel energy savings (mmBtu/year) from installing an O2 trim
system so the minimum excess air is 10% across the firing range.

The initial combustion efficiencies, Eff1, are:

30

The new combustion efficiencies, Eff2, if the excess air was held to
10% across the firing range would be:

The heating energy delivered to the process, Qp, is the product of the
initial fuel use, Qf1, and the initial efficiency, Eff1.
Qp = Qf,1 x Eff1
The heating energy delivered to the process remains constant after the
efficiency is improved. The new fuel use, Qf2, with the higher
efficiency, Eff2, is:
Qf,2 = Qp / Eff2
The fuel use savings, Qf,sav, would be:

31

Qf,sav = Qf,1 - Qf,2

In the previous example, adjusting the linkages reduced fuel use by


1.6%. In this example, installing an O2 trim system reduced fuel use
by 2.4%.

Descale Boiler to Improve Efficiency


Scale buildup from hard water increases the thermal resistance
between the hot combustion gasses and the steam, which increases
exhaust temperature and decreases boiler efficiency. Mechanical
and/or chemical descaling can significantly reduce exhaust gas
temperature and increase boiler efficiency.
Example
A boiler burns 3,000 mmBtu of natural gas per year at a cost of $10
/mmBtu. The average temperature of the incoming combustion air is
70 F. The fraction excess air in the exhaust is measured to be 20%.
The exhaust temperature from the boiler increases from 380 F to 450 F
over a 14 month period due to scale buildup. Calculate a) the
projected annual cost savings ($/yr) and b) the projected savings as a
percent of current annual natural gas use from descaling the boiler.
The initial efficiency before descaling is:

32

The new efficiency after descaling is:

The heating energy delivered to the process, Qp, is the product of the
initial fuel use, Qf1, and the initial efficiency, Eff1.
Qp = Qf,1 x Eff1
The heating energy delivered to the process remains constant. The
new fuel use, Qf2, with the higher efficiency, Eff2, is:

33

Qf,2 = Qp / Eff2
The fuel use savings, Qf,sav, would be:
Qf,sav = Qf,1 - Qf,2

Preheat Boiler Feed-water with Economizer


An economizer is a heat exchanger that preheats feed-water to the
boiler using heat from the exhaust gasses. Economizers are most cost
effective in process boilers that operate all year. The energy reclaimed
by the economizer can be modeled as a function of the effectiveness of
the economizer.

Economizer pre-heating boiler feed water.


Heat Exchanger Effectiveness Method
Energy savings from reclaiming heat can be calculated using the heat
exchanger effectiveness method. Heat exchangers transfer heat from a
hot stream with entering and exiting temperatures of Th1 and Th2 to a
cold stream with entering and exiting temperatures of Tc1 and Tc2.
The product of the mass flow rate and specific heat of the hot and cold
streams are called the mass capacitances, mcph and mcpc. A

34

schematic of a counterflow heat exchanger with these temperatures is


shown below.
Th1

Tc2

Qact

Th2

Tc1

Heat exchanger effectiveness, e, is the ratio of the actual heat transfer,


Qact, to maximum heat transfer, Qmax.
e = Qact / Qmax
The actual heat transfer is the product of the mass capacitance and
the temperature rise of either the hot or cold stream. The mass
capacitance, mcp, is the product of the mass flow rate, m, and the
specific heat, cp.
Qact = mcph (Th1 Th2) = mcpc (Tc2 Tc1)
In an infinitely long heat exchanger, the exit temperature of the hot
stream would reach the entering temperature of the cold stream.
Similarly, the exit temperature of the cold stream would reach the
entering temperature of the hot stream. The maximum heat transfer
would be limited only by the capacity of the each stream to absorb the
heat. Thus, the maximum heat transfer would be:
Qmax = mcp,min (Th1 Tc1)
Thus, the heat exchanger effectiveness is:
e = Qact / Qmax = Qact / mcp,min (Th1 Tc1)
If the heat exchanger effectiveness, mass capacitances and entering
temperatures are known, this equation can be solved to determine the
actual heat transfer, Qact, and exit temperatures of each stream.
Qact = e mcp,min (Th1 Tc1)
Tc2 = Tc1 + e mcp,min (Th1 Tc1) / mcpc
Th2 = Th1 - e mcp,min (Th1 Tc1) / mcph
Heat exchangers are typically designed with sufficient heat transfer
area such that the effectiveness of the heat exchanger is between

35

about 0.6 and 0.9. At higher levels of heat exchanger effectiveness,


the cost of the required surface area frequently outweighs the
additional performance benefits. Heat exchanger designers must also
ensure that the pressure drop on each side of the heat exchanger is
acceptably small, and that the materials can withstand the
temperatures, fouling and corrosiveness of the fluids involved.
Example
Consider reclaiming heat from boiler exhaust at 400 F to preheat boiler
feedwater at 80 F. The boiler consumes 1,000,000 Btu/hr of natural
gas and produces 900 lb/hr of steam. The fraction excess air in the
exhaust is measured to be 20%. Calculate the heat and fuel savings,
and the temperatures of the two streams leaving the economizer, if the
economizer is 50% effective and the overall efficiency of the steam
system is 75%.
The first step is to calculate the flow rate of exhaust gasses using
combustion relations.

Next, calculate the heat transfer from the hot exhaust gasses, h, to the
cold feedwater, c, using the heat exchanger effectiveness method.

36

Note that in this example the feedwater was pre-heated from 80 F to


130 F, and the exhaust gasses were cooled from 400 F to 240 F. The
dewpoint temperature of water vapor in exhaust is about 140 F. So the
240 F exhaust gas temperature is still hot enough to prevent
condensation in the exhaust pipe.
The fuel savings would be:

Run Boiler in Modulation Mode to Avoid On/Off Cycling


Most boilers are designed for peak load, but operate at less than full
load most of the time. To meet part load conditions using on/off
control, the burner intermittently fires at full-fire then turn offs. To
meet part load conditions using modulation control, fuel and
combustion air are to the burner are modulated down and the burner
fires at less than full fire. Modulation control is more efficient that
on/off control for two reasons. First, each time a boiler cycles on and
off, it purges natural gas from inside the boiler by blowing the
combustion air fan. These purge cycles remove heat from the steam
and increase fuel use. In addition, boilers are more efficient at low or
medium fire than at full fire because the combustion gasses have more

37

time to transfer heat to the steam as they pass through the boiler.
Thus, it is advantageous to control the boiler with modulation control
and avoid cycling.
In most boilers with on/off control, it is possible to upgrade to
modulation control. In addition, modulating burners typically have a
minimum firing rate of 25% to 33% of maximum output. If steam
demand is less than the minimum firing rate, the boiler cycles on and
off. Installing a burner with a smaller minimum firing rate can
eliminate the on/off cycling and reduce fuel use.
Example
A boiler operating with on/off control consumes 6,300,000 Btu/hr at full
fire. At full fire, the temperature of the exhaust gasses are 450 F and
the excess air in the exhaust gasses is 20%. The temperature of
combustion air entering the boiler is 70 F. The boiler operates 8,400
hours per year and fires at full fire 70% of the time. The boiler cycles
off two times per hour, and purges natural gas from inside the boiler
for 1 minute after cycling off and for 1 minute before reigniting. The
saturation temperature of steam in the boiler is 335 F. The cost of
natural gas is $10 /mmBtu. If the boiler were operated in modulation
mode, calculate the fuel savings from eliminating purge losses
(mmBtu/yr), the fuel savings from improving combustion efficiency
(mmBtu/yr), and the overall cost savings ($/yr)
The mass flow rate of exhaust gasses at full fire is:

The combustion efficiency at full fire is:

38

To calculate purge losses, first calculate the energy delivered to the


steam, Qsteam, and heat exchanger effectiveness of the boiler, e1, at
full fire. Using this effectiveness, the heat loss during the purge cycle
can be calculated as:

39

When boilers operate at less than full-fire, the velocity of exhaust


gasses travelling through the boiler decreases, resulting in greater
heat transfer and lower exhaust temperature. To calculate the lower
exhaust temperature, first solve the relation for heat exchanger
effectiveness, e1, for condensing heat exchangers such as boilers
e1 = 1 exp(-UA/Cmin)
for the UA of the boiler. Next, calculate the heat exchanger
effectiveness at the lower flow rate, e2, by solving the equation for
heat delivered to the steam.
Qsteam = e2 m,ex cp,ex (Tc Tex) = m,ex, cp,ex (Tc - Tex)
Using the method, the reduced exhaust temperature at less than full
fire is:

The combustion efficiency at less than full fire is:

40

The savings would be:

Blowdown Heat Recovery


Blowdown removes impurities that inevitably accumulate because
makeup water is never 100% pure and the steam leaving the boiler is a
distilled vapor with no impurities. Most boilers employ two types of
blowdown: surface and bottom. Surface blowdown remove dissolved
solids which tend to accumulate near the top of the boiler where steam

41

is formed. Bottom blowdown removes sludge that accumulates on the


bottom of the boiler. Total blowdown rates vary with the quality and
quantity of boiler makeup water; however total rate of blowdown is
typically between 4% and 8% of the steam generation rate.
Up to 80% of the thermal energy in the blowdown can be recovered. A
schematic of a flash + condensate blowdown recovery system is shown
below. Blowdown flash vapor and condensate are separated in a flash
tank. Blowdown flash vapor is piped into the deaerator. Blowdown
condensate flows through a plate heat exchanger to warm make-up
water.

Source: http://www.spiraxsarco.com/

Install Stack Damper on Atmospheric Boilers


Schematics of typical atmospheric and forced air hot-water boilers are
shown below. In both types of boiler, hot combustion gasses transfer
heat to the water as they move upward then out the exhaust flue. In
on/off burner control, the burner fires whenever the water temperature
drops to the low-temperature set point and turns off when the water
temperature rises to the high-temperature set point.

42

Source: 2008 ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Systems and Equipment.


When open atmospheric boilers are not firing, air is drawn upward
through the interior of the boiler as it warms and becomes more
buoyant. This air pulls heat out of the water and reduces the overall
efficiency of the boiler. This chimney effect is exaggerated when the
outlet of the exhaust flue is higher than the inlet to the base of the
boiler. To reduce this loss, the exhaust flue can be equipped with a
stack damper that closes when the burners are not firing. To be
completely effective, the stack damper must be located below the
exhaust flue hood. Closed forced-draft boilers minimize this effect by
sealing the combustion area with a fan that stops inlet air flow when
the burner is not firing. However, to the extent that these losses still
occur, they reduce the overall or total efficiency of the boiler.

Replace Conventional Hot Water Boiler with


Condensing Boiler
Steam boilers generate steam at 212 F and higher as steam pressure
increases. Hot water boilers generate hot water at lower
temperatures, and hence have the potential of operating at higher
efficiencies than steam boilers. In addition, because of the low
operating pressure, hot water boilers do not require dedicated boiler
operators.
In HVAC applications, high-temperature hot-water boiler systems
typically operate at about 180 F. Low-temperature systems operate at
about 120 F. Low-temperature systems are more fuel efficient because
the temperature difference between the water and hot combustion
gasses is greater, which results in greater heat transfer and lower
exhaust gas temperature. Efficiency increases significantly when

43

water vapor condenses out of the exhaust gasses. To condense water


vapor, the temperature of water returning from the building and
entering the boiler must be 125 F or less. The graph below shows, how
combustion efficiency increases with decreasing inlet water
temperature.

Source: 2008 ASHRAE Handbook HVAC Systems and Equipment.


Example
A traditional hot-water boiler burns 1,000 mmBtu of natural gas per
year at a cost of $10 /mmBtu. The average temperature of the
incoming combustion air is 70 F. The average temperature of the
exhaust is 300 F. The fraction excess air in the exhaust is measured to
be 10%. It is proposed to 1) install a larger process heat exchanger
that reduces the temperature of the return water from 150 F to 110 F,
and 2) install a new condensing boiler. The average temperature of
the exhaust from the condensing boiler is 120 F. Calculate a) the
projected annual cost savings ($/yr) and b) the projected savings as a
percent of current annual natural gas use.
The initial efficiency, Eff1, is:

44

A efficiency of the condensing boiler, Eff2, would be:

The heating energy delivered to the process, Qp, is the product of the
initial fuel use, Qf1, and the initial efficiency, Eff1.
Qp = Qf,1 x Eff1
The heating energy delivered to the process remains constant. The
new fuel use, Qf2, with the higher efficiency, Eff2, is:

45

Qf,2 = Qp / Eff2
The fuel use savings, Qf,sav, would be:
Qf,sav = Qf,1 - Qf,2

Use Direct Contact Water Heater for Direct Inject and


Hot Water Applications
Some industrial processes, such a food processing, require large
volumes of hot water that cannot be returned to the system. In these
cases, make-up water can enter the boiler at near ambient
temperatures. Direct contact hot water heaters capitalize on low
incoming water temperatures, counter flow design and large heat
exchange areas between the combustion gasses and water droplets to
generate efficiencies of up to 99%.

46

High-efficiency direct-contact water heater in the food processing


industry.

Energy Savings and Steam System Models

Fuel energy savings, Fuel, can be estimated by calculating the


reduction in energy loss through a given pathway, Energy , by the
overall efficiency of the steam system, Eff,sys.
Fuel = Energy / Eff,sys
The energy efficiency of any system is the ratio of useful energy
delivered to required energy input. For steam systems, the energy
efficiency is the ratio of useful heat delivered to the process to the
pump and fuel energy input.
Eff,sys = Qprocess / (Epump + Efuel)
However, because pump energy is quite small compared to fuel
energy, pump energy is neglected and the efficiency is typically
calculated as:
Eff,sys = Qprocess / Efuel
However, in an integrated system like a steam system, changes in one
part of the system affect other parts of the system. The simplistic
method of estimating savings shown above does not account for these
synergistic effects between system components. A more accurate way
to calculate expected fuel savings is to use an integrated model of the
steam system, calibrate it to baseline fuel use, change parameters to

47

model energy efficiency opportunities, and compare baseline versus


energy-efficient fuel use.
One model of a steam system is called SteamSim. SteamSim is a
thermodynamic model of the steam system shown below. The steam
system is modeled from the following readily obtainable input data
using known state points, energy balances, and mass balances and the
methods described above.

SteamSim required input data are:

Qprocess : heat delivered to process (Btu/hr)


P2 : steam pressure at exit to boiler (psia)
P3 : steam pressure at exit from throttling valve (psia)
Pda : steam pressure of deaerator tank (psia)
T0 : temperature of makeup water (F)
Fbd : Fraction of input water discharged as blowdown
Fcl : Fraction of condensate lost
Eecon: effectiveness of economizer
EA: excess air in combustion exhaust
Tca: temperature of combustion air entering boiler (F)

48

Tex : temperature of combustion exhaust from boiler before


economizer (F)
Mstl : Mass flow rate of steam leaking through steam traps (lb/hr)
Dsp, Lsp, Rsp : diameter (ft), length (ft) and thermal resistance
(hr-ft2-F/Btu) of steam pipes
Dcp, Lcp, Rcp : diameter (ft), length (ft) and thermal resistance
(hr-ft2-F/Btu) of condensate pipes
Db, Lb, Rb : diameter (ft), length (ft) and thermal resistance (hrft2-F/Btu) of boiler
Dda, Lda, Rda : diameter (ft), length (ft) and thermal resistance
(hr-ft2-F/Btu) of dearator tank

SteamSim output are:

Qfuel : fuel energy input to Boiler (Btu/hr)


Fqp : fraction of fuel energy delivered to process
Qexhaust, Fqex : energy lost in combustion exhaust (Btu/hr) and
fraction of fuel energy lost in combustion exhaust
Qbd, Fqbd : energy lost in blowdown (Btu/hr) and fraction of fuel
energy lost in blowdown
Qflash, Fqflash : energy lost in flash steam(Btu/hr) and fraction of
fuel energy lost in flash steam
Qecon, Fqecon : energy reclaimed by economizer (Btu/hr) and
fraction of fuel energy reclaimed by economizer
Qcl, Fqcl : energy lost in condensate loss (Btu/hr) and fraction of
fuel energy lost in condensate loss
Tsp, Qsp, Fqsp : temperature of steam pipe (F), heat loss from
steam pipe (Btu/hr), fraction of fuel input lost from steam pipe
Tcp, Qcp, Fqcp : temperature of condensate pipe (F), heat loss
from condensate pipe (Btu/hr), fraction of fuel input lost from
condensate pipe
Tda, Qda, Fqda : temperature of dearator tank (F), heat loss from
dearator tank (Btu/hr), fraction of fuel input lost from dearator
tank
Tb, Qb, Fb : temperature of boiler (F), heat loss from boiler
(Btu/hr), fraction of fuel input lost from boiler

49