0 Голоса «за»0 Голоса «против»

Просмотров: 1049 стр.Steam system-Energy efficient

Mar 18, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

DOCX, PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

Steam system-Energy efficient

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 10

Steam system-Energy efficient

© All Rights Reserved

- Boiler & Incinerator
- Practical Guide to Industrial Boiler Systems
- GIS-56-104.pdf
- Boiler Control Honeywell PKS.pdf
- In Plant Training Report
- 12--Pei-Hsun Lin, Pai-Hsiang Wang and an-Tsu Huang
- Iffco aonla Presentation
- Thermal Power Station
- ASME Code and Stamps
- BoilerBrochure - Dubois
- Report 1
- Cmc Presentation
- thermalpowerplants-12898051220529-phpapp02 (1)
- Boiler Drum
- Two Proposal to Calculate Bagasse Boiler Efficiency
- Boiler Drum Level Control
- 4.1.10,11 Draft System
- The Steam esteem Questions and Answers.doc
- Introduction to Steam Traps and Drip Leg_ a Brief Presentation _ What is Piping
- sj

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

Introduction

Air, water and steam are three media commonly used to distribute

heat to process loads. However, steam has several advantages

compared to hot air and hot water. These advantages include.

water

To illustrate these advantages, consider the quantities of air, hot water

and steam required to transfer 1,000,000 Btu/hr of heat to a process.

If 100 psig steam were condensed in a heat exchanger, the mass flow

rate of steam required to transfer 1,000,000Btu/hr of heat would be

about:

Msteam = Q / hfg = 1,000,000 Btu/hr / 881 Btu/lb = 1,135 lb/hr

If the temperature of hot water dropped by 100 F as it passed through

a heat exchanger, the mass flow rate of water to transfer the same

amount of heat would be about nine times as much as steam:

Mwater = Q / (cp x dt) = 1,000,000 Btu/hr / (1 Btu/lb-F x 100 F) =

10,000 lb/hr

If the temperature of hot air dropped by 100 F as it passed through a

heat exchanger, the mass flow rate of air to transfer the same amount

of heat with the same temperature difference would be about 34 times

as much as steam:

Mair = Q / (cp x dt) = 1,000,000 Btu/hr / (0.26 Btu/lb-F x 100 F) =

38,500 lb/hr

The higher flow rates required by water and air require pipes and ducts

with larger diameters than steam pipes, which increases first cost and

heat loss. In addition, air and water do not propel themselves. Thus,

hot air and water distribution systems require fans or pumps, whereas

a steam distribution system does not require any additional propulsion

for outgoing steam and a very small pumping system for returning the

condensate to the boiler. Finally, because steam condenses at a

constant temperature, 100-psig steam could heat a process stream to

a maximum temperature of 338 F which is the temperature of the

steam. On the other hand, the temperature of water and air decrease

as heat is transferred; thus, if the heat in these examples was

delivered by a cross-flow heat exchanger, the maximum temperature

of the process stream would be 100 F less than the incoming

temperature of the air or water. Because of these advantages, steam

is the most widely used heat-carrying medium in the world.

Energy Balance Approach

The figure below shows the primary energy flows into and out of a

steam system.

Heat from combustion of fuel, Qfuel, is added to the boiler, which

generates saturated steam at a discharge pressure P2. Some steam is

discharged from boiler as blowdown to reduce the concentration of

minerals in the steam. The boiler losses some heat, Qb, through the

shell. The steam may pass through an adiabatic throttling valve to

reduce the pressure of steam to P3. Some heat is lost heat from the

steam pipes, Qsp. As the steam delivers heat to one or more

processes, Qprocess, the steam vapor condenses. The steam trap

2

steam may bypass the process and flow directly into the condensate

return line, 4L, if steam trap(s) fail open. Some heat is lost from the

condensate pipes, Qcp. The deareator tank pressure, Pda, is generally

maintained slightly above ambient pressure. As the pressure of

condensate is reduced to the pressure of the deareator tank, some

condensate vaporizes and is lost as flash vapor, av. The remaining

liquid condensate is mixed with makeup water, 0, in the deaerator

tank. Some heat is lost from the deaerator tank, Qda. The pressure of

the feed water from the dearator tank, al, is raised to the pressure of

the boiler by the feed water pump. The feedwater may be preheated

by an economizer, which reclaims heat from exhaust gasses, before

entering the boiler, 1e.

Thermodynamic state points of the steam in this system are shown

below on a temperature versus entropy diagram. In the diagram below

feed water pump work and heat loss from steam pipes, condensate

pipes, deaerator tank and boiler are assumed to be negligible. The

steam leaves the boiler as 200 psia saturated vapor at 2. The pressure

is reduced to 100 psia at constant enthalpy at 3 by the throttling valve.

Steam condenses at constant pressure in the process heat exchanger

and leaves the steam trap at 5 as a saturated liquid. The dearator

operates at 20 psia. The condensate at 7 losses pressure in a constant

enthalpy process to become some combination, Xc, of liquid and vapor.

Flash vapor leaves the deaerator tank at av. Makeup water enters the

deaerator at 0, mixes with the liquid condensate and leaves leaves the

deaerator tank at al. Pre-heated feed water leaves the economizer at

1e, before entering the boiler.

Makeup water

Pump work

Exhaust air

Blowdown

Condensate loss

Flash vapor loss

Heat loss from the boiler, steam pipes, condensate pipes and

deaerator tank.

Opportunities for Improving the Energy-Efficiency of Steam Systems

These principles can be organized using the inside-out approach, which

sequentially reduces end-use energy, distribution energy, and primary

conversion energy. Combining the energy balance and inside-out

steam systems are:

End Use

Improve process control to reduce steam demand

Insulate hot surfaces

Insulate open tanks

Employ counter-flow rinsing

Employ counter-flow heat exchange

Distribution

Insulate steam pipes and condensate pipes

Throttle steam to minimum pressure required by each end-use to

reduce flash loss and conductive heat loss

Fix steam traps

Close condensate return to reduce flash loss

Conversion

Turn off and valve off boiler(s) when not in use

Insulate deaerator tank and boiler to reduce heat loss

Reduce steam pressure to increase efficiency and reduce heat

loss

Improve water treatment to reduce scaling and improve

efficiency

Descale boiler to improve efficiency

Reduce excess air across firing range

Control combustion air based on oxygen in exhaust

Operate multiple boilers at even firing rates

Avoid on/off firing

Eliminate stack effect loss by installing stack damper on

atmospheric boilers

Employ automatic blowdown control

Reclaim blowdown flash

Preheat feedwater with economizer

The remainder of the chapter describes steam system components,

discusses fundamentals needed to quantify these savings

opportunities, describes individual savings opportunities, and

introduces an integrated steam system model to capture synergistic

effects.

Boilers and Steam Generators

Steam boilers are broadly classified as fire-tube or water-tube

boilers. In fire tube boilers, the boiler shell contains the water/steam

and hot combustion gasses pass through the tubes to heat the

water/steam. In water-tube boilers, the water/steam passes through

tubes and the hot combustion gasses pass through shell of the boiler.

Source :

http://www.energysolutionscenter.or

g

boiler

Source :

http://www.energysolutionscent

er.org

saturated steam at less than 150 psig because of their low first cost

and durability. The large volume of water/steam serves as thermal

mass which enhances steady operation. However, because the steam

is generated on the shell side, the shell itself is a pressure vessel,

making it difficult to generate steam at high pressures. In addition, the

large surface area causes relatively large heat loss, which varies from

about 0.5% of input energy at full-fire to a much higher fraction at low

loads.

For high-pressure applications, it is easier to construct small diameter

tubes to handle the high pressures of the steam than an entire boiler

shell. In addition, the tubes can be configured to pass through hightemperature combustion gasses before exiting the boiler to create

superheated steam. Thus, most high-pressure applications like power

generation, which benefits from dry, high-temperature, super-heated

steam at pressures up to 3,000 psig, use water-tube boilers.

Steam generators are like water-tube boilers, except that they are

made from light- weight materials. In many jurisdictions, the lack of a

dedicated pressure vessel enables steam generators to be used

without a boiler operator. The light weight materials and absence of a

large holding tank allow steam generators to come up to pressure

quickly in a manner of minutes. This enables steam-generators to be

turned on and off as needed, reducing standby losses. Installing the

water-tubes in a counter-flow configuration to the path of the

combustion gasses increases thermal efficiency.

Source: http://www.claytonindustries.com

Deaerator Tanks

Makeup water and condensate contain dissolved oxygen, carbon

dioxide and ammonia. These dissolved gasses reduce the conductivity

of the steam and hence its ability to transfer heat. More importantly,

oxygen is highly corrosive and leads to pitting and possible system

failure. Economizers are particularly susceptible to oxygen pitting. For

these reasons, oxygen is typically removed from steam systems by a

deaerator.

A deaerator works by spraying makeup water into a steam

environment and heating the makeup water to within about 5 F of

saturation temperature. At this temperature, the solubility of oxygen is

low and the makeup water contains very little oxygen. Oxygen and

flash vapor are vented to atmosphere. To function effectively, the

pressure of the dearator can only be a few psi above ambient pressure,

or else the oxygen will be forced back into the water.

Thottling Valves

Boilers are generally designed to operate at a specific pressure. For

safety reasons, boilers should never be operated above the rated

pressure. If the pressure of steam needed at the application is less

than the rated pressure of the boiler, the boiler can be operated at less

than the design pressure or the boiler can be operated at the design

pressure and the pressure of steam reduced through a valve located

between the boiler and the application. Operating at a lower pressure

will slightly increase the efficiency of the boiler because of the

decreased steam temperature and subsequent boiler skin losses.

However, it may also cause problems such as raising the level of water

in the boiler and reduced boiler heating capacity. A primary advantage

for operating the boiler at the design pressure and then reducing the

pressure through a valve is that the steam exiting the valve will be

slightly super heated, resulting in less water in the steam lines and

heat exchangers. Because of this, some consultants recommend that

steam boilers be operated at their design pressure, even if the steam is

to be used at lower pressures in the plant.

Steam Piping Systems

Steam is generally distributed to the plant through one or more large

steam mains which connect to smaller branch pipes. Condensate is

produced and carried along with the steam as steam condenses on the

inside surface of the pipes. Excess condensate can block steam flow

and cause serious pipe erosion. Thus, drip stations need to be

installed at all low points and ends of all mains at intervals of about

100 feet along the main. A drip station consists of a vertical section of

pipe at least 18 inches long installed on the underside of the main and

connected to a steam trap. Strainers should also be installed along the

piping system to filter out scale and solid contaminants.

The velocity of steam out of the boiler is determined by the outlet

nozzle. It is common practice to design piping systems for spaceheating applications for a velocity of about 6,000 ft/min and piping

systems for process-heating applications for a velocity of about 10,000

ft/min. Lower velocities reduce pressure loss, pipe erosion, water

hammer and noise as well as providing more efficient condensate

drainage.

As steam condenses on a cold surface a thin film of condensate is

produced and any air entrained with the steam is released. Air in a

steam system steam causes two major problems. First, even a thin

layer of air on a heat transfer surface, dramatically reduces the heat

transfer across the surface (See figure below). For example a layer of

air 0.04 inches thick adds the same thermal resistance as a layer of

water 1 inch thick or a layer of iron 4.3 feet thick. Second, when air is

8

attack piping and heat exchange surfaces. To reduce air in the piping

system, thermostatic air vents should be installed at high points, the

end of steam mains and on all heat exchange equipment.

Steam Traps

As steam delivers heat through a heat exchanger, the steam vapor

condenses to a liquid. Steam traps are located downstream of heat

exchangers and discharge the condensate into the condensate return

line while preventing steam vapor from passing through.

The four most common types of steam traps are:

Inverted bucket.

Float + thermostatic

Thermostatic

Thermodynamic

Condensate Return Tanks

Condensate return tanks collect condensate discharged from steam

traps. In open condensate return systems, the condensate return tank

is open to the environment and condensate is pumped back to the

boiler. The enthalpy of condensate at atmospheric pressure is

substantially less than the enthalpy of condensate at the operating

pressure of a steam system. Thus, the energy released as the pressure

of condensate falls to atmospheric pressure, vaporizes some of the

condensate into flash steam, which is discharged to atmosphere.

In closed condensate return systems, steam pressure forces the

condensate all the way back to the deaerator tank. Thus, in closed

systems, flash steam is created as the pressure of condensate falls to

the pressure of the deaerator tank, and is discharged to atmosphere

from the deaerator rather than the condensate return tank.

Steam Metering

Steam metering is expensive, but gives valuable information for

managing a steam system. Most steam meters work by measuring the

pressure difference across a pressure reduction valve and comparing

the output to calibrated values. High-quality steam metering devices

for a 4-inch steam pipe cost about $4,000.

Uninsulated steam pipes, condensate return pipes, condensate return

tanks, deaerator tanks and process tanks lose heat to the surrounding

by convection and radiation. Insulating these surfaces reduces steam

use and the risk of burns.

tank

from insulating hot surfaces, while explicitly taking radiation and the

dependence of the convection coefficient on surface temperature into

account. The required input variables for this procedure are easily

measured in the field.

To calculate heat loss savings, the heat loss from both the uninsulated

surface and from the surface with the proposed insulation must be

calculated. The savings from adding insulation are difference between

the uninsulated and insulated heat loss.

Qsavings = Quninsulated Qinsulated

(1)

radiation. The equation for heat loss, Q, to the surroundings at Ta, from

a hot surface at Ts, with area A is:

Quninsulated = h A (Ts Ta) + A (Ts4 Ta4)

(2)

10

(0.1714 10-8 Btu/ft2-hr-R4, or 5.67 10-8 W/m2-K4), is the emissivity of

the surface. Very shiny surfaces have emissivities of about 0.1; dark or

rough surfaces have emissivities of about 0.9.

The flow of air over warm surfaces is due to the buoyancy of warm air

next to the surface compared to the cooler surrounding air. For

surfaces a few degrees warmer than the surrounding air, the natural

convection coefficient is about 1.5 Btu/ft2-hr-F (8.5 W/m2-K) (Mitchell,

1983 [9]). However, as the surface temperature increases, so does the

buoyancy effect and convection coefficient. To account for this effect,

the value of the convection coefficient can be approximated as a

function of the orientation and vertical dimension of the surface, and

the temperature difference between the surface and the surrounding

air (ASHRAE Fundamentals, 1989). The appropriate relation depends

on whether the air flow is laminar or turbulent. Dimensional

approximations for determining whether the flow is laminar or

turbulent are shown in Equation 3. In these relations, L is the

characteristic length (ft) in the vertical direction and T is temperature

difference between the surface, Ts, and the surrounding air, Ta (F).

Laminar: L3 T < 63

Turbulent: L3 T > 63

(3)

can be estimated using the relations in Equation 4 (ASHRAE

Fundamentals, 1989 [1]). In these relations, L is the length (ft) in the

vertical direction, D is the diameter (ft), B is tilt angle of the surface

from horizontal, and h is convection coefficient (Btu/hr-ft2-F). For use

with SI units, the proper conversion would need to be made (1 Btu/hrft2-F = 5.678 W/m2-K).

Horizontal Surfaces Losing Heat Upwards:

hlam = 0.27 (T / L) 0.25; htur = 0.22 (T) 0.33

Tilted/Vertical Surfaces:

hlam =0.29 [T (sin B) / L]

0.25

hlam = 0.27 (T / D) 0.25; htur = 0.18 (T)

0.33

(4)

calculate the current heat loss. Similarly, heat loss from the insulated

surface can be calculated from:

11

(5)

Unfortunately, in Equation 5, the values of Ti and h are not known. To

determine Ti and h, the first step is to determine the thermal resistance

of the current wall, Rc, based on the temperature of the fluid inside the

heating system, Tf, and the current surface temperature Ts. Thermal

resistance of the current wall includes both the conduction thermal

resistance through the wall and the convection thermal resistance at

the walls inner surface.

Quninsulated = A (Tf Ts) / Rc

(6)

on the surface of the insulation:

Qcnd,in Qcnv,out Qrad,out = A (Tf Ti) / (Rc +Ri) - h A (Ti Ta) - A

(Ti4 Ta4) = 0 (7)

where Ri is the thermal resistance of the insulation. The relations for

convection coefficient as a function of the temperature difference

between Ti and Ta form a second equation. Thus, this system has two

equations (Equation 4 and Equation 7) and two unknowns and can be

solved to determine Ti and h.

An easy way to solve this system of equations is to guess a value for T i,

calculate the convection coefficient h using Equation 4, then substitute

Ti and h into Equation 7. The left side of Equation 7 will evaluate to 0

when Ti is correct. Hence, the system of equations can be solved by

repeating this process with guesses for Ti until Equation 7 converges to

close to 0. The final values of Ti and h can then be substituted into

Equation 5 to find Qinsulated. The heat loss savings, Qsav is the difference

between Quninsulated and Qinsulated.

Example

The surface temperature of 100 ft of 0.5 ft diameter un-insulated pipe

carrying condensate at 200 F is 180 F. The pipe is located in a room

with air and surroundings at 70 F. The surface emissivity of the pipe is

0.70. Calculate convection, radiation and total heat loss from the pipe

(Btu/hr). The pipe is insulated with 2 inches on insulation with thermal

resistance R = 2 hr-ft2-F/Btu per inch. The surface emissivity of the

insulation is 0.70. Calculate convection, radiation and total heat loss

from the insulated pipe (Btu/hr). Calculate the heat loss and fuel

12

savings from insulating the pipe (Btu/hr) if the efficiency of the steam

system is 70%.

Input data are:

Calculations of current heat loss and thermal resistance of the pipe, Rp,

are:

thus, neglecting radiation loss significantly underestimates total heat

loss.

To calculate the heat loss with insulation, an iterative method is used in

which the surface temperature of the insulation, Ti, is guessed until the

energy balance Equation 7 is satisfied. Equation 7 is satisfied when:

EB(Ti) = A (Tf Ti) / (Rp +Ri) - h A (Ti Ta) - A (Ti4 Ta4) = 0

13

to zero. After Ti is known, the heat loss can be calculated as:

Thus, the heat loss, Qsav, and fuel, Qf,sav, savings from adding

insulation would be:

The same method can be used to calculate heat loss, and the savings

from insulating, walls of steam-heated tanks. The only modifications

required are when calculating the convection coefficient. When

determining whether the flow of air is laminar of turbulent, the

effective length is the wall height instead of pipe diameter, and the

relation for convection coefficient is for vertical surfaces instead of

pipes.

Example

The surface temperature of a steam-heated, un-insulated rectangular

tank with four walls with height 4 ft and length 8 ft is 160 F. The

temperature of fluid in the tank is 180 F, and the temperature of the air

and surroundings is 70 F. The surface emissivity of the tank is 0.70.

Calculate convection, radiation and total heat loss from the tank walls

(Btu/hr). The tank walls are insulated with 1 inch on insulation with

thermal resistance R = 2 hr-ft2-F/Btu per inch. The surface emissivity

of the insulation is 0.70. Calculate convection, radiation and total heat

loss from the insulated tank walls (Btu/hr). Calculate the heat loss and

14

fuel savings from insulating the tank walls (Btu/hr) if the efficiency of

the steam system is 75%.

Input data are:

Rw, are:

Note that radiation loss is less than convection heat loss at these

relatively low temperature differences between the surface and air.

To calculate the heat loss with insulation, an iterative method is used in

which the surface temperature of the insulation, Ti, is guessed until the

energy balance Equation 7 is satisfied. Equation 7 is satisfied when:

EB(Ti) = A (Tf Ti) / (Rw +Ri) - h A (Ti Ta) - A (Ti4 Ta4) = 0

15

close to zero. After Ti is known, the heat loss can be calculated as:

Thus, the heat loss, Qsav, and fuel savings, Qf,sav, from adding

insulation would be:

In open tanks, the total heat loss is the sum of heat loss through

convection, radiation and evaporation. These losses can be

significantly reduced by adding a cover or floats to the tank.

open tanks.

16

Steam traps are automatic valves that discharge condensate from a

steam line without discharging steam. If the trap fails open, steam

escapes into the condensate return pipe without being utilized in the

process. If it fails closed, condensate fills the heat exchanger and

chokes-off heat to process. Fixing failed steam traps is usually highly

cost-effective.

Steam traps are designed to operate about 10 years, but can fail

sooner due to contamination, improper application, and other reasons.

Steam traps can fail open or closed. If a steam trap fails open, it

allows steam to pass through the trap; hence the energy value of the

steam is completely wasted. If a trap fails closed, condensate will

back up into the piping (which reduces steam flow, inhibits valve

function and causes pipe erosion) and/or flood the heat exchanger

(which reduces or eliminates effective heat transfer). Because of these

problems, it is recommended that all traps be tested at least once per

year. The most common methods of identifying failed-open steam

traps are:

Ultrasonic sensor

Temperature sensor

Excess flash

from steam and condensate flow into the audible spectrum. Thus, an

analyst can determine whether steam and condensate is being

discharged through the trap by listening to the condensate side of a

steam trap. If the discharge is continuous, it could indicate that the

trap has failed open. If no discharge can be sensed, it may indicate

that the trap has failed closed.

Properly functioning inverted bucket, IB, and thermodynamic, TD, traps

discharge condensate intermittently. Thus, a continuous discharge

indicates that these types of traps have failed open. Properly

functioning float and thermostatic, FT, and thermostatic, TS, traps

discharge condensate continuously. Thus, the failure of these types of

traps cannot be diagnosed by listening for continuous discharge. The

four types of steam traps can be identified by their distinctive shapes

and nameplates.

Temperature Sensor: Infrared temperature sensors can detect the

temperature on the steam and condensate sides of steam traps.

Properly functioning traps are generally warm on both sides, but hotter

on the steam side than the condensate side. A trap that is equally hot

17

on both sides may have failed open. A trap which is cold on both sides

may have failed closed and be flooded with water.

Flash: The enthalpy of condensate at atmospheric pressure is

substantially less than the enthalpy of condensate at the operating

pressure of a steam system. Thus, the energy released as the pressure

of condensate falls to atmospheric pressure, vaporizes some of the

condensate into flash steam. The quantity of condensate flashed

to vapor dramatically increases when live steam enters the condensate

return system. Thus, increased flash from the condensate return or

deaerator tank is an indicator of failed-open steam traps.

Estimating Savings from Repairing Steam Traps

The rate of steam loss through a leaking trap depends on the size of

the condensate orifice in the trap. Orifice size is a function of the size

of the trap and the differential pressure between the steam and

condenstate lines that the trap was designed for. Orifice sizes for

Sprirax Sarco float+thermostatic and inverted-bucket traps are listed

below. Orifice sizes for thermostatic and thermodynamic traps are

generally not specified; however the effective orifice size is similar to

the orifice size for inverted bucket and float+thermostatic traps.

Steam flow (lb/hr) = 24.24 lb/(hr-psia-in2) x P psia x [D inch]2 x C

18

and C is the fraction of the orifice that is open (Design of Fluid

Systems: Hook-ups, Spirax-Sarco, 2000, pg. 57).

In many cases, leaking steam traps are identified using an ultrasonic

sensor and/or by measuring temperatures on both sides of the trap.

Large leaks typically make more noise and create higher downstream

temperatures than small leaks. Thus, experienced personnel often

estimate the fraction of the orifice that is open using these indicators.

Example

Calculate savings from replacing a failed 0.5-inch inverted bucket trap

rated at 180 psi if actual steam pressure is 120 psig. The orifice is

estimated to be 50% open. The steam system operates 6,000 hours

per year and the cost of fuel is $10 /mmBtu. 100% of the condensate

is returned at 200 F. The overall efficiency of the boiler is 80%.

From the table above, the orifice size for this trap is 1/32-inch.

Assuming that the orifice is 50% open, the steam loss through the

leaking trap is about:

24.24 lb/(hr-psia-in2) x )120 + 14.7) psia x [0.0938 inch]2 x 50% =

14.36 lb/hr

The latent heat of steam at 120 psig is about 872 Btu/lb and the

saturation temperature is about 350 F. The natural gas savings from

fixing the steam trap would be about:

14.36 lb/hr [872 Btu/lb + 1 Btu/lb-F (350 200) F] 6,000 hr/yr / 80%

= 110 mmBtu/yr

110 mmBtu/yr x $10 / mmBtu = $1,100 /yr

An inverted-bucket steam trap for -inch pipe connections with a

maximum operating pressure of 125 psig costs about $100. If the

labor cost of installing a new trap is $50, the simple payback would be

about:

SP = $150 / $1,100 /yr x 12 months/yr = 1.63 months

Generating steam at unnecessarily high pressures decreases boiler

efficiency, increases heat loss from steam pipes and increases flash

loss. Reducing boiler pressure to match the highest required process

19

pressure to match the local required process temperature reduces flash

loss. Thus, always produce and supply steam at the minimum pressure

required to meet the process temperature requirement.

Blowdown is the practice of expelling steam to reduce contaminant

build ups. Blow down can occur from the surface and/or bottom of the

boiler. Typical blowdown rates range from 4% to 8% of boiler feedwater. Blowdown may be manual or automatic. Manual blowdown

relies on intuition or periodic testing to determine when the

concentration of contaminants is high enough to warrant blowdown.

Manual blowdown virtually always results in either excess blowdown

that wastes energy or insufficient blow down that creates excess scale

on heat transfer surfaces and reduces boiler efficiency. Automatic

blowdown controls monitor the conductivity of the water in the boiler

and open the blowdown valve as needed to maintain the conductivity

within a specified range. Optimizing the quantity of blow down using

automatic controls reduces energy, water and water treatment costs.

Combustion Efficiency

Boilers typically employ combustion to covert fuel energy into high

temperature thermal energy.

This section describes natural gas

combustion and how to calculate combustion air flow, combustion

temperature and the efficiency of the process. These results are used

extensively throughout this chapter.

The minimum amount of air required for complete combustion is called

the stoichiometric air. Air consists of about 1 mole of oxygen to 3.76

moles of nitrogen. Assuming that natural gas is made up of 100%

methane, the equation for the stoichiometric combustion of natural gas

with air is:

CH4 + 2 (O2 + 3.76 N2) CO2 + 2 H2O +7.52 N2

(17)

The ratio of the mass of air required to completely combust a given

mass of fuel is called the stoichiometric air to fuel ratio, AFs. AFs can

be calculated using the molecular masses of the air and fuel at

stoichiometric conditions. For combustion of natural gas in air, AFs is

about:

20

17.2

The quantity of air supplied in excess of stoichiometric air is called

excess combustion air, ECA. Excess combustion air can be written in

terms of the stoichiometric air to fuel ratio, AFs, the combustion air

mass flow rate, mca, and natural gas mass flow rate, mng.

ECA = [(mca / mng) / AFs] 1

(18)

Large quantities of excess air dilute combustion gasses and lower the

temperature of the gasses, which results in decreased efficiency. The

energy input, Qin, to a combustion chamber is the product of the

natural gas mass flow rate, mng, and the higher heating value of

natural gas, HHV, which is about 23,900 Btu/lbm.

Qin = mng HHV

(19)

The mass flow rate of the combustion gasses, m g, is the sum of the

natural gas mass flow rate, mng, and combustion air mass flow rate,

mca.

mg = mng + mca

(20)

The temperature of combustion, Tc, can be calculated from an energy

balance on the combustion chamber, where the chemical energy

released during combustion is converted into sensible energy gain of

the gasses.

The energy balance reduces to the terms of inlet

combustion air temperature, Tca, lower heating value of natural gas

(21,500 Btu/lbm), excess combustion air, ECA, stoichiometric air fuel

ratio, AFs, and specific heat of combustion gasses, Cp g (0.30 Btu/lbmF). Combustion temperature, Tc, is calculated in terms of these easily

measured values as:

Tc = Tca + LHV / [{1 + (1 + ECA) AFs} Cpg]

(21)

The combustion efficiency, is the ratio of energy delivered to the

system to the total fuel energy supplied. The energy delivered to the

system is the energy loss of combustion gasses. The energy loss of

the combustion gasses can be expressed as the product of the mass

flow rate, specific heat and temperature drop of the gasses. The total

21

energy fuel energy supplied is the higher heating value of the fuel.

Using this approach, the combustion efficiency, is:

= [{1 + (1 + ECA) AFs} Cpg (Tc Tex)] / HHV

(22)

The dew-point temperature of products of combustion is about 140 F.

If the products of combustion leave the process at temperature of less

than the dew-point temperature the water vapor will condense to a

liquid and release energy. To include this effect, the efficiency equation

can be written:

If Tex > 140 F then hfg = 0 Else hfg = HHV LHV

= [{1 + (1 + ECA) AFs} Cpg (Tc Tex) + hfg] / HHV

(22b)

The three required input values for computing combustion efficiency,

entering combustion air temperature, T ca, exhaust gas temperature,

Tex, and excess combustion air, ECA, can be measured using a

combustion analyzer. The quantity of excess air in the combustion

gasses is sometimes expressed as fraction oxygen. For methane

(natural gas) the conversion between fraction oxygen, FO 2, and excess

combustion air, ECA, are:

FO2 = 2 ECA / (10.52 + 9.52 ECA)

(23)

Example

A boiler consumes 100,000 Btu/hr of natural gas. An analysis of the

exhaust gasses finds that the fraction of excess air is 30% and the

temperature of the exhaust gasses is 500 F. Calculate combustion air

flow (lb/hr), exhaust gas flow (lb/hr), combustion temperature (F) and

the combustion efficiency.

22

Thus, mass flow rate of combustion air is 94 lb/hr and the mass flow

rate of the combustion gasses is 98 lb/hr.

23

combustion efficiency using this method is shown in the graph below.

Efficiency decreases with increasing excess air and increasing exhaust

air temperature.

Linkages

Most boilers use linkages that connect natural gas supply valves with

combustion air inlet dampers. As the natural gas valve closes, the

mechanical linkages close dampers on the combustion air supply to

attempt to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio. If the exhaust gasses

contain too much excess air, the linkages can be adjusted to tune the

air/fuel ratio so that the exhaust gasses contain about 10% excess air.

Mechanical linkages vary the position of the inlet air damper with

natural gas supply.

24

Example

A boiler burns 2,000 mmBtu of natural gas per year at a cost of $10

/mmBtu. The average temperature of the incoming combustion air is

70 F and the average temperature of the exhaust is 450 F. The fraction

excess air in the exhaust is measured to be 50%, but is reduced to

10% by adjusting the inlet combustion air dampers. Calculate a) the

projected annual cost savings ($/yr) and b) the projected savings as a

percent of current annual natural gas use.

The initial efficiency is:

25

The heating energy delivered to the process, Qp, is the product of the

initial fuel use, Qf1, and the initial efficiency, Eff1.

Qp = Qf,1 x Eff1

The heating energy delivered to the process remains constant. The

new fuel use, Qf2, with the higher efficiency, Eff2, is:

Qf,2 = Qp / Eff2

The fuel use savings, Qf,sav, would be:

Qf,sav = Qf,1 - Qf,2

26

Unfortunately, the linkages between the fuel valve and combustion air

dampers seldom function perfectly. Thus, the air/fuel ratio is seldom

held constant over the firing range. For example, the figure below

shows that excess air varies from 120% at low fire to 38% at mid file to

42% at high fire. This indicates that the linkages were incapable of

sufficiently reducing combustion air to match fuel supply at low fire.

The high level of excess air at low fire causes the efficiency of the

boiler to drop, even though the lower exhaust temperature should

drive the efficiency higher. In cases like this, it is often very difficult to

adjust the linkages so that excess air is constant at 10% at all firing

levels. However, it is usually possible to adjust the linkages so that the

minimum level of excess air is about 10%, and the excess air at other

firing rates drops by about the same percentage.

Example

A boiler operates 4,000 hours per year at low fire, 2,000 hours per year

at mid fire, and 2,000 hours per year at high fire with excess air and

exhaust temperatures shown in the figure above. Boiler fuel

consumption is 4 mmBtu/hr at low fire, 12 mmBtu/hr at mid fire, and

20 mmBtu/hr at high fire. Ambient temperature is 70 F. Calculate

annual fuel energy savings (mmBtu/year) from adjusting the linkages

so the minimum excess air is 10%, and the excess air at other firing

rates is decreased by the same percentage.

27

the excess air was 10% at mid-fire, the reduction in excess air would

be 28%. If the excess air at all firing rates was reduced by 28%, the

new levels of excess air would be 84% at low fire, 10% at mid fire and

14% at high fire. The new combustion efficiencies, Eff2, at these firing

rates and temperatures would be:

The heating energy delivered to the process, Qp, is the product of the

initial fuel use, Qf1, and the initial efficiency, Eff1.

Qp = Qf,1 x Eff1

28

The heating energy delivered to the process remains constant after the

efficiency is improved. The new fuel use, Qf2, with the higher

efficiency, Eff2, is:

Qf,2 = Qp / Eff2

The fuel use savings, Qf,sav, would be:

Qf,sav = Qf,1 - Qf,2

linkages reduced fuel use by 1.6%.

Most boilers use linkages that connect natural gas supply valves with

combustion air inlet dampers. Unfortunately, the linkages do not

function perfectly, and the air/fuel ratio is seldom held constant over

the firing range. O2 trim combustion controls measure the oxygen in

the exhaust gasses to regulate combustion intake air to maintain about

10% excess air across the entire firing range. O2 trim controls cost

about $30,000 and require periodic calibration which costs about

$2,000 per year. Thus, O2 trim combustion controls are most costeffective for boilers that operate all year long.

29

Example

A boiler operates 4,000 hours per year at low fire, 2,000 hours per year

at mid fire, and 2,000 hours per year at high fire with excess air and

exhaust temperatures shown in the figure below. Boiler fuel

consumption is 4 mmBtu/hr at low fire, 12 mmBtu/hr at mid fire, and

20 mmBtu/hr at high fire. Ambient temperature is 70 F. Calculate

annual fuel energy savings (mmBtu/year) from installing an O2 trim

system so the minimum excess air is 10% across the firing range.

30

The new combustion efficiencies, Eff2, if the excess air was held to

10% across the firing range would be:

The heating energy delivered to the process, Qp, is the product of the

initial fuel use, Qf1, and the initial efficiency, Eff1.

Qp = Qf,1 x Eff1

The heating energy delivered to the process remains constant after the

efficiency is improved. The new fuel use, Qf2, with the higher

efficiency, Eff2, is:

Qf,2 = Qp / Eff2

The fuel use savings, Qf,sav, would be:

31

1.6%. In this example, installing an O2 trim system reduced fuel use

by 2.4%.

Scale buildup from hard water increases the thermal resistance

between the hot combustion gasses and the steam, which increases

exhaust temperature and decreases boiler efficiency. Mechanical

and/or chemical descaling can significantly reduce exhaust gas

temperature and increase boiler efficiency.

Example

A boiler burns 3,000 mmBtu of natural gas per year at a cost of $10

/mmBtu. The average temperature of the incoming combustion air is

70 F. The fraction excess air in the exhaust is measured to be 20%.

The exhaust temperature from the boiler increases from 380 F to 450 F

over a 14 month period due to scale buildup. Calculate a) the

projected annual cost savings ($/yr) and b) the projected savings as a

percent of current annual natural gas use from descaling the boiler.

The initial efficiency before descaling is:

32

The heating energy delivered to the process, Qp, is the product of the

initial fuel use, Qf1, and the initial efficiency, Eff1.

Qp = Qf,1 x Eff1

The heating energy delivered to the process remains constant. The

new fuel use, Qf2, with the higher efficiency, Eff2, is:

33

Qf,2 = Qp / Eff2

The fuel use savings, Qf,sav, would be:

Qf,sav = Qf,1 - Qf,2

An economizer is a heat exchanger that preheats feed-water to the

boiler using heat from the exhaust gasses. Economizers are most cost

effective in process boilers that operate all year. The energy reclaimed

by the economizer can be modeled as a function of the effectiveness of

the economizer.

Heat Exchanger Effectiveness Method

Energy savings from reclaiming heat can be calculated using the heat

exchanger effectiveness method. Heat exchangers transfer heat from a

hot stream with entering and exiting temperatures of Th1 and Th2 to a

cold stream with entering and exiting temperatures of Tc1 and Tc2.

The product of the mass flow rate and specific heat of the hot and cold

streams are called the mass capacitances, mcph and mcpc. A

34

shown below.

Th1

Tc2

Qact

Th2

Tc1

Qact, to maximum heat transfer, Qmax.

e = Qact / Qmax

The actual heat transfer is the product of the mass capacitance and

the temperature rise of either the hot or cold stream. The mass

capacitance, mcp, is the product of the mass flow rate, m, and the

specific heat, cp.

Qact = mcph (Th1 Th2) = mcpc (Tc2 Tc1)

In an infinitely long heat exchanger, the exit temperature of the hot

stream would reach the entering temperature of the cold stream.

Similarly, the exit temperature of the cold stream would reach the

entering temperature of the hot stream. The maximum heat transfer

would be limited only by the capacity of the each stream to absorb the

heat. Thus, the maximum heat transfer would be:

Qmax = mcp,min (Th1 Tc1)

Thus, the heat exchanger effectiveness is:

e = Qact / Qmax = Qact / mcp,min (Th1 Tc1)

If the heat exchanger effectiveness, mass capacitances and entering

temperatures are known, this equation can be solved to determine the

actual heat transfer, Qact, and exit temperatures of each stream.

Qact = e mcp,min (Th1 Tc1)

Tc2 = Tc1 + e mcp,min (Th1 Tc1) / mcpc

Th2 = Th1 - e mcp,min (Th1 Tc1) / mcph

Heat exchangers are typically designed with sufficient heat transfer

area such that the effectiveness of the heat exchanger is between

35

the cost of the required surface area frequently outweighs the

additional performance benefits. Heat exchanger designers must also

ensure that the pressure drop on each side of the heat exchanger is

acceptably small, and that the materials can withstand the

temperatures, fouling and corrosiveness of the fluids involved.

Example

Consider reclaiming heat from boiler exhaust at 400 F to preheat boiler

feedwater at 80 F. The boiler consumes 1,000,000 Btu/hr of natural

gas and produces 900 lb/hr of steam. The fraction excess air in the

exhaust is measured to be 20%. Calculate the heat and fuel savings,

and the temperatures of the two streams leaving the economizer, if the

economizer is 50% effective and the overall efficiency of the steam

system is 75%.

The first step is to calculate the flow rate of exhaust gasses using

combustion relations.

Next, calculate the heat transfer from the hot exhaust gasses, h, to the

cold feedwater, c, using the heat exchanger effectiveness method.

36

130 F, and the exhaust gasses were cooled from 400 F to 240 F. The

dewpoint temperature of water vapor in exhaust is about 140 F. So the

240 F exhaust gas temperature is still hot enough to prevent

condensation in the exhaust pipe.

The fuel savings would be:

Most boilers are designed for peak load, but operate at less than full

load most of the time. To meet part load conditions using on/off

control, the burner intermittently fires at full-fire then turn offs. To

meet part load conditions using modulation control, fuel and

combustion air are to the burner are modulated down and the burner

fires at less than full fire. Modulation control is more efficient that

on/off control for two reasons. First, each time a boiler cycles on and

off, it purges natural gas from inside the boiler by blowing the

combustion air fan. These purge cycles remove heat from the steam

and increase fuel use. In addition, boilers are more efficient at low or

medium fire than at full fire because the combustion gasses have more

37

time to transfer heat to the steam as they pass through the boiler.

Thus, it is advantageous to control the boiler with modulation control

and avoid cycling.

In most boilers with on/off control, it is possible to upgrade to

modulation control. In addition, modulating burners typically have a

minimum firing rate of 25% to 33% of maximum output. If steam

demand is less than the minimum firing rate, the boiler cycles on and

off. Installing a burner with a smaller minimum firing rate can

eliminate the on/off cycling and reduce fuel use.

Example

A boiler operating with on/off control consumes 6,300,000 Btu/hr at full

fire. At full fire, the temperature of the exhaust gasses are 450 F and

the excess air in the exhaust gasses is 20%. The temperature of

combustion air entering the boiler is 70 F. The boiler operates 8,400

hours per year and fires at full fire 70% of the time. The boiler cycles

off two times per hour, and purges natural gas from inside the boiler

for 1 minute after cycling off and for 1 minute before reigniting. The

saturation temperature of steam in the boiler is 335 F. The cost of

natural gas is $10 /mmBtu. If the boiler were operated in modulation

mode, calculate the fuel savings from eliminating purge losses

(mmBtu/yr), the fuel savings from improving combustion efficiency

(mmBtu/yr), and the overall cost savings ($/yr)

The mass flow rate of exhaust gasses at full fire is:

38

steam, Qsteam, and heat exchanger effectiveness of the boiler, e1, at

full fire. Using this effectiveness, the heat loss during the purge cycle

can be calculated as:

39

gasses travelling through the boiler decreases, resulting in greater

heat transfer and lower exhaust temperature. To calculate the lower

exhaust temperature, first solve the relation for heat exchanger

effectiveness, e1, for condensing heat exchangers such as boilers

e1 = 1 exp(-UA/Cmin)

for the UA of the boiler. Next, calculate the heat exchanger

effectiveness at the lower flow rate, e2, by solving the equation for

heat delivered to the steam.

Qsteam = e2 m,ex cp,ex (Tc Tex) = m,ex, cp,ex (Tc - Tex)

Using the method, the reduced exhaust temperature at less than full

fire is:

40

Blowdown removes impurities that inevitably accumulate because

makeup water is never 100% pure and the steam leaving the boiler is a

distilled vapor with no impurities. Most boilers employ two types of

blowdown: surface and bottom. Surface blowdown remove dissolved

solids which tend to accumulate near the top of the boiler where steam

41

bottom of the boiler. Total blowdown rates vary with the quality and

quantity of boiler makeup water; however total rate of blowdown is

typically between 4% and 8% of the steam generation rate.

Up to 80% of the thermal energy in the blowdown can be recovered. A

schematic of a flash + condensate blowdown recovery system is shown

below. Blowdown flash vapor and condensate are separated in a flash

tank. Blowdown flash vapor is piped into the deaerator. Blowdown

condensate flows through a plate heat exchanger to warm make-up

water.

Source: http://www.spiraxsarco.com/

Schematics of typical atmospheric and forced air hot-water boilers are

shown below. In both types of boiler, hot combustion gasses transfer

heat to the water as they move upward then out the exhaust flue. In

on/off burner control, the burner fires whenever the water temperature

drops to the low-temperature set point and turns off when the water

temperature rises to the high-temperature set point.

42

When open atmospheric boilers are not firing, air is drawn upward

through the interior of the boiler as it warms and becomes more

buoyant. This air pulls heat out of the water and reduces the overall

efficiency of the boiler. This chimney effect is exaggerated when the

outlet of the exhaust flue is higher than the inlet to the base of the

boiler. To reduce this loss, the exhaust flue can be equipped with a

stack damper that closes when the burners are not firing. To be

completely effective, the stack damper must be located below the

exhaust flue hood. Closed forced-draft boilers minimize this effect by

sealing the combustion area with a fan that stops inlet air flow when

the burner is not firing. However, to the extent that these losses still

occur, they reduce the overall or total efficiency of the boiler.

Condensing Boiler

Steam boilers generate steam at 212 F and higher as steam pressure

increases. Hot water boilers generate hot water at lower

temperatures, and hence have the potential of operating at higher

efficiencies than steam boilers. In addition, because of the low

operating pressure, hot water boilers do not require dedicated boiler

operators.

In HVAC applications, high-temperature hot-water boiler systems

typically operate at about 180 F. Low-temperature systems operate at

about 120 F. Low-temperature systems are more fuel efficient because

the temperature difference between the water and hot combustion

gasses is greater, which results in greater heat transfer and lower

exhaust gas temperature. Efficiency increases significantly when

43

vapor, the temperature of water returning from the building and

entering the boiler must be 125 F or less. The graph below shows, how

combustion efficiency increases with decreasing inlet water

temperature.

Example

A traditional hot-water boiler burns 1,000 mmBtu of natural gas per

year at a cost of $10 /mmBtu. The average temperature of the

incoming combustion air is 70 F. The average temperature of the

exhaust is 300 F. The fraction excess air in the exhaust is measured to

be 10%. It is proposed to 1) install a larger process heat exchanger

that reduces the temperature of the return water from 150 F to 110 F,

and 2) install a new condensing boiler. The average temperature of

the exhaust from the condensing boiler is 120 F. Calculate a) the

projected annual cost savings ($/yr) and b) the projected savings as a

percent of current annual natural gas use.

The initial efficiency, Eff1, is:

44

The heating energy delivered to the process, Qp, is the product of the

initial fuel use, Qf1, and the initial efficiency, Eff1.

Qp = Qf,1 x Eff1

The heating energy delivered to the process remains constant. The

new fuel use, Qf2, with the higher efficiency, Eff2, is:

45

Qf,2 = Qp / Eff2

The fuel use savings, Qf,sav, would be:

Qf,sav = Qf,1 - Qf,2

Hot Water Applications

Some industrial processes, such a food processing, require large

volumes of hot water that cannot be returned to the system. In these

cases, make-up water can enter the boiler at near ambient

temperatures. Direct contact hot water heaters capitalize on low

incoming water temperatures, counter flow design and large heat

exchange areas between the combustion gasses and water droplets to

generate efficiencies of up to 99%.

46

industry.

reduction in energy loss through a given pathway, Energy , by the

overall efficiency of the steam system, Eff,sys.

Fuel = Energy / Eff,sys

The energy efficiency of any system is the ratio of useful energy

delivered to required energy input. For steam systems, the energy

efficiency is the ratio of useful heat delivered to the process to the

pump and fuel energy input.

Eff,sys = Qprocess / (Epump + Efuel)

However, because pump energy is quite small compared to fuel

energy, pump energy is neglected and the efficiency is typically

calculated as:

Eff,sys = Qprocess / Efuel

However, in an integrated system like a steam system, changes in one

part of the system affect other parts of the system. The simplistic

method of estimating savings shown above does not account for these

synergistic effects between system components. A more accurate way

to calculate expected fuel savings is to use an integrated model of the

steam system, calibrate it to baseline fuel use, change parameters to

47

energy-efficient fuel use.

One model of a steam system is called SteamSim. SteamSim is a

thermodynamic model of the steam system shown below. The steam

system is modeled from the following readily obtainable input data

using known state points, energy balances, and mass balances and the

methods described above.

P2 : steam pressure at exit to boiler (psia)

P3 : steam pressure at exit from throttling valve (psia)

Pda : steam pressure of deaerator tank (psia)

T0 : temperature of makeup water (F)

Fbd : Fraction of input water discharged as blowdown

Fcl : Fraction of condensate lost

Eecon: effectiveness of economizer

EA: excess air in combustion exhaust

Tca: temperature of combustion air entering boiler (F)

48

economizer (F)

Mstl : Mass flow rate of steam leaking through steam traps (lb/hr)

Dsp, Lsp, Rsp : diameter (ft), length (ft) and thermal resistance

(hr-ft2-F/Btu) of steam pipes

Dcp, Lcp, Rcp : diameter (ft), length (ft) and thermal resistance

(hr-ft2-F/Btu) of condensate pipes

Db, Lb, Rb : diameter (ft), length (ft) and thermal resistance (hrft2-F/Btu) of boiler

Dda, Lda, Rda : diameter (ft), length (ft) and thermal resistance

(hr-ft2-F/Btu) of dearator tank

Fqp : fraction of fuel energy delivered to process

Qexhaust, Fqex : energy lost in combustion exhaust (Btu/hr) and

fraction of fuel energy lost in combustion exhaust

Qbd, Fqbd : energy lost in blowdown (Btu/hr) and fraction of fuel

energy lost in blowdown

Qflash, Fqflash : energy lost in flash steam(Btu/hr) and fraction of

fuel energy lost in flash steam

Qecon, Fqecon : energy reclaimed by economizer (Btu/hr) and

fraction of fuel energy reclaimed by economizer

Qcl, Fqcl : energy lost in condensate loss (Btu/hr) and fraction of

fuel energy lost in condensate loss

Tsp, Qsp, Fqsp : temperature of steam pipe (F), heat loss from

steam pipe (Btu/hr), fraction of fuel input lost from steam pipe

Tcp, Qcp, Fqcp : temperature of condensate pipe (F), heat loss

from condensate pipe (Btu/hr), fraction of fuel input lost from

condensate pipe

Tda, Qda, Fqda : temperature of dearator tank (F), heat loss from

dearator tank (Btu/hr), fraction of fuel input lost from dearator

tank

Tb, Qb, Fb : temperature of boiler (F), heat loss from boiler

(Btu/hr), fraction of fuel input lost from boiler

49

- Boiler & IncineratorЗагружено:Arun Goutham
- Practical Guide to Industrial Boiler SystemsЗагружено:sumeet0827
- GIS-56-104.pdfЗагружено:sri9987
- Boiler Control Honeywell PKS.pdfЗагружено:JS Simatupang
- In Plant Training ReportЗагружено:Devanshu Singh
- 12--Pei-Hsun Lin, Pai-Hsiang Wang and an-Tsu HuangЗагружено:reach_arindom
- Iffco aonla PresentationЗагружено:Divya Prakash Srivastava
- Thermal Power StationЗагружено:nvasiraja
- ASME Code and StampsЗагружено:AA.Karandish
- BoilerBrochure - DuboisЗагружено:Danilo162
- Report 1Загружено:Arjun Kulshreshtha
- Cmc PresentationЗагружено:Keshav Kawre
- thermalpowerplants-12898051220529-phpapp02 (1)Загружено:Rajendran Dharmalingam
- Boiler DrumЗагружено:rashm006ranjan
- Two Proposal to Calculate Bagasse Boiler EfficiencyЗагружено:Mario Melo
- Boiler Drum Level ControlЗагружено:abhiknit
- 4.1.10,11 Draft SystemЗагружено:Sergio Iván
- The Steam esteem Questions and Answers.docЗагружено:stabinmathew
- Introduction to Steam Traps and Drip Leg_ a Brief Presentation _ What is PipingЗагружено:Anonymous 64kSsy
- sjЗагружено:joeylacamiento-1
- Iddddppp AЗагружено:Gurunath Epili
- FMA - Steam Boiler and Unfired Pressure VesselЗагружено:INSTECH
- 4WG Boiler Book (1).pdfЗагружено:Christian Guerra
- 2002 Demirbas - Relationships Between Heating Value and Lignin, Moisture, Ash and Extractive Contents of Biomass Fuels.pdfЗагружено:skakind
- Ramel Ornales Construction SuperintendentЗагружено:Industrial Welders
- Micra-2-23-EЗагружено:Galo2142
- Coal Specification PLTU MamujuЗагружено:arjunansyah
- High Temperature Boiler Tube FailuresЗагружено:keerthi dayarathna
- Combustion thermodynamics.pdfЗагружено:John Anthoni
- Steam Coils and Steam Air Heaters – DeltaЗагружено:sree

- Alpha Handbook23Загружено:Dimas Apri Saputra
- Power Transmission BeltsЗагружено:chikoopanda
- 214086339-Auto-Levelling-in-spinning.pptxЗагружено:Md. Humayun Kabir
- English Grammar SecretsЗагружено:Mbatutes
- A Guide to AC Motor Repair and ReplacementЗагружено:Apostolie Iulian
- 11 Math 550 Fractions Packet 2Загружено:Mushtaque Ahmed Soomro
- Common_Grammar_Spelling_Rules.pdfЗагружено:Mukesh Barnwal
- Vital Factors for Energy Conservation in TextilesЗагружено:gksamy
- Secrets of Marwari BusinessmanЗагружено:Rudrin Das
- Hot Oil System GuideЗагружено:Anonymous QSfDsVxjZ
- Country ProjectЗагружено:SeemiAli
- Human Body HandbookЗагружено:gksamy
- TechnicalGuideBook en 3AFE64514482 RevGЗагружено:Cesar Buitrago
- The Motor GuideЗагружено:graduadoesime
- Mental Maths Workshop HB Add & SubЗагружено:gksamy
- WAF Kids Amazing AnimalsЗагружено:gksamy
- Animal Fact Opinion_WBNNFЗагружено:gksamy
- 0-50 Multiplication Grid RevisedЗагружено:selventhira
- Expansion Joints & TypesЗагружено:gksamy
- Steam Trap Cross Reference GuideЗагружено:gksamy
- Tables Charts Formulas SymbolsЗагружено:Manish Mathur
- Fan Trouble ShootingЗагружено:gksamy
- Hot Oil System Design GuideЗагружено:gksamy
- Mech SealsЗагружено:gksamy
- Weft StraightnerЗагружено:gksamy
- Soot and Scale ProblemЗагружено:gksamy
- Bearings NomenclaturesЗагружено:gksamy

- HEIЗагружено:Sushil Kumar Singh
- Presto User ManualЗагружено:jose_manuel_freitas4189
- ME ProductCatalogЗагружено:Lim Chee Siang
- SyllabusЗагружено:anon-431330
- Dea Erator 1Загружено:JenniferValle
- Water Tube BoilersЗагружено:hafidhrahadiyan2
- Steam BoilerЗагружено:khare_girish
- Tranter, Compact Heat Ex Changers in Brochure, SpiralsЗагружено:Renee Afuna Kotubetey-Adodo
- 162228SM2_OM Manual_A_20170505_入库版Загружено:shahbaz akram
- Caustic GougingЗагружено:Christian Paul Salazar Sanchez
- desaireador GKMOSS_Tray_Deaerator_Brochure.pdfЗагружено:CdMoraS
- EI6002 Power Plant Instrumentation question bankЗагружено:Don N
- NTPC BADARPUR Summer Tranning reportЗагружено:Ravi Jain
- Question Bank for BoilerЗагружено:anhhung80
- V 07 Hater KuritaЗагружено:Adel Klk
- VTT-R-09735-10.pdfЗагружено:ak_thimiri
- Pressurized-Deaerator-Spec.pdfЗагружено:kosmc123
- Steam Source BookЗагружено:api-3709413
- Super HeatersЗагружено:harimadhavareddy
- HP Feed Water.pptxЗагружено:Axlejunz Dublin Rondina
- low pHЗагружено:Mansour Abdulaziz
- Boiler Book 2011Загружено:Youssry Elsayed Mohamed
- training.docxЗагружено:leeba simon
- 2-1 Tech Spec Ashuganj R0Загружено:Anup Mitra
- Boiler accessoriesЗагружено:bertangel
- Cesc ProjectЗагружено:Mainak Naskar
- Flow Accelerated CorrosionЗагружено:alexandroneis
- Vizag ProjectЗагружено:Sobhit Subham
- Pages from Boilers_and_ThermicFluidHeaters.pdfЗагружено:Rexel Reedus
- Clayton Heat Recovery4.pdfЗагружено:AdriánMuñozLópez

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.