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KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGEPERUNDURAI

PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT


BY
S.AANOOR
SHANMUGAPRIYA
R.S.ABHIRAMI
aanoorsiva16@gmail.com
7402112770
ABSTRACT
A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic
solids that are malleable. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular
mass, but they often contain other substances. Waste management is the
"generation, prevention, characterization, monitoring, treatment, handling, reuse
and residual disposition of solid wastes".There are various types of solid waste
including municipal (residential, institutional, commercial), agricultural, and special
(health care, household hazardous wastes, sewage sludge). The term usually relates
to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to
reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.Types of plastics are
thermo and thermosetting plastics. TECHNOLOGIES: compact and new are involved.
Compact technologies include RECYCLING, SEPARATION AND SEGREGATION,
LANDFILL, INCINERATION. NEW TECHNOLOGIES includes CONVERTING WASTE INTO
LIQUID FUEL AND PYROLYSIS METHOD.

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
TYPES OF PLASTICS

SOURCES
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
TECHNOLOGIES FOR WASTE MANAGEMANT
CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids that are
malleable. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain
other substances. It includes materials composed of various such as CARBON, HYDROGEN,
OXYGEN, NITROGEN, CHLORINE, SULPHUR. It is macromolecules formed by the
polymerization and heating ability to be shaped by the application of reasonable amount of heat
and pressure or any other formed key of force. They are usually synthetic, most commonly
derived from petrochemicals, but many are partially natural. Due to their relatively low cost, ease
of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in an enormous and
expanding range of products, from paper clips to spaceships. POLYEHYLENE, POLYVINYL
CHLORIDE, POLYSTRENE is largely used for manufacturing of plastics.
TYPES OF PLASTICS
THERMO PLASTICS

: It can be remold into any other desired shape

THERMOSETTING PLASTICS : It cannot be remold into any other desired shape


The following table illustrates the most common types of plastics used, their applications and the
symbol which is often used to identify them on forms of plastic packaging.
Polymer
Types
Polyethylen
e
Terephthala
te
High
Density
Polyethylen
e

Examples
applications
Fizzy
drink
water bottles.
trays.

of

Polyvinyl
Chloride

Pipes, fittings, window


and
door
frames

Symb
ol

and
Salad

Milk bottles, bleach,


cleaners
and
most
shampoo bottles.

null

Low Density
Polyethylen
e
Polypropyle
ne

Polystyrene

Unallocated
References

(rigid
PVC). Thermal
insulation (PVC foam)
and automotive parts.
Carrier bags, bin liners
and packaging films.

null

null
Margarine
tubs,
microwaveable
meal
trays, also produced as
fibres and filaments for
carpets, wall coverings
and
vehicle
upholstery.
Yoghurt pots, foam
hamburger boxes and
egg cartons, plastic
cutlery,
protective
packaging
for
electronic goods and
toys.
Insulating
material in the building
and
construction
industry.
Any other plastics that
do not fall into any of
the above categories for
example
polycarbonate which is
often used in glazing
for the aircraft industry

SOURCES OF PLASTICS

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null

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BENEFITS:
Resistance to chemicals, water and impact.
Good safety and hygienic properties for food packing.
Excellent thermal and electrical properties.
Relatively inexpensive to produce.
Lighter weight than competing materials reducing fuel consumption during
transportation.

DISADVANTAGES
Decomposition
Hard to reuse
Non-renewable
Difficult to recycle

Threads to nature

Decomposing Plastics

Most plastics are not readily biodegradable, especially when buried in the ground away from
sources of oxygen. Many can be decomposed partially by photodecomposition in the presence of
sunlight, however. This results in the plastic materials breaking up into tiny fragments.Although
standard polyethylene bags dont biodegrade, the molecules in them become brittle and start to
crack when the bags are exposed to ultraviolet light. But it could take hundreds to thousands of
years for this to happen under normal sunlight conditions.Oxo-biodegradable plastic bags are
made from petroleum products, just like polyethylene bags. They initially fragment when
exposed to air and sunlight. This typically takes three to four months. Later, when placed in a
landfill, the fragments are decomposed by bacteria in the soil. It takes from 12 to 18 months for
the fragments to be converted into carbon dioxide, water, and humus.

DIFFICULT TO REUSE
Glass bottle can be reused and melted as can tin cans. Recycling plastics is not so simple. Much
of plastics placed in recycling boxes is not recycled at all,as most plastics cannot be recycled.
Those bottles are recycled are not to use o make new bottles. Instead recycled bottles are used to
make non-recycled products such as T-shirts, plastics lumbers. This means more raw materials
need to be used to create new plastics bottles than in case with easily recyclable materials such
as glass .

THREDS

TO
ANIMALS:
The environmental impacts resulting from the accumulation of plastic waste are huge
and increasing. Plastic debris affects wildlife, human health, and the environment. The millions
of tons of plastic bottles, bags, and garbage in the world's oceans are breaking down and leaching
toxins posing a threat to marine life and human. Plastic materials in landfills sink in harmful
chemicals into groundwater. Chemicals added to plastics are dangerously absorbed by humans
like altering hormones. Research on plastics includes a large and robust literature reporting
adverse health effects in laboratory animals and wildlife at even low doses. Plastic debris is
ingested by hundreds of species choking and starving them. Floating plastic debris can spread
invasive
species.
The current mass packaging and other short-lived applications of plastic is simply not sustainable
and acceptable. There are solutions, including material reduction, design for end-of-life
recyclability, increased recycling capacity, development of bio-based feedstock, strategies to
reduce littering, and the change of consumer behavior. Consumers are a major actor and can
minimize or eliminate the use of short-lived applications of plastic (e.g., water bottle, plastic
bags).
PRIMITIVE STEPS TO AVIOID PLASTICS THREADS:
Refuse
Avoid using single-use and disposable plastics like bags and bottles, straws, cups, plates,
silverware and razors.
Reduce
Reduce waste: buy in bulk, buy vegetables and legumes without prepackaging, and look for
products and packaging made from renewable resources. Choose products that have the least
amount of disposable parts like toothbrushes with replaceable brushes. Consuming less will
decrease the waste of unnecessary plastics. Become a responsible consumer!
Reuse
Reuse preferably nontoxic (glass, stainless steel) containers and goods to make less waste.
Recycle
Recycle is the last option! Be aware that many plastics are not recyclable and are accidentally
lost into waterways and oceans. Further, in most countries plastics cannot be recycled due to the
lack of financial resources to have a recycle program.
TECHNOLOGIES FOR PLASTIC WASTE MANAGEMENT
CONVENTIONAL TECHNOLOGY:

RECYCLING

INCINERATION

LANDF FILLING

NEW TECHNOLOGY:

Pyrolysis method

Converting waste into liquid fuel

IT CAN BE DIVIDED INTO PRIMARY, SECONDARY,TERTIARY, AND QUATANARY


SELECTION INVOLVED IN RECYCLING PROCESS:
SELECTION: the recyclers
recycle/repocessors.

or reprocessors

hve to select the waste which are

SEGREGATION: the plastics waste shall be segregated as per codes mentioned in the BIS
guideline.
PROCESSORS: after segregation and selection of the preconsumer (factory waste) shall be
directly recycled. The post consumer (plastic waste) shall be washed, shreaded, agglomerated,
extroued and granulated.
LANDFILL:

Disposal of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste and this remains a common practice in
most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids
or borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively
inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managed
landfills and open dumps can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as windblown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common product of

landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced from
anaerobic breakdown of organic waste. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation
and is a greenhouse gas.
Incineration

Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as
to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue
of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management. This process
reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and
other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment".
Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash.Incineration is carried out both
on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid,
liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous
waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of
waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.

NEW TECHNOLOGY
Conversion of plastic waste into liquid fuel
The entire process is undertaken enclosed reactor vessel followed by condensation if required
waste plastics while heating up to 2700 to 3000 converts into liquid vapor state which is
collected in condensation chamber.
SCHEMATIC FLOW DIAGRAM OF PROCESS
1) COLLECTION AND SEGREGATION
2) STORING
3) SHREDING
4) FEEDING
5) FLOW OF WASTE INTO HEATING VESSEL
6) MOVEMENT OF LIQUID INTO CONDENSED VAPOUR
7) TAPPING OF LIQUID FUEL(AS A PRODUCT)

PYROLYSIS:

Pyrolysis is a process of thermo-chemically decomposition of organic materials by heat in the


absence of oxygen which produces various hydrocarbon gases. During pyrolysis, the molecules
of object are subjected to very high temperatures leading to very high vibrations. Therefore every
molecule in the object is stretched and shaken to an extent that molecules starts breaking down.

CONCLUSION
Plastic waste management has attained the great significance in the view of urbanization
activities. Various strategies have been devised to mitigate the impact of plastic waste in India.
Some significant challenges has exists in both technological factors and economical or social
behaviors relating to the collection of recyclable wastes and substitution for virgin material