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A

Practical Training Report


On

CONSTRUCTION OF RESIDENTLY BUILDING


Submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In
CIVIL Engineering

2012-2013
(1JUNE,2012-30JULY,2012)
Submitted To:

Submitted By:

Er. Ishwar Chand Sharma

Amar Chand Gehlot

Head Of Department

7th sem/4th year


(09EAYCE009)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

ARYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & RESEARCH CENTRE


SP-40, RIICO INDUSTRIAL AREA, KUKAS, JAIPUR, RAJASTHAN

RAJASTHAN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, KOTA

Department of Civil Engineering

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the practical training seminar report on Construction Of
Multistory Residential Building at Jaipur from period of training is
submitted by in partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of
Technology in Civil Engineering has been found satisfactory and is approved
for submission.

Mr. Ishwar Chand Sharma

Mr.N.C.Saxna

Head Of Department

Senior Professor

(Seminar Co-ordinator)

(Seminar Co-ordinator)

Civil Engg.

Civil Engg.

ACERC, Jaipur

ACERC, Jaipur

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I am very grateful to the manager of project of Multistory Residential
Building because they allowed me for practical training in their
construction work.
The Rajasthan Housing Board under takes the construction. I
completed my practical training in building construction at
Indra Gandhi Nagar, Sector 5,Division 11, Jaipur. I am highly
grateful

to

Mr.

Ashok

Ji

(Project

Manager),

Mr.

Mohan

(SUPERVISOR), and the staff of the site whose initiatives,


continuous guidance, encouragement, valuable suggestions
and involvement, helped me during my 30-days practical
training. They all were very cooperative persons in executing
my work.

Amar Chand Gehlot

PREFACE
In the light of practical aspect of engineering we have to
complete a training of 30 days. The object of this training in
degree course is to correlate the theory with the practical
aspect and to make students familiar with practical difficulties,
which arises during working on the field so that they can face
challenges boldly while actually working in the field.
The field of civil engineering today has become so vast that it is
difficult to know its boundaries. Usually unskilled persons are
engaged in this field thus it is important and necessary to have
persons with technical knowledge, so that the work can be
performed with proper specification, standard and designs.
While making this training report every care has been taken to
avoid any mistake. Yet it is difficult to attain perfection, as it is
my first experience to write such a report.

Amar Chand Gehlot

INDEX:

1.Introduction
2.About the company
3.About the project
4.About the building
5.Types of building
6.Type of structure
7.Material
Cement
Aggregates
Reinforcement
Water
8.Equipment and machines
Batching Machine
Grinding Machine
Transportation machine
compactor
9.Footing
10.Building drawings
11.Brick masonary
Introduction
Size and weight of brick
Structure of brick
Type of brick masonry
Tools used in brick masonry
Bond in brick work
Procedure of brick work
12.Plastering

INTRODUCTION:

ABOUT THE PROJECT

1.

NAME OF PROJECT

MULTISTOREY

RESIDENTIAL

BUILDING (G+3)
AREA

3025 m

3.

WORK (MASORS)

MRUDHUR CONSTRUCTION

4.

PROJECT MANAGER

MR. ASHOK JI

5.

SVPERVISOR

MR. MOHAN RAM

6.

COMPANY

RAJASTHAN

HOUSING

BOARD,JAIPUR
7.

LOCATION OF SITE

INDRA

GANDHI

JAIPUR
8.

DATE

OF

STARTING 1-6-2012

TRAINING
9.

DATE

OF

COMPLETING 30-6-2012

TRAINING
10.

DURATION OF PROJECT

1 YEAR AND 3 MONTH

11.

COST OF PROJECT

2.05 CRORE

12.

DURATION OF TRAINING

30 DAYS

13.
14.
15.

NAGAR,

ABOUT THE BUILDING


It project is a multi-storey residential building of Rajasthan
housing board. This building is constructing for middle class
people. Rajasthan housing board has divided the residential
buildings in different group as mentioned belowHIG (HIGH INCOME GROUP) :
This group includes the flats of cost is more than 15 lac.
MIG (MIDDLE INCOME GROUP) :
This group includes the flats of cost varies between 5 to 15 lac.
LIG (LOW INCOME GROUP) :
This group includes the flats of cost is less than 5 lac.
This building insists In MIG (Middle Income Group).It is a four
storey building (G+3).Entire building is constructed in two
combined apartments. The number of flats in each floor is four
in each apartment. Each flat consists two bed room, a living
room and a kitchen (2 BHK) with separate bathroom and toilet.
The height of each floor is 3 meter. The dimensions of all flats
were same.
Dimensional detail of a flat:
Living Room

(3.18*4.00) meter

Bed Room (1)

(3.00*3.30) meter

Bed Room (2)

(2.70*3.30) meter

Kitchen

(1.80*2.50) meter

Toilet

(2.1*1.20) meter

Bath Room

(1.20*1.20) meter

Water Closet

(0.90*1.20) meter

Single window has provided in living room, bed rooms and


kitchen .Each flat consists a balcony in front and rear sidaes of
apartments.

MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION


CEMENT: The function of cement is to combine with water and to form cement paste. This
paste first sets i.e. it becomes firms and then hardens due to chemical reaction,
called hydration, between the cement and water. On setting & hardening, the
cement binds the aggregate together into a stone like hard mass & thus provides
strength, durability & water-tighten to the concrete. Quality of cement is based
on grade of cement. The grades of cement are as-

33 Grades
43 Grades
53 Grades
At the site Portland cement of 43 grades (BIRLA CEMENT) is used.
The cost per beg = 248 rupees
The initial setting time of cement =
The final setting time of cement =
AGGREGATE: Aggregates are small pieces of broken stones in irregular size and shapes.
Neat cement is very rarely used in construction works since it is liable to shrink
too much and become cracks on setting. More over, it will be costly to use neat
cement in construction work. Therefore cement is mixed with some inert strong
& durable hard materials.
They also reduce the cost of concrete because they are comparative much
cheaper as cement.

TYPES OF AGGREGATES:
Fine Aggregate
Coarse Aggregate

FINE AGGREGATE (SAND): The aggregate, which pass through 4.75 mm, I.S. sieve and entirely retain on 75
micron (.075mm) I.S. sieve is known as fine aggregate.

FUNCTION OF FINE AGGREGATE: -

10

The function of using fine aggregate in a concrete mix is to fill up the voids
existing in the coarse aggregate and to obtain a dense and strong concrete with
less quantity of cement and increase the workability of the concrete mix.

COARSE AGGREGATE: The aggregate, which pass through 75 mm I.S. sieve and entirely retain on 4.75
I.S. sieve is known as coarse aggregates. At the site the coarse aggregate was
10mm & 20mm (graded).

FUNCTION OF COARSE AGGREGATE: The coarse aggregates are used in mixing of concrete. It is mixed cement, sand
with water. These aggregates increase the strength of bonding in aggregates.
Coarse aggregates are used in construction of plan cement concrete(PCC),
foundation, beams and columns etc.

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GRADING OF CONCRETE: -

The art of doing gradation of an aggregate as determined by sieve analysis is


known as grading of aggregate. The grade of concrete is depends on size of
aggregates.
The principle of grading is that the smaller particles will fill up the voids
between large particles. This results in the most economical use of cement paste
for filling the voids & binding together the aggregate in the preparation of
concrete.

Thus proper grading of fine & coarse aggregate in concrete mix produces a
dense concrete with less quantity of cement.

REINFORCEMENT: The material that develops a good bond with concrete in order to increase its
strength is called reinforcement. Steel bars are highly strong in tension, shear,
bending moment, torsion and compression.

FUNCTION OF REINFORCEMENT:
Reinforcement working as a tension member because concrete is strong in
compression and week in tension so reinforcement resists the tensile stresses in
the concrete members. At the site contractor using the high strength steel bars
and T.M.T. (Thermo Mechanically Treated) bars of diameter 8 mm, 10 mm, 16
mm, & 32 mm as per requirement of design.

WATER: 12

It is an important ingredient of concrete because it combines with cement and


forms a binding paste. The paste thus formed fills up the voids of the sand and
coarse aggregate bringing them into close adhesion.
In this project source of water is a tube well which is closely spaced to the
building. The quality of water is good and can be used for drinking purpose
aiso.

R.C.C.: Though plain cement concrete has high compressive strength and its tensile
strength is relatively low. Normally, the tensile strength of a concrete is about
10% to 15% of its compressive strength. Hence if a beam is made up of plain
cement concrete, it has a very low load carrying capacity since its low tensile
strength limits its overall strength. It is, there reinforced by placing steel bars in
the tensile zone of the concrete beam so that the compressive bending stress is
carried by concrete and tensile bending stress is carried by steel reinforcing
bars. Generally in simply supported and
Cantilever beams the tension zone occurs at bottom and top of beam
respectively.

EQUIPMENTS AND MACHINES:

BATCHING MACHINE:
The measurement of materials for making concrete is known as batching. The
machines which used for batching is known as batching machine.

13

GRINDING MACHINE :
This is a power mechanically operated machine which is used to mix the
concrete. It consists a hollow cylindrical part with inner side wings. In which
cement, sand, aggregates and water is mix properly.

TRANSPORTATION:
The process of carrying the concrete mix from the place of its mixing to final
position of deposition is termed as transportation of concrete. There are many
methods of transportation as mentioned belowTransport of concrete by pans
Transport of concrete by wheel barrows
Transport of concrete by tipping lorries
Transport of concrete by pumps
Transport of concrete by belt conveyors
At this site belt conveyors were used.
14

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COMPACTORS:
When the concrete has been placed, it shows a very loose structure. Hence, it
must be compacted to remove the air bubbles and voids so as to make it dense
and solid concrete to obtain a high strength. There are two method- of
compaction.
Manual compaction
Mechanical compaction
Generally in large projects mechanical compactors are used . There are various
mechanical compactors which uses according to requirement as needle and
screed vibrators needed to compact the column and floor respectively.

FOOTING:
It is part of structural transfer the load of superstructure through columns to soil
strata.
Combined Footing
Isolated Footing
Raft Footing
In this project RAFT footing is provided.

STAIRS:
Stairs are defined as the access to reach one floor to another floor. Stairs are
designed so as it gives maximum comfort and safety.
There are several
types of stairs .
Straight flight stairs
Half turn stairs
Circular stairs
Spiral stairs

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In this project DOGG _ LEGGED STAIRS (Half Turn Stairs) are provided.

BRICK MASONARY
The bricks are obtained by moulding clay in rectangular block
of uniform size and then drying and burning these blocks. Brick
masonry easy to constrct compare stone masonry. It is less
time consuming and there is no need of skilled labour to
construct it. The bricks do not require dressing and the arty of
laying bricks is so simple.

CLASS OF BRICK:
On the basis of quality and performance of brick is classified in
three parts17

CLASS A
CLASS B
CLASS C
At this site A class brick is used.

SIZE AND WEIGHT OF BRICKS


The bricks are prepared in various sizes. On the basis of size ,
BIS bricks are categories in two parts-

MODULAR BRICKS:
BIS recommends a standard size of brick which is
190mm*90mm*90mm. With mortar thickness, size of such a
brick become 200mm*100mm*100mm.

TRADITIONAL BRICKS:
The brick of which size varies and not standardized known as
traditional brick.

WEIGHT OF BRICK:
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It is found that the weight of 1 cubic meter brick earth is about


1800 kg. Hence the average weight of a brick will be about 3 to
3.5 kg.

STRUCTURE OF BRICK
STRETCHER:
If brick laid along its length then front view of brick is known as
stretcher.

HEADER:
If brick laid along its width , then front view of brick is known
as header.

FROG:
It is top of brick. It provides strong bonding between two
courses of masonry by filling the mortar. It also consists the
name of company.

QUEEN CLOSER:
This is obtained by cutting the bricks longitudinally in two equal
parts.

BAT:
This is piece of brick , considered in relation to the length of
brick as half bat, three quarter bat, etc.

TYPES OF BRICK MASONARY:


Brick work is classified according to quality of mortar, quality of
brick and thickness of joints. They types of brick work as
follows-

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BRICK WORK IN MUD MORTAR:


IN this type of brick work mud is used to fill up the joints. Mud is
mixer of sand and clay. The thickness of mortar joint is 12mm.

BRICK WORK IN LIME MORTAR:


In this type of brick work, lime mortar is used to fill up the
joints. Lime mortar is mixer of lime and sand the thickness of
joints does not exceeds 10mm.

BRICK WORK IN CEMENT MORTAR:


In this type of brick work ,cement mortar is used to fill up the
joints. Cement mortar is mixer of cement and sand in ceftain
ratio. The ratio Of cement and sand varies according to
construction as in brick masonary it generally kept 1:6.The
thickness of joint does not exceeds 10mm. The brick work with
cement mortar provide high adopted in building construction.
At this site cement mortar is used in brick work. The ratio of
Cement to sand is 1:6.

TOOLS USED IN BRICK MASONRY:


The tools used in brick masonry are trowel, spirit level, plumb
bob, square, hammer, straight edge.

BONDS IN BRICK WORK:


There various bonds which provided in brick work to increase
the stability of walls. Various types of bonds are as followsStretcher Bond
Header Bond
English Bond
Flemish Bond
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STRETCHER BOND :
The bricks are laid along its length in all courses. A half and
three quarter bat is used in alternative courses to break the
verticality of joints.
HEADER BOND:
The bricks are laid along its width in all courses. A half and
three quarter bat is also used in alternative courses to break
the verticality of joints.
ENGLISH BOND:
This bond is widely used in practice. It is consider the strongest
bond. Alternate courses consists of stretcher and header. A
queen closer is put next to quoin header to break the verticality
of joints. Generally such types of bond is provided in walls
width is 9 inches.
At this site ENGLISH BOND is prefer in main wall and
STRETCHER BOND in partation walls.
FLEMISH BOND:
This is also widely used because it gives better appearance to
English bond. It also provide good strength. Stretcher and
header is provided in each course alternatively. A queen closer
is put next to quoin header in each alternate courses to break
the verticality of joints.
THICKNESS OF WALLS:
Thickness of wall depend on load, strength of material ,length
of wallet. In this project the thickness of main wall is 9 inches
and partition wall is 4.5 inches.

21

PROCEDURE OF BRICK MASONRY:


In frame structure brick work starts after construction of
foundation, column, beam, and slabs. Following procedure is
adopt to construct the brick masonry1. Initially clean and wet the surface on which brick wall is be
constructed.
2. Set a straight alignment by using threads in both side of a
wall .
3. Prepare the cement mortar.
4. At this site cement sand ratio is 1:6 for all walls.
5. Mortar is laid on surface base and then bricks are laid
over it .
6. Prepare a course and then again laid the mortar on
existing course and provides bricks in such a way that the
vertical joint should not stand in a line.
7. To break the verticality of joints generally English or
Flemish bond is adopted.
8. Use the plumb bob to check the verticality at regular
interval.
9. Also use square to check the wall is constructing straight
or not.
10.
After each 1meter height of wall provide a layer of
reinforced cement concrete of 1.5 to 2 inches.
11.
It will increase the strength of structure.
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PLASTER
The term plastering is used to discribe thin cover that is applied on the
surface of walls.It removes uneveness of surface of walls.sometimes it
is use for decorative purpose also.
MORTAR FOR PLASTERING
Selection of type of mortar depends on various factors such as
suitability of building material,atmospheric conditions,durability
etc.there are mainly three type of mortar which can be used for the
purpose of mortar
Lime mortar
Cement mortar
Water proof mortar
LIME MORTAR
The main content of lime mortar is lime that is mixed with correct
proportion of sand.Generally fat lime is recommended for plaster
work because the fat lime contains 75% of Cao and it combines with
CO2 of atmosphere and gives CaCO3 quickly.Thus,the lime sets
quickly,but it imparts low strength.So it can be use only for plaster
work.The sand to be used for preparing lime mortar for plastering
work should be clean,coarse and free from any organic impurities.
CEMENT MORTAR
The cement mortar consist of one part of cement to four part of clean
and coarse sand by volume.The materials are throughly mix in dry
condition before water is added to them.The mixing of material is

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done on a watertight platform .It is batter than lime mortar.it is widely


used in construction work.
WATER PROOF MORTAR
Water proof mortar is prepared by mixing one part of cement,two part
of sand and pulverised alum at the rate of 120Nperm3 of sand.In the
water to be used,0.75 of soft soap is dissolve per one litre of water
and this soap water is added to the dry mix.
TOOLS FOR PLASTERING
Gauging Trowel

Metal Float

Plumb Bob

Sprit Level

Floating Rule
Brushes

METHOD OF PLASTERING
According to the thickness of wall there are three method of
plastering.
One coat method
Two coat method
Three coat method
ONE COAT METHOD
It is in the cheapest form of construction that plaster is applied in one
coat.
This method is quitely used in rural areas for the construction of low
category and cheap house.
TWO COAT METHOD
Following procedure is carried out for two coating plaster work
Clean the surface and keep it well watered on which plaster wor to be
done.
24

If it is found that the surface to be plastered is very rough and


uneven,a preliminary coat is applied to fill up the hollows before the
first coat of plaster is put up on the surface.
Now the first coat is applied on the surface.The usual thickness of
first coat for brick masonry is 9mm to10mm.
Second coat of plaster is applied after about 6 hours and the thickness
of second caot is usually about 2mm to 3mm.It is finished as per
requirement.
THREE COAT METHOD
The procedure for plaster in three coats is the same as above except
that the num of coats of plaster is three.
Table :

First coat
Second coat
Third coat

Name of coat
Rendering coat
Floating coat
Finishing coat

25

Thicknessa
9 to 10 mm
6 to 9 mm
3 mm

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

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