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AME2H0D OF CORIMAZDII1G HE&T TRANSF)


30A BURFACE
RAfINO.

tUI

by

Warren m. Robsenovu

A method based an a logical uxplanation of the meani

of beat trans-

fer associated with the boiling process is presented for correlating heat

transfer data for nucleate boiling of liquids for the case of pool boiling.
Tbe suggested relation is

1/As

I.7

iere the various fluid properties awe evaluated at the saturation tempera-

Stre correspondinag to the local pressure and C5g is a function of the particu3w eatn

sranfeat for

cbatonetinfov witbout boiling is correrd

Lated by the nomal baselt umaber, Rsynolds umber based on pipe diameter and
Pwaudtl umber.

For pool boiling with essentially saturated liquids, Jakob (1)

rg; dasacusets nstt1 t o

e ocx
a tProessr

shovs that the heat transfew from the surfae is for the most part transferred
directly to the liquid, the increased heat transfew rate assaoiated with boillug being accounted for by the resulting agitation of the fluid by motian ofthe liquid

flowlan

behind the wak. of te bubble departing from the surface.

Ilohsenov and Clark (2) showed a siinrlar result in studying notion piotteres e
M~o~dama (3) for subco.le4 liguldsi
heili

but

?lowicg in luacised convection withi suface

o uet gention of 'eaer-,

Kurtther and greith (4) and Gunther(5)

-2presented photographic evidence that in highly subcooled liquids in pool


boiling and in forced ocnvection with surface boiling, the bubbles oould fona
at the surfaoe pow, and then collapse ile

remaining attached to the sur-

eovertheless the increased heat transfer in boiling we attributed to

face.

The agitation of the liquid by the bubble notion.


As the rate of heat transfer s increased and bubble agitation beemes
more vigorous the effect of forced convoction fluid velocity and hence Reaolds
maber based on pipe diameter becomes less and less.

This effect is showm

by the data of rohsenow and Clark (6) reproduosd here in figures 1 and 2.
Wis data is representative of data of others for surface boiling with forced
convection. In these figures the curves for various fluid velocities are seen
to merge into one curve, showing that as the boiling becaes more vigorous,
the effect of fluid vel<eity disappears.

It seen reasccable then to seek.a

correlation of the heat transfer data by meas of a bubble Reynolds umaber


based on bubble diameter and velocity.
For purposes of analysis one can visualse a number of streams of bubble
receding from the heating surfaoe and a bubble Raynolds nmber defined by

-tlhe mass velocity of the bubbles and their diameter as they leave
111

at

numbow *U-16 *

Mis quantity is a measure of the local agitation of the fluid


s0~g
urfaee and hence is analogous to the ordinary pipe Reynolds
s aeasure of the turbulence in the stream.

To eam&$ate te bubble REynolds number, characteristics of bubbles in


pool boiling will be employed since there is more detailed visual evidence
available for this case than there is for forced convection surface boel .

04

Results of these bubble characterics are ompi4ed by Jakob. (1).

The heat

transfer to the babbles while attached to the surface can be written with
good appradaation (2) as

(2)

Ir

Frita (8) presents a relation for the diameter of the bubble as it leaves
the surface, mhich may be written in the fom

Fgi~~awhere

- -o- -m(3)

is the angle of centact of the bubble as sheen in figure 3.

Jakob (9) has shoun for vapor bubbles of water and of carbon tetrachloride

a relation

sdts btmen te frequency of bubble formation at a favored

point ca the smfae and the diter


faco.

of the bubble when it leaves the sur-

Tis relation an be aprcated by the equation

f~c

UC

Coge~mftn

.. amma

ithout serious error.


Inspecting the terms of equation (2) in the light of equations (3) and

(4) @hows that (q/A)b is proportonal to a for a given operating pressure, it


-

sin* all other quantities are functions

of saturation pressure alcm. or are oconstant.

Experiments have shown that

bubbles forM at selective points on surface forming swaying cols

of bubbles.

Jakob (7) found that the nmber of celvme or points of origin of bubbles mas
very nearly directly proportional to the rate of heat transfer from the heating
surface for a given operating pressure.

Terefore q/A ~ (q/A)b and cn be

written as

where Cq may be a function of pressure.


The mass velocity of the vapor bubbles leaving the surface may be written as

rquettions (3),

-(6)

(5) and (6) may be substituted into equation (1) to obtain an

expression for the bubble Reynolds number as


- - - where

Caw

, Gb and n have been eliminated, and CR

5/y$---

is dimensionless and

(7)
The term

has the dimensions

radians of angle.
In applying this reasoning to attempt to correlate heat transfer data
in the boiling regime it would seem that a bubble Nusselt number would be
useful, defined as
-I --W

This quantity has been defined and utilised by Jakob (1)(16).

(8)

Substituting

equation (3) into equation (8) results in

- - - -J(9)

A~-

hre

= ECd

ere, too,, the term

///y

f.f)

is.

Sta:e the postalated aechanism of heat transfer indicates that most of'

the heat transfer goes directly from the wall to the liquid, and since the
Prandtl umber is significant in relatiJufor heat transfer to a non-boiling
fluid, it abould probably be included in the oorrelation for beat transfer
to a boiling fluid.

then the correlation suggested is

Nxq
w Np,(10)

jP
where

-/iS1 t, are aln evaluated at the saturation tempers-

ture corresponding to the local pressure.

The above relation applieS to the

region of vigorous boiling ihere the fluid velocity or pipe Reynolds number
does not influence the heat transfer rate.
of pool boiling.

It would also apply to the case

In the case of surface boiling with forced convection and

not very vigorous boiling

bere the fluid velocity does influence the heat

transfer rate, some form of a pipe Reynolds number might be added to the right
side of equation (10).

There is some doubt that the ordinary pipe Reynolds

number would be significant because the notdon of the bubbles might tend to
destroy the norml relationship between viscous and inertia forces.
CtStat AnGE.
The bubble contact angles
values of C*

T.

n4 0;

, shown in figure 3, is determined by the


hence it is

fluid and the kind ofheatng suface.

detemined both by the kind of

All of

e other properties in the

expressions- for bubble Reynolds muber and bubble Musselt numbers are fumctions
of the fluid alone.

he angle 9 from 'fire

3 iseen

to be related to the

various surface tensions by the relata

Cos

qv
ioa........

w()

-o - -o -

For lack of available inforimation th" effec-t of pressure on

was

--

disregarded in applying equation (10) to existing data.

This assumption

is equivalent to assuming that the effect of pressure on the values of


and

of figure 3 is such that the angle

a4

pressure.

In applying equation (10) to the correlation of experimental data

the terms CR' Cn and j

Ef- L

remains independent of

will be omitted.

Liauid SubgolUn

In pool boiling the primary region of interest is the case in which

the liquid temperature is essentially at the saturation temperature.

However,

In forced convection with surface boiling the liquid temperature may be greatly
subcooled.

It has been shown by many experimenters that the effect of sub-

cooling of the liquid may be eliminated if the data is pintted as q/A vs T


Hence defining the film coefficient in the

as shown in figures 1 and 2.


bubble Nusselt number ash 1

((/A)-i Tx eliminates the necessity of includ-

ing liquid subooling as a variable in a correlation.


OTHER FO3t

F7THE P1DPOSED 00RE1L&TION LUATIMN

Since both the bubble Reynolds number and the bubble Nusselt number
embody a (q/A) term, it will be desirable to employ the tezu
'to

Ce

(12)

This dimer sionless group is the ratio of liquid superheat enthalpy at the
surface temperature to the latent enthalpy of evaporation.
The equation (10) may be replaced by

Pool Boiling:
The proposed correlation equation (13) has been applied to the data of
ni'ous experimenters.

It vll hof

in treat so observi in som deital) ik

application to the data of Addes (10) for pool boiling of water because of
the wide range of pressures covered -- 14.7 psia to 246 5 psia.

In these

experiments degasssed, distilled water was boiled by an electrically heated


Data for a wire diameter of 0.024 inches is shown in

horisontal platima wire.


figure 4a.

A plot of

(q/A)/4

1g q0" 1

vs C

(-,

On this plot the position of the lines rises to a axi-

isshown in figure 4b.

am. with pressure and then falls again.

At the pressure corresponding to the

highest line on this plot, the Prandtl amber is very nearly at its minim
value according to the data tabulated by Welum=

Hence this effect

(11).

appears to be a Prandtl naber effect, which was anticipated in the analysis.


A cross-plot of

N,,

for constant values of bubble Reynolds

aumber shows the slope of the line on a log-log plot to be approximately 1.7;
hence the final correlation as shown in figure 4c results in an equation of
the form

a~)
'

where the value of C

7
-- -----

- (14)

is 0.013 with a spread of data of approximately - 20%.

This process was repeated for some of the data of Cichelli and Bonailla (12)
who boiled various fluids on a polished chroniu :.plated, hortsontal pleate
which was electrically heated.
shown in figures 5 through 7.
form of equation (14).

The results of the preposed correls tion e,e


In each came the resulting equatione are (- tf

Only the data for sing.

component fluids on alcn

surfaces were correlated,


The data of Cryder and Finalborgo (15) i
In every case the correlation equation (14)
of C ,ire

listed in. Table I.

snown correlated in figure 8.

ra6 applietd and the resulting- valuvet

[Eai

Flui an

urface

28f

Water - PlatiM a

Addems(10)

Ciabelli-Banilla(12) Bensene

0.013

Crit

0.010

Cichelli-Bonilla(12) Ethyl Alchol - Chromite

0.0027

Cichelli-Bonilla(12) n-Pentane-Cromium

0.015

Cryder-Finalborgo(15) water - Brass

0.0060

&ArgAd
Comeon~wt

Buf

Soilina:

In order to show the effect of forced convection flow on the boiling

process plots of

vs (sifT)
C

were
u, made for the sur-

face boiling data of Robsenow and Clark (6)(13) for degassed distilled water
flowing in a vertical nickel tube 0.180' diameter 9.4N long and for the data
of Kreith and Suimerfield (4)

for degassed distilled water flowing in a

stainless steel tube 0.587' diameter 17.5' long.

Superimposed on these plots,

figures 9 and 10, is the correlation line for the pooling boiling data for
water from figure 4c.
Lines of constant forced convetion velocity and pressure are seen to
merge toward a single line whicb would probably be parallel to this line for
pool boiling from figure 4a.

When the boiling tecomes more vigorous at the

bigher values of T, the effect of forcd eiuwction fluid velocity apparently


disappears.

In this region the motian o' th- bubbles seem

to control th

mechaniam of heat tasmfer due to fluid egitat.ion.

In these correlations the fluid properties have been evaluated as properties of liquid at the saturation temperature.

This was done both for the case

of pool boiling with saturated liquid and for the case of surface boiling in
forced convection of a subcooled liquid.

Ir. each case the liquid near the

heating surface is very nearly at saturation temperature or possib.; even at


a nestastable superheated temperature. Properties of the liquid were used for
tbe C./

and k values in the bubble Nusselt number, the Pr' dti numbor,

ad te new ters

because the heat transfer wa found to occur

imarily by transfer of heat directly from the heating surface to the liquid.
The value of

of the bubble Reynolds mabhr was evaluated as a property of

liquid because viscous forces acting to retard the notion of the bubble are
those of the liquid.

The results shown in figures 4 through 10 are essentially plots of q/A


'

'' each muliplied by a judious oabination of fluid properties thus

effecting the correlation.


.mall
changes in T.

It is readily observed that q/A rises rapidly with

FNrthes, the magnitude of Tz is rather mall, being of

the order of 50 ? for water at atMospher


10 F for water at 2000 psia.

pressure and of the order of 5 or

Inallof the data

oorrelated

here the energy

was suplied by electricityj hence T became the dependent variable in each


case.

It is difficult to measure the heating surface temperature directly when

electric heating is employed.

It must be calculated from other measured values

such as outer tube surface temperature or resistance of the heating wire.

The

value of TZ is obtained by subtracting the saturation temperature from this


determined heating surface temperature.

Since the agnitude of T. is s=m1

any errors in the determined value of heating surface temperature will be greaz
magnified in the resulting value of Ty. This can. possibly account for some or'
the cifference in the value of C of equation (14) as obtained by variou
experienters.
It ia, of course, evssntial in obteining a correlation of data that the
p f the fjald employ-ed be n;recZ.

error

:n the vaues

- 10 -

properties is directly reflected in the data correlation.


Probably the most significant cause of the difference in the values of C
is the result of emittiag, for lack of currently available information, the
ters

frm the bubble Reynolds number and the, bubble Nusselt number in

arriving at the oorrelation as applied.


be a fwnotian of P *ih

The effect of this is to cause C to

is deterained by the character of and the kind of

heating surface and by the properties of the fluid as shown by equation (11).
There is then good reason to expect a different value of C to result for every
cimnation of kind of surface and kind of fluid.

Additional infomtion regard-

ing the values of f for various combinations of surfaces and fluids should
clarify this matter and produce a valid correlation for all such combinations.
In arriving at tquation (5) and hence equations (7) and (9), the expressions for bubble Reynolds nmber and bubble lusselt number, it was assumed that
did not vary with pressure for a particular ombination of fluid and
heating surface.

This assption

y account for same of the small spread of

the final correlation for each surface.-fluid combination.

The assumption

appears to be fairly good, nevertheless, since Vie data for a particular fnwidheating surface ocabination is correlated within about t 20% by equation (14).a
It is not suggested that the exponents 0.33 and 1.7 of equation (14) are
the tme values nor that the form of equation (14) is the best one.

Rather i

in suggested that the dimensionless groups -if equation (14) are significant in
correlation boiling heat transfer data,
presented here.

Much more data was correlated than 14n

Only the data for single omponent fluids on clean surface*

are presented here.

They semed to be correlated quite adequately by equation,

(14) with the exponents of 0.33 and 1.7.

The 0.33 expopent of the bubble

Reynolds number appeared to be adequate for most of the data whether the heat,ing surface was clean or not, but the 1.7 exponent appearel to be valid on.ly
for clean surfaces.

With dirty surfaces the

vAlue of thia exponent wat at

-.

-~

___

11 -

erratic, varying between 0.8 and 2.0.


For purposes of comparison the oorrelation equation (4) may be re-written
in the form

a=IA

IVA-

NR,

nayhbe owtpared

C41

(15)

Npe

the non-boiling fomed ocavection exression

C, NkRe NN

..

qwere tht is in the range of 0.5 to 0.7 men the flow area varies along the
direction of flw, e.g., for flow across tubes, around spheres or cylinders,
or across interrupted tins.

Data for pool boiling of a liquid on a clean surface an be correlated


by an equation of the forms

CCAA
Further eaperimental work is needed to study the variation of bubble contact angle

and coefficient C

with pressure ad with type of heating su-

face fluid combination.


Further experimental work is needed to study the validity of equations
(3), (4) and (5)

uhich were used in obtainin

tbe terma

bubble Reynolds number and bable Nuaetlt vumtr.

j T;

- 12-

Ths3ka are due to Dr. J. N. Addmcs for permia=w"u

to us his data shoun

in figure 4 and to Mr. Fakhri Rahmatasah for perfoming most of the calcuiations required in preparing this report.

Cd,Cfd, Cq,

13

Coefficients in equatians (3),(4),(5),(9),(7),

respectively.

Cnf CR
C

Coefficient of equation (14),


a&ih depends upon the nature
of the heating surfacefluid ccibination.

Db

Dameter of the bubble as it leaves the heating surface, ft.


Mass velocity of bubbles at their departure from the heating

e@,

Nush

ftp.

Bubble Rusiselt niuber, defined by equations (8) and (9).

NPR

NRe,b
T

Bubble Reiynoads nmber, defined by equations (1) and (7).


Heag surface temperature minus saturation temperature, F.
Specific heat of saturated liquid, Btu/lb *O

Frequency of bubble foimation, lAr.

Acceleration of gravity.
Ccnversion factor, 4.17 a 10

(lb mas)(ft)/(hr)(potwso force.)

Latent heat of evaporation, Btu/lba


q/A + !,, flm coefficient of heat transfer, BtA/hr ftayo
Thermal oceductivity of saturated liquid, Stu/hr ft F.
Nuaber of points of origin of bubble columns per fta of heating
surface.

(VA)b

Beat transfer rate to bubble per unit heating surface area


wAhol bubble remains attacbed to the surface, Btu/hr fte

q/A

Beat transfer rate per unit heating surface area, BtuAr ft 3 .


Bubble contact angle, defined in figure 3.

Qh

ry'4

VnV.

Surface tension of liquid-vapor interface, lb/ft


Surface tension of vapor-solid interface, lbf/ft
Surface tension of solid-liquid interface, lb./ft
Density of aaturated liquid Iba/ft3

Density of saturated vapor lb./ft$


Viscosity of saturated liquid, lblft hr.

1. Jakob, M., 'Heat Transfer,' Vol. I, Chap. 29, Wiley, 1949.


2. Rohsenow, W. M. and Clark, J. A., "A Study of the Hochanim of Boiling
Heat Transfer," ASME Trans., July, 1951.
3.

Kennel, Minden, Rudoff, Picornell, Dew, 'Heat Transfer


at High Rates to Water with Surface Boiling,' Ind. Eg. Chem.

MeAdans, W. H.

Vol. 37, No. 10, Oct., 1945, pp 1010-1016

4. Gunther, F. C. and Lreith, F., 'Photographia Study of Bubble Formation in


Heat Transfer to Subooled Water," Beat Transfer and Fluid Mech. Inst.
1949, Berkeley, California, p. 113.
5.

Gunther, F. C., "Pbotograho Study of Surface-Boiling Heat Transfer to


Water with Fored Convection," AM Trans., Vol. 73, No. 2, Feb., 1951,
p. 115.

6.

Robsenow, W. N., and Clark, J. A., 'Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Data
for High Heat Flux Densities to Water at High Sub-Critical Pressures,'
Heat Transfer and Fluid Medh. Inst., 1951, Stanford, California.

7. Jakob, M., 'Local Temperature Differences Occurring in Evaporation,


Condensation, and Cats~ytto Reaction,' Temperature, its Measurement
and Control in Scienc and Industry, Reinhold, New York, 1941, p. 834.
8. Frity, W., Physik. Zeitshr., Vol. 36, 1935, p. 37'.
9, Jakob, M., Zeitabr. d. Ver. deutsch. Ing. Vol. 76, 1932, p. 1161.
10. Addmma, J. N., "eat Transfer at Nig Rates to Water Boiling Outside
Cylinders,' D.Sc. hesis, Chen. kgrg. Dept., Mass. Inst. of Tech.,
Jum, 1948.
11.

Vel2aan, E. J., "Survey of Thermodync and Physical Properties of Water,'


.8. Thesis, Jan., 1950, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana.

12. Ciaelli, M. T. and Boni1a, C. Y., 'Heat Transfer to Liquids Boiling


under Pressure,' Trans. As. Inst. Chm. Engre., Vol 41, 755-787, 1945.
13. Clark, J. A., Malherbe, P., Mullin, F., and Robsenow, W. M., 'Heat Transfer
Data for Low Velocity Forced Convection Flow of Water with Surface
Boiling,' Tech. Rpt. #4, DIC Project 6627, M.I.T., July 1, 1951.
4. Kreith, F, and Sumierfield, M. J., 'Heat Transfer to Water at High Flux
Densities,' Trans. ASME, Vol. 71, No. 7, Oct., 1949.
15. Cryder, D. 8., and Finalborgo, A. C., 'Heat Transmission From Metal
Suf aces to Boiling Liquids: Effect of Temperature of the Liquid an
Fila Coefficient,' As. Inst. Chem. Engrs. Vol. 33, 1937, p. 346.

16. Jakob, N., Proc. 5th Internat. Coqgr. Appl.

echo., 1938, p. 561.

Figure No*

Title

Effect of Fluid Velocity an Heat Trafer Pat, in Nucleate


Boiling (Data of Rohsenov and Clark,( ).
Effect of Fluid Velocity oa Heat Transfer Rate In Nucleate
Boiling. Data of Rohseuoo and Clark (6).
Surface TeAsion forces Acting at Point of Bubble Contact.
Correlation of hata of Addm (10) for latinum-Vater
Interfaos for Pool Boiling.

Correlation of Data of Ciel-Bsilla (12) for ChromiumBansene Interfacebr Pool Boiling.

Cornlation of Data of Cihelli-Bnilla (12) for ChrominuMthl Alohol Interface for Pool Boiling.
Correlation of Data of Ciohelli-Bcnilla (12) for Chraiu.n-pmntne Interfaee for Pool Boiling.

Correlation of Data of Cryderinalborgo (15) for Brass-Water


Interface for Pool Boiling.
Data of Robsenow-Clark (6) (13) for Nickel-Water Interface
for Forced Convetion Surface Boiling.
Data of Kreith-4tmerfield (14) for Stainless Steel-Water
interface for Forced Convection Surface Boiling.

5.0
4.0
3.0

2.0

1.0

0
x

0.5
cr

0.4
0.3 g

0.21-

60

100
200
WALL TEMP. - LIQUID TEMP. (*F)

FIGURE

4.0
IO

3.0

A
A

P =2000 PSIA
Vi= 30 FT /SEC

5.7 x 106 LB / HR FT 2

2.0 --

0
O0

20 FT/

HVi=

A.

--

GG5.7xI

p 2000

1.5 -p = 2000

PSIA

PSIA

p=2000

PSIA

LB/HR FT 2

p =150

PSIA

Vi= 0 FT /
SE Vj= 0 FT SECVi2O
FT/ SEC
G = .2 106 2
= .96x 10 LBHR T?-G =4.2x 10 6
LB/HR FT 2
LBFT2 FTI
G9OLB/HR

1.0

Tx

89

4 5 6
=

5.7

106 L

10

20

15

R
FIGURE

LIQUID
VAPOR
a'tv

o'v s
HEATING

SURFACE

FIGURE

107

100

100

xx
A
ox

14.7
383

PSIA
P S IA

770

PSIA

1205
1602
2465

PSIA

10

10

x
0
0

PSIA
PSIA

x.

0'

Nn

1.0

gf

x =0.0

/A

=0
y3
h fg

g0 c
g(Pe-Pv)

0-

33

(c

kt

0./

0/

0.1

104

0.01
C

ADDOMS (10)
POOL BOILING
PLATINUM WIRE-WATER
0.024" DI AM.
I
1111111
0.1

hfg T

hfg

Npr''

FIGURE

+^-

1O

465

+ 645

0oD

00

x .0
0

0'0

x
CICHELLI-BONILLA (12)
POOL BOILING BENZENE
ON
POLISHED PLATED CHROMIUM

1.0
3

Tx

g 0 0o.

q/A

h fg

At h fg

.3

c.

g (p -pv)
0.1

0.01
hf

TX

N p'

FI GUR E

10 -

-it3A

11 5

265
5 15

765

b0)

CICHELLI - BONILLA (12

POOL BOILING
ETHYL
ALCOHOL
ON POLISHED PLATED CHRC

1.00:>

q/A

a0

hg Tx =0.0027

.001

hg

90~

g(P-P )

0-33C

0.01
111 Tx

1.0

1pr'
FIGURE

22 PSIA

o
A60

o
+

10

115
2 15
3 1 5
4 15

'I

CICHELL I -BON ILLA (12)

BOILI NG
n- PENTANE
ON POLISHED PLATED CHROMI

POOL

cT

1.0-

LTx =
hfgg

goa,-

q/A
.

h fg

gT(pt -pv )

033 cIp

)I.7

k.1

0.1

0.01
hfg

Npr'' 7

FIGURE

0.10
*

11111

22.4 PSIA

14.1

03

8.76

e
o

4.31
2.05

b
Q_
0.

CRYDER-FINALBORGO (15)

0'

1.

Ct
0.011
.0 01

POOL BOILING
BRASS TUBE-WATER

T. =0.0060
I

hfg

(q/A
hf
ILL
I

op;p))
g
gpi~p-v)

O.33

cl gA.

kg

II Iliii I I I
,01
pr

FIGURE

CORRELATION LINE FOF


ADDOMS DATA, FIG.4
~5O
V

100

'>'

ob0

2000 PSI
V=30
20
10

T-0

1.4

/
/

(b

0.8
0.5
0.2

0.1

0.05
1500 PSIA
+ V=30
20
0
10
1000 PSIA
v V =30

10

/
0?
0

ROHSENOW - CLARK (6)(13)

FORCED CONVECTION
SURFACE BOILING
NICKEL - WATER
1.0

0.1

0.01
I
h fg

N '.

FIGURE

100

I
CORRELATION
_

ADDOMS

I /I I I

LINE FOR

DATA,

FIG. 4

p=157-168 PSIA
o V = 6-7 FT/SEC
a
12
100-110
o
6-7
12
60- 66
v
6-7
*
12
45.5
v
6-7
40.5

10
U

36
0

36
*

6-7
6-7

22.5-25
6-7

A
'4-

/
/

12

0
KREITH -SUMMERFIELD

(14)

FORCED CONVECTION
SURFACE BOILING
STAINLESS STEEL-WATER
I

I I I I I
0.1

0.01
I
hfg

N 'r7

FIGURE

10

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houpp
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. Woodruff, Jr.

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