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tUI
by
Warren m. Robsenovu
of beat trans-
fer associated with the boiling process is presented for correlating heat
transfer data for nucleate boiling of liquids for the case of pool boiling.
Tbe suggested relation is
1/As
I.7
iere the various fluid properties awe evaluated at the saturation tempera-
Stre correspondinag to the local pressure and C5g is a function of the particu3w eatn
sranfeat for
Lated by the nomal baselt umaber, Rsynolds umber based on pipe diameter and
Pwaudtl umber.
e ocx
a tProessr
shovs that the heat transfew from the surfae is for the most part transferred
directly to the liquid, the increased heat transfew rate assaoiated with boillug being accounted for by the resulting agitation of the fluid by motian ofthe liquid
flowlan
Ilohsenov and Clark (2) showed a siinrlar result in studying notion piotteres e
M~o~dama (3) for subco.le4 liguldsi
heili
but
face.
by the data of rohsenow and Clark (6) reproduosd here in figures 1 and 2.
Wis data is representative of data of others for surface boiling with forced
convection. In these figures the curves for various fluid velocities are seen
to merge into one curve, showing that as the boiling becaes more vigorous,
the effect of fluid vel<eity disappears.
-tlhe mass velocity of the bubbles and their diameter as they leave
111
at
numbow *U-16 *
04
The heat
transfer to the babbles while attached to the surface can be written with
good appradaation (2) as
(2)
Ir
Frita (8) presents a relation for the diameter of the bubble as it leaves
the surface, mhich may be written in the fom
Fgi~~awhere
- -o- -m(3)
Jakob (9) has shoun for vapor bubbles of water and of carbon tetrachloride
a relation
f~c
UC
Coge~mftn
.. amma
of bubbles.
Jakob (7) found that the nmber of celvme or points of origin of bubbles mas
very nearly directly proportional to the rate of heat transfer from the heating
surface for a given operating pressure.
written as
rquettions (3),
-(6)
Caw
5/y$---
is dimensionless and
(7)
The term
radians of angle.
In applying this reasoning to attempt to correlate heat transfer data
in the boiling regime it would seem that a bubble Nusselt number would be
useful, defined as
-I --W
(8)
Substituting
- - - -J(9)
A~-
hre
= ECd
///y
f.f)
is.
Sta:e the postalated aechanism of heat transfer indicates that most of'
the heat transfer goes directly from the wall to the liquid, and since the
Prandtl umber is significant in relatiJufor heat transfer to a non-boiling
fluid, it abould probably be included in the oorrelation for beat transfer
to a boiling fluid.
Nxq
w Np,(10)
jP
where
region of vigorous boiling ihere the fluid velocity or pipe Reynolds number
does not influence the heat transfer rate.
of pool boiling.
transfer rate, some form of a pipe Reynolds number might be added to the right
side of equation (10).
number would be significant because the notdon of the bubbles might tend to
destroy the norml relationship between viscous and inertia forces.
CtStat AnGE.
The bubble contact angles
values of C*
T.
n4 0;
All of
expressions- for bubble Reynolds muber and bubble Musselt numbers are fumctions
of the fluid alone.
3 iseen
to be related to the
Cos
qv
ioa........
w()
-o - -o -
was
--
This assumption
a4
pressure.
Ef- L
remains independent of
will be omitted.
Liauid SubgolUn
However,
In forced convection with surface boiling the liquid temperature may be greatly
subcooled.
Since both the bubble Reynolds number and the bubble Nusselt number
embody a (q/A) term, it will be desirable to employ the tezu
'to
Ce
(12)
This dimer sionless group is the ratio of liquid superheat enthalpy at the
surface temperature to the latent enthalpy of evaporation.
The equation (10) may be replaced by
Pool Boiling:
The proposed correlation equation (13) has been applied to the data of
ni'ous experimenters.
It vll hof
application to the data of Addes (10) for pool boiling of water because of
the wide range of pressures covered -- 14.7 psia to 246 5 psia.
In these
A plot of
(q/A)/4
1g q0" 1
vs C
(-,
highest line on this plot, the Prandtl amber is very nearly at its minim
value according to the data tabulated by Welum=
(11).
N,,
aumber shows the slope of the line on a log-log plot to be approximately 1.7;
hence the final correlation as shown in figure 4c results in an equation of
the form
a~)
'
7
-- -----
- (14)
This process was repeated for some of the data of Cichelli and Bonailla (12)
who boiled various fluids on a polished chroniu :.plated, hortsontal pleate
which was electrically heated.
shown in figures 5 through 7.
form of equation (14).
[Eai
Flui an
urface
28f
Water - PlatiM a
Addems(10)
Ciabelli-Banilla(12) Bensene
0.013
Crit
0.010
0.0027
Cichelli-Bonilla(12) n-Pentane-Cromium
0.015
0.0060
&ArgAd
Comeon~wt
Buf
Soilina:
process plots of
vs (sifT)
C
were
u, made for the sur-
face boiling data of Robsenow and Clark (6)(13) for degassed distilled water
flowing in a vertical nickel tube 0.180' diameter 9.4N long and for the data
of Kreith and Suimerfield (4)
figures 9 and 10, is the correlation line for the pooling boiling data for
water from figure 4c.
Lines of constant forced convetion velocity and pressure are seen to
merge toward a single line whicb would probably be parallel to this line for
pool boiling from figure 4a.
to control th
In these correlations the fluid properties have been evaluated as properties of liquid at the saturation temperature.
of pool boiling with saturated liquid and for the case of surface boiling in
forced convection of a subcooled liquid.
and k values in the bubble Nusselt number, the Pr' dti numbor,
ad te new ters
imarily by transfer of heat directly from the heating surface to the liquid.
The value of
liquid because viscous forces acting to retard the notion of the bubble are
those of the liquid.
oorrelated
The
any errors in the determined value of heating surface temperature will be greaz
magnified in the resulting value of Ty. This can. possibly account for some or'
the cifference in the value of C of equation (14) as obtained by variou
experienters.
It ia, of course, evssntial in obteining a correlation of data that the
p f the fjald employ-ed be n;recZ.
error
:n the vaues
- 10 -
frm the bubble Reynolds number and the, bubble Nusselt number in
heating surface and by the properties of the fluid as shown by equation (11).
There is then good reason to expect a different value of C to result for every
cimnation of kind of surface and kind of fluid.
ing the values of f for various combinations of surfaces and fluids should
clarify this matter and produce a valid correlation for all such combinations.
In arriving at tquation (5) and hence equations (7) and (9), the expressions for bubble Reynolds nmber and bubble lusselt number, it was assumed that
did not vary with pressure for a particular ombination of fluid and
heating surface.
This assption
The assumption
appears to be fairly good, nevertheless, since Vie data for a particular fnwidheating surface ocabination is correlated within about t 20% by equation (14).a
It is not suggested that the exponents 0.33 and 1.7 of equation (14) are
the tme values nor that the form of equation (14) is the best one.
Rather i
in suggested that the dimensionless groups -if equation (14) are significant in
correlation boiling heat transfer data,
presented here.
Reynolds number appeared to be adequate for most of the data whether the heat,ing surface was clean or not, but the 1.7 exponent appearel to be valid on.ly
for clean surfaces.
-.
-~
___
11 -
a=IA
IVA-
NR,
nayhbe owtpared
C41
(15)
Npe
C, NkRe NN
..
qwere tht is in the range of 0.5 to 0.7 men the flow area varies along the
direction of flw, e.g., for flow across tubes, around spheres or cylinders,
or across interrupted tins.
CCAA
Further eaperimental work is needed to study the variation of bubble contact angle
and coefficient C
tbe terma
j T;
- 12-
in figure 4 and to Mr. Fakhri Rahmatasah for perfoming most of the calcuiations required in preparing this report.
Cd,Cfd, Cq,
13
respectively.
Cnf CR
C
Db
e@,
Nush
ftp.
NPR
NRe,b
T
Acceleration of gravity.
Ccnversion factor, 4.17 a 10
(VA)b
q/A
Qh
ry'4
VnV.
MeAdans, W. H.
6.
Robsenow, W. N., and Clark, J. A., 'Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Data
for High Heat Flux Densities to Water at High Sub-Critical Pressures,'
Heat Transfer and Fluid Medh. Inst., 1951, Stanford, California.
Figure No*
Title
Cornlation of Data of Cihelli-Bnilla (12) for ChrominuMthl Alohol Interface for Pool Boiling.
Correlation of Data of Ciohelli-Bcnilla (12) for Chraiu.n-pmntne Interfaee for Pool Boiling.
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0
x
0.5
cr
0.4
0.3 g
0.21-
60
100
200
WALL TEMP. - LIQUID TEMP. (*F)
FIGURE
4.0
IO
3.0
A
A
P =2000 PSIA
Vi= 30 FT /SEC
5.7 x 106 LB / HR FT 2
2.0 --
0
O0
20 FT/
HVi=
A.
--
GG5.7xI
p 2000
1.5 -p = 2000
PSIA
PSIA
p=2000
PSIA
LB/HR FT 2
p =150
PSIA
Vi= 0 FT /
SE Vj= 0 FT SECVi2O
FT/ SEC
G = .2 106 2
= .96x 10 LBHR T?-G =4.2x 10 6
LB/HR FT 2
LBFT2 FTI
G9OLB/HR
1.0
Tx
89
4 5 6
=
5.7
106 L
10
20
15
R
FIGURE
LIQUID
VAPOR
a'tv
o'v s
HEATING
SURFACE
FIGURE
107
100
100
xx
A
ox
14.7
383
PSIA
P S IA
770
PSIA
1205
1602
2465
PSIA
10
10
x
0
0
PSIA
PSIA
x.
0'
Nn
1.0
gf
x =0.0
/A
=0
y3
h fg
g0 c
g(Pe-Pv)
0-
33
(c
kt
0./
0/
0.1
104
0.01
C
ADDOMS (10)
POOL BOILING
PLATINUM WIRE-WATER
0.024" DI AM.
I
1111111
0.1
hfg T
hfg
Npr''
FIGURE
+^-
1O
465
+ 645
0oD
00
x .0
0
0'0
x
CICHELLI-BONILLA (12)
POOL BOILING BENZENE
ON
POLISHED PLATED CHROMIUM
1.0
3
Tx
g 0 0o.
q/A
h fg
At h fg
.3
c.
g (p -pv)
0.1
0.01
hf
TX
N p'
FI GUR E
10 -
-it3A
11 5
265
5 15
765
b0)
POOL BOILING
ETHYL
ALCOHOL
ON POLISHED PLATED CHRC
1.00:>
q/A
a0
hg Tx =0.0027
.001
hg
90~
g(P-P )
0-33C
0.01
111 Tx
1.0
1pr'
FIGURE
22 PSIA
o
A60
o
+
10
115
2 15
3 1 5
4 15
'I
BOILI NG
n- PENTANE
ON POLISHED PLATED CHROMI
POOL
cT
1.0-
LTx =
hfgg
goa,-
q/A
.
h fg
gT(pt -pv )
033 cIp
)I.7
k.1
0.1
0.01
hfg
Npr'' 7
FIGURE
0.10
*
11111
22.4 PSIA
14.1
03
8.76
e
o
4.31
2.05
b
Q_
0.
CRYDER-FINALBORGO (15)
0'
1.
Ct
0.011
.0 01
POOL BOILING
BRASS TUBE-WATER
T. =0.0060
I
hfg
(q/A
hf
ILL
I
op;p))
g
gpi~p-v)
O.33
cl gA.
kg
II Iliii I I I
,01
pr
FIGURE
100
'>'
ob0
2000 PSI
V=30
20
10
T-0
1.4
/
/
(b
0.8
0.5
0.2
0.1
0.05
1500 PSIA
+ V=30
20
0
10
1000 PSIA
v V =30
10
/
0?
0
FORCED CONVECTION
SURFACE BOILING
NICKEL - WATER
1.0
0.1
0.01
I
h fg
N '.
FIGURE
100
I
CORRELATION
_
ADDOMS
I /I I I
LINE FOR
DATA,
FIG. 4
p=157-168 PSIA
o V = 6-7 FT/SEC
a
12
100-110
o
6-7
12
60- 66
v
6-7
*
12
45.5
v
6-7
40.5
10
U
36
0
36
*
6-7
6-7
22.5-25
6-7
A
'4-
/
/
12
0
KREITH -SUMMERFIELD
(14)
FORCED CONVECTION
SURFACE BOILING
STAINLESS STEEL-WATER
I
I I I I I
0.1
0.01
I
hfg
N 'r7
FIGURE
10
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