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FRICTION COEFFICIENT IN PIPES

Table of Contents
Table of Figures ....................................................................................................................................... 3
Theory ..................................................................................................................................................... 4
Objectives ............................................................................................................................................... 5
Apparatus............................................................................................................................................... 5
Procedure............................................................................................................................................... 6
Results .................................................................................................................................................... 7
Experimental Results ........................................................................................................................... 7
Copper 26mm .................................................................................................................................. 7
Copper 16mm .................................................................................................................................. 7
Galvanized Steel, 16 mm .................................................................................................................. 7
Conversions ......................................................................................................................................... 8
Flow Rates ....................................................................................................................................... 8
Diameters ........................................................................................................................................ 8
Height Readings ............................................................................................................................... 8
Calculations ......................................................................................................................................... 9
Velocity ........................................................................................................................................... 9
Formula for head loss: ..................................................................................................................... 9
Reynolds Number ......................................................................................................................... 10
Haalands Equation ........................................................................................................................ 11
Calculated Results.......................................................................................................................... 11
Discussion ............................................................................................................................................ 13
Limitations: ........................................................................................................................................... 15
Source of Error ...................................................................................................................................... 15
Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................... 16
References............................................................................................................................................ 16

Table of Figures
Figure 1: Diagram Showing Sketch of Apparatus Used for Studying Friction Coefficient in Pipes ...... 6
Figure 2: Table Showing the Upstream and Downstream Values of Copper 26 mm Pipe .......................... 7
Figure 3: Table Showing the Upstream and Downstream Values for Copper 16 mm Pipe ......................... 7
Figure 4: Table Showing The Upstream and Downstream Values of Galvanized Steel 16 mm Pipe ........... 7
Figure 5: Table Showing Copper 26 mm Converted SI unit Values ............................................................ 8
Figure 6: Table Showing Copper 16 mm Converted SI Units Values .......................................................... 8
Figure 7: Table Showing 16 m Galvanized Steel SI Unit Values ................................................................. 9
Figure 8: Table Showing Reynold's Numbers and Darcy's Coefficients Obtained for Various Flow Rates in
Copper 26 mm Pipe ............................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 9: Table Showing Reynold's Numbers and Darcy's Coefficients Obtained for Various Flow Rates in
Copper 16 mm Pipe ............................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 10: Table Showing Reynold's Numbers and Darcy's Coefficients Obtained for Various Flow Rates in
Galvanized Steel 16 mm Pipe ................................................................................................................. 12
Figure 11: Graph Comparing Darcy's Coefficient vs. Reynold's number for Varying Flows in Three Different
Pipes ..................................................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 12: Graph Comparing Darcy's Coefficient Obtained from Darcy's Equation and Haaland's Equation
for a Flow Rate of 500L/h for Three Different Pipes ............................................................................... 12
Figure 13: Graph Showing Log of Darcy's Coefficients vs. Log of Reynolds Number Obtained through
Haaland's Equation ................................................................................................................................ 13
Figure 14: Moody Diagram .................................................................................................................... 14

Theory
The pressure flow of fluid in pipe is not ideal and there is an experience of head loss along its
journey. These head losses may include friction loss, exit loss, entry loss, abrupt
contraction/expansion loss, bend loss, and elevation loss . Consider the formula for pressure:
= (1.0)
=

(1.1)

, , ,

The loss being studied in this experiment is head loss due to friction. Darcys equation is
introduced with a method to calculate head loss due to friction:

2
=
(2.0)

2
= , = , =
=

= 4 (2.1)

Once relative roughness and Reynolds number are acquired, one may be able to read Fannings
friction factor from the Moody Diagram (see Figure 14) or calculated using Haalands formula

( , ) (3.0)


=
(3.1)


6.9
1.1
= 3.6 log10 (
+(
) ) (3.2)

3.71

Fluid flow may be laminar, transitional, or turbulent; where laminar flow has a Reynolds number
of 2000 or less and turbulent flow has a Reynolds number of 4000 or greater. Reynolds numbers
who dont match these ranges are considered transitional.
In laminar flow, the majority of the friction is caused by the layers of fluid sliding past each
other. Darcys equation which accounts for the length of the pipe is better suited in calculating
friction coefficient in laminar flow.
In turbulent flow, a large portion of friction caused comes from the frequency of collision of
fluid particles and the minute mounds on the pipes uneven surface. Haalands formula is more
generally used for turbulent flow as the Reynolds number and relative roughness account for
these occurrences of collision.
In turbulent flow, the movement is more unpredictable and either method is used.

Objectives
This research seeks to complete three objectives:
1) To obtain the Darcys coefficient values of fluid friction for two copper pipes and a
galvanized pipe from Darcys equation and Haalands equations for comparison
2) To compare the effects of pipe roughness and cross section on pressure drop along the pipe
3) The coefficient of fluid friction is higher for copper pipes than it is for galvanized pipes.
With equal cross section

Apparatus
Fluid Friction Loss Measuring System HM 122 which consists of the following components:

Galvanzied iron and copper pipes of length 1.3 m


Cu pipe, 28 x 1mm; d = 26 mm
Cu pipe, 18 x 1 mm; d = 16 mm
St Pipe, galvanized, , d = 16 mm

Manometeres with graduated scales

Variable area flow meter with two measuring ranges ( 640 l/h, 4 m^3/h)

Figure 1: Diagram Showing Sketch of Apparatus Used for Studying Friction Coefficient
in Pipes
Procedure

The immersible pump and outlet valve were opened to allow flow of water

The desired flow rate of 4m^3/h was adjusted by using the main flow valve
upstream of the copper 26 mm pipe .

The difference in height values on the manometer were read

The procedure was repeated for flow rates of 4 m^3/h, 3m^3/h, 2m^3/h , 500L/h,
200L/h

This process was repeated for the remaining two pipes.

All readings were recorded.

Results
Experimental Results
Copper 26mm
Upstream (cm)

Flow rate , Q

Downstream (cm)
Head Loss (cm)

Reading

Avg

Avg

4m /h

41.3

41.0

41.2

32.5

32.3

32.4

8.8

3m /h

38.4

38.0

38.2

31.5

31.3

31.4

6.8

34.5
34.8
33.6

34.3
34.5
33.4

34.4
34.7
33.5

31.5
32.2
30.5

31.2
31.9
30.2

31.4
32.1
30.4

3.1
2.6
3.2

2m /h
500L/h
200L/h

Figure 2: Table Showing the Upstream and Downstream Values of Copper 26 mm Pipe

Copper 16mm
Upstream (cm)

Flow rate, Q

Downstream (cm)

Head Loss (cm)

Readings

Avg

Avg

2m3/h

54.8

55.0

54.9

15.5

15.7

15.6

39.3

41.8
41.7
42.0
42.0

41.9
42.0
42.2
42.4

41.9
41.9
42.1
42.2

24.5
25.0
26.3
29.0

24.8
25.3
26.5
29.2

24.7
25.2
26.4
29.1

17.2
16.7
15.7
13.1

1m /h
500L/h
400L/h
300L/h

Figure 3: Table Showing the Upstream and Downstream Values for Copper 16 mm Pipe

Galvanized Steel, 16 mm
Flow rate, Q

Upstream (cm)

Readings
3

0.6m /h
500L/h
400L/h
300L/h
200L/h

Downstream (cm)
Avg

Head Loss (cm)


Avg

63.7

63.5

63.6

6.0

5.8

5.9

57.7

48.2
44.0
39.8
37.1

48.0
43.9
39.6
37.0

48.1
44.0
39.7
37.1

21.0
29.5
32.7
34.5

20.8
29.3
32.5
34.3

20.9
29.4
32.6
34.4

27.2
14.6
7.1
2.7

Figure 4: Table Showing The Upstream and Downstream Values of Galvanized Steel 16 mm Pipe

Conversions
Flow Rates
m3
1
m3
1

=
4
= 0.0011 3
h 3600
s
3600
L 103 m3
103

=
500
= 0.00014m3 s1
h 3600
s
3600
Diameters
1000 = 1
Height Readings
100 = 1
Upstream (m)

Flow rate , Q m /s

Downstream (m)

Head Loss
(m)

Reading

Avg

Avg

0.00111

0.413

0.41

0.4115

0.325

0.323

0.324

0.0875

0.00083

0.384

0.38

0.382

0.315

0.313

0.314

0.068

0.00056
0.00014
0.00006

0.345
0.348
0.336

0.343
0.345
0.334

0.344
0.3465
0.335

0.315
0.322
0.305

0.312
0.319
0.302

0.3135
0.3205
0.3035

0.0305
0.026
0.0315

Figure 5: Table Showing Copper 26 mm Converted SI unit Values

Upstream (m)

Flow rate , Q m /s

Downstream (m)

Reading

Avg

Avg

Head Loss
(m)

0.00056

0.548

0.55

0.549

0.155

0.157

0.156

0.393

0.00028
0.00014
0.00011
0.00008

0.418
0.417
0.42
0.42

0.419
0.42
0.422
0.424

0.4185
0.4185
0.421
0.422

0.245
0.25
0.263
0.29

0.248
0.253
0.265
0.292

0.2465
0.2515
0.264
0.291

0.172
0.167
0.157
0.131

Figure 6: Table Showing Copper 16 mm Converted SI Units Values

Upstream (m)

Flow rate , Q m /s

Downstream (m)

Reading

Avg

Avg

Head Loss
(m)

0.00017
0.00014
0.00011
0.00008
0.00006

0.637
0.482
0.44
0.398
0.371

0.635
0.48
0.439
0.396
0.37

0.636
0.481
0.4395
0.397
0.3705

0.06
0.21
0.295
0.3265
0.345

0.058
0.208
0.293
0.325
0.343

0.059
0.209
0.294
0.32575
0.344

0.577
0.272
0.1455
0.07125
0.0265

Figure 7: Table Showing 16 m Galvanized Steel SI Unit Values

Calculations
Velocity

, = , = , =

Copper 26 mm

2 3/ =

0.000563 1
0.026 2
(
)
2

1.05

500/ =

0.00143 1
0.026 2
(
)
2

0.26 1

Copper 16 mm

0.000563 1
0.016 2
( 2 )

2.76

500 =

0.00014 3 1
0.016 2
( 2 )

0.69 1

Galvanized Steel 16 mm

500 =

0.00014 3 1

0.016
( 2 )

0.69 1

200 =

0.00006 3 1
0.016
( 2 )

Formula for head loss:

2
2
=
2
2

Copper 26mm

500

2 0.031 9.81 1 0.026


0.0109
1.3 (1.046 1 )2

2 0.026 9.81 1 0.026


=
0.1491
1.3 (0.262 1 )2

0.28 1

Copper 16mm

2 0.393 9.81 1 0.016


=
0.0124
1.3 (2.763 1 )2

500 =

2 0.167 9.81 1 0.016


0.845
1.3 (0.691 1 )2

Galvanized Steel 16 mm

500 =

2 0.272 9.81 1 0.016


0.1376
1.3 (0.691 1 )2

200 =

2 0.027 9.81 1 0.016


0.838
1.3 (0.276 1 )2

Reynolds Number

Copper 26 mm

3
2

1.05 1 0.026
=
30432
8.94 107 2 1

500

0.26 1 0.026
=
7608
8.94 107 2 1

Copper 16 mm

2.76 1 0.016
49452
8.94 107 2 1

500

0.69 1 0.016
=
12363
8.94 107 2 1

500

0.69 1 0.016
=
12363
8.94 107 2 1

200

0.28 1 0.016
=
4945
8.94 107 2 1

Galvanized Steel 16 mm

Haalands Equation

6.9
1.11
6.9
1.11
= 1.8 log [
+ (
) ] = {1.8 log [
+(
) ]}

3.71

3.71

Copper 26 mm
2

500

6.9
0.000001 1.11
[
= {1.8 log
+(
) ]}
12363
3.71 0.026

500

6.9
0.000001 1.11
= {1.8 log [
+(
) ]}
12363
3.71 0.016

0.0333

Copper 16 mm

0.0292

Galvanized Steel 16 mm

500

1.11
6.9
0.0001
= {1.8 log [
+(
) ]}
12363
3.71 0.016

0.0292

Calculated Results
Copper 26 mm
Copper 16 mm

Readings
Darcy

Haaland

Re

2m /h

0.0078 0.019827

60863

0.0108 0.021145

45648

0.0109 0.023237
0.1491 0.033344
1.1289 0.044134

30432
7608
3043

1m /h
500L/h
400L/h
300L/h

Figure 8: Table Showing Reynold's Numbers and Darcy's


Coefficients Obtained for Various Flow Rates in Copper 26
mm Pipe

Readings Darcy
Haaland Re
3
2m /h
0.0124 0.020765
49452
3
1m /h
0.0218 0.024431
24726
0.0845 0.029162
12363
500L/h
0.1241 0.03098
9890
400L/h
0.1841 0.033586
7418
300L/h
Figure 9: Table Showing Reynold's Numbers and Darcy's
Coefficients Obtained for Various Flow Rates in Copper 16
mm Pipe

Galvanized Steel 16 mm
Readings Darcy
Haaland Re
3
2m /h
0.2028 0.027794
14835
3
1m /h
0.1376 0.029163
12363
0.1150 0.030981
9890
500L/h
0.1002 0.033587
7418
400L/h
0.0838 0.037857
4945
300L/h
Figure 10: Table Showing Reynold's Numbers and Darcy's
Coefficients Obtained for Various Flow Rates in
Galvanized Steel 16 mm Pipe

Figure 11: Graph Comparing Darcy's Coefficient vs. Reynold's number for Varying Flows in Three Different Pipes

Figure 12: Graph Comparing Darcy's Coefficient Obtained from Darcy's Equation and Haaland's Equation for a Flow Rate of
500L/h for Three Different Pipes

Figure 13: Graph Showing Log of Darcy's Coefficients vs. Log of Reynolds Number Obtained through Haaland's Equation

Discussion
According to the theory, Darcys equation is affected by several variables. The results are analyzed
in terms of: equation used, flow rate, cross sectional area of pipe, roughness of the pipe.
When the coefficient of friction was used using Darcys equation (See equation 2.0, Figure 11)
and the Haalands Equation (see equation 3.2, Figure 13) , it was found that for both equations,
the coefficient values increased as the flow rate increased, with the exception of experimental
galvanized steel pipe. With galvanized steel, the coefficient of friction tends to increase as the
flow rate increases. The latter may due to an error in the experiment as the majority of the results
verify the theory that flow rate (and thus velocity) is inversely proportional with Darcys
coefficient of friction.
Darcys equation considers the variables head loss & diameter (directly proportional) and pipe
length & fluid velocity (inversely proportional) to Darcys coefficient.
Haalands equation considers the relative roughness of the pipe (equation 3.0) and Reynolds
number (equation 3.1) to be directly proportional to the coefficient of friction. With these values
it is also possible to read the friction factor from moodys diagram.

Figure 14: Moody Diagram

The Reynolds number decrease as volume flow rate decrease, verifying the formula for
Reynolds number. The range of all the Reynolds numbers were above 4000, except for a flow
rate of 200L/h, where the Reynolds number placed the fluid in transition flow.
When comparing Darcys equation and Haalands equation with a controlled variable (500L/h) for
the three pipes, it was found that Darcys equation yields higher and less stabilized values. Haaland
equations more consist results emphasizes its practicability in turbulent flow calculations. The
only drawback seems to be lack of repeated tests to ensure quality of results to verify what caused
the discrepancy in galvanized steel pipes.

Different cross section of pipes (with a controlled variable of equal roughness) were analyzed for
two flow rates which both pipes had in common: 2m^3/h and 500 L/h. The results showed (1) for
2m^3/h, the greater diameter has a lower friction factor using Darcys equation but a higher
friction factor using Haalands equation (2)for 500L/h the friction factor values where higher
when there is a higher diameter when using both equations. Categorizing Darcys equation
calculations for 2m^3/h as an error, it can be shown that the greater cross sectional area does

yield a higher friction factor because there is a more area (greater circumference of the pipe for
roughness to occur: increasing fluid particle collision)

In terms of roughness, galvanized steel has a higher value of friction factor than compared to
copper of the equal diameter and flow rate. However, with Haalands equation, the galvanized
steel has a higher friction factor, than the copper pipes of equal diameter and flow rate. It was
already analyzed before that galvanized steel values may have been affected by lab errors and
experimentally do not agree with fluid flow friction theories.

Limitations:
Students are only able to observe the experiments of one pipe and will have little or no
access to errors that occurred in other teams.

There is a lack of iteration and results cannot be verified through several attempts
The negligible head losses do contribute, albeit slightly, to the head loss
Imperfect design to equipment, no smooth bell shape curve to inlets, unnecessary
roughness, imprecise flow meters

Source of Error

Vibration of the apparatus may affect fluid flow

Parallax Error: Meniscus may not have been read at eye level

Human Error: The inconsistent meniscus level was left to the subjectivity of the
experimenter

Heat Loss: some energy was lost in the form of heat around the pipe.

Faulty equipment: equipment kept leaking, altering the fluid flow

Conclusions
Not including the errors or discrepancies

1) Haalands equations results for Darcys coefficients were more precise, consistent and
lower in value for all diameters, roughness and flow rates when compared to those obtained
from Darcys equation.
2) It was found that a higher cross sectional area and relative roughness values, increased the
friction factor, therefore giving a greater head loss.
3) The coefficient of fluid friction for galvanized pipe is greater than the coefficient of fluid

friction for copper due to its increased roughness.

References
Bernard Massey, Mechanics of Fluids 8th Edition, Reader Emeritus in Mechanical
Engineering, University College London, Published by Taylor and Francis Group, London and
New York , 2006
Class Notes, Turbulent Flow in Pipes, Mechanics of Fluids, the University of the West Indies,
St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
Philip B. Bedient, Darcys Law and Flow, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice
University, [online], last updated: July 20, 2010, [Site accessed March 12, 2014],
http://www.slideshare.net/oscarpiopatino/darcys-law
Native Dynamics, Pressure Loss in Pipe Neutrium, [online], (Last Updated: April 29, 2012),
[ site accessed March 12, 2014], http://neutrium.net/fluid_flow/pressure-loss-in-pipe/