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Definition of Terms
Framework: described as the abstract, logical structure of meaning that guide the development
of the study. All frameworks based on the identification of key concepts and the relationships
among those concepts.
Concept: abstract describes and names an object or phenomenon, thus, providing it with a
separate identity and meaning.
An intellectual representation of some aspect of reality that is derived from observations made
from phenomena. Example of concept: anxiety, performance, satisfaction.
Construct: concepts at very high levels of abstraction that have general meanings
Example: a construct associate with the concept of anxiety.
Variables: These signify a more concrete level and are narrow in their definitions.
A variable is more specific and is measurable.
Dependent and Independent Variables
Researchers who focus on causal relations usually begin with an effect, and then search
for its causes. The cause variable, or the one that identifies forces or conditions that act
on something else, is the independent variable. The variable that is the effect or is the
result or outcome of another variable is the dependent variable (also referred to as
outcome variable or effect variable).
The independent variable is "independent of" prior causes that act on it, whereas the
dependent variable "depends on" the cause. It is not always easy to determine whether a
variable is independent or dependent.
Two questions help to identify the independent variable. First, does it come before other
variable in time? Second, if the variables occur at the same time, does the researcher
suggest that one variable has an impact on another variable?
Independent variables affect or have an impact on other variables. When independent
variable is present, the dependent variable is also present, and with each unit of increase
in the independent variable, there is an increase or decrease in the dependent variable
also. In other words, the variance in dependent variable is accounted for by the
independent variable. Dependent variable is also referred to as criterion variable.
In statistical analysis a variable is identified by the symbol (X) for independent variable
and by the symbol (Y) for the dependent variable. In the research vocabulary different
labels have been associated with the independent and dependent variables like:

Presumed cause
Predicted from

Presumed effect
Predicted to
Measured outcome

Moderating Variables
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A moderating variable is one that has a strong contingent effect on the independent
variable-dependent variable relationship. That is, the presence of a third variable (the
moderating variable) modifies the original relationship between the independent and the
dependent variable.
For example, a strong relationship has been observed between the quality of library
facilities (X) and the performance of the students (Y). Although this relationship is
supposed to be true generally, it is nevertheless contingent on the interest and inclination
of the students. It means that only those students who have the interest and inclination
to use the library will show improved performance in their studies. In this relationship
interest and inclination is moderating variable i.e. which moderates the strength of
the association between X and Y variables.
Intervening Variables
A basic causal relationship requires only independent and dependent variable. A third
type of variable, the intervening variable, appears in more complex causal relationships.
It comes between the independent and dependent variables and shows the link or
mechanism between them. Advances in knowledge depend not only on documenting
cause and effect relationship but also on specifying the mechanisms that account for the
causal relation. In a sense, the intervening variable acts as a dependent variable with
respect to independent variable and acts as an independent variable toward the
dependent variable.
A theory of suicide states that married people are less likely to commit suicide than
single people. The assumption is that married people have greater social integration (e.g.
feelings of belonging to a group or family). Hence a major cause of one type of suicide
was that people lacked a sense of belonging to group (family). Thus this theory can be
restated as a three-variable relationship: marital status (independent variable) causes the
degree of social integration (intervening variable), which affects suicide (dependent
variable). Specifying the chain of causality makes the linkages in theory clearer and helps
a researcher test complex relationships.
Look at another finding that five-day work week results in higher productivity. What is the
process of moving from the independent variable to the dependent variable? What
exactly is that factor which theoretically affects the observed phenomenon but cannot be
seen? Its effects must be inferred from the effects of independent variable on the
dependent variable. In this work-week hypothesis, one might view the intervening
variable to be the job satisfaction. To rephrase the statement it could be: the introduction
of five-day work week (IV) will increase job satisfaction (IVV), which will lead to higher
productivity (DV).
Extraneous Variables
An almost infinite number of extraneous variables (EV) exist that might conceivably affect
a given relationship. Some can be treated as independent or moderating variables, but
most must either be assumed or excluded from the study. Such variables have to be
identified by the researcher. In order to identify the true relationship between the
independent and the dependent variable, the effect of the extraneous variables may have
to be controlled. This is necessary if we are conducting an experiment where the effect of
the confounding factors has to be controlled. Confounding factors is another name for
extraneous variables.
Relationship among Variables
Once the variables relevant to the topic of research have been identified, then the
researcher is interested in the relationship among them. A statement containing the
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variable is called a proposition. It may contain one or more than one variable. The
proposition having one variable in it may be called as univariate proposition, those with
two variables as bivariate proposition, and then of course multivariate containing three or
more variables. Prior to the formulation of a proposition the researcher has to develop
strong logical arguments which could help in establishing the relationship. For example,
age at marriage and education are the two variables that could lead to a proposition: the
higher the education, the higher the age at marriage. What could be the logic to reach
this conclusion? All relationships have to be explained with strong logical arguments. If
the relationship refers to an observable reality, then the proposition can be put to test,
and any testable proposition is hypothesis
Distinction Between Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
Framework can be derived from related concepts (conceptual) or existing theories (theoretical)
The terms conceptual framework and theoretical framework are sometimes use
interchangeably, but they have different meanings.
Conceptual Framework
This consists of concepts that are placed within a logical and sequential design. It represents
less formal structure and used for studies in which existing theory is applicable or insufficient. It
is based on specific concepts and propositions, derived from empirical observation and intuition.
It may deduce theories from a conceptual framework.
Theoretical Framework
The theory provides a point of focus for attacking the unknown in a specific area. If a
relationship is found between two or more variables a theory should be formulated to explain
why the relationship exists. Theory are purposely created and formulated, never discovered;
they can be tested by never proven.
Abdellah defined theory as an explanation of a phenomenon or an abstract generalization that
systematically explains the relationship among given phenomena, for purposes of explaining,
predicting and controlling such phenomena.
The theoretical framework consists of theories that seem to be interrelated. The explanation
concerns the relationship between two or more variables or phenomena. It is more formal and
used for studies based on existing theories. It is derived from specific concepts and propositions
that are induced or deduced.
Importance of Theory in Research
The function of theory in research is to identify the starting point of the research problem and to
establish the vision to which the problem is directed. It determines and defines the focus and
goal of the research problem.
The process of forming basic ideas, designs, plans, or strategies based on given facts, situations
and examples.
A statement or assertion of the relationship between concepts derived from theories or
generalizations based on empirical data
Purposes of Theoretical Framework
1. To test theories
2. To make research findings meaningful and generalizable
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3. To establish orderly connections between observations and facts.
4. To predict and control situations
5. To stimulate research
Purposes of Theories and Conceptual Models
Their overall purpose is to make research findings meaningful and generalizable. Theories and
conceptual models help to stimulate research and the extension of knowledge by providing both
direction and impetus.
Theoretical Framework and Conceptual framework may be represented as models. A model is a
symbolic representation that helps the researcher to express abstract concepts and
relationships easily, using minimal words. A model can be represented schematically or
Schematic model conveys concepts and propositions through the use of boxes, arrows, or
other symbols.
Mathematical or statistical models convey concepts and propositions through the use of
letters, number and mathematical symbols.
Conceptual Paradigm
It is a diagram that visually represents and interprets the underlying theory, principles &
concepts of a research.
A visual presentation of variables that interrelate with one another as perceived by the
researcher before an actual empirical investigation is done to prove its relationships.
The study is anchored on the theory advanced by Landau, Landau and Landau (2001) that
conflict exists in all human relationships: it always has and probably always will. Conflict is
certain as long as there is a human element present. Thus, conflict is a pervasive aspect in both
social circles and professional interactions.
According to Putnam (1995:184), "conflict is not a breakdown of a cooperative, purposeful
system; rather conflict is central to what an organization is." Pondy (1992:260) agreed when he
stated that "conflict is not only functional for the organization, it is essential to its very
existence." In other words, conflict is seen not as something destructive within organizations
that must be resolved but rather as a necessary communicative process within organizations
that, like any other communicative process, must be managed effectively. Of course,
recognizing that conflict is an inherent and valuable part of the organization does not imply that
conflict or its outcomes are always beneficial to the organization (The Journal of Business
Communication, 1997).
Varied conflicts arise in any organization. Jehn (2000) who categorizes conflicts into three
types, namely: task conflicts, process conflicts and relationship conflicts. Task conflicts are
conflicts focused on ideas and opinions about the task being performed while process conflicts
are concerned about logistical and delegation issues such as how task is to be accomplished,
who is responsible for what and how duties are to be delegated. Relationship conflict are
conflicts over personal issues in which often reported are pertaining to social events, gossip,
clothing preferences, political views and hobbies.
However, the study adheres to the typology used by Pelled et al. (1999) who
dichotomized conflicts as task conflict or emotional conflict. Task conflict or task-related
conflicts refer to conflicts rooted in the substance of the task to be undertaken. It happens when
people have differing views on working together. More often than not, people argue over
allocation of resources, distribution of rewards, task assignments, procedures, goals and
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important decision areas. On the other hand, emotional conflict or socio-emotional conflict
refers to emotional aspects in the interpersonal relation or personality clashes or where
differences are viewed as personal attacks.
This study views that conflicts arise in the public secondary schools in the Division of
Cagayan. Using the Pelled et al. typology, the task conflicts within the superior-subordinate
relationships include classroom supervision; placement of teachers; promotion of teachers;
transfer, suspension, dismissal; provision of salary/compensation, fringe benefits; and in-service
In the performance of these tasks, emotional conflicts arise between the school
principal and the teachers.
When conflicts arise in the school system, the principal necessitates to take an action.
Negotiation, a common scheme when a conflict occurs, is a cooperative process whereby
participants try to find a solution that meets the legitimate interests of involved parties; it is a
discussion intended to produce an agreement. Conflict resolution is the process of (1) resolving
or managing a dispute by sharing each sides needs and (2) adequately addressing their


Selection and Appointment
of Teachers
Placement of Teachers
Transfer, Suspension
and Dismissal
and Fringe Benefit
In-Service Education



* Socio-Demographic Characteristics
* Professional Development
* Work Values
Figure 1. Paradigm showing the relationship between the sets of variables in the study.
How the problem is managed and resolved is dependent on the principals orientation. In
this study, the conflict management theory advocated by Putnam and Wilson (1982) is used to
analyze the principals resolving a conflict. The three-conflict management style model divides
conflict management strategies into three factors: non-confrontation (obliging), solutionoriented (integrating) and control (dominating). Putnam and Wilson (1982) state that nonconfrontation, or obliging, strategies manage conflict indirectly, by either simply avoiding
disagreements or by minimizing controversial issues. Solution-oriented, or integrating,
strategies manage conflict both by searching for creative, integrative solutions and by making
compromises. Control, or dominating, strategies manage conflict by arguing persistently for
their positions and using nonverbal messages to emphasize demands.
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The use of any factor in the conflict management model explained above is dependent on
the problem the school principal is confronted. It means that the use of a resolution strategy is
dictated by the problematic situation. School principals shift strategy to use as required in the
situation at hand.
The conceptual framework is illustrated by Figure 1. The study views that the sources of
conflict include selection and appointment of teachers; placement; promotion; transfer,
suspension and dismissal; salary/compensation and fringe benefits; in-service education and
classroom supervision. The aforementioned are administrative problems that may arise in
Moreover, the study theorizes that in resolving conflicts arising from the above-cited
sources, school principal uses varied strategies. It is assumed that the conflict management
strategy used by a school principal is dependent on the nature of conflict that arises in the
school. The study theorizes that task-related conflicts are best resolved by solution-oriented
approach, while socio-emotional conflicts are managed using either non-confrontational or
control approaches.
However, the use of an approach to conflict resolution could be intervened by personal
and school-related variables. These variables include age, sex, civil status, religion, highest
educational attainment, trainings attended, number of years in teaching, number of years as
administrator, number of teachers supervised, and work values.
These factors could either
influence the use of one conflict strategy or another.
In this study, it is assumed that older administrators are more knowledgeable, mature
and may have better conflict management styles that could guide and direct their teachers and
others in carrying out their job. On the one hand, school administrators with higher educational
attainment and advanced trainings are viewed to be less confrontational in dealing with
problems and have better sense of management styles because they are presumed to have
learned and mastered varied approaches that they could employ to respond to different sources
of conflict.
School administrators with longer tenure in the service have been exposed to more
challenges and responsibilities thus, those with longer experience are presumed to have better
ways of managing conflict. Moreover, they could be more seasoned and experienced to deal
with problems because of their immersion to realities and varied conflict situations.
Finally, it is viewed that if the school administrator manifests a positive work values she
or he is likely to perform better in the job as less occurrence of problems that could pave the
way for collaborative efforts toward the attainment of organizational goals.

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Dr. Marcelo Raquepo



What Is A Good Literature Review?

A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and

sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period.

A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an
organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis.

A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a reorganization, or a reshuffling, of that information.

It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations.

Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates.

Generally, the purpose of a review is to analyze critically a segment of a published body

of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies,
reviews of literature, and theoretical articles.

What Are The Kinds Of Literature?

The related literature can be classified in any of the following:

Conceptual literature are those that you obtain from textbook, general
references, journals, and the like. For instance, the definition of cooperative
learning as expounded by different educational psychologists is an example of a
conceptual literature.

Research literature are those results of studies and researches conducted by

other researchers. Citing the findings of an experiment made by a researcher on
cooperative learning is an example of research literature.

How Do You Distinguish A Good And Poor Literature Review?

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Why Review the Existing Literature?

1. It helps or guides the researcher in searching for or selecting a better research problem or
2. It helps the investigator understand his topic or research better.
3. It ensures that there will be no duplication of other studies.
4. It provides the conceptual or theoretical framework of the planned research
5. It gives the researcher a feeling of confidence
6. It provides information about the research methods used
7. It provides findings and conclusions of past investigations
What Should Be The Qualities Of The Literature Reviewed?
1. The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible
2. Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased
3. Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study
4. Surveyed materials must have been based upon genuinely original and true facts or data
to make them valid and reliable.
Before Writing The Literature, What Should You Do?


Roughly how many sources should you include?

What types of sources (books, journal articles, websites)?

Should you summarize, synthesize, or critique your sources by discussing a

common theme or issue?

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Should you evaluate your sources?

Find models

Narrow your topic

A literature review, like a term paper, is usually organized around ideas, not the
sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organized.

Construct a working thesis statement

Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible.

Find a focus

The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you
need to read in order to get a good survey of the material.

Consider whether your sources are current

Look for other literature reviews in your area of interest or in the discipline and
read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your
own research or ways to organize your final review.

Literature reviews have thesis statements as well.

Consider organization

Identify what is the most effective way of presenting the information, what are the
most important topics, subtopics, etc., that your review needs to include, and in
what order should you present them.
For instance, in the study Management Competence and Job Performance of
Middle Level Managers of Local Government Units in Cagayan, the review could be
outlined under the following headings:
Concepts and Theories of Management
Management Functions: Planning, Leading, Organizing, and Controlling
Factors Affecting Management
Job Performance
Indicators of Job Performance
Relationship Between Management Competence and Job Performance

To help you come up with an overall organizational framework for your review,
group the reviewed materials thematically or topically. In each of the theme or
topic, the following must be included:

The introduction should provide the reader with the scale and structure of
your review. It serves as a kind of map.

The body of the review depends on how you have organised your key
points. Literature reviews at postgraduate level should be evaluative and not

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Dr. Marcelo Raquepo

merely descriptive. For example possible reasons for similarities or
differences between studies are considered rather than a mere identification
of them.

The conclusion of the review needs to sum up the main findings of your
research into the literature. The findings can be related to the aims of the
study you are proposing to do. The reader is thus provided with a coherent
background to the current study.

What Are The Steps In Conducting A Literature Review?

Visit the school library or other libraries in the vicinity. Browse over books, magazines,
journals, etc. Be patient.

Do a computer-aided search through an electronic database.

Ask for reprints from experts

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Dr. Marcelo Raquepo

Take down notes on index card or research notebook. Begin organizing your notes by
devising sections and headings such as:

General Information

Methods in other studies

Support for Objectives

Results to compare with yours.

Pros and cons of controversy

write all bibliographic information, i.e., author(s), complete title, publisher, date and place
of publication, and so on


What Needs To Be Included In The Review Of Literature?

1. Background Information About The Research Topic
a. Information to support the rationale of the study
b. Theories, laws, principles, and concepts involved in the study
2. Background Of The Methodology
a. Principles Involved in the Methods/ Procedures
b. Standard Procedures or Procedures adopted from previous studies
c. Significance of the Parameters/ Data to be gathered
3. Related Studies/Related Ideas
Reports as a summary which includes the problem, the parameters/data gathered, the
procedure, results and recommendations
Assessment Questions on the Quality of the Review of Literature
1. Do the accumulated literature indicate gaps and inconsistencies which you hope to fill?
2. Are the variables adequately described?
3. What data gathering instruments have been used? Are they reliable and valid tools?
4. Are the target and sampling populations presented?
5. Were the hypotheses tested and correctly interpreted?
6. Are the results logical? Are the conclusions and recommendations data-based?

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Dr. Marcelo Raquepo