You are on page 1of 9

1.

(a)

Benzene diazonium chloride, C6H5N2Cl, in acidic solution is stable below 5 C but


decomposes rapidly in a first order reaction when heated to 50 C.
C6H5N2Cl(aq) + H2O(1) C6H5OH(aq) + HCl(aq) + N2(g)
Describe an experiment that could be used to follow this reaction. Your answer should
include a diagram of the apparatus that you would use and a statement of the
measurements that you would make.

..
..
..
..
(5)

(b)

The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is also a first order reaction


2H2O2(aq) 2H2O(1) + O2(g)
At 50 C it is very much slower than the decomposition of benzene diazonium chloride of
the same concentration.
(i)

Write the rate equation for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.


....
(1)

(ii)

Comment on the relative values of the activation energies and the rate constants for
the decomposition reactions above.
Activation energies ...........................................
....
Rate constants ...............................................
....
(2)

NT Exampro

(iii)

Explain, in terms of collision theory, the effect on reaction rates of increasing the
temperature to 60 C.
....
....
....
....
....
(3)

(iv)

The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is catalysed by iodide ions.


Explain why reactions are speeded up by a catalyst.
....
....
....
(2)

(c)

The lodination of propanone


CH3COCH3 + I2

acid catalyst

CH2ICOCH3 + HI

was studied with an excess of propanone and an acid catalyst. The variation of
concentration of iodine as a function of time is shown below.

[I2]

time

What is the order of this reaction with respect to iodine? Give your reasoning.
..
..
..
..
(3)
(Total 16 marks)

NT Exampro

2.

(a)

The graph below represents the MaxwellBoltzman distribution of molecular energies at a


temperature T1 K.
Number of
molecules
with a
given
energy

Activation
Energy
(i)

Energy

Sketch on the same axes, the curve which shows the distribution of molecular
energies at a higher temperature T2 K. T2 is approximately 20 K greater than T1.
(2)

(ii)

Use these graphs to explain how the rate of a gas phase reaction changes with
increasing temperature.
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

For a gaseous reaction, state and explain what effect the addition of a catalyst would have
on:
(i)

the energy distribution of the gas molecules;


..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)

NT Exampro

(ii)

the activation energy for the reaction;


..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

the rate of reaction.


..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Thioethanamide reacts with sodium hydroxide as follows:


CH3CSNH2 + 2OH CH3CO2 + HS + NH3
The reaction is first order with respect to both thioethanamide and hydroxide ions.
(i)

Write the rate equation for this reaction.


..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

What is the overall order of the reaction?


..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

Given that the reaction occurs in two stages and the rate determining step is:
CH3CSNH2 + OH CH3CONH2 + HS
Write an equation for the second step in the reaction.
..........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 15 marks)

NT Exampro

3.

(a)

(i)

Explain what is meant by the following terms.


Rate of reaction
.......
.......
Overall order of a reaction ................................................................................
.......
.......
(2)

(ii)

Explain why the order of reaction cannot be deduced from the stoichiometric
equation for a reaction.
.......
.......
.......
(1)

(b)

Substitution reactions of halogenoalkanes, can proceed via an SN1 or SN2 mechanism.


When 1-bromobutane, CH3CH2CH2CH2Br, 2-bromobutane, CH3CH2CHBrCH3, and
2-bromo-2-methylpropane, (CH3)3CBr, are reacted separately with aqueous sodium
hydroxide solution each gives the corresponding alcohol.
(i)

Give the mechanism for the SN1 reaction between 2-bromobutane and
hydroxide ions.

(3)

(ii)

Explain why the product mixture is not optically active.


.......
.......
.......
(2)

NT Exampro

(iii)

In an experiment designed to find the mechanism of the reaction between


2-bromo-2-methylpropane and hydroxide ions the following data were obtained at
constant temperature.
Initial concentration of
2-bromo-2-methylpropane
/mol dm3

Initial concentration of
OH / mol dm3

Initial rate of reaction


/mol dm3 s1

0.10

0.10

1.2 102

0.20

0.10

2.4 102

0.30

0.20

3.6 102

Use the data to deduce the rate equation for the reaction of 2-bromo-2methylpropane with sodium hydroxide solution.
.......
.......
.......
(3)

(c)

Suggest, in outline, a method you could use to follow the progress of the reaction between
a bromoalkane and aqueous sodium hydroxide.
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
(3)
(Total 14 marks)

4.

(a)

In a rate of reaction experiment between two substances, A and B, the overall order of the
reaction was found to be 2. Write three possible rate equations for such a second order
reaction between A and B.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(3)

NT Exampro

(b)

At a certain temperature the rate of reaction between nitrogen monoxide, NO, and
hydrogen, H2, was investigated. The following data were obtained.

(i)

[NO]/mol dm3

[H2]/mol dm3

Rate/mol dm3 s1

1.0

1.0

0.02

1.0

3.0

0.06

3.0

1.0

0.18

Use the data above to deduce the rate equation for this reaction.

(3)

(ii)

Use your answer to (b)(i) above to calculate the value of the rate constant, with
units.

(2)

(c)

The investigation described in part (b), above, was repeated, but at a higher temperature,
and the rate of the reactions increased. Explain, in terms of particles, why an increase in
temperature increases the rate of a reaction.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(3)

(d)
NT Exampro

State the effect of an increase in temperature on the value of the rate constant, k.
7

...............................................................................................................................
(1)

(e)

Explain the effect of a catalyst on the rate of a reaction.


...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 15 marks)

5.

In an experiment to determine the rate of the reaction between persulphate ions and iodide ions
in aqueous solution
S2O 82 + 2I 2SO 24 + I2
the following data were obtained:

Concentration/mol dm 3

(a)

(i)

S2 O 2
8

Initial rate
/mol dm3 s 1

0.100

0.100

0.36

0.200

0.100

0.72

0.200

0.200

1.44

Deduce the order of reaction with respect to each of the reagents and hence write
the rate equation for the reaction.
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

With reference to this reaction state what is meant by the overall order of a
reaction.
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(1)

NT Exampro

(iii)

Calculate the rate constant including units.

(2)

(iv)

Explain why the rate equation cannot be written directly from the stoichiometric
equation for the reaction.
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

(i)

Suggest a suitable experimental technique that would enable you to determine the
rate of the reaction given opposite.
............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Suggest a necessary condition that would help to ensure accurate results.


............................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

Suggest one advantage or disadvantage of your chosen experimental method.


............................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 10 marks)

NT Exampro