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Span of Vector Space

Tarkeshar Singh
Department of Mathematics
BITS Pilani KK Birla Goa Campus, Goa

12th Feb. 2015

Linear Combination
Definition
A vector w V is called a linear combination of vectors
v1 , v2 , . . . , vr if it can be written as
w=

r
X

ki vi .

i=1

where ki are scalars.


Definition
Let vi = (ai,1 , ai,2 , , ai,n ) where ai,j are reals for i = 1, 2, , m
and jP= 1, 2, , n. Then
x = m
i = (b1 a1,1 + + bm am,1 , , b1 a1,n + + bm am,n )
i=1 bi v
is called a linear combination of the vectors v1 , v2 , , vm where
bk s are also real numbers.
Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Examples

Example
Let u = (1, 2, 1) &v = (6, 4, 2) R. Check whether
w1 = (9, 2, 7) is a linear combination of the vectors u and v.
Example
Is x = (4, 1, 8) a linear combination of the vectors u and v?

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Remark
If the linear system is consistent then a given vector can be written
as a linear combination of others vectors. If the linear system is
not consistent then the given vector can not be written as a linear
combination of other vectors.
Pr
So we
have
seen
that
w
=
i=1 ki vi for some vector w V and
Pr
x 6= i=1 ki vi for some vector x V .

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Remark
If the linear system is consistent then a given vector can be written
as a linear combination of others vectors. If the linear system is
not consistent then the given vector can not be written as a linear
combination of other vectors.
Pr
So we
have
seen
that
w
=
i=1 ki vi for some vector w V and
Pr
x 6= i=1 ki vi for some vector x V .

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

If W is a collection of all such vectors w V then W is a


subspace of the vector space V .

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Subspaces

Now, it is time to recall the following tests for subspace.


Theorem
A subset W of a vector space V is a subspace iff W is closed
under vector addition and scalar multiplication.
Theorem
Let W be a subspace of a vector space V . Then for a1 an R3
and w
1, , w
n W , we have a1 w
1 + + an w
n W .

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Subspaces

Now, it is time to recall the following tests for subspace.


Theorem
A subset W of a vector space V is a subspace iff W is closed
under vector addition and scalar multiplication.
Theorem
Let W be a subspace of a vector space V . Then for a1 an R3
and w
1, , w
n W , we have a1 w
1 + + an w
n W .

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Subspace

Theorem
If v1 , v2 , . . . , vr are vectors in a vector space V then
The set W of all linear combination v1 , v2 , . . . , vr is a
subspace of V .
W is the smallest subspace of V that contains v1 , v2 , . . . , vr .

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Span
Definition
Let S be a nonempty subset of a vector space V . Then the span
of S in V is the set of all possible finite linear combination of
vectors of S and is denoted by span(S).
Now, we will look into the following theorem.
Theorem
Let S be a nonempty subset of a vector space V . Then
1 S span(S).
2 Span(S) is a subspace of V .
3 If W is any subspace of V with S W , then span(S) W .
4 Span(S) is the smallest subspace of V containing S.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Span
Definition
Let S be a nonempty subset of a vector space V . Then the span
of S in V is the set of all possible finite linear combination of
vectors of S and is denoted by span(S).
Now, we will look into the following theorem.
Theorem
Let S be a nonempty subset of a vector space V . Then
1 S span(S).
2 Span(S) is a subspace of V .
3 If W is any subspace of V with S W , then span(S) W .
4 Span(S) is the smallest subspace of V containing S.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Span

Corollary
Let S1 , S2 be two subset of a vector space V with S1 S2 . Then
span(S1 ) span(S2 ).

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Simplifying span

Remark
The span of an empty set is {0}.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

CMYK Color Model

Color magazines and books are printed using this model,


where C, M, Y, K are some colors.
Colors can be created either by mixing inks of the four types
and printing with these mixed inks, which is known as The
Spot Color Method.
By printing dot patterns(Rosettes) with four colors and
allowing the readers eye and perception process to created
the desired color combinations (Process Color Method).
There is a numbering system for commercial links called The
Pantone Matching Systems.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

CMYK Color Model

Color magazines and books are printed using this model,


where C, M, Y, K are some colors.
Colors can be created either by mixing inks of the four types
and printing with these mixed inks, which is known as The
Spot Color Method.
By printing dot patterns(Rosettes) with four colors and
allowing the readers eye and perception process to created
the desired color combinations (Process Color Method).
There is a numbering system for commercial links called The
Pantone Matching Systems.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

CMYK Color Model

Assigns every commercial ink color a number in according


with its percentage of C,M,Y, K.
Describing the ink color as a linear combination of these using
coefficients between 0 and 1 inclusive.
The set of all such linear combinations is called CMYK-Space.
For example 876CVC is a mixture of C, M, Y, K in the
P876 = (0.38, 0.59, 0.73, 0.07).

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Linear Independence/Dependence

Definition
Let S = {v1 , v2 , , vn } be a finite subset
P of a vector space V .
Then S is called linearly independent iff ni=1 ai vi = 0 has a trivial
solutions, i.e., all ai are simultaneously zero.
Definition
Let S = {v1 , v2 , , vn } be a finite subset
Pn of a vector space V .
Then S is called linearly dependent iff i=1 ai vi = 0 has a
nontrivial solutions, i.e., at least one of the ai is nonzero.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Linear Independence/Dependence

Definition
Let S = {v1 , v2 , , vn } be a finite subset
P of a vector space V .
Then S is called linearly independent iff ni=1 ai vi = 0 has a trivial
solutions, i.e., all ai are simultaneously zero.
Definition
Let S = {v1 , v2 , , vn } be a finite subset
Pn of a vector space V .
Then S is called linearly dependent iff i=1 ai vi = 0 has a
nontrivial solutions, i.e., at least one of the ai is nonzero.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Examples

Example (1)
Check whether S = {x 2 + x + 1, x 2 1, x 2 + 1} is L.I. or L.D.???
Example (2)
Check whether S = {(2, 5, 1), (1, 1, 1), (0, 2, 3), (2, 2, 6)} is
L.I. or L.D.???

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Examples

Example (1)
Check whether S = {x 2 + x + 1, x 2 1, x 2 + 1} is L.I. or L.D.???
Example (2)
Check whether S = {(2, 5, 1), (1, 1, 1), (0, 2, 3), (2, 2, 6)} is
L.I. or L.D.???

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Linear Dependence

Theorem
Let S be a nonempty finite subset of a vector space V . Then S is
linearly dependent if and only if for some vector v span(S) can
be expressed as a linear combination of the elements of S.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Remark
A set of vectors S in a vector space V is linearly independent iff
there is no vector v S such that v span(S \ v).
Remark
A set S in a vector space V is linearly dependent iff there is some
vector v S such that v span(S \ v).

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Remark
A set of vectors S in a vector space V is linearly independent iff
there is no vector v S such that v span(S \ v).
Remark
A set S in a vector space V is linearly dependent iff there is some
vector v S such that v span(S \ v).

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Linear Dependence

Remark
A nonempty set of vectors S = {v1 , v2 , , vn } is linearly
independent iff
v1 6= 0.
2 k n, vk does not belongs to span(S).

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Linear Independence

Theorem
Let S be a nonempty finite subset of a vector space V . Then S is
linearly independent if and only if every vector v span(S) can be
expressed uniquely as a linear combination of the elements of S.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Theorem
If S is any set in Rn containing k distinct vectors, where k > n,
then S is linearly dependent.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Linearly dependent of an infinite set

Definition
An infinite subset S of a vector space V is linearly dependent iff
some finite subset T of S is linearly dependent.
Definition
An infinite subset S of a vector space V is linearly independent if
it is not linearly dependent.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Linearly dependent of an infinite set

Definition
An infinite subset S of a vector space V is linearly dependent iff
some finite subset T of S is linearly dependent.
Definition
An infinite subset S of a vector space V is linearly independent if
it is not linearly dependent.

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

Thank you

Tarkeshar Singh

Linear Algebra

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