Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 29

Contents

Contents.......................................................................................................................................... 1 Preface............................................................................................................................................1 CHAPTER 1: Introduction................................................................................................................. 3 1.3 Application of GIS and Remote Sensing to Urban Center.......................................................3 1.6 The State of the Art................................................................................................................ 5 1.6.3 Techniques and Methods for Urban Studies.....................................................................5 1.9 Scope of Study....................................................................................................................... 7 1.9.1 Spatial limits....................................................................................................................7 CHAPTER 2: The Study Area............................................................................................................ 8 2.3 Regional Setting.....................................................................................................................8 2.5 Socio-Cultural Settings........................................................................................................... 9 2.5.2 Udaipur Urbanizing Region..............................................................................................9 CHAPTER 3: Urban Sprawl ............................................................................................................ 12 3.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 12 3.7.7 Case Study - Densification of Urban Growth.....................................................................12 3.8 Evaluation of Master Plan.....................................................................................................13 CHAPTER 4: State of Urban Infrastructure, Amenities and Wellbeing...........................................15 4.4 Udaipur Urbanizing Region.................................................................................................. 15 4.4.2 Amenities and Wellbeing...............................................................................................15 CHAPTER 5: Alternative Land Development Plan..........................................................................19 5.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................................... 19 5.3 Land Suitability Analysis...................................................................................................... 19 Color Plates .................................................................................................................................. 23 Color Plate IV.............................................................................................................................. 23 Fig. 2.22..................................................................................................................................23 Fig. 2.23..................................................................................................................................23 Fig. 3.2....................................................................................................................................24 Fig. 3.4....................................................................................................................................24 About the Author...........................................................................................................................24 Other Books and E-Books by Examrace..........................................................................................1

Preface
This book is an attempt to investigate the pattern and magnitude of urban expansion

and development during the last few decades using GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques. It includes the analysis of the study region in terms of physiographic features and the socio-cultural settings. The study then tries to understand the process of urban sprawl in the region. In light of this, it traces the development of infrastructural facilities, availability of amenities, and the state of wellbeing in the region. After a concrete understanding of all these issues, the study attempts to evolve an alternative land development plan for the region. Study identifies the policy imperatives to improve the efficacy of the urban development process. Words alone cannot express my deep sense of gratitude to my teacher and supervisor, Dr. R, N. Vyas, Professor, Department of Geography, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur, for his extensive guidance, constant encouragement at every step. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Sadhna Kothari, Professor, Dept. of Geography, and all faculty members at MLSU for their constant encouragement. It is my sincere duty to express my gratitude towards Dr. Chandra Deo Ola, Department of Geography, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur. His help was critical in the process of digitization of maps without which the work would not have taken shape. I pay my deep thanks to the office staff and all employees at MLSU, Udaipur. I am very much obliged to the RRSSC, Jodhpur for helping me avail the satellite imagery of the region. I also pay my sincere thanks to JNU library staff, teachers and excolleagues at CSRD, JNU, New Delhi to provide guidance and help throughout my research. My sincere thanks are due to the UIT, Udaipur Municipal Council, PWD, PHED, DCO staff for providing the database necessary for the Study. My thanks to Dr. Pragya Kevalramani at UIT who acquainted me with the process of the urban development activities taking place in the region. The immense inspiration, constant encouragement, and cooperation of my grandparents, father-in-law, mother-in-law, parents, my husband, brother, sister-in-law, relatives, and friends who have made it possible to accomplish this task. In carrying out this research, I have received guidance, help and encouragement from countless individuals and organizations and I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude towards them. Manishika Jain

CHAPTER 1: Introduction
1.3 Application of GIS and Remote Sensing to Urban Center
Urbanization has become an issue of global concern as urbanized areas are becoming focal points of economic, political and cultural activities in both developed and developing parts of the world. This enhanced centrality is culminating into exponential concentration of population caused by ever-increasing trend of immigration of population from rural or less developed smaller urban centers. Unabated continuity of urbanization process is evident from the fact that urban population is expected to grow from 2.86 billion in 2000 to 4.98 billion by 2030. By 2030 the world's annual urban growth rate is projected at 1.8 percent in contrast to the rural growth rate of 0.1 per cent and about 60 per cent of the world's population will live in cities. Even today, urban-based economic activities account for more than 50 percent of GDP in all countries (United Nations, 2002). The urban growth scenario in India is similar to the rest of the world. According to 2001 census, out of the total population of 1,027 million about 285 million live in urban areas During last fifty years the population has multiplied by two and a half times and the area of urban centers have grown by nearly five times. This phenomenal growth of urbanized regions is associated with the concentration of productive forces that make urban areas important engines for productivity and growth of the nation. The process of urban development is thus ought to be guided and coordinated by the developmental plan of the city and its surroundings. Urban development is conceived as a change in land use patterns, transportation network and social and economic institutions. Urban hubs with their dense population, industries, confluence of commodity flows, quick access to information, convenient transportation, advanced science and technologies and high productivity levels promote regional development through economies of scale as well as through spread effect. This kind of interconnected development in turn accentuates urbanization. GIS and remote sensing is used as a tool to understand the process of urbanization through a distinct set of land use as well as type of human behavior leading to phenomenal socio-economic transformation in the surrounding rural areas. This spread and propagation of urban influence is not uniform and has marked differential radial tendency measurable in terms of the demographic component, transport network and land use assemblages. The future prospect of the city or town depends on the belt where the operational part of the process of urban development has already commenced. The sprawl within the urban ambience has made urban sustainable development an important consideration in urban management. Such development requires a conscious effort attainable through well thought policy decisions and spatial planning. Urban spread is a process of acquisition and occupation of land for the expansion of urban activities. Such outward growth adds to the city area at the cost of the surrounding rural land hitherto put to less intensive use. The acquired land is generally utilized for non-agriculture purposes mainly residential, industrial, and commercial. However, along with this change part of land is continued to be used for intensive cultivation to grow crops meant for city markets such as vegetables, floriculture and other cash crops. The basic motive behind the high investment in such land acquisition activities is profit generation associated with high growth prospects. In this process the periphery of the city had been continuously advancing, bringing the villages of rural areas in the urban fold. The expansion of the city has turned many isolated settlements

with farming as their dominant economic activity into settlements absolutely engulfed by the city expansions. This swallowing growth of urban population in the coming decades presents greater challenges to assure acceptable standards of living for the ever including urban people. Hence there is an utmost need to develop an alternative plan which can look forward towards a sustainable urban management with a focus on balanced infrastructure development and hind use patterns along with equitable accessibility and minimum well-being of people. Urban development dynamics is a multifaceted concept which deals with (a) economic infrastructure i.e., transport, telecommunication, post and telegraph, power and finance (b) social basic amenities at household level i.e., education, housing, health, family welfare, welfare of deprived communities. The economic infrastructure is analyzed in terms of economic development and social amenities in terms of human development. Hence the concept has a far reaching implication eying on the betterment of human life which is the ultimate aim of development process (Fig.1. 1). Figure 1.1 Schematic Representations of Urban Development Dynamics

Therefore, to analyze the dynamics of urban growth it is mandatory to understand the pattern of urban land use. Urban (and use mechanism is an integral part of human system by virtue of its universal association with population concentration, growth and economic activities. The complexities of urban area development are fast increasing and call for immediate perspective planning of cities and towns. Expansion of urban areas has engulfed the nearby rural settlements inculcating urbanism of its own kind in these rural vicinities. In view of integrated spatial, sectoral and infrastructural planning of urban areas, the use

of multisource and high resolution database along with supporting analytical techniques have become indispensable to arrive at policy prescriptions for the balanced and sustainable growth of urbanized regions. In this regard high resolution remote sensing database along with associated geoinformatic devices and techniques like image processing, GPS, GIS etc. are the most appropriate and ideal research tools to identify, locate, interpret, analyze urban scenario and to arrive at long term policy prescriptions.

1.6 The State of the Art


Sectoral planning plays an important role in urban development; it provides a building block for overall development through prioritization of requirements. Even though it may be said to be a piecemeal effort it has its own merit and has drawn the attention of the policymakers. Geographers have severely lacked behind the economists in the study to formulate the spatial cause and concern whereby the village hinterland is being continuously occupied by the urban expansion. Again its not that the cities have suffered the lack of development efforts or management initiatives but a situation of changing parts in a persistent system. Several attempts have been made to investigate the issue of growth of urban areas in the light of urban sprawl and associated phenomena. A critical review of these studies pertaining to global and national scenario is an imperative to identify the problem, delimit the scope and ascertain the objectives of the present research work. Different authors have undertaken a number of studies over time to understand the nature and process of this urban growth and development dynamics. These studies are analyzed under different themes to critically understand the processes at the global scenario in general and in Indian context in particular. 1.6.3 Techniques and Methods for Urban Studies The following studies reveal a unique kind of pattern and technique to understand the dynamics of urbanization. The techniques and methods range from digital analysis to mathematical formulations giving a wide scope to this framework of analysis. This section understands the functional behavior and the linkages of the urban development and provides a method of analysis to understand and detect the functional capabilities necessary for the blooming of city area. Sen (1974) applied the technique of factor analysis (Q-technique) to identify urban centers as growth centers in a hierarchical series. Ramachandran (1974) gave the Graph Theoretic Analysis. The large towns of Karnataka of over 50,000 persons were classified on the basis of specialization applying Webb's method and by means of Spearman's rank correlation method by Kongi (1978). Based on the settlement hierarchy Misra and Dubey (1996) suggested a spatial plan for location of various development functions and services in the backward district of Uttar Pradesh, Helen Ladd (1998) examined the relationship between government expenditures and urban growth working primarily at the metropolitan scale using statistical analysis. Ladd found a U-shaped relationship between the rate of population growth and growth in government spending per capita. Spending declines for metropolitan areas growing at less than one per cent per year then rises at an increasing rate for metropolitan areas growing more than 3.8 per cent per year. Fast growing counties not maintain their share of shared revenues from the state but also incur great infrastructural costs. Ladd found a U-shaped relationship between government spending and density. Government spending initially falls as densities increase; but eventually the harshness of the environment requires higher levels of government spending. Widen el al. (2003) described the development of area-based index of locational access to community services, facilities and amenities. This enables comparison to be made across the urban neighborhoods and provide a starting point from which to identify relationship between opportunities in local

environment. Cheng and Masser (2003) reported the spatial logistic regression technique used for analyzing the urban growth pattern and subsequently model the same for a city in China. Their study included extensive exploratory data analyzed considering the causal factors. The inadequacies in these were to accurately pinpoint spatially where the sprawl would occur. Fang et al (2005) investigated the modeling process for simulating the spatial dynamics of urban ecosystem. Logistic regression is a common method for empirically modeling and analyzing land use and land use change. In most conventional applications of logistic regression, only the individual factors of the system are considered in the development of the logistic regression functions. Using historical land use data, a logistic regression was applied to analytically weight the scores of the driving factors of an urban sprawl model for predicting probability maps of land use change. The results of the case study have verified that interactions of factors can significantly improve the prediction of spatial dynamics of urban sprawl and can provide a means to improve cellular automata models for simulation of the dynamics of urban and other ecosystems. GIS and remote sensing are land related technologies and are therefore very useful in the formulation and implementation of the land related component of the sustainable development strategy. The different stages in the formulation and implementation of a sustainable regional development strategy can be generalized as determination of objectives, resource inventory, analysis of die existing situation, modeling and projection, development of planning options, selection of planning options, plan implementation, evaluation, monitoring and feedback revealed Yeh and Xia (1996). Remote sensing and GIS can be used separately or in combination for application in studies of urban sprawl. In the case of a combined application an efficient, even though more complex approach is the integration of remote sensing data processing, GIS analyses, database manipulation and models into a single analyses system (Michael and Gabriela, 1996). Khan et al (1998) delineated the physical parameters responsible for selection of the suitable sites for residential areas and prepared a suitability rating land quality using remote sensing and GIS. The patterns of sprawl are being described using a variety of metrics and through visual interpretation techniques. Characterization of urbanized landscapes over time and computation of spatial indices that measure dimensions such as contagion, the patchiness of landscapes, fractal dimension, and patch shape complexity were done statistically by 'Northeast Applications of Useable Technology In Land Use Planning for Urban Sprawl (Hurd et al., 2001). The problem of sprawl could be effectively addressed when neural network is applied to the remote sensing data especially for classification and thematic representation (Foody, 2001). The urban land uses are viewed, interrupted and fragmented instead of homogenous rural landscapes thereby increasing landscape disorganization. The physical expressions and patterns of sprawl on landscapes can be detected, mapped, and analyzed using remote sensing and GIS as mentioned by Barnes et al (2001) with image processing and classification. Yeh and Li (2001) used Shannon's entropy, reflected the concentration of dispersion of spatial variable in a specified area, to measure and differentiate types of sprawl. This measure is based on the notion that landscape entropy or disorganization increases with sprawl. Marceau et al (2001) addressed the issue of linking temporal and spatial information into a GIS database to investigate the land use change in urban and rural regions. He described the application of a programming package developed to build temporal typology in historical land use GIS database to efficiently perform the spatio-temporal queries.

Epstein et al (2002) brought out the techniques for mapping suburban sprawl. They evaluated the traditional unsupervised classification and proposed GIS buffering approach for mapping the suburban sprawl. They also discussed the problems associated with the classification of urban classes built-up in comparison with rural and urban centers. The neural spatial interaction models would relieve the model user of the need to specify exactly a model that includes all necessary terms to model the true spatial interaction function (Fischer, 2002). Fazal (2004) analyzed using GIS that rapid increase in population and changes in economic structure of Aligarh city has led to increased demand for land among various land use classes. Economic forces instigate the owner of the land for maximizing his returns from the land while social forces operate in opposite direction and put a resistance to land transformation. Global studies on urbanization have analyzed the mechanism of growth with an integrating effect of economics, mathematics, and techniques of remote sensing and GIS. This has led to a detailed and concrete analysis of urban dynamics in a spatiotemporal perspective of the phenomena. Such an integrating method lacks in Indian studies. The studies in Indian scenario mainly deal with the theoretical framework unlike the global studies where the focus is on digital processing and modeling techniques. This study is an effort to bridge both the burgeoning techniques under one roof. Urban development in India is in itself a unique process to understand. Dominantly being a rural and agricultural country the advent of urban areas started as a boom after the country became independent. With the growth and expansion of socio-economic activities, institutions and industrialization taking place at a large scale, urban areas started attracting migrants and consequently received thrust to expand. Cities as the core of research activities started developing and became a prologue to the urbanization wave taking place in the country. As a result the concrete studies on urbanization started far later than the global studies.

1.9 Scope of Study


In broader perspective the scope of the present work is specified ns follows: 1.9.1 Spatial limits A basic limit of geographical analysis is its spatial bounds. To understand the expansion of the city area in an unbiased way, no water tight compartment boundary line can be imposed; however the study in terms of predefined area helps to clearly differentiate the behavior and dynamics of urban process close to the city and far from the city. It is also necessary to demarcate a possible limit of study of various inputs from varied sources, of these terms the study pertains to Udaipur city and the adjacent sixty seven revenue villages. Another important aspect of the spatial study is its scale and the unit of study of which the area is composed off. The area of study incorporates a territory of 508.75 sq. km with extension of 2430' to 2440' N and 7337'30" to 7352'30"E. Spatial database are developed and organized on a scale of 1:25,000. In terms of the elementary unit of study all the attribute data for areal coverage are collected and processed at the village and city ward level. This micro level study helps to understand the functioning of urban behavior in a city with potential prospects of tourism and industrial growth as major magnetic force for the growth of the region.

CHAPTER 2: The Study Area


2.3 Regional Setting
A region needs to be understood in the context of its geographical settings including the physico-cultural environment. Therefore, before understanding the urban dynamics of the region it's worthwhile to have an in-depth knowledge of the physico-cultural settings of the study area on which the urban activities are taking place. Udaipur Urbanizing Region is an upland area of 6 10 meters above mean sea level girdled by Aravalli hills. Administratively, it is located in the north-east part of Girwa tehsil covering about one-third area of the tehsil, in the heart of Udaipur district of Rajasthan, India (Fig.2.1). Figure 2.1 Regional Setting - Udaipur Urbanizing Region

INDIA
RAJASTHAN
Rajasthan

Udaipur

UDAIPUR URBANIZING REGION

The Study Area


7338' 2442' 7340' 7342' 7344' 7346' 7348' 7350' 7352' 2442'

2440'

2440'

2438'

2438'

2436'

2436'

2434'

2434'

2432'

2432'

2430'

2430'

Settlements
7338' 7340'

7342'

7344'

7346'

8 Kilometers

7348'

7350'

7352'

Udaipur has a historical and cultural hub of Mewar region has a unique cultural position surrounded by the major historic-cultural region of the country like Malwa and Hadoti in the east, Mahi Wagad in the south, Godwar and Marwar in the west and Merwada in the north. The Udaipur City is an example of urban shadow, which is an antithesis of urban cluster. As per this, there is absence of any major city within the radius of 150 km from

the city. Because of the distant location from the major cities the avenues of urban expansion needs to be studied in light of related opportunities and constraints for development of the city and its periphery.

2.5 Socio-Cultural Settings


The socio-cultural settings of the region like population composition, the social composition, literacy levels, work force, gender disparity, sectors of economy, land use classification etc. are discussed to provide a background of the state of cultural environs in relation to urbanization. To confer these attributes the study area is divided into two major divisions i.e., the Udaipur Municipal Limits and the Udaipur Urbanizing Region. In view of the problem of investigation, analysis pertaining to municipal limits is explained briefly and that of urbanizing region which is the major theme is presented in detail. A separate analysis for the two is conducted in light of the differences in the rural and urban processes taking place. 2.5.2 Udaipur Urbanizing Region Udaipur Urbanizing Region is used as a broad term to define the study area. The study area has not been confined into particular limits and has been kept open in consonance with the ever expanding nature of urbanizing area. However to understand the problems, prospects, direction and trend of the expanding process around the municipal limits a definite area under its direct influence is demarcated for present study. The region incorporates the Udaipur municipal limits along with the nearby sixty seven villages. The rectangular study area is further divided into three concentric zones. The innermost includes the city and immediate villages close to the city boundary termed as the Standard Urban Area. SUA is defined as a built-up city and adjoining rural belt which is likely to be introduced during the next one or two decades. It is demarcated around urban centers having a population of more than 50,000. The immediate area includes municipal limits and Baleecha, Saveena Kheda (Rural), Saveena (Rural), Teetardi, Goverdhan Vilas (Rural). Manwa Kheda, Sisarma, Bedwas (Rural), Bhoyon ki Pancholi, Bicchri, Debari, Jharno-ki-Sarai, Rebariyon-ka-Gurha, Tulsidasji-ki-Sarai, Gadwa, Gurli, Bhuwana. Shobhagpura, Ragunathpura, Ayad (Rural), Bedla, Bargaon, Dewali (Rural) and Hawala Kalan villages. The second zone comprises of the rural areas around SUA and is termed as Rural-Urban Fringe. This is a transition zone in which the influence of the city decreases gradually with distance. The zone has intermingling characteristics. The physical expansion of the fringe becomes slow if the growth process is slow. Sprawl occurs because of the movement of people to these areas as they start developing their own infrastructure and services. The only limitation is dependence on the fast means of transport with increased commuting distances. This includes Biliyan, Phanda, Naya Kheda, Bujra, Nai, Bari, Liyonka-Gurha, Sukher, Sapetiya, Palri, Bheelo-ka-Bedla, Sabalpura, Chikalwas, Dhinkli, Panwari, Kamlod, Kanpur, Kalarwas, Eklingpura, Matun, Bhainsara Khurd and Dangiyonki-Pancholi villages. The third zone includes the outermost villages' around the fringe area called as Urban Outer Limits of City Expansion. This is the maximum distance given for the purpose of study where the potentials of urban spread arc estimated in late future or a larger size settlement can result in merger of the fringe area and cause expansion of the urban area in these tracts. This includes the villages namely, Sethji-ka-Kundal, Dhol-ki-Pati, Dakan Kotra, Loyra, Thur, Lakhawali, Oton-ka-Gurha, Pratappura, Amberi, Brahmanon-ka-Gurha, Ladiya Khera, Okhariya, Merta, Dabok, Bhainsara Kalan, Dholikhera, Sakroda, Bhala-kaGurha, Karget, Bhenkra and Lakarwas. Henceforth, the study looks forward towards an analytical framework to understand the

urban phenomenon prevalent and how to work forward to make this development sustainable in the region. The figures dealing with Udaipur Urbanizing Region depict municipal limits within the framework of study in dotted red color and the water bodies of the region in blue color (Fig. 2.11: Refer Color Plate II). 2.5.2.5 Land Use Classification The land use is an important parameter to look into before moving on to the study of urban sprawl. The land use of any area helps to demarcate the potential and constraints of the urban center. With regards to the study of Udaipur, the western and the southeastern belt registers a high forest area. The only way urban ex pans ion takes place in these areas is through deforestation, adversely affecting the environment. The need for sustainable urban development issues of urban development along with maintaining the concept of greener, sustainable city. The settlements lying parallel to the Ayad River depict higher total irrigated area. The proportion of culturable waste land (the land which is available for cultivation but not used for cultivation for one reason or the other) is higher in the north and the north-eastern part of the study region as contrast to the south and the south- eastern part where the land is not cultivable due to mountainous, steep topography. Western most and eastern most settlements report mainly unirrigated land area (Fig. 2.23: Refer Color Plate IV). The spatio-temporal mechanism operates in the Udaipur Urbanizing Region assist to appreciate its socio-Cultural settings. The population and related phenomena helps to determine the urban growth and related avenues of the region. The studies on physiography reveal that how the vacant unattended land by UIT and local authorities with difficult terrain and relief is not occupied in the process because of the higher cost of development and has shown kachi-bastis establishments. Information depicts how the municipal limits have expanded over the past years but no expansion has taken place after 1981 whereas the population pressure has drastically gone up. The pattern reveals a higher growth rate of scheduled castes population along the major transport arteries, NH-8 and 76. The regions of SC/ST concentration of population are the areas where higher per cent of marginal workers are found. This is clearly supported by the fact that these areas have lower literacy which hinders the employment in secondary and tertiary sectors where higher professional and technical requirements are needed. The conservative attitude of the people living in the old city area is one of the major reasons of higher disparity in work force despite of the higher literacy in these regions. The industrial clusters are found in the fringe area within isolated pockets. The agriculture and related activities have been pushed off to the outer extremes of the study region and have registered a decline in the periphery of urban areas. In Indian context, an urban space is defined as: (a) a municipal corporation or a notified town area or a cantonment board, (b) having a minimum population of 5,000 (c) a density of 400 persons per kilometers (d) at least 75 per cent of the population engaged in the non- agricultural activities (e) at least a few urban attributes or civic amenities. This embodies most of the criteria used for the purpose of single or combination namely, administrative, population size, density, occupational status and urban characteristics. The definition holds true for an urban center, when the expansion of the urban center is taken into consideration aforesaid forms important part of it. Urban space as a component of human settlement is affected by various factors like social composition, occupational status, administrative organization, relief, and climatic conditions etc. All these reflect man's relation to the natural environment and determine the settlement patterns.

CHAPTER 3: Urban Sprawl


3.1 Introduction
In India, unprecedented population growth coupled with unplanned developmental activities has resulted in rapid but skewed urbanization. This has created a serious implication on the resource base, access to infrastructure and the development of the region. Haphazard and unrestricted growth of city creates several problems like irregular and chaotic development of residential, industrial and commercial areas resulting in traffic bottle necks, slums, polluted environment and many other problems, all known and felt by the residents of the city. A particular process leads to a particular pattern. In turn the process itself is dependent on several factors like the history of the region, its site and situation, relief and drainage, the social customs, the population, the administration, so on and so forth. An insight into the problems created by the disorganized growth of a city can be gauged from all these different variables. The urbanization takes place either in radial direction around a well-established city or linearly along the highways. This dispersed development along highways, or surrounding the city and in rural countryside is often referred as sprawl, Sprawl is a term that is often used to describe perceived inefficiencies of development, including disproportionate growth of urban areas and excessive leapfrog development. It is a cumulative result of many individual decisions since it requires not only an understanding of the factors that motivate an individual landowner to convert land, but also an understanding of how these factors and individual land-use decisions aggregate over space. Some of the causes of the sprawl include - population growth, economy and proximity to resources and basic amenities. Patterns of infrastructure initiatives like the construction of roads and service facilities (banks, post offices etc.) also often encourage the regional development, which eventually lead to urbanization. Identification and analysis of the patterns of sprawl in advance would help in effective infrastructure planning for urban outgrowth. In the present study the spatio-temporal growth of the city has been discussed with a focus on the dynamics of land use, land conversion and occupational transformation. Population acts on land through a spectrum of activities, viz., agricultural, commercial, industrial, transportation and administration etc. Urban growth is widely affected by the individual and community activities taking place over the space. The factors like, rugged topography, water barriers such as rivers and lakes, forests control the sprawl of the city. The urban process, especially in the developing countries is very complex with varied and numerous elements acting in two different directions, one in the direction which provides the ways for growth and leads to engulfment of the surrounding areas and the other which retards and check the expansion.

3.7.7 Case Study - Densification of Urban Growth


A special study of Udaipur and its surroundings is done with help of LISS-IV imagery procured by IRS-P6 with 5.8 m high resolution. The imagery has been captured on 7th June, 2004 and depicts the recent trend of urbanization in the region after a temporal study of Udaipur Urbanizing Region. The Linear Imaging Self Scanner with improved resolution in the three visible bands, the infrared band and stereoscopic visibility has been used to understand the process of urban sprawl. LISS-IV sensor within the swath of twenty three km (three spectral channels) has been used. The LISS-IV imagery has been taken for a specific area surrounding the city limits to reveal explicit information about

the present urbanization scenario in the limited region. The same region has been extracted from the Landsat imagery of 2000 by overlaying and calculating the area of interest and sub-setting the image. By comparing the two, the intensity and densification of urban growth can be calculated, which is one of the primary tool where the expansion needs to be analyzed with intensification. Fig.3.5 (Refer Color Plate V) depicts the built-up area covers 37.22 per cent of the total area in 2004. During a span of four years from 2000 to 2004 the built-up area has intensified by 45.06 per cent mid the barren land has intensified by 15.51 per cent. The process of this intensification has absorbed the forest, scrub and crop land and water bodies. As a result the forest and scrub land area has depleted by 14.51 per cent, crop area has depleted by 25-37 per cent and water spread has declined the most by 55.72 percent (Table 3.4). The region has shown a marked decline in the agricultural land, forest land and more importantly the water bodies have also been encroached under the process of rapid urbanization taking place. Table 3.4: Land use densification: 2000 and 2004 Year 2000 Year 2004 Per Cent Change of Land Land Use (%) (%) Use Forest/ Scrub Land 44.84 38.33 -14.51 Water 7.43 3.29 -55.72 Built-Up Land 22.21 32.22 45.06 Crop Land 8.12 6.06 -25.37 Barren Land 17.40 20.10 15.51 Total 100.00 100.00 Source: Analysis of satellite imagery The concentration hubs of the built-up land have widely increased along the western arteries of transport network. The western part of the region has shown spread in the built-up land and the low lying water bodies have been illegally occupied due to easy water availability and greater scenic view for tourism. Some locations have experienced a greater demand from specific land uses than other and thereby played an important role in transformation of land. This reveals how the urban area have become the center of all activity with changing land use and intensifying land pressure leading to substantial increase in urban land values.

3.8 Evaluation of Master Plan


The land use of the city has been categorized into various parameters as per the Master Plan of Udaipur. The land-use patterns of the city are analyzed for the time period 1971, 1988 and 1997. The categories of classification as documented in the master plan are residential, commercial, industrial, governmental and semi-governmental, Entertainment, public and semi-public, circulation, government reserved, agricultural farms and forests, water bodies and other open land. Table 3.5 reveals the master plan (1976-96) proposed a land use pattern for 1996 with 13,750 acres as urbanizable. The developed area proposed for 1996 was 10,360 acres. Out of the total developed area of 10,360 acres, 47.6 per cent was allocated for residential use, 13.6 per cent under circulation, 14.1 percent as public and semipublic, 10.5 percent as industrial, five per cent as commercial and 1.2 per cent as governmental. The master plan (1976-1996) was subsequently revised and new master plan till 2022 was made for a futuristic vision. The master plan (1997) has proposed a land use pattern for 2022. Out of the total developed area, 37.42 per cent was allocated for residential use. 18.8 per cent under circulation, 12.3 per cent as public and semipublic, 10.5 per cent as industrial, 3.82 per cent as commercial, 25.41 per cent as recreational and 1.2 per cent as governmental.

Table 3.5: Land use patterns: For the Area ( in Acres) Land Use Categories 1971 1988 1997 Residential 1585 2565 4988 Commercial 115 295 548 Industrial 170 910 1152 Governmental & Semi-Governmental 75 92 96 Recreational 365 302 358 Public and SemiPublic 1010 1615 1632 Transportation 540 995 1105 Reserved Government 130 800 865 AgricultureResearch and Forest 75 255 285 Water Bodies 85 135 1900 Other Open Space 150 531 9672 Total Urbanized Area 4300 8495 22601 Total Developed Area 3860 6774 9879 Source: Master Plan (1997-2022)

year 1971, 1988 and 1997 Per Cent Change in Area 1971-88 1988-97 1971-97 61.83 94.46 214.70 156.52 85.76 376.52 435.29 26.59 577.65 22.67 -17.26 59.90 84.26 515.38 240.00 58.82 254.00 97.56 75.49 4.35 18.54 1.05 11.06 8.13 11.76 1307.41 1721.47 166.05 45.84 28.00 -1.92 61.58 104.63 565.38 280.00 2135.29 6348.00 425.60 155.93

The proposed classification for the year 2022 is documented in the master plan. According to the master plan a specified segment of the land is classified as urbanized area, another section as urbanizable area and another section as the peripheral control belt. The total urbanized area minus the reserved government, agriculture research and forest, water bodies and other open spaces is considered as the total developed area. The total urbanized area is 22,601 acres as in 1997 out of which 9,879 acres is developed area. The rest of the land is under barren, hilly and water bodies. Residential colonies form around 50.5 per cent of the total developed area of the Udaipur. This is because of the presence of dense residential agglomerations in the walled city. The industrial and transportation constitute around 11.66 per cent and 11.18 per cent respectively. As a part of the urbanized area, the total developed area forms just 43.71 percent.

CHAPTER 4: State of Urban Infrastructure, Amenities and Wellbeing


4.4 Udaipur Urbanizing Region
The goal of urban infrastructural development is to bring public, private and community together to achieve mutually beneficial increase in efficiency. Macro-economic reforms including opening national markets to external competition and the rapid development of new telecommunication and transport technologies are demanding a new kind of management at all levels of the urban system. At the same time, through program of administrative and fiscal decentralization, state is entrusting city administrations, power to manage their own affairs, respond to economic restructuring and to develop new productive entities. Wellbeing activities are now drawn on inputs from the public, private and community sectors. Current policy approaches, encouraging new roles for the state, have increased the responsibility of the private and community sectors, thus changing the role of the state from provider to enabler, or to a facilitator of wellbeing. Privatization initiatives have meant that the private sector has an increasing role in the provision of services mainly education and health. Keeping these facts in view a detailed description of the infrastructure types in Udaipur and its environs are studied. 4.4.2 Amenities and Wellbeing The relation between amenities and wellbeing holds significance at the household and individual level. To study this, brief introduction of the amenities and wellbeing is given along in subtopics which are then explained with the help of the primary data. The sample surveys consisted of four hundred and one households from thirty villages covering the study area (Fig. 4.10: Refer Color Plate VI). On the basis of village level indicators related to the urban growth factor analysis was done to compute the composite index of the responsiveness to urban influence. Using the composite index based on factor score sample villages was classified into four categories to summarize the surveyed information of households and individuals. Table 4.13 to 4.15 depicts the correlation matrix, variance explained and factor loading of the related indicators. Inverse of household size ( ) Inverse of the distance to the city center ( ) Per cent workforce in manufacturing sector ( ) Per cent workforce in trade and transport sector ( ) Per cent of female literacy ( ) Table 4.13: Correlation matrix Variables Method Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) Pearson Correlation 1.000 . .219 .253 .025 .896 .107 .219 .253 1.000 . .263 .167 .341 .025 .896 .263 .167 1.000 . .071 .107 .582 .341 .070 .071 .715 1.000 .341 .070 .212 .270 .281 .140 .352

Sig. (2-tailed) .582 Pearson Correlation .341 Sig. (2-tailed) .070

.070 .212 .270

.715 .281 .140

. .352 .061

.061 1.000 .

Table 4.14: Total variance explained Extraction sums of squared Initial eigen values loadings Component % of % of Total Cumulative % Total Cumulative % Variance Variance 1. 1.916 38.327 38.327 1.916 38.327 38.327 2. .989 19.774 58.100 3. .901 18.021 76.122 4. .763 15.259 91.381 5. .431 8.619 100.00 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Table 4.15: Component Indicators Component Extracted 0.275 0.452 0.552 0.235 0.403 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis Matrix Component Factor Load 1 .524 .673 .743 .484 .635

For the given purpose the correlation amongst the five variables is calculated and then principal component analysis is applied to reduce the variable sets. Finally the data sets are arranged in four categories of mean plus minus one and two standard deviation. On this basis the villages are clubbed (Table 4.16) and the following subsequent tables are generated. The values depict the count and the values in parenthesis depict the per cent of the row total in the subsequent tables. Table 4.16: Responsiveness to urban influence Categ ory Villages High Bargaon, Ragunathpura, Bedla, Bhuwana and Loyra Moder ate Chikalwas, Debari, Sisarma, Titardi, Bari, Shobhagpura, Baleecha and Maton Thur, Nai, Manwa Kheda, Kalarwas, Gorela, Kanpur, Saveena Kheda, Sethji-kaLow Kundal, Hawala Kalan and Liyon-ka-Gurha Very Low Dhinkli, Eklingpura, Bujra, Nayakhera, Dakan Kotra, Dhol-ki-Pati and Nora Source: Computation 4.4.2.4 Housing Development of urban housing promotes development of housing related infrastructure; creates adequate and affordable housing stock both on rental and ownership basis; encourages governments and development authorities to periodically update their master plans and zoning plans and accelerates supply of serviced land in housing.

Plate 4.12: A pucca well developed housing structure at Kalarwas village

Table 4.28: Distribution of households by type of building material used House type Localities Responsiveness to Total Urban Influence Pucca Kacha Mixed 55 6 7 68 High (80.9) (8.8) (10.3) (100.0) 76 14 18 108 Moderate (70.4) (13.0) (16.7) (100.0) 89 15 26 130 Low (68.5) (11.5) (20.0) (100.0) 47 30 18 95 Very Low (49.5) (31.6) (18.9) (100.0) 267 65 69 401 All Localities (66.6) (16.2) (17.2) (100.0) Table 4.28 reveals highest concentration of pucca houses is found in the localities near to the urban influence in contrast to the kacha houses which are found away from the urban influence. Overall around 66.66 per cent pucca houses are present in the region. This depicts a satisfactory trend of urban amenities within the study area. The kacha housing is merely 17.2 per cent mostly in the remote and dispersed segments. This region is also devoid of the basic facilities of communication and transportation. This is mainly due to the fact that these are located in isolated chunks within mountainous belt. Table 4.29: Distribution of households by year of purchase Localities Responsiveness to Year of Purchase of Plot Total Urban Influence Up to 1992 After 1992 7 17 24 High (29.2) (70.8) (100.0) Moderate Low Very Low 7 (24.1) 10 (24.4) 10 (28.6) 22 (75.9) 31 (75.6) 25 (71.4) 29 (100.0) 41 (100.0) 35 (100.0)

All Localities

Localities Responsiveness to Urban Influence

34 95 129 (26.4) (73.6) (100.0) The post economic reform period has shown that the localities which arc away from the urban influence are likely to show higher purchase of plots due to the speculators trend of price hike in these localities. The higher responsive urban localities have registered decline in purchase of plots post economic reform period due to higher land prices in these areas and lesser rates of increase in price. But the overall variance across the region is not significant which shows that the patterns of purchase of land has remain more or less constant despite of the fact that the locality is close to the city or away from the city center (Table 4.29). Table 4.30: Distribution of households by plot area Plot Area (in square feet)

Average Plot Area

Less than 500 250 to 500 250 1000

to1000 2000

More tothan 2000

Total

High Moderate Low Very Low All Localities

500.9 709.0 691.2 632.2 649.7

23 (33.8) 19 (17.6) 23 (17.7) 11 (11.6) 76 (19.0)

24 (35.3) 32 (29.6) 42 (32.3) 35 (36.8) 133 (33.2)

17 (25.0) 37 (34.3) 40 (30.8) 34 (35.8) 128 (31.9)

3 (4.4) 17 (15.7) 23 (17.7) 15 (15.8) 58 (14.5)

1 (1.5) 3 (2.8) 2 (1.5) 6 (1.5)

68 (100.0) 108 (100.0) 130 (100.0) 95 (100.0) 401 (100.0)

Plate 4.13: A kacha house at Gorela village

Table 4.30 reveals average plot size in the study area is 649.78 square feet. The localities under high influence of urban growth have comparatively smaller plot size due to higher land prices in the region. Such localities have an average plot size of less than two hundred and fifty square feet in comparison to larger plot sizes of around two thousand square feet in the localities away from urban influence.

CHAPTER 5: Alternative Land Development Plan


5.1 Introduction
In the background of the discussed locational settings, the socioeconomic settings, sprawling mechanism, state of infrastructure and amenities within the study region in this chapter an attempt is made to examine feasible alternatives to develop the city in a sustainable way. The city has moved a long way from garden city to educational city to the most recent learning city. Learning city plans to encourage wealth creation, personal growth, social cohesion, challenging dehumanizing forces, developing creative shared vision and counter development (Tommila, 2002). In background of all these, alternative land development approach is suggested for the region. To the end, firstly the SWOT analysis is carried out for the city which demarcates the potential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the region. This understanding helps to work on the weak zones and acts to the urban evaluation, decision making and forecasting analysis. On the basis of all these studies, alternative land development plan has been proposed which works towards devising a land suitability model for the region. The concept of "'Providing Urban amenities in Rural Areas" is then applied to the study region.

5.3 Land Suitability Analysis


After examining diverse slate of affairs in the region with respect to the understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the region it is attempted to work out how to make this city sustainable using land suitability analysis in reference to build up area. The region has a natural constraint being surrounded amidst Aravalli is which hinders its expansion in a planned way. Again the forces of investments governed by profit diminish the capacities that a city owns and can generate. With the objective of sustained economic development alternative land plan is thought off which works towards providing a better base and direction for urban developmental activities. It is noteworthy to have in mind the prospective areas of growth and which can be made possible with use of this model. Before working into the concept of model and applying it to the study area its utmost important to look into the basic constraints and potentials of the region which will in a way govern the process of urban sprawl and development as hypothesized. For this purpose a digital elevation model of the region is prepared taking into consideration the

major physiographic features along with the settlement and transport network. After creating the DEM the required sections are extracted using TNTMips software (Fig.5.2: Refer Color Plate VII). Figure 5.6

With the help of the model the land suitability is derived which helps to analyze its pros and cons for urban expansion. To create a model to study the best suitable sites for urban development, land suitability is derived. This suitability has been worked out using three parameters namely, slope of the region, stream buffer zones and the existing land use (Fig. 5.3 to 5.5: Refer Color Plate VII). Creating a model in spatial analyst begins with deciding which areas are most suitable for urban development, the factors affecting this process and the data required to measure these factors. The whole process was worked in the Spatial Analyst ArcView GIS. To begin with the project data is loaded as theme. These themes were converted into discrete grids. With the help of these discrete grids the slope analysis of the region was made. To analysis the stream patterns buffer zones were created for the streams. The intermediaries were depicted in the following section. Fig. 5.6 above depicts that the

land suitability was derived using weighted overlay technique whereby land use was given fifty percent weight, slope thirty percent and stream buffer twenty percent weight inferences. The land use was categorized into barren land, crop land, built up area, water and forest and scrub land. The scale was predefined at one to five whereby the first shows the very good suitability and the last value derived depicts the worse suitability prospects. The results of the analysis reveal some of the interesting findings. The city area especially the walled city within the city limits has shown the best suitability for development. The areas surrounding the major lake bodies upstream despite of the rugged terrain found in these areas have shown very good prospects of urban development but the bye laws determine safeguarding around 500 meters around the take bodies. Such conflicts need to be worked out in lieu of built up area development in the region. Other areas depicting best suitable sites include the major transport arteries i.e., along NH-S; in and around Bhainsara Kalan, Dabok, south of Okharja, Kanpur, Lakarwas, Dangiyon-ki-Pancholi, Teetardi, Biliyan and Dhol-ki-Pati (Fig. 5.7: Refer Color Plate VII). Most of the areas around the city limits reveal good prospects of development. The south-western and the north-eastern patches of the city limits depict a comparatively higher proportion of moderate and poor suitability. Sajjangarh hills, Neemach Mata hills, Kala Magra hills, Banki Reserve Forest, Bag Dhara, Bara Magra and Panwari Reserve Forest are amongst the major areas of poor land suitability for urban development mostly due to the natural reasons influencing it. Minor patches of very poor land suitability are seen within the region. The relief contributes to a major proportion in determining the suitable zones as the as the regions with a slope often percent or less show good prospects. Most of the regions at the base of the hilly terrain reveal a comparatively moderate level of suitability The region with moderate land suitability lying at the base of the high hills can be developed as recreational centers, even trekking, mountaineering and sports tourism. The hills with twenty per cent and more slope area have a high positive correlation with the poor land suitability zones which can be verified with the help of the Fig. 5.8: (Refer Color Plate VIII). The protected forest areas are mostly the areas which have been developed on high slopes. This needs to be taken into consideration by the help of government and local bodies so that the high hills can be developed as protected forest to enrich the scenic beauty of the region. This would help enhance the tourism prospects in the region and develop greener sustainable city (Fig. 5.9: Refer Color Plate VIII). Looking into the cultural factors influencing the pace and trend of urban development it is generally the larger settlements with high population show a positive correlation to the attraction forces of land suitability and urban development. Few villages namely Sisarma, Hawala Kalan and villages on the north-west of Fatehsagar Lake have poor land suitability prospects. Conversely, there are patches of land which are comparatively more land suitable but have no revenue village production in those areas. These patches of land as traced from the model need to be developed for better urban planning (Fig. 5.10: Refer Color Plate VIII). The alternative land development plan glances into the revenue settlements along with the major transport network of the region and the potential sectors which can be demarcated on the given basis (Fig.5.11: Refer Color Plate VIII). The existing network of the transport arteries is mostly along the developable land segments and show a potential of expansion towards the region of poor land suitability. Some of the villages lying in the poor land suitable sections presently do not have strong connectivity. But some of the segments which have high suitability and good connectivity lack a strong

pull factor due to smaller size of settlement. Therefore, this model assists to appreciate the sections of Udaipur Urbanizing Region which really have good prospects for development in terms of the land suitability, transport network and the cultural strength of the region. The segments of very poor land suitability can be made as the waste disposal and dumping grounds as this region is most unsuitable for settlement and urban processes. These sections of very poor land also lie close to the industrially developed regions. The proposed sectors of growth are thereby demarcated on the basis of the given exercise and these can be applied as the centers where the mentioned activities be developed as an approach towards alternative land development plan for a sustainable urban development (Fig. 5.12: Refer Color Plate VIII). The major sectors taken into consideration for the purpose are agriculture, green belt, residential, commercial, industrial, mining, tourism and recreational, trekking and mountaineering, educational, small scale and cottage industries besides the city limits. This alternative is suggestive of a balanced development where green environs are maintained along with the city development. This helps in maintenance of forest reserves and also the nearby areas can be developed for recreational and tourism purposes, few areas with slopes can provide sites for mountaineering activities. The development of major residential colonies nearing the city limits provides access to basic services of livelihood. Industrial and mining sector needs to be developed in outer limits and fringe areas mainly along the transport arteries. Educational sector has shown a rapid expansion towards the eastern belt and can be developed as a continuous belt with institutions along with hostels in the region which is easily accessible on the major transport network. It is important here to note that the present development of the region is governed by a common rule which is development along the major transport corridors with vacant and dry patches with nearly negligible net worth in contribution to urban processes besides it. This sectoral model is an alternative to this rising problem of sprawl which is governed by a common phenomenon, ignoring the real strengths that the region holds, the master plan has rightly delineated the future growth of the region but by and large ignoring the ground realities and the real process taking place in the region. The exercise is an attempt generated considering all those parameters that need to be worked in this regards.

Color Plates
Color Plate IV
Fig. 2.22

Fig. 2.23

Fig. 3.2

Fig. 3.4

About the Author


Manishika Jain completed her PhD from Mohanlal Sukhadia University (MLSU), Udaipur, India in 2008. The work on analysis of Urban Sprawl and Development of Udaipur (Rajasthan, India) forms the basis of this book. Many of the works has been published in several major national and international forums including North American Regional Science Council; 31st Annual Applied Geography Conference; International Symposium on Automated Cartography; Royal Geographical Society - IBG; International Conference on Social Science and Humanities; American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing; Association of American Geographers; Indian Geography Congress- National Association of Geographers. Authors areas of focus include GIS and remote sensing, urban development and planning, urban finance and infrastructure, peoples

participation, rural-urban linkages and socio-environmental issues. The author has worked with the Planning Department, City of Hillsboro, Oregon, USA & has also taught Geography of Rajasthan to Final Year Graduate students at MLSU and GIS, Remote Sensing, Urban, Economic, Quantitative, Regional and World Geography to Union and State Civil Service Aspirants. She topped in M.A. in Geography from Centre for Study of Regional Development, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi and was awarded University Gold Medal for B.A. from MLSU, Udaipur. She has won several national and international awards and accolades. She was among the top students in the National Eligibility Test (2005) for lectureship conducted independently by University Grants Commission and Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and was awarded the Junior Research Fellowship (JRF). Being in top twenty percent of the JRF candidates she was considered for SPM fellowship. She represented India in a 100 member Youth Exchange Delegation to China in 2007 led by the then Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports - Mr. Mani Shankar Aiyer. She received Young Geographers Award from National Association of Geographers, India. She was short listed to represent India in the Commonwealth Youth Forum held at Kampala, Uganda, 2007. She received Bhamashah Award by Maharana Mewar Foundation, Udaipur in 2005. The award is given to students from Udaipur for their significant scholastic achievements. She was awarded the National Talent Search Examination Scholarship by NCERT. Government of India awards this prestigious scholarship to the most meritorious students supporting them throughout their education starting from high school up to PhD. Author has contributed articles to magazines and journals like China Business Review, Geography and You, Kurukshetra, Clean India, GIS India and many more. One of the publications has also been referred in the Parliamentary Documentation. The author can be contacted at: manishikaj@gmail.com

Other Books and E-Books by Examrace


Examrace BITSAT Titles Examrace BITSAT English Proficiency and Logical Reasoning Series Examrace Logical Reasoning for BITSAT Examrace English Proficiency for BITSAT Examrace CAT Titles Examrace CAT Series Examrace Analytical Reasoning for CAT Examrace Data Interpretation & Sufficiency for CAT Examrace Learning Quantitative Aptitude for CAT Examrace Verbal Reasoning for CAT Examrace Reading Comprehension for CAT Examrace CLAT Titles Examrace CLAT Series Examrace Logical Reasoning for CLAT Examrace English Proficiency for CLAT Examrace Learning Quantitative Aptitude for CLAT Examrace CMAT Titles Examrace CMAT Series Examrace Logical Reasoning for CMAT Examrace English Proficiency for CMAT Examrace Learning Quantitative Aptitude for CMAT Examrace Data Interpretation and Data Sufficiency for CMAT Examrace CSAT Titles Examrace CSAT Series Examrace Analytical Ability for CSAT Examrace Data Interpretation & Sufficiency for CSAT Examrace Communication & Interpersonal Skills for CSAT Examrace General Mental Ability for CSAT Examrace Logical Reasoning for CSAT Examrace Reading Comprehension for CSAT Examrace CSIR NET Titles Examrace CSIR Part A Series Examrace GMAT Titles Examrace GMAT Series Examrace Analytical Reasoning for GMAT Examrace Data Interpretation & Sufficiency for GMAT Examrace Learning Quantitative Aptitude for GMAT Examrace Logical Reasoning for GMAT Examrace Verbal Reasoning for GMAT Examrace Reading Comprehension for GMAT Examrace GRE Titles Examrace Analytical Reasoning for GRE

Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace

Verbal Reasoning for GRE Data Interpretation & Sufficiency for GRE Learning Quantitative Aptitude for GRE Reading Comprehension for GRE

Examrace ISEET Titles Examrace ISEET JEE Mains Series Examrace Logical Reasoning for ISEET JEE Examrace English Proficiency for ISEET JEE Examrace LSAT Titles Examrace LSAT Series Examrace Analytical Reasoning for LSAT Examrace Logical Reasoning for LSAT Examrace Reading Comprehension for LSAT Examrace NTE Praxis Titles Examrace Praxis PPST Part I Mathematics Series Examrace Praxis PPST Part I Reading Series Examrace Praxis Psychology Series Examrace Praxis Geography Series Examrace SAT Titles Examrace SAT Series Examrace Verbal Reasoning for SAT Examrace Learning Quantitative Aptitude for SAT Examrace UGC NET Titles Examrace UGC NET JRF Paper-I Series Examrace UGC Psychology Series Examrace UGC Geography Series Examrace Sparkling Minds Titles Examrace Sparkling Minds Grade 1 Examrace Sparkling Minds Grade 2 Examrace Sparkling Minds Grade 3 Examrace Sparkling Minds Grade 4 Examrace Sparkling Minds Grade 5 Examrace Sparkling Minds Grade 6 Examrace Sparkling Minds Grade 7 Examrace Sparkling Minds Grade 8 Examrace Sparkling Minds Grade 9 Examrace Sparkling Minds Grade 10 Examrace Geography Titles Examrace Geography Series Examrace Physical Geography Made Easy Examrace Geography Tools & Technique Series Examrace World Geography Made Easy Examrace Introduction to Cartography Examrace Geography of India Made Easy Examrace Introduction to Remote Sensing, GIS & Photogrammetry

Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace Examrace

Introduction to Geomorphology Physical Geography of India Introduction to Climatology Resource Geography of India Introduction to Oceanography Agricultural Geography of India Introduction to Biogeography Industrial Geography of India Introduction to Environmental Geography Trade & Transport Geography of India Introduction to Human Geography Social & Cultural Geography of India Introduction to Economic Geography Population Geography of India Introduction to Agricultural Geography Settlement Geography of India Introduction to Industrial & Transport Geography Regional Development & Planning of India Introduction to Population Geography Political Geography of India Introduction to Settlement Geography Contemporary Geographic Issues of India Introduction to Social Geography Introduction to Cultural Geography Introduction to Political Geography Introduction to Regional Geography Geography Maps Series Geography Maps Series (World Basics) Maps of Africa Maps of Asia Maps of Europe Maps of The Americas Maps of India Maps of Oceania & Australia

Examrace Mathematics Titles Examrace Algebra Made Easy Examrace Trigonometry Made Easy Examrace Numerical & Mathematical Aptitude Examrace Geometry Made Easy Examrace Probability Made Easy Examrace General Mental Ability Made Easy Examrace Permutation & Combination Made Easy Examrace Learning Maths for ACT Examrace Psychology Titles Examrace GRE Psychology Series Examrace IAS Psychology Series Examrace UGC Psychology Series Psychology Revision Guide Made Easy Psychology for Managers

Examrace Introduction to Sports Psychology Examrace Introduction to Gender Psychology Examrace Introduction to Military Psychology Examrace Introduction to Terror Psychology Examrace Introduction to General Psychology Examrace Introduction to Abnormal Psychology Examrace Introduction to Applied Psychology Examrace Introduction to Developmental Psychology Examrace Introduction to Organizational Psychology Examrace Introduction to Therapeutic Psychology Examrace Introduction to Personality Psychology Examrace Introduction to Research & Statistics for Psychology Examrace Introduction to Sleep & Dreams Examrace Introduction to Socio-Political Psychology Examrace Introduction to Language & Communication Examrace Introduction to Intelligence & Aptitude Examrace Introduction to Educational & Community Psychology Examrace Introduction to Creativity & Attitude Psychology Revision Guide: Volume I Psychology Revision Guide: Volume II Psychology Revision Guide: Volume III Psychology Revision Guide: Volume IV Psychology Revision Guide: Volume V Psychology Revision Guide: Volume VI Psychology Revision Guide: Volume VII Examrace Reasoning Titles Examrace Analytical Reasoning Made Easy Examrace Verbal Reasoning Made Easy Examrace Logical Reasoning Made Easy Examrace Financial Concepts for Mathematics Examrace Visual and Spatial Reasoning Made Easy Examrace Data Interpretation & Data Sufficiency Made Easy Examrace Miscellaneous Titles Examrace Statistics for Social Sciences Examrace Fundamentals of Computers Examrace Fundamentals of Teaching Examrace Introduction to Education in India Examrace Introduction to Indian Polity Examrace Placement Paper Series Examrace Communication & Interpersonal Skills Examrace Comprehension & Problem Solving Made Easy Examrace Language & Grammar Made Easy Examrace Reading Comprehension GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques