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USAID

FINAL REPORT FOR


LOCAL ACCIDENT MmGATION AND PREVENTION (LAMP)
PROGRAM IN THAILAND

DECEMBER,

1995

COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT AOT-2515-A-00-2125-00

Table of Contents

Acronym.s ........................................ ~ i
Foreword ...................................................................................................................... iii
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................ v
I. Introduction ...... ;......................................................................................................... 1
Il. Implementation Approach and Site Selection .............................................................. 3

Il. Baseline Indicators ..................................................................................................... 7


IV. Activities ............................................................................ ~ ..................................... 9
V. Impact, Sustainibility, and Replication ..................................................................... 21
VI. .Lessons .Learned .................................................................................................... 23

Appendices

A Chronological Summary of LAMP{fhailand Initiatives ............................................. 25


B. Network of LAMP/Thailand Actors ................. ........................................................ 33
C. Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand Overview ..................................................... 35
D. Thai Government Agencies Using CAMEO .......................................................... -37
E. LAMP/Thailand Impact Table .................................................................................. 39

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Acronyms

-ADPC
Asian Disaster Preparedness Center
Asian Institute of Technology
AIT
Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at the Local Level
APELL
Community Awareness of Emergency Response
CAER
CAMEO
. Computer Aided Management of Emergency Operations
CANUTEC Canadian Transport Emergency Centre
CDC
Centers for Disease Control
CEPPO
EPA Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office
CMA
Chemical Manufacturers Association
CRI
Chulaphom Research Institute
DOT
Department of Transportation (U.S.)
EPA
Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.)
IQ
Imperial Chemical Industries
IEAT
Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand
FAPEP
Anti Air Pollution & Environment Protection
FEMA
Federal Emergency Management Association (U.S.)
GIA
General Insurance Association
LAMP
Local Accident Mitigation and Prevention
LEPC
Local Emergency Planning Committee
Liquid Petroleum Gas
LPG
Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada
MIACC
MOI
Ministry of Industry
Ministry of Interior
MOit
Ministry of Public Health
MOPH
National Economic & Social Development Board
NESDB
NGO
Non-governmental Organization
NICE
National Institute for Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment
U.S. National Fire Protection Association
NFPA
NSC
National Safety Council (Thailand)
Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance
OFDA
PIN
Product Identification Number
TEEX
Texas Engineering and Extension Service (fexas A & M University)
TERI
Transportation Emergency Response Information
Royal Thai Government
RTG
1
US-AEP
United Sates - Asia ~vironmental Partnership
US AID
United States Agency for International Development
United Nations
UN
UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
WEC
World Environment Center

11

Foreword
This fin&l report is submitted by World Environment Center (WEC) in accordance with its
Cooperative Agreement AOT-2515-A-00-2125-00 with the United States Agency for
International Development's (USAID) Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) for
a Local Accident Mitigation and Prevention (LAMP) program in Thailand. The
LAMP!Thailand project began in October, 1992 along with separate, parallel projects
being conducted in India, Indonesia, and Mexico. While the three other country projects
continue, the LAMP project in Thailand concluded operation in September, 1995 due to
the suspension of U.S. foreign assistance to Thailand.
This report summarizes the impact of the Thailand project from 1992 - 1995 and discusses
the activities and accomplishments during the three years operation at the two chosen sites
-- Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate and Bangpoo Industrial Estate. The report goes on to
discuss the replication of LAMP initiatives at other industrial areas in Thailand. In
keeping with OFDA's Monitoring and Evaluation Manual (April, 1995), baseline
indicators are referred to throughout the report as a benchmark against which all progress
is measured. The report also includes discussion of lessons learned by WE~ that will
serve as an example for future initiatives based on or resembling the LAMP program.
WEC wishes to acknowledge the support of USAID/OFDA for providing core funding for
this project, and to also thank them for their continuing support of the LAMP program in
India, Indonesia, and Mexico.

iii

iv

Executive Summary

In October, 1992 the World Environment Center (WEC) initiated a cooperative agreement
with the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) Office of Foreign
Disaster Assistance (OFDA) to establish a five year Local Accident Mitigation and
- Prevention (LAMP) program designed to mitigate man-made disasters and emergencies in
high-risk industrial areas in India, Indonesia, Mexico, and Thailand. The goals of the
LAMP program are founded on OFDA's prevention, mitigation, and preparedness (PMP)
mandate - to save lives and protect economic investments.
The LAMP program builds on the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP)
Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at the Local Level (APELL) process and
borrows key principles of developing safety and awareness capacity from this proven
process. In conducting LAMP activities, WEC also relies on the expertise and experience
of U.S. organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of
Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention (CEPP), the Centers for Disease
Control's (CDC) Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, the Department
of Transportation (D01), and other private and public sector organizations such as the
Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA), the Major Industrial Accidents Council of
Canada (MIACC), and the United Nations.
LAMP's objective is to reduce the incidence and impact of major industrial, hazardous
materials transport, or other technological accidents and disasters in selected areas of the
target countries. LAMP activities are designed to foster sustainable improvements in
emergency response and planning within the context of the local conditions and restraints
such as financial resources, motivation to improve safety systems, etc. In this way LAMP
works to achieve realistic goals that improve safety in the short-term and remain effective
in the long-term. Another key component of LAMP is that its impact can be replicated
throughout the countries where it works, and not only at the industrial sites where
activities are conducted. The program is intended to be a prototype that lays the
groundwork for further preparedness and mitigation efforts that can continue following
the LAMP program. In addition, the capacity building that occurs and the emergency
response plans arid infrastructure created by LAMP, are also valuable in times of natural
disaster.
LAMP has achieved a number of sustainable and replicable impacts in Thailand. Activities
were curtailed in September, 1995 due to the suspension of U.S. foreign assistance to
Thailand. The following report summarizes LAMP activities and achievements in
Thailand during the past three years. The report also outlines the key actors at the
national, regional, and local levels involved with accident mitigation and prevention at the
two designated sites in Thailand: Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate and Bangpoo Industrial
Estate. In conclusion, the report makes observations about the LAMP process in
Thailand, and also cites lessons learned in Thailand that would be applicable to LAMP
programs in other countries.

The report is submitted as a requirement of WEC's cooperative agreement with OFDA. It


is also intended for audiences concerned with industrial safety in Thailand or other rapidly
industrializing nations, where WEC's experience might be relevant.
The LAMP program was directed by the WEC Country Manager, Mr. Chakthep
Senivongs, through interaction fith key leaders from the national and local levels in
Thailand. During the program's three year history, activities included a series of
interventions such as APELL workshops, chemical emergency preparedness and accident
prevention (CEP&AP) trainings, assessments of chemical risk and emergency plans, and
hands-on training for first responders. To assist Thai emergency response groups prepare
effective plans for chemical emergencies, LAMP also promoted and helped to implement
the use of CAMEO (Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations). LAMP
also encouraged response teams to conduct periodic emergency response exercises in
order to develop capabilities. In addition, LAMP conducted medical response seminars
and hospital audits to prepare medical personnel for chemical accidents in areas
surrounding both LAMP sites.
LAMP depends upon the participation of emergency planning and response experts from
the U.S. and other industrialized nations as a means.of conveying critical safety and
planning information. However, the program's overall success hinges on the leading Thai
constituents, including government ministries, the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand
(IEAT), industry safety clubs, and other community and industry leaders. By design, the
program is also dependent upon the catalytic nature of the coordinating actions and
technical experience of the Country Manager. Therefore, the achievements of the
LAMP!Thailand program are due to the cooperative efforts of these groups and their
commitment to confront issues related to industrial accident mitigation and prevention.
By working together the LAMP program and Thai government and industry leaders have
made progress on many fronts that will improve industrial safety in the short-term while
also leading to further improvements for years to come.
LAMP played a critical role in Thailand by actively facilitating the APELL process and by
organizing arid encouraging Thai groups to improve emergency planning mechanisms,
upgrade safety and response equipment, and practice emergency response procedures by
conducting mock drills. As a result of these joint efforts to increase the level of
preparedness, emergency response equipment budgets were expanded in both private and
public sectors to provide industry workers and emergency responders with improved,
often state-of-the-art equipment. The Ministry of Interior (MOit), for example, purchased
100 emergency response trucks in early 1994 for all provinces throughout Thailand. Also,
a Thai delegation will participate in an industrial safety equipment ''buying mission" to the
U.S. in early 1996. Three years ago, such a mission would not have been productive
since planning, training, and other industrial safety mechanisms had not advanced enough
to identify real needs and integrate state-of-the-art safety equipment.
As equipment is purchased and infrastructure improves, there has been an increasing
demand for specialized training in Thailand to educate responders. Expert trainers that
conducted LAMP activities for WEC are already encountering opportunities to return to
Thailand and teach teams in fire and confined space rescue, hazardous materials
emergency response, and other areas where expert advice and training is needed. This is
vi

yet another sign that the achievements seen under LAMP will continue far beyond the
program.
Another important area of achievement involves the progress made to date with regard to
emergency management information. LAMP introduced CAMEO software and trained
information managers in the use of the programs. As a result of these efforts, over 17
Thai agencies now use CAMEO. CAMEO has also prompted information managers
to develop other channels for collecting and, in the case of an emergency, disseminating
information. For example, the Ministry of Industry (MOI) has published over 5000 copies
of CANUTEC's "Dangerous Goods Initial Response Emergency Guide" in Thai.
Additionally, the Ministry of Industry and LAMP are developing a Transportation Emergency
Response Information (TERI) database for future distribution in Thailand. This ongoing
collaborative project will provide crititcal chemical information to emergency response groups
that previously had few, if any, emergency information resources.
These achievements indicate that LAMP has and will continue to influence disaster
mitigation and preparedness efforts for years to come in Thailand. The IEAT and the
Ministry of Industry continue to broaden their roles in developing accident prevention and
mitigation at Map Ta Phut and Bangpoo. In July, 1994 fourteen Thai Provinces adopted
policies for duplicating the planning programs developed in Map Ta Phut under the
guidance of the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) . Thailand
is now confronting industrial safety issues on a nationwide level with more vigor and more
rigor than before the program started. The experiences gained and policies developed
during the course of the LAMP program are being carried forward in a manner that is fully
consistent with and indeed exceeds some of the original OFDA goals.

vii

viii

I. INTRODUCTION
This final report is submitted to the United States Agency for International Development's
. (USAID) Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) in accordance with WEC's
Cooperative Agreement for the Local Accident Mitigation and Prevention (LAMP)
program for Thailand. LAMP's objective in Thailand was to reduce the incidence and
impact of major industrial, hazardous materials incidents in and around the industrial
estates of Map Ta Phut and Bangpoo, both of which are under the authority of the
Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT)1. The following sections summarize and
discuss the accomplishments of the LAMP program in Thailand in an attempt to give
OFDA and other interested readers an indication of the overall impact achieved during the
three years that the program was in operation.
Section II, Implementation Approach and Site Selection, discusses WEC's philosophy
in implementing the LAMP program.
Section III, Baseline Indicators, discusses the technological risks in Thailand prior to the
beginning of the LAMP program in October, 1992. This section also discusses the
baseline abilities of local and national agencies to respond to technological accidents aqd
other inherent risks associated with rapid industrial development.
Section IV, Activities, summarizes the major initiatives conducted during the LAMP
program and the results of those activities.
Section V, Impact, Sustainibility and Replication, discusses the overall meaning of the
LAMP program to Thailand and the reasons why Thailand will continue to benefit from
the LAMP program in the years to come.
Section VI, Lessons Learned, comments on the process of C9nducting the LAMP
program in Thailand as well as WEC's perspective regarding efforts to conduct similar
programs elsewhere.
Appendices follow the body of the report.

See Appendix C for overview of IEAT.

, I

II. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACH AND SITE SELECTION


WEC's philosophy in implementing the LAMP program hinges upon three central
components which contribute to the overall direction of the program and the goals that it
intends to achieve. First, LAMP builds on the United Nations Environment Programme's
(UNEP) Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at the Local Level (APELL) process
as a model for systematically increasing awareness and developing emergency
management capabilities. The ten-step APELL process is illustrated in Figure 1.
In Thailand, the LAMP program achieved many objectives because UNEP/APELL had
previously worked to raise awareness of industrial safety and accident prevention and
mitigation issues. LAMP was designed to bring additional resources to bear and, thereby,
continue the APELL process. WEC conducted or participated in over 50 activities in
Thailand that fall within the framework of the APELL process. The major activities are
summarized in Section N, and the full list of activities are outlined in Appendix A The
following list, however, gives an indication of the broad range of issues addressed in
Thailand through the LAMP program:

Risk assessments of plants and industrial complexes;


Chemical e~ergency preparedness and accident prevention (CEPAP) training;
Information management seminars, including the use of Computer Aided Management
of Emergency Operations (CAMEO TM) technology, and other database systems;
First responder training in industrial fire safety and hazardous materials incidents;
Medical response training for doctors, nurses, and paramedics;
Hospital capability assessments;
Mock emergency drills involving local response teams; and
Other appropriate activities suiting the needs of at-risk communities.

Apart from the benefit of conducting such activities, LAMP builds upon the APELL
process by relying on the direct involvement of accomplished and respected industrial
leaders fr!Jm the countries where the program operates. This high-level involvement is the
second key component of the LAMP program.
In Thailand WEC Country Director, Mr. Chalat Sripicham, hired Mr. Chakthep Senivongs
as Country Manager for the LAMP program. Mr. Senivongs is a former Senior Executive
of Shell/Thailand whose last position was as Refinery Project Manager at Map Ta Phut,
and is intimately familiar with key government and industry. Mr. Senivongs' network of
contacts and his appreciation for the need to improve emergency response procedures in
Thailand allowed him to bring direction and focus to the LAMP program in Thailand. The
success of a LAMP program in any country where it works hinges upon the leadership
role taken by the Country Manager to apply the APELL process to local conditions. Mr.
Senivongs' commitment to the LAMP program galvanized support for LAMP initiatives
and united leaders within Thai industry and government.

Community Emergency Plan Implementation Flow Chartl


Figure 1.

,"

IDENTIFY
PARTICIPANTS
AND ESTABLISH
COMMUNICATIONS

EVALUATE
RISKS OFFSITE

REVIEW EXISTING PLANS


AND IDENTIFY WEAKNESS

TASK
IDENTIFICATION

MATCH TASKS
AND RESOURCES

INTEGRATE INDIVIDUAL PLAN


INTO OVERALL PLAN
AND REACH AGREEMENT

",

PREPARE FINAL
PLAN AND OBTAIN
APPROVALS

'

,"

TRAINING

'

'I'

TESTING, REVIEW
AND UPDATING

'I'
PUBLIC EDUCATION

1 A Process for Responding to Technological Accidents, UNEP/APELL, 1988, p. 34

Since LAMP is designed to develop model industrial planning and response systems, site
selection is the third and final critical component of LAMP. In order optimize LAMP
efforts and maximize program impact while also minimizing cost, two industrial estates
under IEAT jurisdiction were selected for LAMP!fhailand: Map Ta Phut and Bangpoo.
Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate is located in Rayong Province (200 km from Bangkok), is
the most modern petrochemical complex in Thailand, and also contains a deep sea port.
The Map Ta Phut complex includes natural gas separation and olefin plants as well as
many downstream petrochemical industries. There is extensive multinational investment
from companies such as Union Oil, Caltex, Hymont, Monsanto, Dow, and Shell Oil. Total
investment for this industrial estate exceeds U.S. $20 billion and includes two new
refineries.
Bangpoo Industrial Estate is the first industrial estate established by the IEAT. It is
located in Samut Prakarn Province, adjacent to the eastern side of Bangkok~ Bangpoo is
home to over 200 international and national companies. Approximately 55,000 people
work in the facility, and investment is estimated at over U.S. $100 million.
The implementation of LAMP in Thailand was designed to occur in two stages, the first to
focus on the more technologically sophisticated site of Map Ta Phut, and the second to
include Bangpoo as well as Map Ta Phut. Map Ta Phut and Bangpoo were chosen as
LAMP sites for three reasons. First, both sites were deemed likely to benefit from the
program. Second, they were chosen to serve as examples throughout Thailand that
improved awareness and preparedness was both necessary and possible.
They were also chosen because of the differences between the two sites. Map Ta Phut
was more advanced in terms of infrastructure, responder training, training facilities, and
resources available to further improve in these areas; whereas Bangpoo had a strong
desire to improve industrial safety at the industry level. Factories on the Bangpoo estate
ranged from being safe and efficient to unsafe and a menace to their neighbors. Thus,
many industry leaders there were highly motivated by the need to prevent accidents,
reduce pollution, and also improve their image within the community. For the lack of
state-of-the-art equipment and financial support, therefore, simple motivation and
awareness of risk made them an excellent candidate for the LAMP program. This contrast
between Bangpoo and Map Ta Phut was the third reason that both industrial estates were
selected as LAMP sites.
The determination of LAMP's success at Map Ta Phut and Bangpoo depends on the
changes seen during the life of the program in contrast to the baseline conditions found
when the program began. The next section of this report covers the baseline indicators
that relate to the LAMP program in Thailand.

III. BASELINE INDICATORS


Thailand's baseline indicators for the~ program were derived from two independent
assessments conducted during 1992. First, an initial survey was conducted by the
Economic Preparedness Planning Division of the Office of National Economic and Social
Development Board (NESDB). Second, WEC hired Mr. Robert Boldt, a retired Vice
President of Dow Canada, to visit Map Ta Phut and evaluate existing emergency response
plans for industries located in that industrial estate. These assessments resulted in the
identification of the baseline indicators that were used as a basis for comparison
throughout the program. The primary indicators are as follows.
Government agencies and industry groups lack the technical know-how to
effectively prepare and plan for emergencies. This finding indicated that one of the
primary goals for LAMP would be to promote technical capabilities within relevant
emergency response and planning offices at the local, regional, and national levels.
Government officials who have responsibilities both in the planning and
operation of emergency response do not clearly understand the consequence and
impact of man-made disasters. This relates to issues of awareness and basic education
which the APELL process typically addresses. Although APELL had been in place in
Thailand prior to LAMP, it was recognized that continued effort must be made to address
issues of understanding risk at a basic level.
Coordination, communication, and integration of plans between industry
groups, the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT), and the Provincial
Authority are inadequate to effectively respond to emergencies. This problem was
determined to be a critical area where improvement was needed. For example, the
existing emergency protocol identifies the Provincial Authority Governor as incident
commander for an major crisis, however, there was no sufficient mechanism for
cooperation or communicatiqn between this commander and the other groups involved in
a response. Thus, it was recognized that the LAMP process must engage all actors -from fire fighters to doctors to incident commanders -- in this education process in order
to foster appropriate participation and cooperation among groups.
There is no attempt to create public awareness in relation t~ the general
population's safety. This indicator shows that addressing issues of awareness and
understanding among emergency response officials would be only one aspect of the
LAMP activities. The program would also need to operate at the grass-roots level and
engage average citizens potentially effected most by made-made disasters.
A number of chemical accidents and explosions in Thailand point to the need to
address issues of safety and preparedness. For example, in September, 1990 a truck
carrying liquid petroleum gas (LPG) t~nks overturned on New Phetchburi road in
downtown Bangkok, killing 91 people, and destroying 36 shops, 34 cars, and other
property. In February, 1991 a truck carrying explosives overturned near Phang Nga. The
subsequent explosion killed 171 people. A chemical fire and explosion in March, 1991 in
the Klong Toey Port of Bangkok destroyed 642 homes, left 5,000 people homeless, and

exposed an estimated 60,000 people to toxic fu,mes. On May 10, 1993 the most
disastrous factory fire in the world occurred in Nakhon Pathom. 188 people were killed,
and three buildings were destroyed along with all associated machinery; several hundred
workers were hospitalized2 All of these examples point to the extreme but real risks
posed by industrial development in Thailand.

The rapid industrialization of Thailand is greatly increasing the risks posed to


life and property. Deaths and injuries in industrial accidents rose 38 percent from 1989
3

to 1992. There were 67,912 accidents reported in 1989 and 103,296 in "1992 Statistics
such as these point to the urgent need to address safety and preparedness issues in
developing countries like Thailand, where industrial development often thrives in spite of
inadequate safety and planning measures.

Industry response teams .are not adequately equipped to address likely accidents,
nor do they regularly conduct mock emergency exercises. This last indicator points to
an area where tangible improvements must be made. Without proper equipment, planning
and rehearsal of disaster scenarios, those responsible for emergency response cannot hope
to accomplish their job of minimizing the effects of industrial disasters.

Strengthening Disaster Management Strategies in Thailand. United Nations Development Programme,


March, 1994.
3
Ibid.

IV. ACTIVITIES
This section describes the major initiatives conducted in Thailand under the LAMP program

and also gives a brief indication of the importance of each activity in terms of the overall
objectives of the LAMP program. A complete list of the LAMP activities is given in Appendix
A Activities listed in Appendix A represent the actions taken by Mr. Chakthep Senivongs,
LAMP Country Manager, to engage himself and others in the LAMP process. As discussed
above, LAMP activities are designed and developed in accordance with the guidelines set forth
by the United Nations Environmental Programme's (UNEP) Awareness and Preparedness for
Emergencies at the Local Level (APELL) process. Figure 1. (above) outlines the basic
principles of the APELL process.

1. Identify participants, roles, and resources in Map Ta Phut- February, 1992


Prior to the beginning of the LAMP program, a seminar was held in Map Ta Phut to convey
the basic concepts behind the APELL process and at the same time establish communications
with industry and government leaders interested in improving indtistrial safety in and around
Map Ta Phut. The participants comprised of 26 managers from 20 companies in Map Ta Phut
as well as the officials from the following government agencies.

Thai Agencies

Number of participants

Ministry of Defense
Ministry of Interior
Ministry of Industry
Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand
Map Ta Phut.and Map Kha local Authority
(Kamnan and village leaders)
Medical coordinating Office (doctors)
National Institute for the Improvement of
Office of the National Environment Board (ONEB)
Secretariat of National Security Council
PTT (Petroleum Authority of Thailand)
National Disaster Prevention Committee
Private sector managers
Total

2
7
3
6
7
2
2
1.
4
1
1
26
62

During this workshop the Thai stakeholders agreed on the need for a harmonized and well coordinated awareness and preparedness prevention plan for industrial disasters among all
sectors involved with industrial development in Thailand. The participants further agreed to
select Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate as a pilot site for the APELL program. The APELL plan
discussed consists of the following three areas of responsibility:

Accident prevention plans for individual industries;


An accident prevention plan of the industrial area which will be the responsibility oflEAT;
and
A public disaster prevention and remedial plan of the related Royal Thai Government
(RTG) agencies.

The coordination of such plans was also discussed, with emphasis placed on prevention
techniques, equiPment and supplies among all sectors, community awareness and participation,
and the importance of regular drill exercises.

Outcome
This seminar took place during the design phase of the LAMP program. WEC's presence laid

the groundwork for further involvement with Map Ta Phut industrial safety and accident
prevention efforts through the LAMP program, which began in October, 1992.

2. CAMEO training - October, 1992


WEC arranged a training activity in the use and management of Computer Aided Management
of Emergency Operations (CAMEO) with the assistance oflBM Thailand and the Pollution
Control Department under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. The U.S.
EPA also presented a one day demonstration of CAMEO to 37 Thai Government, NGO,
and industry representatives.
CAMEO is a software system developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to assist in planning for and
responding to chemical accidents, and in managing information collected under the Emergency
Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (SARA, Title III). CAMEO is a user-friendly
application that integrates a chemical database, an air dispersion model, mapping capabilities,
and data management capabilities. CAMEO is widely used in the U.S. by federal, state, and
local governments and responder groups. CAMEO is also increasingly used in many
countries as part of the UNEP/APEI.L process.

10

The list of organizations that participated in the CAMEO workshop is as follows:


CAMEO Workshop Participants
Thai Government Agencies:
IEAT

~ Information Technology and Computer

Application Center
- Privileges Department
Ministry of Industry

- Industrial Works Department

Ministry of Interior

- Civil Defense Department


- National Institute for Improvement of
Working Conditions and Environment
- Office of Urban Development

Ministry of Public Health

- Department of Health

Ministry of Science, Technology


and Environment

Office of the Prime Minister

- Office of Environmental Policy and


Planning
- Pollution Control Department
- National Economic and Social Development
Board (NESDB)
- Economic Preparedness Planning Division
- National Safety Council of Thailand

Private Companies:

IO As~tic (Agriculture) Co., Ltd.


IO Asiatic Chemical Co., Ltd.
Rhone-Poulenc Thai Industries
The Shell Company of Thailand
Siam Occidental Electrochemical Co., Ltd.
THASCO Chemical Co. Ltd.
Petroleum Institute of Thailand
The Federation of Thai Industries (Industrial Environmental Management Program)
.Universities:

Asian Institute of Technology


Chulalongkom University
Kasetsart University
Mahidol University

11

./

Hospitals:

Siriraj Hospital
Bangkok Biomaterial Center
Media:

The Nation
Business Review Journalism

Outcome

The workshop seemed to fit the needs of many groups in Thailand that were ready to address
chemical emergency management issues head on. Since the workshop, at least 16 RTG
agencies have installed CAMEO in their offices and are continuing to use the system as a
planning tool on a regular basis. Appendix D contains a complete list of groups now using
CAMEO.
Due to certain technical limitations of CAMEO and the high-tech nature of the system, the
LAMP Country Manager took the initiative to develop a user-friendly computer database for
emergency response to chemical transportation accidents. The system, called IBRI
(Transportation Emergency Response Guide), is based on the Canadian Transport Emergency
Centre's (CANUTEq Dangerous Goods - Initial Emergency Response Guide as translated
into Thai by the Ministry of Industry (MOI). The database contains a cross reference of key
emergency response information using the United Nations chemical codes.

3. Review industrial and community planning for chemical emergencies - January, 1993

WEC arranged for two experts from the U.S. EPA and one veteran of the U.S. Fire Service to
conduct an on-site assessment of chemical risk and relevant emergency preparedness plans at
Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate. This activity was conducted in conjunction with the National
Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) and the Industrial Estate Authority of
Thailand (IEA1). The following 10 companies in the industrial zone were visited and audited
for chemical emergency risks:

National Petrochemical Co., Ltd.;


HMC Polymers;
Thai Plastic and Chemicals;
Thai Polyethylene;
VinyThai;
Thai Tantalum;
Peroxy Thai;
Thai Tuntex; and
Laports.

12

Outcome

Evaluation reports were passed back to the indiyidual companies and remedial actions were
taken as appropriate. The activity allowed participating companies to benefit from expert
advice on a non-biased and non-threatening basis. It also proved to be an excellent exercise
that stimulated discussion of the linkages and integration of plans between groups on apd offsite at Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate.

4. Identify the medical roles and responsibilities in an emergency - March, 1993

In March, 1993 WEC organized a trip for two doctors from the U.S. Centers for Disease
Control (CDC) to assess the medical readiness to industrial emergencies at Rayong General
Hospital and Ban Chang Hospital, both of which are located near Map Ta Phut Industrial
Estate. The experts also visited other hospitals close to selected high-risk chemical and
industrial production facilities in Map Ta Phut. Surveys of health care facilities were
conducted, followed by a one-day workshop on industrial emergency preparedness and
response at Mahidol University for the local medical and public health community. This
workshop covered topics such as:

An introduction to disaster medicine;

Chemical and industrial disasters;


The importance of hazard and vulnerability ass~ents;
Medical sector planning roles;
Rapid assessment of medical and public health impact; and
Medical management under crisis conditions.

During a subsequent visit to the Samut Prakarn region, the CDC experts assessed the following
health care and industrial facilities at or near Bangpoo Industrial Estate:

Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) (produces primarily paraquat);


Muang Samut Hospital (small private hospital in Samut Prakam);
Samut Prakam Provincial Hospital; and
Samrong Hospital (large private hospital with several affiliated satellite health centers).

Outcome
At the conclusion of each hospital audit, suggestions were made to hospital staff for improving

off-site emergency plans (ie. documentation of chemical risks for morbidity and mortality,
scenarios of likely disasters and important actions during disaster response) and the relationship
of those plans to the local public health community and other relevant emergency response
sectors (primary treatment centers, local health departments, fire services, civil defense,
industrial and occupational health community, etc.).
Bringing the medical community into the LAMP program was an important step for the
program as a whole. Not only did the experts from CDC give much needed training and
13

advice to the doctors, nurses, and paramedics with whom they met, but they also stimulated
interest in the roles that medical professionals must play in case of a chemical emergency.
I

This LAMP activity also helped influence hospital administrators to consider installing proper
decontamination facilities. As discussed below, the first isolated decontamination facility in a
Thai hospital was completed at Ban Chang Hospital in Rayong in August, 1995, just as the
LAMP program concluded. The CDC hospital audit of Ban Chang Hospital provided useful
information and the impetus to develop the decontamination facility.

5. Develop an integrated community response plan - April, 1993

Beginning in April, 1993 the NESDB developed an integratedcommunity plan, obtained


approval for the plan from all concerned groups, and committed the plan to writing. The plan
covers the following topics:

A list of the agencies involved;


Areas of responsibility for emergency response, evacuation, health care, control access to
accident site, public/media liaison, liaison with regional responders, establishing and
marining command centers, points of the contact, position, 24-hour telephone number, the
chain of command,'etc.;
Identification of the community emergency transportation .network;
A list of equipment and materials which are available at the local level to respond to
emergencies; and
Communication channels during an emergency.

Parallel to this community wide planning process, the LAMP Country Manager also worked
with the Rayong Public Health Office to develop a unified emergency response plan for
hospitals within Rayong Province. He also assisted the Thai Plastic and Chemicals Co., Ud. in
conducting emergency response drills.
Outcome

The combined efforts of the NESDB and WEC during this period resulted in a coordinated
plan for Map Ta Phut and the surrounding communities. WEC and IEAT worked at the local
level, while NESDB executed a top-down approach from the national government level. The
result was a very successfu1 first step toward developing integrated plans for emergency
response where before, no such plans existed. This planning process paved the way for drill
exercises to be conducted. Such activities are now conducted on a regular basis.

6. Ensure that responders are trained and aware of integrated plans - October, 1993

Having made considerable progress to this point at in Map Ta Phut, WEC began working with
the second LAMP site, Bangpoo Industrial Estate, located in the Samut Prakarn region near
Bangkok. With the support of EPA experts and IEAT, WEC conducted a three day training
on "Emergency Preparedness and Accident Prevention" for industry groups from both LAMP

14

sites. This activity included the participation of 23 key people from over 15 government
agencies, industries, and planning committees at both industrial estates. The main issues

covered were:

Formation of the planning group;


Hazard anal}isis process;
Developing an emergency plan;
Risk communication; and
Testing the emergency plan.

Outcome

Sharing the experience of the EPA planning experts and the participants was a very effective
means of conveying planning concepts to the key leaders at both sites. Furthermore, the
Bangpoo Industry Oub benefited by being involved with the more experienced group from
Map Ta Phut. At the end of the workshop, one sensed that the Bangpoo group felt a challenge
to work towards the same goals that Map Ta Phut had set for itself.
This competitive spirit between the two groups continued beyond the workshop, and is an
example of IAMP being replicated from one industrial estate to another. Continued
interaction between Map Ta Phut, Bangpoo, and other IEAT industrial estates will result in
similar replication ofIAMP initiatives.

7. Establish procedures for periodic testing and review of the plan - June, 1994

From October, 1993 to June, 1994 the groups at both Map Ta Phut and Bangpoo worked to
develop their own integrated emergency response plans. With progres8 being made at the local
level by industry groups, the NESDB decided to take a leadership role and promote regular
mock drill activities at industrial sites that had initiated emergency response planning. Thus, the
NESDB designated a committee to prepare written scenarios that identified drill objectives,
components of the plans to be tested, expected participants, sequence of events, and simulated
hazard levels. A group of non-participating obser,vers was also designated to evaluate the test
drills using prepared evaluation sheets.
In July, 1994 the NESDB funded a full-scale emergency response drill at Map Ta Phut
Industrial Estate as a means of identifying further improvement areas. The entire program was
. coordinated by a committee headed by the Governor of the Rayong province and was an
excellent example of the IAMP/APELL concepts put into action. A workshop was organized
the day after the drill to reflect on the experiences of those involved and discuss lessons
learned. WEC was involved throughout the drill preparation process through the direct
participation of the IAMP Country Manager. At the dry-run exercise one day prior to the
actual drill, the IAMP Country Manger was one of the key coordinators marshaling the test
drills.

15

Outcome

The leadership role taken by the NESDB in this regard, to sponsor, facilitate, and assess mock
drill exercises has had a significant impact at both LAMP sites. Test drills are now carried out
twice a year at Map Ta Phut. At Bangpoo, test drills are being carried out by individual
industry and selected government emergency response agencies, such as the provincial fire
brigade and local hospitals.
The last drill was conducted on August 28, 1995 at Map Ta Phut. The Bangpoo emergency
response group was also present at the drill as observers.

9. Revise plans to improve responder roles and communication channels - October, 1994

Through funding provided by the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), WEC and the
Map Ta Phut Safety Club organized a one-day workshop to educate industry response teams in
the C01111Ilunications procedures during an integrated response situation. Radio communication
experts from the Police Department were the key presenters. They discussed the concept of a
unified command system which would require the integrated response of response teams from
different companies. Approximately 40 representatives from 25 companies participated in the
workshop.
Outcome

Following this workshop, the Rayong Provincial Office authorized Map Ta Phut Industrial
Estate to broadcast through the provincial radio frequency in the event of emergency incident.
Ten major industries in Map Ta Phut shared the cost to acquire 16 radio sets that were needed
to make the system work. Radio sets were also given to the Ban Chang Hospital, the
Provincial Emergency Response Center, and the Rayong Highway Police unit. The emergency
radio communication network is now in place. Daily testing procedures are also used to ensure
that the system will work in case of an emergency.

10. Delegation visits U.S. to study and assess emergency response systems - December,

1994
In December, 1994 WEC: hosted a delegation of five senior Thai Government officials in order
to expose them to possible options for improving emergency response systems and planning
mechanisms in Thailand. The Thai delegation spent two weeks touring U.S. emergency
response facilities and meeting with government and private organizations involved with
disaster prevention. The itinerary included visits to OFDA, the Chemical Manufacturers
Association (CMA), the Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA), EPA's
Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office (CEPPO), CDC, the National
Institute for Chemical Studies, Texas A&M University's Texas Engineering and Extension
Services (TEEX) Spill Control Training Center, and meetings with Local Emergency Planning
Committees (IBPC) in Charleston, West Virginia and Pasadena, Texas.

16

-----------

1. Emergency response team, Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate

2. Fire Department, Samut Prakarn

3. Recently purchased hazardous materials emergency response vehicle,


Rayong Mi.Inicipality Fire Brigade

4. Emergency response equipment on display for WEC/LAMP,


Rayong Municipality Fire Brigade

5. LAMP Country Manager, Mr. Chakthep Senivongs, directing mock drill activities,
Rayong Occupational Health Office

6. Emergency responders conducting mock emergency drills as local media watches,


Rayong Occupational Health Office

7. (above) LAMP Country Manager


demonstrates CAMEO to Ban Chang
Hospital staff, Rayong.

8. (left) Ban Chang Hospital doctors


and nurses rehearse procedures for
treating victims of acute toxic exposure.

The Thai delegation included the following participants:

Mr. Tanya Hanpol, Deputy Governor, IEAT;


Mr. Werayuth Wongsiri, Director of Information Technology and Computer Application,

IEAT;
Mr. Paichit Boonyanugraha, Director, Industrial Safety Division, Ministry oflndustry
(MOI);
Mr. Chalao Virijapongse, Mayor ofRayong; and
Mr. Prasert Wongeroon, Deputy Mayor of Samut Prakarn.

Outcome

The U.S. study tour provided the participating officials with an invaluable opportunity to
witness and learn about the process of emergency preparedness and chemical emergency
planning in the U.S. It also allowed them to meet with numerous U.S. experts and discuss
options for improving planning and emergency response systems in Thailand.
11. Increase awareness of transportation safety procedures -February, 1995

WEC developed a special management training course for industry operations managers and
government first responders to assist them in coordinated response to hazardous materials
transportation incidents. The training was conducted by a hazardous materials response expert
from Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX), a division of Texas A&M University. The
program was conducted at both Map Ta Phut and Bangpoo. Approximately 100 participants
from various response brigades attended the sessions. Topics discussed included:.

Hazardous materials transportation emergency response techniques;


Product identification and placarding; and
Chemical transportation and containe~ inspection.

Outcome

The Map Ta Phut Safety Club implemented a "Community Awareness and Emergency
Response" (CAER) campaign by agreeing that all chemical trucks would begin carrying labels
and placards using the United Nations Product Identification Number (PIN) and hazard
classification system. Initially, over 50 trucks from various companies participated in the
program, which went into effect in October, 1995. Widespread placarding of chemical
transport units are recognized as an important step to improving the safety and ability of
response personnel who must deal with damaged, leaking, or otherwise exposed cargo. The
Safety Club expects that the program will soon involve other companies and their trucks.
In addition, 40 portable fire extinguishers were given to the Rayong Highway Police Unit to be
installed in the police patrol vehicles. The donation was organized by the members of the Map
Ta Phut Safety Club. To further improve the transportation response capabilities in Map Ta
Phut and other parts of Thailand, the MOI published a Thai version ofCANUTEC's
''Dangerous Goods Initial Emergency Response Guide" (as translated by the Industrial Works

17

Department). Now in it's second edition, over 5,000 copies of the Thai CANUTEC guide are
in circulation.

12. Improve awareness of medical roles in a chemical emergency - August, 1995

In August, 1995 WEC, Ban Chang Hospital, and the Thai Plastic and Chemicals Company
organized a two day workshop for the doctors and head nurses from the Map Ta Phut and
eastern seaboard region to understand the basic procedures and practices for medical
emergency response to the hazardous material incident. The training was conducted by Dr.
Jonathan Borak, a U.S. specialist in occupational and environmental medicine, with extensive
experience training medical personnel in chemical accident treatment. Dr. Borak: is also an
Associate Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine at Yale University. Following the two day
event in Map Ta Phut, a similar one day session was given at the Bangpoo Country Qub in
Samut Prak:arn. Over 100 emergency response medical personnel participated in the two
workshops. Emergency hospital capabilities and procedures were also reviewed by Dr. Borak:
during this mission.

Outcome
This LAMP activity was exceptionally well received by the doctors and nurses in attendance.
As a result, the Occupational Health Department of the MOI has decided to conduct a similar
program for other doctors and head-nurses in key industrialized provinces twice a year on an
ongoing basis in order to contillue raising the level of awareness and skills for medical
professionals. The Map Ta Phut office will serve as a training venue.

Concurrent to this LAMP activity, Ban Chang Hospital was in the process of building a
modem decontamination facility in their emergency ward. Once completed, it will become the
first hospital in the Thailand to have a complete decontamination facility for victims of acute
exposure to toxic substances. Dr. Borak:'s visit provided a timely opportunity to advise the
Ban Chang Hospital management on critical aspects of the decontamination room.

13. Replication of LAMP in other industrial areas - July,

19~5

A workshop was organized by NESDB for government officials and industry representatives
from provinces along eastern seaboard of Thailand where major industries are located. The
workshop included critiques and explanations of past mock drill activities. The APEIL
process and its basic concepts were also discussed so that leaders from other parts of Thailand
could begin working on their _own plans to improve safety, and preventing the loss of life and
property.
Outcome
I

The workshop inspired government and industry leaders from 14 separate provinces to adopt a
similar process of developing their "Provincial Emergency Response Plans," such as the one
developed and demonstrated in Map Ta Phut.

18

The 14 provinces that will follow Map Ta Phut's example are:


Samut Prakam
SamutSakom
Samut Songkram
Pathum Thaitl
Cholburi
Ra.Jburi
Lampang

Ayudhya
Nondhaburi
Saraburi
Korat
Kamchanaburi
Songkla
Surajthani

14. Reinforce progress made under lAMP by continuing drill activities -August, 1995
During the last week of August, 1995 the National Petrochemical Public Co., Ltd. organized
another emergency response drill at Map Ta Phut to test the mutual aid mechanisms among
industries, as well as the communication procedures with other responders. This program was
part of the ongoing plan to review and improve the integrated plan.
Outcome

Regularly scheduled mock drill activities will continue in Map Ta Phut. The next
emergency response drill as requested by the Governor of Rayong will occurred in
December, 1995.

19

'~

20

V. IMPACT, SUSTAINIBILITY, AND REPLICATION

During its three years of operation the LAMP program achieved meaningful results that will
continue to foster improvements in industrial safety and accident prevention and mitigation in
Thailand. LAMP proved to be a positive force in establishing vibrant community based
emergency preparedness activities at Map Ta Phut, and also created a means by which these
activities can be replicated at Bangpoo and other locations in Thailand.
As mentioned previously, the process of replication is already under way in the form of a
commitment on the part of 14 regional governments to follow the lead set by Map Ta Phut and
develop similar emergency response plans. Bangpoo and the industrial estates located in these
14 regions have strong support from national agencies as well. The Industrial Estate Authority
of Thailand (IEA1) has established a national advisory committee on emergency response and
accident prevention, and will lead a delegation to the U.S. to investigate sources of safety
equipment that can further improve safety and response capabilities in Thailand. The National
Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) has taken the lead to finance, develop,
and support periodic mock drills. The Ministry of Industry (MOI) publishes the CANUTEC
Dangerous Goods guide in 'fhai. MOI also uses CAMEO, as do 14 other Royal Thai
Government (RTG) agencies (see Appendix D). Furthermore, the MOI, in conjunction with
the LAMP Country Manager, is in the process of developing its own Transportation
Emergency Response Information (TERI) database for futute distribution in Thailand. These
are but a few key examples of the progress made in Thailand over the three year course of the
LAMP project - clear indications that the program's impact will continue to influence planning
~d response initiatives for years to come.

The one area where LAMP could not apply the APEIL process relates to educating the public
and developing community awareness, the final step in the ten step APEIL process. Due to
the political dynamics at both LAMP sites, WEC decided to go slowly and nurture support for
community awareness programs and conduct such activities in the fourth and fifth years of the
LAMP program. Since the program ended prematurely it was determined to be inappropriate
to begin such potentially polemical activities without sufficient time.for follow through. For
LAMP to achieve its original goals and objectives in areas concerning public education, the
program duration would need to have been maintained for the full five years.
Although the program ended prematurely and WEC was not able to conduct community
_outreach activities, there are healthy signs that the community is nonetheless benefiting due to
the publicity surrounding the mock drill activities. In Map Ta Phut, where the APEIL process
is most advanced, large scale mock drill activities receive widespread coverage in radio and
news media. Also, since they have an emergency broadcast network that must be periodically
tested, the public is slowly being educated about emergency response planning and their roles
in case of an emergency.

'
While it is unfortunate for Thailand that LAMP could not continue into the fourth and fifth
years of the program, it is appropriate that public education be carried out in a politically
sensitive manner when the time is right. The United Nations Environmental Programme
(UNEP) is correct to include community activities as the final step in their ten step APEIL
process; any effort to promote community activism in Map Ta Phut or Bangpoo would have
21

been premature and potentially detrimental to the successes achieved in other areas of the
LAMP program.

22

VI. LESSONS LEARNED

The September, 1995 closure of the LAMP program in Thailand, while on the one hand being
a premature end to a successful and worthwhile project, provides WEC and OFDA with an
opportunity to step back and consider the LAMP process as a whole. While discussing the .
sustaimbility of LAMP activities in Thailand, then, the LAMP process itself must be analyzed in
terms of key components to identify lessC!ns learned over the three year history of the Thailand
program. These lessons contribute to the work being done through LAMP in India, Indonesia,
and Mexico today, and will serve as an example for future LAMP programs in other countries
as well. The following issues bare mentioning in this context.

IAMP is most successful when working with people and groups that are highly
motivated to address the problems associated with industrial accident planning,
prevention, and mitigation. In conducting any development program it is too easy to
see the final outcome as a function of the project alone. It is more accurate to say,
however, that any prototype project, such as LAMP, is merely a part of the overall

development process taking place. Success requires that project managers identify
supportive stakeholders and work closely with those groups. For any industrial or
environmental initiative, where legal, regulatory, and political forces play a large role, it
is mandatory that government and industry participants provide funding and resources
that serve project objectives. LAMP interventions in Thailand came at the right time
and with the right compositions of local and national Thai actors. The commitment to
the LAMP/APELL process demonstrated by WEC's Thai partners was the most
important factor in the success of the program.

Effective intervention requires the leadership of a committed IAMP Country


Manager. A corollary to the first lesson learned, this observation relates to the critical

role played by an in-country program leader. Since LAMP programs deal with myriad
issues ranging from the technical aspects of first responder roles to the political
sensitivity regarding the public's "right to know," the experience, credibility and
dynamism of the country program manager is imperative. In choosing the right person
to spearhead similar programs, organizing groups should look for someone committed
to the program, and not someone qualified to simply carry out the fundamental roles
and responsibilities of the job. Mr. Senivongs' commitment to the LAMP process was
an important factor contnbuting to the success of the program.

Local industrial "safety clubs" or LEPC-like organhations provide a platform of


essential support for the IAMP program. To achieve program goals that improve
emergency response in the short-term and remain effective in the long-term, I.AMP
programs must be supported by organized leadership at each site. If local planning

groups or safety clubs are not yet formed in a cohesive manner, an organization or
donor agency should strongly consider the option not to initiate LAMP activities. The
process of mobilizing forces is much more cost-effective and likely to succeed than any
attempt to organize concerned parties, introduce safety and APELL planning concepts,
only then to begin the process of developing and/or strengthening existing emergency
mechanisms. WEC was fortunate to find organized, aware, and motivated groups in
both Map Ta Phut and Bangpoo. Both groups were poised to benefit from the
activities conducted under LAMP.
23

The development of prototype systems that can be replicated throughout the


country requires that IAMP, within the confines of available funding, works
intensively at a few selected sites. For strategic planning and perfonnance
monitoring, there is a need to concentrate IAMP program activities at one location to
obtain maximum impact and enable full program completion for replication at other
sites. Once the first site begins the LAMP process, other sites may be added on a
selective basis. In Thailand, Bangpoo was added only when Map Ta Phut had
proceeded to a point where it seived as an example to the Bangpoo constituents.
Now, they both set the standard for over 24 industrial estates managed by the IEAT, as
well as other industrial sites throughout Thailand.

Emergency response infrastructure is a primary indicator of a community's


preparedness for the lAMP program Training and workshop programs provide
basic awareness to the attendees. However, without the availability of modem
response equipment and protective gear, the ultimate level of preparedness to respond
effectively to hazardous materials emergencies will be limited. Training first
responders without providing appropriate safety equipment can also lead to a
potentially life threatening, false sense of competency on the part of responders. If
suitable safety equipment is not currently available at sites where training is to be
conducted, programs should be developed by taldng into account the resources
available and the likelihood that equipment upgrades will be made in the near future.

24

Appendix A
Chronological Summary of LAMP/Thailand Initiatives

Activity
October, 1992

WEC, IBM!Thailand and the Pollution Control Department arranged a one


day CAMEO program demonstration (Computer Aided Management of
Emergency Operations) by U.S. EPA's Sherry Fielding to 37 Government
officials, NGO and industry representatives.

October, 1992

Coordinated first voluntary industry core team comprised of seven


companies and IEAT meeting to start CAER program for Bangpoo
Industrial Estate.

December, 1992

WEC arranged an additional CAMEO program demonstration and


discussion for Public Health officials and Thai Pesticide Association.

January, 1993

Craig Mathiessen, John Ferris from U.S. EPA and Michael Callan, veteran
of the U. s .. Fire Service conducted an on-site assessment of chemical risk
and relevant emergency preparedness plans at Map Ta Phut Industrial
Estate. The group also conducted a CAER Workshop at Bangpoo
Industrial Estate.

February, 1993

WEC facilitated an information exchange workshop on Emergency


Response Programs at the Swedish Embassy, chaired by the First Secretary
Mr. Lars Andreasson. Representatives from WEC, Swedish Embassy,
Industrial Work Department, Chulaphom Research Institute (CRI), Ministry
of Public Health, National Safety Council for Thailand, Thai Pesticides
Association, GIFAP Local Office and Office of National Economic and
Social Development Board (NESDB) and Bangpoo Industrial Oub
attended the workshop.

March;1993

WEC sponsored Eric K Noji, M.D. and Scott R. Lllhbridge, M.D. from
CDC to assess the readiness to industrial emergency situations at hospitals
in Map Ta Phut and Bangpoo Industrial Estate areas. They also ran a one
day seminar on "Readiness to Cope with Industrial Disaster in Public Health
and Medical Areas" for 120 representatives from universities, government
and private companies.

25

Activity
May,1993

The LAMP Country Manager and Ms. Kasemsri Homchean, Director of


Environmental and Safety Control Division, IEAT, observed the emergency
response drill at Thai Oil Refinery and Cholburi Hospital.

June, 1993

The IEAT installed CAMEOT~ at their Makkasan head office; WEC


trained computer operators ~ow to use it.

July, 1993

WEC conducted a Safety, Health & Environment (SHE) Management


development workshop for Allied Chemical. Eventually this Thai owned
factory will be used as a training resource in "Training the Trainer''
programs.

July, 1993

The LAMP Country Manager attended a training course for fire emergency
response at W.R. Grace Co., Ltd. at Bangpoo.

August, 1993

The LAMP . Country Manager accompanied the third group of City


Counselors from Samut Prakarn, led by Mr. Prasert Wongaroon, _Assistant
Mayor to visit the City of Corpus Christi, Texas and studied their waste
management system.

August, 1993

Bangkok Port (Klong Toey) installed CAMEO for incorporation into


Ms. Wanida S.
Pollution Control Department's Emergency Plan.
demonstrated the program to Bangkok Port Officials.

September, 1993

The LAMP Country Manager attended an international workshop arranged


by EPA to develop and test an international training course for "Emergency
Preparedness and Accident Prevention."

September, 1993

WEC demonstrated CAMEO for the office of Economic Preparedness


Planning Division of NESDB, who plans to incorporate it into the
Emergency Plan at Map Ta Phut and the Royal Navy.

October, 1993

Through funding provided by USAID's US-AEP program, WEC arranged


AJma Howard of CMA, to work with Anti Air Pollution &
for a visit by
Environment Protection (FAPEP), to investigate and recommend the
introduction of CMA's CHEMTREc Center for chemical transportation
emergencies.

October, 1993

WEC and the National Institute for the Improvement of Working


Conditions and Environment (NICE}, arranged two three day Fire
Prevention/Protection Training Courses for factory managers in Bangkok
and Samut Prakarn. The courses were run by WEC and volunteers, Steve
Krivan, :from Hoechst Celanese and Jim Carano from Health

Ms:

26

Activity
Environmental Loss Prevention. Forty seven people attended the Bangkok
session and 22 people in Bangpoo. During the training, the instructor team
also conducted a hands-on fire risk analysis for government officials and
Eason Paint Co., Ud. 's fire team at their plant in Bangkok.
October, 1993

With the help of EPA volunteers William J. Finan, Kate Piva and Scott
Engle, WEC and the Bangpoo Industry Oub, arranged a three day training
on "Emergency Preparedness and Accident Prevention." The attendants
came from the Emergency Committee for Bangpoo and Map Ta Phut areas.
Twenty eight people attended. This training led to the formation of local
emergency teams in both IAMP sites. IEAT kindly contributed the use of a
training center and meals at no cost.

November, 1993

Union Carbide Thailand Ltd. kindly invited WEC to nominate three persons
to participate in their three day regional "HELP Emergency Response
Training" at no cost. WEC nominated one person each from Pollution
Control Department, Labor and Welfure Department and Mr. Chakthep
Senivongs, IAMP Country Manager for WEC.

December, 1993

WEC and the General Insurance Association (GIA) and NFPA arranged a
half day seminar on "Introducing NFPA, its resources and standards" with
20 people from 16 government organizations attending. WEC also
conducted a 3 day training course on "Fire Inspector Training" for GIA
members, industries and government officials. There were 32 people
attending the training.

December, 1993

The IAMP Country Manager attended a regional APEIL seminar in


Shanghai, China.

February,1994

The IAMP Country Manager traveled to Indonesia to introduce


CAMEO to appropriate government and private sector groups and
discuss its emergency response uses. He also advised WEC/Jakarta in the
planning of an APEIL workshop for IAMP/Indonesia.

March, 1994

WEC invited Dr. Noji of Q)C to visit Dr. Chawalit Suntikitrungruang,


Director, Technical Cooperation Division, Department of Medjcal Service,
Ministry of Public Health, to follow up on the readiness of medical service in
response to industrial accidents. He also conducted a half day "Doctor
Outreach Program" for Samut Prakam Medicine and Health group. There
were 40 attendants from 21 government and industri'.11 organizations.

27

Activity

April, 1994

WEC facilitated the first working group meeting to prepare for in-plant first
. aid training for industry in Bangpoo. The Bangpoo Industry Club and local
medical professionals attended.

April, 1994

The LAMP Country Manager demonstrated CAMEO at the Rayong


Province Hospital and trained staff members in its use.

April, 1994

WEC conducted a trial run for computerized medical database link-up


between the Ministry of Public Health's offices in Bangkok and Rayong
Pro~ce Hospital. The LAMP Country Manager participated in the
presentation of protective chemical suits donated by DuPont Co., Ltd. to
the Samut Prakam Municipal Board Members. A joint fire drill with the
Municipal Fire Brigade followed the presentation.

May, 1994

The LAMP Country Manager demonstrated CAMEO at the MOI


Industrial Safety Division and trajned staff members in its use. WEC
participated in the Local Emergency Response Committee meetings in
preparation for the Emergency Response Exercise at Map Ta Phut
Industrial Estate.
The LAMP Country Manager also participated in the "Chemical
Transportation Awareness" training program conducted at National
Petrochemical Corp. Ltd. for the Highway Police Force. One hundred
Highway Police officers attended the program.

June,1994

The IAMP Country Manager demonstrated CAMEO for the


LAMP Country Manager and
Metropolitan Police Fire Brigade.
WEC/Country Director participated in the Emergency Response Drill at
Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate and TPC plant. Coordinated visit of
representatives from TEEX to review the fire training facilities at National
Petrochemical Corp. Ltd.

July, 1994

WEC was represented in the local official emergency drill at Map Ta Phut.
Its contribution was highly appreciated by the host, IEAT. LAMP Country
Manager attended a two week IAMP Coordinator program in Washington,
D.C. with other WEC staff.

August, 1994

A First Aid Training was organized for 47 people from 20 companies of


Bangpoo Industry Club. The joint training team was represented by eight
organizations. David Gratz, Director International Operation assisted

28

,I

Activity
WEC in identifying and evaluating potential training needs for an upcoming
NFPA session - "Managing Fire Prevention and Inspection Programs."
The Ministry of Public Health formally informed WEC that it was qualified
to receive financial assistance up to 500,000 Baht for the Doctor Outreach
Program.
August, 1994

USAID/OFDA project evaluation team visited Thailand.

November, 1994

WEC participated in setting up of the Bangpoo Industrial ~tate Emergency


Response Committee. Richard Williams, LAMP Manager, and the LAMP
Country Manage.r participated in an emergency fire drill at the ICI Asiatic
(Agriculture) Co., Ltd. located in the Bangpoo Industrial Estate.

December, 1994

LAMP Country Manager led a Thai delegation to the U.S. on a Local


Emergency Planning Committee (IBPC) .orientation program in the U.S.
The participants were:
Mr. Chalao Virijaponse, Mayor ofRayong Municipality
Mr. Prasert Wongaroon, Deputy Mayor of Samut Prak:am
Mr. Tanya Hanpol, Deputy Governor - Operation, IEAT
Mr. Weerayuth Wongsiri, Director of Information Technology & Computer

Application Center, IEAT


Mr. Paichit Boonyanugratra, Industrial Safety Director, MOI

January, 1995

Trained CAMEO to Ban Chang Hospital staff and the Map Ta Phut
office of Occupational Health Division, Ministry of Public Health.

March, 1995

WEC and TEEX conducted a "Hazardous Materials Transportation


Emergency Response" training program at Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate.

March, 1995

Conducted the "Hazardous Materials Transportation Emergency Response"


training program at Bangpoo Industrial Estate.

March, 1995

Participated in the set-up of Mutual-aid Center to be established at Map Ta


Phut & Bangpoo Industrial Estates as a pilot program by IEAT.

March, 1995

Organized orientation program for TEEX representatives Mr. Don Carloss


& Mr. James Rountree to visit Thai Oil, at Sriracha;
Rayong Hospital,
Rayong; NPC, Caltex Refinery, IEAT training facility at Map

29

Activity
Ta Phut; IEAT Head Office, Shell Installation and U.S. & Foreign
Commercial Service, American Embassy, Bangkok.
March, 1995

LAMP Country Manager and Helen Arromdee, Ministry of Industry,


attended a CAMEO Workshop in Louisville, Kentucky.

April, 1995

Demonstration of CAMEO for Windows at the Industry Safety Division,


Ministry of Industry, and at the office of Information Technology &
Computer, IEAT.

April, 1995

Assisted IEAT with proposal from Chairman of IEAT mutual-aid


Emergency Response and Mitigation Center requesting funding support
from the office of Technology Cooperation, US Embassy Thailand.

April, 1995

Followed activities with collaborators of the training program on


"Hazardous Material Transportation Emergency Response" at Map Ta Phut
and Bangpoo.

May, 1995 .

Participated as a resource person in the APELL workshop at Gresik:,


Indonesia.

May,1995

Participated in the "Doctor Out Reach" Program, on medical information


identification and requirement.

June, 1995

Meeting with KC. Gupta from the Indian National Safety Council.

June, 1995

Lectured at AIT on LAMP activities in Thailand to participants from Asian


Region attending Risk Management Program.

June,1995

Coordinated with UNEP Regional office in Bangkok to promote the


implementation of vehicle placarding for chemicals/Petroleum bulk
transportation in Thailand.

July, 1995

LAMP/Indonesia Coordinator toured Map Ta Phut, Bangpoo, and IEAT


head office as well as the office of U.S. Embassy to learn about LAMP
activit~es in Thailand for appropriate replication in Indonesia.

July, 1995

Preparation for the upcoming medical responders training program.

August, 1995

Coordinated the final proposal for approval of US-AEP funding for Thai
delegation to visit USA for identification of most updated emergency
response equipment.

30

Activity

August, 1995

WEC sponsored Dr. Jonathan Barak, MD to conduct training program for


medical responders to hazardous materials accidents at Map Ta Phut and
Bangpoo.

September, 1995

LAMP Program Director and LAMP Indonesia Country Manager


observed the results of LAMP activities in Thailand. They also visited
IEAT head office, Department of Industrial Works, the National Safety
Council, and the IEAT office and Rayong Municipal Fire Resource Center.

September, 1995

Participated in the Emergency Response Training Program organized by the


Ministry of Industry.

31

32

"

AppendixB
Network of LAMPffhailand Actors
Prime Minister

NESDB*
NSC*
Min. of Industry*

Min. of Public Health*

Div. Industrial

Provincial Offices*

Safety*
IEAT*

Hospitals

Min. of Labor*

Min. of Interior*

MapTaPhut

Metro Fire

Office

Brigades*

Bangpoo
Office

Governors

Min. of Science
& Tehnology*

Provincial

(.,i,)
(.,i,)

Rayong Governor's
Bangpoo Safety Club

Map Ta Phut Safety Club

Ban Chang Hospital

L_

Emergency
Volunteers

Mayoral
Offices
Rayong
1-----

Samut Prakarn
Paid Emergency
Responders

* Indicates agencies using CAMEO.

34

'

AppendixC
An Overview of the Industri~l Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT)1

The Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand (IEAT) is a state enterprise attached to the Ministry of
Industry. It is chartered to implement the government's industrial development policy. The objective
is not only development but to ensure orderly, planned industrialization of the industries concerned and
the country as a whol~.
For more than two decades since 1972- the IEAT has been a guiding light in Thailand's systematic
and orderly industrialization. The progress.and pace of Thailand's industrial growth over the past 20
plus years can only be described as explosive. Strong government support, much of it channeled
through the IEAT, has made much of this growth possible.
Industrial Estates are, by design, self-contained communities: new, fully structured and serviced towns
adjacent to new full infrastructure industrial parks, supported by all the amenities required to grow
their businesses in an orderly way, to be mutually beneficial to themselves, the nation and its people.
With the added problems related to various locations, the control and monitoring of industrial
pollution, for example, the broad plinning needed to manage all this called for a national authority with
the muscle. And so the Industrial Estate Authority was formed.
IEAT provides a one-stop service for Thai and foreign industrial organizations from start to
completion, including all types of permits, information and advice on investment and how to set up,
incentives and privileges, promoted zones, loan sourcing - even design of the factory itself. Efficient,
expeditious, IEAT helps to meet the needs of all entrepreneurs anywhere in Thailand.
IEAT has been working to facilitate foreign investment in Thailand and technology transfer into the
country. The policy of government towards industrial decentralization - development away from
Bangkok- has been given considerable momentum by IEAT's services to investors, both foreign and
Thai. Now with nearly 30 estates under its jurisdiction nationwide, IEAT's achievement is concrete.

Keeping Industrial Development "Green"


Environmental management is another transfer and application of science and technology by IEAT,
and IEAT is charged with implementing policy in regard to the government's rules and regulations in
order to stop damage to our environment as necessary development takes place.. To choose those
avenues and directions which will cause the least (damage), so that our national heritage remains in
tact, is enhanced by our growth and expansion into the modern industrial world. Everybody in the
country is responsible for keeping Thailand green and tidy. In developments like Map Ta Phut and
others, IEAT is planting trees, landscaping factory parks, providing water and waste treatment and
disposal (to) protect the country's environment and turning it into Green City. Thailand must develop
for the future, ensuring that industry grows in harmony with life.
1

Industrial Investment Opportunities, Investment Promotion Di".ision, IEAT, 1995.

35

36

'

AppendixD
Thai Government Agencies Using CAMEO(

Office of the Prime Minister


National Safety Council
National Economic and Social Development Board
Economic Preparedness Planning Division

Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand


Head Office
Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate Office
Bangpoo Industrial Estate Office

Ministry of Industry
Industry Safety Division

Ministry of Labour and Welfare


National Institute for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment (NICE)

Ministry of Interior
Office of Metropolitan Fire Brigade

Ministry of Public Health


Rayong Public Health Provincial Office
Rayong Hospital
Ban Chang Hospital
Samut Prakam Public Health Provincial Office

Ministry of Science and Technology


Pollution Control Department
Other Government Agencies planning to use CAMEO

Royal Thai Navy


Sattahip Naval Base

Ministry of Interior
Office of Highway Police Head Quarter

37

38

AppendixE
LAMP/Thailand Impact Table

Performance
Indicators

Ul

\0

Baseline

Final Quarter
Actual Activities

Cumulative (Final)

1. Emergency
Groups
Formed

Industrial On-site
Emerg.
Plan required; few offsite plans prepared

Industry "Safety Clubs" formed and active on monthly basis at both Map Ta
Phut and Bangpoo Industrial Estates; IEAT involvement strong at
national/estate levels (i.e. building safety center in Map Ta Phut as model for
other estates); some companies expanding off-site safety and cleanup
procedures and services (good signs that individual industries are taking
responsibility for their products once they leave the production facility).

1.1 increased
preparedness

few local community


reps
involved in Emerg.
Ping.

CAMEO loaded and in-use at local and national levels (in hospitals and
mayoral offices at local leve~ Ministry of Industry, NESDB at national
level); Transportation Emergency Response Information (TERI) database
also being developed and used in Thai.

Establishment of
.
decontamination facility at
Ban Chang Hospital (Map
Ta Phut) - first ever in
Thailand.

1.2more
responders

few trained emergency


responders

Medical, hazmat, and train-the-trainer programs effective;. raised level


of awareness has prompted many equipment upgrades in both private
_and public emergency response units; responders are now more
numerous and also better equipped.

trng. for medical response


doctors & nurses, audit of
decontamination room
being built at Ban Chang
Hospital.

1.3 site
replication

IEAT will use both lAMP sites as models for improving safety and preparedness at
other sites throughout Thailand. IEAT Deputy Governor, Tanya Hanpol established a
national safety committee (with WEC representation) as permanent planning and
policy committee for industrial safety affairs.

Performance
Indicators
2. Increased
Awareness

Baseline
No Joint Industry &
Community Exercises
conducted before

2.1 by
community

2.2by
: industry

only few large firms


have
emergency plans

+:>.

Cumulative (Final)
Good links established between civil & industry Emergency Resp. groups;
greater awareness at local, regional, and national levels; all groups
highly aware of chemical emergency risks and ramifications.
Little progress to date to directly involve the public in safety activities,
although mock drill activities do give good publicity; communities are safer due
to great progress at government and industry levels; community members also
benefited via residual (trickle do\Yfl) effect of program. The general population
is aware, generally speaking, of the inherent dangers that exist; however, ~ore
should be done to directly involve community members.
Better mutual aid among industry; positive "competitive rivalries"
developing among companies to improve safety standards (i.e.
safety awards given at Bangpoo, integrated response plans
accepted at both sites); increase in awareness leading to
increased purchases of response/safety equipment at both sites

USAID approves safety equipment


buying mission to US for five key
leaders from industry and gov't.
Project would not have been
worthwhile without greater
awareness of safety issues and
equipment needs.
.
Improved cooperation between industry & local mayors; integration of
emergency response now common in response planning. Medical teams
i.Iivolved in response, too.

testing

No integration of on &
off-site Emergency
Response
no comm.unity exercises Mock drills conducted regularly at both Map Ta Phut and Bangpoo.
conducted before

3.2 national
network

weak national emerg.


response network

3.Improved
Response

3.1 plan

Final Quarter
Actual Activities

Electronic emergency database of transportation response information


developed in Thai; CANUTEC hazmat guidebook also published in
Thai. Ongoing efforts to continue developing national and local use of
CAMEO.

Mock drills conducted at


Map Ta Phut and
Bangpoo.

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