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CETB 412 Transportation Engineering

Lecture Notes

Transportation System

  • 1. Transportation System The transportation system is a functional system of an aggregation of vehicles, guideways, terminal facilities and control systems that functions to move goods and people from one place to another place. An example of a transportation system is illustrated in Figure 1 and for an air transportation system is shown in Figure 2.

CETB 412 Transportation Engineering Lecture Notes Transportation System 1. Transportation System The transportation system is a

Figure 1: Three-legged stool of transportation systems (Fricker & Whitford, 2004)

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Lecture Notes

CETB 412 Transportation Engineering Lecture Notes Page 2 of 12 20-Mar-15 Transportation System

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CETB 412 Transportation Engineering

Lecture Notes

Figure 2: Interrelationship of functional components of a commercial air transportation system

  • 2. Components of transportation system A transportation system is comprised of the following components:

    • a. Fixed facilities

These are the physical components of the transportation system that are fixed in space and are made of,

  • a. Network of links which is a portion of the highway system (as an example) that can be described by its capacity, lane width and speed. Examples are roadway segments, railway track & piping network.

  • b. Nodes are end points of links and represent an intersection or location where a link changes direction, capacity, width or speed. Examples are highway intersection & interchanges, transit terminal, harbor and airport.

  • c. A centroid is the location within a zone where trips begin and end. Examples are housing areas and bus terminals.

  • b. Flow entities

These are units or vehicles that transverse the fixed facilities that include a variety of transportation users such as pedestrians, automobiles, railroad cars, airplane and etc.

  • c. Control system

Control system of a transportation system can be viewed as comprised of the following:

  • a. Vehicular control system refers to technological way in which individual vehicles are guided on the fixed facilities to ensure that the purpose of the transportation system is achieved in a safe manner. An example is a proper geometric design of highways.

  • b. Flow control system is the means to allow an efficient and smooth operation of stream of vehicles and a reduction of conflicts between road users (with respect to highways). An example is an appropriate traffic signal timing and coordination at highway intersections.

  • d. Transportation organization

Transportation organizations may be classified as:

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CETB 412 Transportation Engineering

Lecture Notes

a.

Facility-oriented organizations are those involved in planning, designing, constructing, maintaining and operating fixed facilities.

b.

Operating

organizations

operates

fleets

of

vehicles

to provide

transportation services – airlines, railroads, shipping, trucks, transits and

etc.

  • 3. Issues, problems and challenges of transportation engineering

    • i. Traffic congestion

It is due to a situation when the demand for the transportation system is more than its capacity. Rain and accident make it worse.

The effects include: road user frustration and lower road safety (accident).

The possible solutions include:

A better urban land-use planning and control of land development (this would normally be the responsibility of the government).

Provision of efficient traffic information to road users for example the application of Intelligent Transportation Information System.

Improved

traffic

control

for

example

by

improving

the timing and

coordination of traffic signal system.

 

Promotion and improvement of the public transport system (an integrated public transport system is necessary nowadays).

The enforcement of various economic measures such as road pricing (drivers pay for using the road during peak hours) to influence drivers not to drive but use other transport services such as the public transport system.

ii.

Traffic safety

Accidents involving transportation facilities particularly roads are everybody’s

concern. Some statistical information about road accidents is shown in Figures 3 to

5.

Possible solutions include improved highway design and maintenance, and vehicle design; effective road user education programs and traffic law enforcement.

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Lecture Notes

CETB 412 Transportation Engineering Lecture Notes Figure 3: Road accident in Malaysia (1997 – 2007) Figure

Figure 3: Road accident in Malaysia (1997 – 2007)

CETB 412 Transportation Engineering Lecture Notes Figure 3: Road accident in Malaysia (1997 – 2007) Figure

Figure 4: Fatality rates among countries in 2002s and 2003s

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Lecture Notes

CETB 412 Transportation Engineering Lecture Notes Figure 5: Road accident deaths – trend and projection in

Figure 5: Road accident deaths – trend and projection in Malaysia (1972 – 2000)

Source: Radin Umar (1997)

iii.

Equality of access

Provision of equal access to everyone including: the poor, elderly and physically challenged (handicapped) people. There are financial challenges to modify vehicle and station to satisfy their needs.

Possible solutions include:

Provision of curb cuts and wheelchair ramps at intersections of road with sidewalk.

Provision of wheelchair access, usually ramps at transport terminals such as airports, and bus and railway stations.

Public transportation vehicles must be fully accessible to wheelchair users (for example the use of wheelchair lifts; refer to Figure 6).

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Lecture Notes

CETB 412 Transportation Engineering Lecture Notes Figure 6: Urban transit bus equipped with a wheelchair lift

Figure 6: Urban transit bus equipped with a wheelchair lift

iv.

Environmental protection

Environmental impact can be due to the transportation system as a whole (air quality, energy consumption and land-use) and site-specific impacts (displacement of residents & businesses, noise & dust, water quality and visual impacts).

The possible solutions include:

Broad national policies.

Laws & regulations.

Economic incentives & disincentives.

Environmental Impact Assessment studies.

  • 4. Modes of Transportation There are many modes of transportation that may be classified based on:

    • a. Physical or medium characteristics (highway, railways, air and water transportation). Refer to Table 1. Table 1: Modes of transport based on physical characteristics

Modes of transportation

  • 1. Land transportation.

  • 2. Water transportation.

  • 3. Air transportation.

  • 4. Pipelines.

Remarks

Roads and highways; and railways.

Inland, coastal and ocean.

Domestic and international.

Oil, gas and others.

  • b. Purpose (for freight or passenger and either for urban, intercity or special purpose). Refer to Table 2.

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CETB 412 Transportation Engineering

Lecture Notes

Table 2: Modes of transport based on purpose

Freight

Passenger

  • 1. Truck (highway)

Urban

Private automobile (highway) Transit (highway / railway)

  • 2. Truck (highway)

Intercity

Private automobile (highway)

Railway

Bus (highway)

Ocean shipping

Railway

Inland water

Air

Pipeline

Air

  • 3. Conveyor belt

Special purpose.

Cable systems

Each mode of transportation offers certain characteristics and levels of service in terms of travel time, frequency, comfort, reliability, convenience and safety.

Public transportation refers to any and all of the family of transit services available to urban and rural residents. Modes of transportation in public transportation include:

  • a. Mass transit is characterized by fixed routes and published schedules that make use of vehicles such as buses and light rail or rapid transit, that travel through designated routes with specific stops.

  • b. Paratransit is characterized by a more flexible and personalized services compared to mass transit, and it is available to the public on demand, by subscription or on a shared-ride basis.

  • c. Ridesharing is characterized by two or more people who travel together by prearrangement such as carpool, vanpool, buspool or shared-ride taxi.

Example 2.1 illustrates the decision-making process of a transportation system user to choose between alternative modes of transportation.

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CETB 412 Transportation Engineering

Lecture Notes

CETB 412 Transportation Engineering Lecture Notes 5. History of Transportation  2000 B.C  Roads designed
  • 5. History of Transportation

2000 B.C Roads designed by the Romans became the standard for later civilisation which made from paving blocks cut out from blocks of stone or granite

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Lecture Notes

These designs later adopted by Americas and serve well for horse driven carts, chariots and similar vehicles. Since the advent of pneumatic tire vehicles, the Romans road to be inadequate due to its width, riding condition and in some cases load carrying capacity. Also, the automobiles were faster moving and required braking distance, turning clearance and sight distance, where the roman-based designed roads were surely inadequate in these aspects.

  • 6. Overview of history of transportation in Malaysia Refer to Table 3.

Table 3: History of transportation in Malaysia

Year

Transportation milestone Malaysia before independence

1881

Construction of first railway from Port Weld to Taiping.

1885

Construction of railway from Larut to Port Weld.

1893

Port Klang (earlier known as Port Swethenham) was founded.

1901

Official opening of the port at Port Klang.

1903

Construction of paved road with the introduction of motorcar.

1918

Opening of Pasir Gudang port for black pepper trading.

1920

Ferry services introduced in Penang.

1948

British government constructed more paved road.

Railway infrastructure and services made under the responsibility of the Malayan Railway Administrative.

1952

Opening of the first international airport at Sungai Besi.

1957: Malaysia achieved independence

1965

Sultan Abd Aziz Airport became the international airport for Malaysia.

1960s

Construction of the Federal Highway from Port Klang to Kuala Lumpur.

1974

First toll expressway from Tanjung Malim to Slim River.

1980

Opening of Kemaman Port for liquefied petrol gas transportation.

1985

Start of Proton car production.

1986

Opening of the North-South Expressway.

1992

Malayan Railway Administrative changed to Keretapi Tanah Melayu

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CETB 412 Transportation Engineering

Lecture Notes

Year

Berhad (KTMB).

Transportation milestone

  • 1995 Introduction of the electrified train (KTM commuter).

  • 1998 Introduction of the Light Rail Transit.

  • 1998 Opening of the Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) in Sepang.

  • 2002 Start of the KLIA express.

    • 7. Transportation system and organization structure in Malaysia The organization structure of the Ministry of Transport, Malaysia is shown in Figure 7. Information about Malaysian transportation system can be found in the following websites:

http://www.mot.gov.my

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transportation_in_Malaysia

http://www.travelblog.org/World/my-trans.html

Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR) which is also known as the Public Works Department and the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) have published a number of highway design standards for Malaysia.

The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) has been trying to standardize highway design in United States. The standards for geometric design are published by AASHTO in “Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets”.

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CETB 412 Transportation Engineering

Lecture Notes

CETB 412 Transportation Engineering Lecture Notes Figure 7: Ministry of Transport Organization Chart Latest Updated: 18

Figure 7: Ministry of Transport Organization Chart

Latest Updated: 18 th October 2013.

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