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A PROJECT REPORT ON

Adv REFRIGERATION SYSTEM


Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
For the award of
B.TECH ENGINEERING
IN
____________________________________ ENGINEERING
SUBMITTED BY
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DEPARTMENT OF _______________________ ENGINEERING


__________COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
AFFILIATED TO ___________ UNIVERSITY

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the dissertation work entitled
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
is
the
work
done
by
_______________________________________________submitted in partial
fulfilment for the award of B.TECH IN
ENGINEERING in
__________________________Engineering from______________ SCHOOL of
Engineering affiliated to _________ University,

________________

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(Head of the department,______)

(Assistant Professor)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The satisfaction and euphoria that accompany the successful completion of any
task would be incomplete without the mentioning of the people whose constant
guidance and encouragement made it possible. We take pleasure in presenting
before you, our project, which is result of studied blend of both research and
knowledge.
We express our earnest gratitude to our internal guide, Assistant Professor
______________,

Department

of

__________,

our

project

guide

_____________________, for his constant support, encouragement and


guidance. We are grateful for his cooperation and his valuable suggestions.
Finally, we express our gratitude to all other members who are involved either
directly or indirectly for the completion of this project.

DECLARATION
We, the undersigned, declare that the project entitled ADVANCE
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM, being submitted in partial fulfilment for
the
award
of
B-tech
in
Engineering
in
_________________________Engineering, affiliated to _________ University,
is the work carried out by us.

__________

_________

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Abstract
The job of a refrigeration plant is to cool articles or substances down to, and maintain them at
a temperature lower than the ambient temperature. Refrigeration can be defined as a process
that removes heat.The oldest and most well-known among refrigerants are ice, water, and air.
In the beginning, the sole purpose was to conserve food. The Chinese were the first to find
out that ice increased the life and improved the taste of drinks and for centuries Eskimos have
conserved food by freezing it.
All we are using Refrigeration system now a days because of this high heat as well as global
warming.
Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location to another.
Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to: household refrigerators,
industrial freezers, cryogenics, and air conditioning.

Introduction
Refrigeration is a process of producing low temperatures as compared to the surrounding
temperatures.
It will be possible only if heat is transferred from the low temperature region to a high
temperature region. Obviously it is not possible in the natural manner because heat flows
from high temperature to low temperature like fluid flows from high pressure to low pressure/
current flows from high voltage to low voltage/ gas flows from high concentration to the
region of low concentration. It means in refrigeration one is trying to go against the natural
process as well as against the second law of thermodynamics which states that heat cannot
flow from low temperature region to a high temperature region without the use of an external
agent. The external agent in refrigeration is the compressor which introduces the most
common method of refrigeration.
The most commonly used closed vapour compression refrigeration system consists
of six main parts namely compressor, condenser, expansion device, evaporator,
piping and circulating working substance called the refrigerant.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction:
Refrigeration is defined as the science of maintaining the temperature of
particular space lower than the surrounding space. This process is called
refrigeration system.

1.2 Background:
In 1834, an American inventor named Jacob Perkins obtained the first patent
for a vapor-compression refrigeration system. It uses ether in a vapor
compression cycle.
The vapor compression type refrigeration system plays a great role in domestic
and industrial area.
It controls mainly temperature & relative humidity of air to keep food at initial
condition without changing nutrition & taste.
It protects food from bacteria and keeps the living place neat & healthy.
It is used in sectors like Pharmaceutical companies, Chemical industries,
IceCream factories, Cold storages, Hotels e.g. (THE WESTIN DHAKA) etc.

1.3 Objective:
To build a low cost but effective vapor compression type refrigeration system.
To make it available for commercial use.

1.4 Methodology:
Collection of data and technical information from the manuals of SAMSUNG,
PHILIPS, WALTON .
Purchase of the discrete components from local market.
Visit of Hotels (THE WESTIN DHAKA).

CHAPTER 02

PRINCIPLE OF REFRIGERATION
7

2.1 Pressure:
Pressure is the force on an object that is spread over a surface area. The
equation for pressure is P = F/A. Pressure can be measured for a solid is pushing
on a solid, but the case of a solid pushing on a liquid or gas requires that the fluid
be confined in a container. The force can also be created by the weight of an
object. So that,
P=F/A Where,
P=Pressure is new tons per square meter (N/m) or Pascals (Pa).
F=The force in new tons (N).
A=The area in square meters (m).
Another common unit of pressure measure is the bar.
One bar is equal to 100000 pa or N/m.

2.2 Pascals Law:


To honor the scientist Pascal, the SI metric system uses the term "Pascal" as a
unit of pressure. A Pascal is a Newton per square meter (N/ m).A Newton is the
metric unit offorce. One Newton is equal to the mass of 1 kilogram being
accelerated at rate of 1 meterper second per second. Pascal low states that
pressure applied upon a confined fluid is transmitted equally in all directions. It is
the basis of operation of most hydraulic and pneumatic system.

2.3 Pressure gage:


A pressure gage is an instrument, which used to measure fluid (Gaseous or
liquid) pressure in a closed vessel. Pressure gages commonly used in the
refrigeration industry are of two principle types. Such as manometer and
bourdon tube.

2.4 Atmospheric pressure:


The earth is surrounded by an envelope of atmosphere or air extends upward
from the surface of the earth to a distance of some 50 miles or more. Since air
has mass and is subject to the actions of gravity. It exerts a pressure that is
known as the atmospheric pressure.

2.5 Absolute pressure:


Absolute Pressure is the sum of the available atmospheric pressure and the gage
pressure in the pumping system.

2.6 Heat:
12Heat is a from of energy. This is evident from the fact that heat can be
converted in to other forms of energy and that other forms of energy can be
converted in to heat. Thermodynamically heat is the defined as energy in transit
from one body to another as the result temperature difference between the two
bodies. All other transfers occur as work.

2.7 Specific heat:


Specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the
temperature by one degree Celsius. The specific heat of water is 1 calorie / gram
C.
So that ,Q = c m dT
Where,
Q = Heat added. c = Specific heat. m = Mass. dT = Change in temperature.

2.8 Sensible heat:


Sensible heat is the heat absorbed or given off by a substance that is not in the
process of changing its physical state. Sensible heat can be sensed or measured
with a thermometer and the addition or removal of sensible heat will always
cause a change in the temperature of the substance.

2.9 Latent heat:


Latent heat is the heat absorbed or given off by a substance while it is changing
its physical state. The heat absorbed or given off does not cause a temperature
change in the substance the heat is latent or hidden. In other words, sensible
heat is the heat that affects the temperature of things latent heat is the heat
that affects the physical state of things.

2.10 Superheat:
Once a liquid has been vaporized, the temperature of the resulting vapor can be
further increased by the additional of heat. The heat added to a vapor after
vaporization is the sensible heat of the vapor, more commonly called super heat.

2.11 Temperature:

Temperature is a measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in


an object or system and can be measured with a thermometer or a calorimeter. It
is a means of determining the internal energy contained within the system.

2.12 Absolute temperature:


The temperature value relative to absolute zero. The absolute zero is the
theoretical temperature at which molecular motion vanishes and a body would
have no heat energy the zero point of the Kelvin and Rankin temperature scales.
Absolute zero may be interpreted as the temperature at which the volume of a
perfect gas vanishes or more generally as the temperature of the cold source,
that would render 100% efficient.

2.13 Saturation temperature:


13Saturation temperature means boiling point. The saturation temperature is the
temperature for a corresponding saturation pressure at which a liquid boils into
its vapor phase. The liquid can be said to be saturated with thermal energy. Any
addition of thermal energy results in a phase transition.

2.14 Thermometer:
An instrument for measuring and indicating temperature typically one consisting
of a narrow hermetically sealed glass tube marked with graduations and having
at one end a bulb containing mercury or alcohol that expands and contracts in
the tube with heating and cooling.

2.15 Work:
Work is the transfer of energy. Otherwise work is defined (in calculus terms) as
the integral of the force over a distance of displacement. The SI units for work
are the joule (J) or Newton-meter (N m), from the function.
W = F s Where, W=Is work. F=Is force. s = Is the displacement.

2.16 Power:
Power is the time rate at which work is done or energy is transferred. In calculus
terms, power is the derivative of work with respect to time. The SI unit of power
is the watt (W) or joule per second (J/s). Horsepower is a unit of power in the
British system of measurement. The dimension of power is energy divided by
time.

2.17 Energy:

10

Energy is the capacity of a physical system to perform work. Energy exists in


several forms such as heat, kinetic or mechanical energy, light, potential
energy, electrical, or other forms. The SI unit of energy is the joule (J).

2.18 Saturation temperature:


The temperature and pressure of the atmosphere must be at that point or in an
interval of values for the substance to be saturated.

2.19 Superheated vapor:


The present invention involves a system and method for superheating the
refrigerant gas in a motor vehicle air conditioning system in order to minimize
the amount of work required to be performed by the compressor. In an
embodiment of the present invention, the refrigerant gas is diverted through the
exhaust manifold immediately after passing through the compressor. As the
refrigerant gas passes through the exhaust manifold. 14The surrounding hot
exhaust gases thereby increasing the refrigerant gas pressure to reduce the
amount of work done by the compressor superheat it. Refrigerant vapor at a
temperature that is higher than its boiling point at a given pressure.

2.20 Sub cooled liquid:


A compressed fluid (also called a subcooled fluid or subcooled liquid) is a fluid
underthermodynamic conditions that force it to be a liquid. It is a liquid at a
temperature lower than the saturation temperature at a given pressure. In a plot
comparing absolute pressure and specific volume (commonly called a P-v
diagram), of a real gas, a compressed fluid is to the left of the liquid-vapor phase
boundary; that is, it will be to the left of the vapor dome.

2.21 Vaporization:
Vaporization is the transition of matter from a solid or liquid phase into a gaseous
phase.Water boiling into steam is an example of vaporization.

2.22 Evaporation:
Evaporation is the process by which water is converted from its liquid form to its
vapor form and thus transferred from land and water masses to the atmosphere.
Evaporation from the oceans accounts for 80% of the water delivered as
precipitation with the balance occurring on land, inland waters and plant
surfaces.

2.23 The cooling effect of evaporation:


Evaporation is the removal of water molecules from the surface of a liquid. If
alcohol is splashed on the back of the hand, it produces a cooling effect. When a
11

liquid evaporates, this involves a change of state from liquid to gas. This change
requires heat energy called latent heat/ hidden heat. As plants transpire, water
is evaporated from the leaves. Evaporation has a cooling effect in this situation
as well. Plants are cooled during transpiration. Evaporation is used by the body
to regulate its temperature. When the temperature of the body rises we begin to
perspire more. Sweat glands in the skin will produce more sweat. This sweat
evaporates and the result is a cooling effect on the skin. The rate at which the
evaporation takes place depends on the rate of air over the skin and this is why
we fan ourselves to speed up the process. When the surroundings are cold, the
blood vessels contract, to prevent heat loss. In these circumstances the
subcutaneous fat serves as insulation and is sometimes burnt to provide heat.
Hairs may also become erect to trap air as further insulation. In circumstances
where the temperature is high, our metabolic rate falls so that less heat is
generated by our body. In cold temperatures extra heat is produced by an
increase of the metabolic rate, mainly of the liver and muscles. This sometimes
causes rhythmical involuntary contractions of the skeletal muscles(shivering).

2.24 Condensation:
It is the change of the physical state of matter from gaseous phase into liquid
phase, and is the reverse of evaporation. 15When the transition happens from
the gaseous phase into the solid phase directly, the change is called deposition.
Upon the slowing-down of the molecules of the material, the overall attraction
forces between these prevail and bring them together at distances comparable
to their sizes. Since the condensing molecules suffer from reduced degrees of
freedom and ranges of motion, their prior kinetic energy must be transferred to
an absorbing colder entity either a center of condensation within the gas volume
or some contact surface.

2.25 Critical temperature:


The temperature at which some phase change occurs in a metal during heating
or cooling, i.e. the temperature at which an arrest or critical point is shown on
heating or cooling curves.

2.26 Critical pressure:


Critical pressure is the lowest pressure at which a substance can exist in the
liquid sate at
its critical temperature.It is the saturation pressure at the critical temperature.

2.27 Enthralpy:
Enthalpy is a measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system. It includes
the internal energy, which is the energy required to create a system, and the
amount of energy required to make room for it by displacing its environment and
establishing its volume and pressure.
12

So that,H = U + p V
Where,H = Is the enthalpy of the system.U = Is the internal energy of the
system.p = Is
the pressure at the boundary of the system and its environment.
V = Is the volume of the system.

2.28 Entropy:
A thermodynamic quantity representing the unavailability of a system's thermal
energy for conversion into mechanical work often interpreted as the degree of
disorder or randomness in the system.
16CHAPTER 03
THE HISTORY OF REFRIGERATION

3.1 Refrigeration history:


In Prehistoric times, man found that his game would last during times when food
was not available if stored in the coolness of a cave or packed in snow. In China,
before the first millennium, ice was harvested and stored. Hebrews, Greeks, and
Romans placed largeamounts of snow into storage pits dug into the ground and
insulated with wood and straw. The ancient Egyptians filled earthen jars with
boiled water and put them on their roofs, thus exposing the jars to the nights
cool air. In India, evaporative cooling was employed. When a liquid vaporizes
rapidly, it expands quickly. The rising molecules of vapor abruptly increase their
kinetic energy and this increase is drawn from the immediate surroundings of the
vapor. These surroundings are therefore cooled. The intermediate stage in the
history of cooling foods was to add chemicals like sodium nitrate or potassium
nitrate to water causing the temperature to fall. Cooling wine via this method
was recorded in 1550, as were the words "to refrigerate. Cooling drinks came
into vogue by 1600 in France. Instead of cooling water at night people rotated
long necked bottles in water in which saltpeter had been dissolved. This solution
could be used to produce very low temperatures and to make ice. By the end of
the 17th century, iced liquors and frozen juices were popular in French society.
The first known artificial refrigeration was demonstrated by William Cullen at the
University of Glasgow in 1748.Cullen let ethyl ether boil into a partial vacuum he
did not however, use the result to any practical purpose. Ice was first shipped
commercially out of Canal Street in New York City to Charleston, South Carolina
in 1799. Unfortunately, there was not much ice left when the shipment arrived.
New Englanders Frederick Tudor and Nathaniel Wyeth saw the potential for the
ice business and revolutionized the industry through their efforts in the first half
of the 1800s. Tudor, who became known as the Ice King, focused on shipping
ice to tropical climates. He experimented with insulating materials and built
icehouses that decreased melting losses from 66 percent to less than 8 percent.
Wyethdevised a method of quickly and cheaply cutting uniform blocks of ice that
13

transformed the ice industry, making it possible to speed handling techniques in


storage,transportation and distribution with less waste.
In
1805,
an
American
inventor,
OliverEvans,
designed
the
firstrefrigerationmachine that used vapor instead of liquid. Evansnever
constructed his machine, but one similar to it was built by an American
physician,John Gorrie. In 1842, the American physician John Gorrie, to cool
sickrooms in a Floridahospital designed and built an air-cooling apparatus for
treating yellow fever patients.His basic principle that of compressing a gas,
cooling it by sending it through radiatingcoils, and then expanding it to lower the
temperature further is the one most often used inrefrigerators today. Giving up
his medical practice to engage in time consumingexperimentation with ice
making, he was granted the first U.S. patent for mechanicalrefrigeration in 1851.
Commercial refrigeration is believed to have been initiated by an American
businessperson, Alexander C. Twinning, in 1856. Shortly afterward anAustralian,
James Harrison examined the refrigerators used by Gorrie and Twinning and
introduced vapor-compression refrigeration to the brewing and meatpacking
industries. Ferdinand Carr of France developed a somewhat more complex
system in 1859.17Unlike earlier compression machines, which used air as a
coolant, Carr's equipmentcontained rapidly expanding ammonia (Ammonia
liquefies at a much lower temperature than water and is thus able to absorb
more heat.) Carr's refrigerators were widely used, and vapor compression
refrigeration became and still is, the most widely used method of cooling.
However, the cost, size and complexity of refrigeration systems of the time,
coupled with the toxicity of their ammonia coolants prevented the general use of
mechanical refrigerators in the home. Most households used iceboxes that were
supplied almost daily with blocks of ice from a local refrigeration plant. Beginning
in the 1840s,refrigerated cars were used to transport milk and butter. By 1860,
refrigerated transportwas limited to mostly seafood and dairy products. The
refrigerated railroad car was patented by J.B. Sutherland of Detroit, Michigan in
1867. He designed an insulated car with ice bunkers in each end. Air came in on
the top passed through the bunkers and circulated through the car by gravity
controlled by the use of hanging flaps that created differences in air
temperature. The first refrigerated car to carry fresh fruit was built in 1867 by
Parker Earle of Illinois, who shipped strawberries on the Illinois Central Railroad.
Each chest contained 100 pounds of ice and 200 quarts of strawberries. It wasnot
until 1949 that a refrigeration system made its way into the trucking industry by
way of a roof-mounted cooling device, patented by Fred Jones. Brewing was the
first activity in the northern states to use mechanical refrigeration extensively,
beginning with an absorption machine used by S. Liebmanns Sons Brewing
Company in Brooklyn, New York in 1870. Commercial refrigeration was primarily
directed at breweries in the 1870s and by 1891, nearly every brewery was
equipped with refrigerating machines. Natural ice supply became an industry
unto itself. More companies entered the business, prices decreased and
refrigeration using ice became more accessible. By 1879, there were 35
commercial ice plants in America, more than 200 a decade later, and 2,000 by
1909. No pond was safe from scraping for ice production not even Thoreaus
14

Walden Pond, where 1,000 tons of ice was extracted each day in 1847. However,
as time went on ice, as a refrigeration agent, became a health problem. Says
Bern Nagengast, co-author of Heat and Cold Mastering the Great Indoors
(published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning
Engineers), Good sources were harder and harder to find. By the 1890s, natural
ice became a problem because of pollution and sewagedumping. Signs of a
problem were first evident in the brewing industry. Soon the meatpacking and
dairy industries followed with their complaints. Refrigeration technology provided
the solution ice, mechanically manufactured giving birth to mechanical
refrigeration. Carl (Paul Gottfried) von Linde in 1895 set up a large-scale plant for
the production of liquid air. Six years later he developed a method for separating
pure liquid oxygen from liquid air that resulted in widespread industrial
conversion to processes utilizing oxygen (e.g., in steel manufacture). Though
meatpackers were slower to adopt refrigeration than the breweries, they
ultimately used refrigeration pervasively. By 1914, the machinery installed in
almost all American packing plants was the ammonia compression system, which
had a refrigeration capacity of well over 90,000 tons/day. Despite the inherent
advantages, refrigeration had its problems. Refrigerants like sulfur dioxide and
methyl chloride were causing people to die. Ammonia had an equally serious
toxic effect if it leaked. Refrigeration engineers searched for acceptable
substitutes until the 1920s, when a number of synthetic refrigerants called
halocarbons or CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) were developed by Frigidaire. The
best known of these substances was patented under the brand name of Freon.
Chemically Freon was created by the substitution of two chlorine and two fluorine
atoms for the four hydrogen atoms in methane (CH4) the result,
dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2) is odorless and is toxic only in extremely large
doses.18Though ice, brewing, and meatpacking industries were refrigerations
major beneficiaries, many other industries found refrigeration a boon to their
business. In metal working, for instance mechanically produced cold helped
temper cutlery and tools.Iron production got a boost, as refrigeration removed
moisture from the air delivered to blast furnaces, increasing production.Allied
fighting ships held carbon-dioxide machines to keep ammunition well below
temperatures at which high explosives became unstable.In 1973, Prof. James
Lovelock reported finding trace amounts of refrigerant gases in the atmosphere.
In 1974, Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina predicted that chlorofluorocarbon
refrigerant gases would reach the high stratosphere and there damage the
protective mantle of the oxygen allotrope, ozone. In 1985 the "ozone hole" over
the Antarctic had been discovered and by 1990 Rowland and Molina's prediction
was provedcorrect. The basic components of todays modern vapor-compression
refrigeration system are a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device, which
can be a valve, a capillary tube, an engine, or a turbine; and an evaporator. The
gas coolant is first compressed, usually by a piston, and then pushed through a
tube into the condenser. In the condenser, the winding tube containing the vapor
is passed through either circulating air or a bath of water, which removes some
of the heat energy of the compressed gas.The cooled vapor is passed through an
expansion device to an area of much lower pressure as the vapor expands, it
draws the energy of its expansion from its surroundings or the medium in contact
15

with it. Evaporators may directly cool a space by letting the vapor come into
contact with the area to be chilled or they may act indirectly-i.e. by cooling a
secondary medium such as water. In most domestic refrigerators, the
coilcontaining the evaporator directly contacts the air in the food compartment.
At the end of the process, the warmed gas is drawn toward the compressor.

19CHAPTER 04
CLASSIFICATION OF DIFFERENT TYPE
REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
4.1 Refrigeration system:
Refrigeration is defined as the science of maintaining the temperature of a
particularspace lower than the surrounding space. Thermodynamically, when the
body at certain temperature is kept in the atmosphere it tends to attain the
temperature of the atmosphere. But with the process of refrigeration it can be
kept at temperature much lower than the atmospheric temperature. A
refrigerator uses the evaporation of a liquid to absorb heat. The liquid or
refrigerant used in a refrigerator evaporates at an extremely low temperature
creating freezing temperatures inside the refrigerator. It's all based on the
following physics a liquid is rapidly vaporized (through compression) the quickly
expanding vapor requires kinetic energy and draws the energy needed from the
immediate area which loses energy and becomes cooler. Cooling caused by the
rapid expansion of gases is the primary means of refrigeration today.

4.2 Methods of refrigeration system:


We can classification seven types of refrigeration systen from principle and
operation.
1) Dry-ICE Refrigeration system.
2) Steam-Jet Refrigeration system.

16

3) Air cycle refrigeration system.


4) Vapour compressoion refrigeration system.
5) Vapour absourption refrigeration system.
6) Thermo-Electric Refrigeration system.
7) Cryozenics refrigeration system.

4.3 Dry-ICE Refrigeration system:


Dry ice is the solid carbon dioxide having the temperature of -78 degree Celsius.
Dry ice converts directly from solid state to gaseous this process is called as
sublimation. Dry ice can be pressed into various sizes and shapes as blocks or
slabs. Dry ice is usually packed in the frozen food cartons along with the food
that has to be kept frozen for long intervals of time. When the dry ice gets
converted into vapor state it keeps the food frozen. The process of dry ice
refrigeration is now a days being used for freezing the food in aircraft
transportation.

20Figure: Dry-Ice refrigeration system.


This methods of refrigeration system can be used only in places where small
amount of refrigeration is required in places like laboratories, workshops, water
coolers, small old drink shops, small hotels etc. In fact the ordinary ice and dry
ice used for the refrigeration purposed have to be manufactured by the cyclic
methods of refrigeration which we shall see in the next article. However, in the
earlier days the ice used for the cooling purposes was usually harvested during
the winter seasons from the ponds and lakes and stored in large insulated ice
houses for the use throughout the year.

4.4 Steam jet refrigeration system:


If water is sprayed into a chamber where a low pressure is maintained a part of
the water will evaporate. The enthalpy of evaporation will cool the remaining
water to its saturation temperature at the pressure in the chamber. Obviously
lower temperature will require lower pressure. Water freezes at 0oC hence
temperature lower than 4oC cannot be obtained with water. In this system, high
velocity steam is used to entrain the evaporating water vapor. High-pressure
motive steam passes through either convergent or convergent-divergent nozzle
where it acquires both sonic or supersonic velocity and low pressure of the order
of 0.009 kPa corresponding to an evaporator temperature of
4oC. The high momentum of motive steam entrains or carries along with it the
water vapor evaporating from the flash chamber. Because of its high velocity it
17

moves the vapors against the pressure gradient up to the condenser where the
pressure is 5.6 to 7.4kPa corresponding to condenser temperature of 35-45oC.
The motive vapor and the evaporated vapor both are condensed and recycled. It
can be seen that this system requires a good vacuum to be maintained.
Sometimes booster ejector is used for this purpose. This system is driven by lowgrade energy that is process steam in chemical plants or a boiler.

21Figure: Schematics
refrigeration system.

diagram

of

steam

jet

In 1838, the Frenchman Pelletan was granted a patent for the compression of
steam by means of a jet of motive steam. Around 1900, the Englishman Charles
Parsons studied the possibility of reduction of pressure by an entrainment effect
from a steam jet. However, the credit for constructing the steam jet refrigeration
system goes to the French engineer, Maurice Leblanc who developed the system
in 1907-08. In this system, ejectors were used to produce a high velocity steam
jet ( 1200 m/s). Based on Leblancs design the first commercial system was
made by Westinghouse in 1909 in Paris. Even though the efficiency of the steam
jet refrigeration system was low, it was still attractive as water is harmless and
the system can run using exhaust steam from a steam engine.From 1910
onwards, stem jet refrigeration systems were used mainly in breweries, chemical
factories, warships etc. In 1926, the French engineer Fellahin improved the
machine by introducing multiple stages of vaporization and condensation of the
suction steam. Between 1928-1930, there was much interest in this type of
systems in USA. In USA they were mainly used for air conditioning of factories,
cinema theatres, ships and even railway wagons. Several companies such as
Westinghouse, Ingersoll Rand and Carrier started commercial production of these
systems from 1930. However, gradually these systems were replaced by more
efficient vapor absorption systems using LiBrwater. Still, some east European
countries such as Czechoslovakia and Russia manufactured these systems as
late as 1960s. The ejector principle can also be used to provide refrigeration
using fluids other than water, i.e., refrigerants such as CFC-11, CFC-21, CFC-22,
CFC-113, CFC-114 etc. The credit for first developing these closed vapor jet
refrigeration systems goes to the Russian engineer, I.S. Badylkes around 1955.

4.5 Air cycle refrigeration system:


Air cycle refrigeration systems belong to the general class of gas cycle
refrigeration systems in which gas is used as the working fluid. The gas does not
under go any phase change during the cycle, consequently, all the internal heat
transfer processes are sensible heat transfer processes. It applications in air craft
cabin cooling and also in the liquefaction of various gases. Air cycle refrigeration
systems use air as their refrigerant compressing it and expanding it to create
heating and cooling capacity. 22Air cycle is not a new technology. Air cycle or
cold air machines were available from Companies such as J & E Hall in the early
1900s. These were used on board ships and by food producers and retailers to
provide cooling for their food stores. However, the development of vapor
18

compression cycles based initially on ethyl ether ammonia or sulphur-dioxide but


superseded by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) led to the gradual replacement of the
majority of air cycle systems except in the field of aircraft air conditioning.
Environmental concerns about CFCs, ozone depletion, global warming and the
resulting increasingly stringent legislation have renewed interest in alternatives
to the current standard of vapor-compression refrigeration technologies. The use
of air cycle is one of these offering a benign substitute for CFC refrigerants as
well as reduced energy consumption and capital costs for targeted applications.
Air cycle refrigeration works on the reverse Brayton or Joule cycle. Air is
compressed and then heat removed this air is then expanded to a lower
temperature than before it was compressed. Work must be taken out of the air
during the expansion otherwise the entropy would increase. Work is taken out of
the air by an expansion turbine which removes energy as the blades are driven
round by the expanding air. This work can be usefully employed to run other
devices such as generators or fans. Often though it is used to power a directly
connected (bootstrap) compressor which elevates the compressed (hot) side
pressure further without added external energy input essentially recycling the
energy removed from the expanding air to compress the high pressure air
further. The increase in pressure on the hot side further elevates the temperature
and makes the air cycle system produce more useable heat (at a higher
temperature). The cold air after the turbine can be used as a refrigerant either
directly in an open system or indirectly by means of a heat exchanger in a closed
system.
The efficiency of such systems limited to a great extent by the efficiencies of
compression and expansion as well as those of the heat exchangers employed.
Originally slow speed reciprocating compressors and expanders were used. The
poor efficiency and reliability of such machinery were major factors in the
replacement of such systems with vapor compression equipment. However, the
development of rotary compressors and expanders (such as in car
turbochargers) greatly improved the isentropic efficiency and reliability of the air
cycle. Advances in turbine technology together with the development of air
bearings and ceramic components offer further efficiency improvements.
Combining these advances with newly available compact heat exchangers which
have greatly improved heat transfer characteristics makes competition with
many existing vapor compression quite feasible.
Figure: Schematic of a simple aircraft refrigeration cycle.23In figure shows the
schematic of a simple aircraft refrigeration system and the operating cycle on T-s
diagram. This is an open system. As shown in the T-s diagram the outside low
pressure and low temperature air (state 1) is compressed due to ram effect to
ram pressure (state 2). During this process its temperature increases from 1 to 2.
This air is compressed in the main compressor to state 3, and is cooled to state 4
in the air cooler. Its pressure is reduced to cabin pressure in the turbine (state 5),
as a result its temperature drops from 4 to 5. The cold air at state 5 is supplied to
the cabin. It picks up heat as it flows through the cabin providing useful cooling
effect. The power output of the turbine is used to drive the fan which maintains
the required air flow over the air cooler. This simple system is good for ground
19

cooling (when the aircraft is not moving) as fan can continue to maintain airflow
over the air cooler.

4.6 Vapor compression refrigeration system:


Refrigeration systems are also used for providing cooling and dehumidification in
summer or personal comfort (air conditioning). The first air conditioning systems
were used for industrial as well as comfort air conditioning. Eastman Kodak
installed the first air conditioning system in 1891 in Rochester, New York for the
storage of photographic films. An air conditioning system was installed in a
printing press in 1902 and in a telephone exchange in Hamburg in 1904. Many
systems were installed in tobacco and textile factories around 1900. The first
domestic air conditioning system was installed in a house in Frankfurt in 1894. A
private library in St Louis, USA was air conditioned in 1895, and a casino was air
conditioned in Monte Carlo in 1901. Efforts have also been made to air condition
passenger rail coaches using ice. The widespread development of air
conditioning is attributed to the American scientist and industrialist Willis Carrier.
Carrier studied the control of humidity in 1902 and designed a central air
conditioning plant using air washer in 1904. Due to the pioneering efforts of
Carrier and also due to simultaneous development of different components and
controls air conditioning quickly became very popular especially after 1923. At
present comfort air conditioning is widely used in residences, offices, commercial
buildings, air ports, hospitals and in mobile applications such as rail coaches,
automobiles, aircrafts etc. Industrial air conditioning is largely responsible for the
growth of modern electronic, pharmaceutical, chemical industries etc. Most of
the present day air conditioning systems use either a vapor compression
refrigeration system or a vapor absorption refrigeration system. The capacities
vary from few kilowatts to megawatts. As shown in the figure the basic system
consists of an evaporator, compressor, condenser and an expansion valve.
Figure: Vapour compressoion refrigeration system.
24The refrigeration effect is obtained in the cold region as heat is extracted by
the vaporization of refrigerant in the evaporator. The refrigerant vapor from the
evaporator is compressed in the compressor to a high pressure at which its
saturation temperature is greater than the ambient or any other heat sink. Hence
when the high pressure high temperature refrigerant flows through the
condenser, condensation of the vapor into liquid takes place by heat rejection to
the heat sink. To complete the cycle the high pressure liquid is made to flow
through an expansion valve. In the expansion valve the pressure and
temperature of the refrigerant decrease. This low pressure and low temperature
refrigerant vapor evaporates in the evaporator taking heat from the cold region.
It should be observed that the system operates on a closed cycle. The system
requires input in the form of mechanical work. It extracts heat from a cold space
and rejects heat to a high temperature heat sink. A refrigeration system can also
be used as a heat pump, in which the useful output is the high temperature heat
rejected at the condenser. Alternatively a refrigeration system can be used for

20

providing cooling in summer and heating in winter. Such systems have been built
and are available now.

Vapor-Compression Refrigeration
Compression refrigeration cycles take advantage of the fact that highly compressed fluids at a
certain temperature tend to get colder when they are allowed to expand. If the pressure
change is high enough, then the compressed gas will be hotter than our source of cooling
(outside air, for instance) and the expand ed gas will be cooler than our desired cold
temperature. In this case, fluid is used to cool a low temperature environment and reject the
heat to a high temperature environment.
Vapour compression refrigeration cycles have two advantages. First, a large amount of
thermal energy is required to change a liquid to a vapor, and therefore a lot of heat can be
removed from the air-conditioned space. Second, the isothermal nature of the vaporization
allows extraction of heat without raising the temperature of the working fluid to the
temperature of whatever is being cooled. This means that the heat transfer rate remains high,
because the closer the working fluid temperature approaches that of the surroundings, the
lower the rate of heat transfer.

Vapor-Compression Refrigeration

condenser

21

Compressr

evaporator

Refrigeration Cycle
A brief review of the vapour-compression refrigeration cycle will help to relate that
Components which is used in refrigeration system.

22

A
diagram
of
a
typical
vapor-

compression refrigeration cycle can be superimposed on a pressure-enthalpy (P-h)


chart to demonstrate the function of each component in the system.
The pressure-enthalpy chart plots the properties of a refrigerant refrigerant
pressure (vertical axis) versus enthalpy (horizontal axis). Enthalpy is a measure of
the heat content, both sensible and latent, per pound [kg] of refrigerant.

The cycle starts with a cool, low-pressure mixture of liquid and vapor refrigerant
entering the evaporator (A) where it absorbs heat from the relatively warm air, water,
or other fluid that is being cooled. This transfer of heat boils the liquid refrigerant in
the evaporator, and this superheated refrigerant vapour is drawn to the compressor
(B).

23

The compressor draws in the superheated refrigerant vapor (B) and compresses it
to a pressure and temperature (C) high enough that it can reject heat to another
fluid. This hot, high-pressure refrigerant vapour then travels to the condenser.

24

Within the condenser, heat is transferred from the hot refrigerant vapor to relatively
cool ambient air or cooling water. This reduction in the heat content of the refrigerant
vapour causes it to desuperheated, condense into liquid, and further sub cool before
leaving the condenser (D) for the expansion device.

25

Finally, the high-pressure liquid refrigerant (D) flows through the expansion device,
causing a large pressure drop that reduces the pressure of the refrigerant to that of
the evaporator.
This pressure reduction causes a small portion of the liquid to boil off, or flash,
cooling the remaining refrigerant to the desired evaporator temperature.
The cooled mixture of liquid and vapour refrigerant then enters the evaporator ( A) to
repeat the cycle.

Refrigeration System Components


Condensers:
The first major component to be discussed is the condenser. The condenser is a
heat exchanger that rejects heat from the refrigerant to air, water, or some other fluid.
The three common types of condensers are air-cooled, water-cooled, and
evaporative.

26

Air-Cooled Condensers
A typical air-cooled condenser uses propeller-type fans to draw outdoor air over a
finned tube heat transfer surface. The temperature difference between the hot
refrigerant vapour that is flowing through the tubes and the cooler outdoor air
induces heat transfer. The resulting reduction in the heat content of the refrigerant
vapour causes it to condense into liquid. Within the final few lengths of condenser
tubing (the sub cooler), the liquid refrigerant is further cooled below the temperature
at which it was condensed.
The air-cooled condenser is very popular in both residential and commercial
applications because of its convenience. It requires very little maintenance and does
not require the freeze protection and water treatment that is necessary with a watercooled condenser.
Additionally, it is favoured in areas that have an inadequate or costly water supply, or
where the use of water for air conditioning is restricted.

27

The benefit of sub cooling on system performance can be demonstrated by


comparing the performance of a system with and without sub cooling.
The change in enthalpy (the line from A to B) that occurs in the evaporator is called
the refrigeration effect. This is the amount of heat that each pound [kg] of liquid
refrigerant will absorb when it evaporates.
In comparison, the same system without sub cooling produces less refrigeration
effect (the line from A I to B). The system without sub cooling must evaporate
substantially more refrigerant within a larger coil to produce the same capacity as the
system with sub cooling.
Instead of sub cooling in the condenser, some packaged refrigeration equipment,
such as water chillers, may use an economizer or liquid/vapour separator to increase
this refrigeration effect.

An alternative air-cooled condenser uses a centrifugal fan to draw or blow air over
the condensing coil. The principal advantage of this design is that the centrifugal fan
is capable of overcoming the higher static-pressure losses associated with ductwork.
Therefore, if the condenser is to be located indoors and uses a duct system to
deliver air to and from the condenser coil, the centrifugal fan air-cooled condenser
is probably best suited for this application.

28

Evaporative Condensers
A modification of the air-cooled condenser is the evaporative condenser. Within
this device, the refrigerant flows through tubes and air is drawn or blown over the
tubes by a fan.
The difference is that water is sprayed on the tube surfaces. As the air passes over
the coil, it causes a small portion of the water to evaporate. This evaporation process
absorbs heat from the coil, causing the refrigerant vapor within the tubes to
condense. The remaining water then falls to the sump to be recirculated and used
again. Sub cooling of the refrigerant can be accomplished by piping the condensed
liquid back through another few rows of coil tubing, located either in the condenser
airstream or in the water sump, where additional heat transfer reduces the
temperature of the liquid refrigerant.

29

A cooling tower is a device commonly used to cool condensing water. In this


design, warm water is sprayed over fill in the cooling tower while a propeller fan
draws outdoor air upward through the fill. The movement of air through the spray
causes some of the water to evaporate, a process that cools the remaining water.
This cooled water then falls to the tower sump to be returned to the condenser.
The final temperature of the water leaving the tower is determined, in part, by the
humidity of the outdoor air. If the outdoor air is dry, the final water temperature can
be considerably lower than the ambient dry-bulb temperature. If the outdoor air is
humid, however, the final temperature will be near the ambient dry-bulb temperature.
While a cooling tower can reclaim much of the condensing water, it cannot reclaim it
all. The evaporation process uses up water to dissipate heat contributed by the
cooling load plus the heat of compression. In addition, as the water evaporates, the
dissolved minerals and water treatment chemicals become concentrated in the
sump. To prevent this solution from becoming concentrated and possibly corrosive,
water is periodically bled from the sump and an equal amount of fresh water is
added.
In the past, some water-cooled condensers used water from either a municipal or a
natural water supply as the condensing water. After rejecting the condenser heat to
this water, it was dumped into the sewer or back into the body of water.
Environmental and economic restrictions have made this method uncommon.
Finally, a geothermal well system can be used to reject the heat from the condenser
by circulating the condensing water through a series of underground pipes. This
method takes advantage of the naturally-cool ground temperatures.

30

Condenser Control
Condenser capacity is influenced by:

Temperature difference between refrigerant and cooling media

Flow rate of cooling media through condenser

Flow rate of refrigerant through condenser

Condenser Control
The heat rejection capacity of a condenser is influenced by (1) the temperature
difference between the refrigerant and the cooling media (air, water, or other fluid),
(2) the flow rate of the cooling media through the condenser, and (3) the flow rate of
the refrigerant through the condenser.
To balance the rate of heat rejection (in the condenser) with the changing system
load, at least one of these variables may be controlled.

Evaporators:
The second major component to be discussed is the evaporator. The evaporator is
a heat exchanger that transfers heat from air, water, or some other fluid to the cool
liquid refrigerant.
Two common types of evaporators are the finned-tube and the shell-and-tube.

31

Finned-Tube Evaporators
A finned-tube evaporator includes rows of tubes passing through sheets of formed
fins.
Cool, liquid refrigerant flows through the tubes, cooling the tube and fin surfaces. As
air passes through the coil and comes into contact with the cold fin surfaces, heat is
transferred from the air to the refrigerant. This heat transfer causes the refrigerant to
boil and leave the evaporator as vapor.

32

To provide uniform heat transfer throughout the coil, the liquid refrigerant
distributed to the coil tubes in several parallel circuits. A distributor is used
ensure uniform refrigerant distribution through these multiple coil circuits.
distributes the liquid/vapour refrigerant mixture to the coil through several tubes
equal length and diameter.

is
to
It
of

As the refrigerant passes through the tubes of the coil, the liquid refrigerant absorbs
heat from the air, causing it to boil off into vapor. The refrigerant vapor leaves the coil
tubes and collects in a suction header.
Each distributor has an allowable range of refrigerant flow rates that define its stable
operating range. As the size of the evaporator coil increases, it may be necessary to
use more than one distributor to feed liquid refrigerant to the coil.

33

Inside the final length of tubesthe location where the temperature difference
between the refrigerant and the air is highestthis larger temperature difference
accelerates the rate of heat transfer and the refrigerant vapour absorbs even more
heat. When the liquid refrigerant has completely evaporated, this additional heat gain
to the vapour is called superheating.
Superheating the refrigerant vapour (B to C) shifts it away from the liquid/vapor
region and ensures that the refrigerant vapour is completely free of liquid prior to
travelling to the compressor.

Evaporator Control
Evaporator capacity is influenced by:

Temperature difference between refrigerant and air or water being cooled

Flow rate of air or water through evaporator

Flow rate of refrigerant through evaporator

34

Evaporator Control
The rate of heat exchange within an evaporator is governed by (1) the temperature
difference between the refrigerant and the air or water being cooled, (2) the flow rate
of the air or water through the evaporator, and (3) the flow rate of the refrigerant
through the evaporator.
In comfort-cooling applications, it is necessary to balance the capacity of the system
with the ever-changing load. The flow rate and temperature of the air or water being
cooled are typically controlled to respond directly to the system load. A constantvolume system delivers a constant quantity of air to the space and, to maintain the
required space temperature at all load conditions, varies the temperature of this air.
In contrast, a variable air- volume (VAV) system delivers air at a constant
temperature and varies the airflow to maintain the required space temperature at all
load conditions.
These are variables that the evaporator must respond to rather than directly control.
The most common method of controlling the capacity of the evaporator at part load is
to control the temperature and/or flow rate of the refrigerant through the system by
unloading or cycling compressors. To provide stable part-load operation and balance
compressor unloading with the capacity of the evaporator, some direct form of
evaporator capacity control may also be required.

COMPRESSOR
Introduction:
The purpose of the compressor in the vapor compression cycle is to compress
the low pressure dry gas from the evaporator and raise its pressure to that of the
condenser. Compressors may be divided into two types positive displacement
and dynamic as Positive displacement types compress discrete volumes of low
pressure gas by physically reducing the volumes causing a pressure increase
whereas dynamic types raise the velocity of the low-pressure gas and
subsequently reduce it in a way which causes a pressure increase. A compressor
is the most important and often the costliest component (Typically 30 to 40
percent of total cost) of any vapor compression refrigeration system (VCRS). The
function of a compressor in a VCRS is to continuously draw the refrigerant vapor
from the evaporator so that a low pressure and low temperature can be
maintained in the evaporator at which the refrigerant can boil extracting heat
from the refrigerated space. The compressor then has to raise the pressure of
the refrigerant to a level at which it can condense by rejecting heat to the
cooling medium in the condenser. A typical refrigeration system consists of
several basic components such as compressors, condensers, expansion devices,
evaporators, in addition to several accessories such as controls, filters, driers, oil
separators etc. For efficient operation of the refrigeration system it is essential
35

that there be a proper matching between various components. Before analyzing


the balanced performance of the complete system it is essential to study the
design and performance characteristics of individual components. Except in
special applications the refrigeration system components are standard
components manufactured by industries specializing in individual components.
Generally for large systems depending upon the design specifications
components are selected from the manufacturers catalogs and are assembled at
site. Even though most of the components are standard off the shelf items
sometimes components such as evaporator may be made to order. Small
capacity refrigeration systems such as refrigerators room and package air
conditioners water coolers are available as complete systems.
Double acting ammonia compressor and steam engine.
In this case the manufacturer himself designs or selects the system components,
assembles them at the factory, tests them for performance and then sells the
complete 38system as a unit. The first refrigeration piston compressors were
built in the middle of the 19th century and evolved from the steam engines
which provided the prime mover. Construction at first was double acting but
there was difficulty in maintaining gas tightness at the piston rod so the design
evolved further into a single acting machine with the crankcase at suction inlet
pressure leaving only the rotating shaft as a possible source of leakage and this
was sealed with a packed gland. Today, the majority of compressors are
completely sealed with the motor enclosed.

Classification of compressors:
Compressors used in refrigeration systems can be classified in several ways:
A. Based on the working principle:
1. Positive displacement type.
2. Rotor dynamic type.
In positive displacement type compressors compression is achieved by trapping
a refrigerant vapor into an enclosed space and then reducing its volume. Since a
fixed amount of refrigerant is trapped each time its pressure rises as its volume
is reduced. When the pressure rises to a level that is slightly higher than the
condensing pressure then it is expelled from the enclosed space and a fresh
charge of low-pressure refrigerant is drawn in and the cycle continues. However,
since the operating speeds are normally very high the flow appears to be almost
steady on macroscopic time scale. Since the flow is pulsating on a microscopic
time scale positive displacement type compressors are prone to high wear
vibration and noise level. Depending upon the construction positive
displacement type compressors used in refrigeration and air conditioning can be
classified into:
a. Reciprocating type.

36

b. Rotary type with sliding vanes (Rolling piston type or multiple vane type).
c. Rotary screw type (Single screw or twin-screw type).
d. Orbital compressors.
e. Acoustic compressors.
In Rotor dynamic compressors the pressure rise of refrigerant is achieved by
imparting kinetic energy to a steadily flowing stream of refrigerant by a rotating
mechanical element and then converting into pressure as the refrigerant flows
through a diverging passage. Unlike positive displacement type the rotor
dynamic type compressors are steady flow devices hence are subjected to less
wear and vibration.
Depending upon the construction rotor dynamic type compressors can be
classified into:
i. Radial flow type.
ii. Axial flow type.
Centrifugal compressors (Also known as turbo-compressors) are radial flow type
rotor dynamic compressors. These compressors are widely used in large capacity
refrigeration 39and air conditioning systems. Axial flow compressors are
normally used in gas liquefaction applications.
B. Based on arrangement of compressor motor or external drive:
1. Open type.
2. Hermetic (or sealed) type.
3. Semi-hermetic (or semi-sealed) type.
In open type compressors the rotating shaft of the compressor extends through a
seal in the crankcase for an external drive. The external drive may be an
electrical motor or an engine (e.g. diesel engine). The compressor may be belt
driven or gear driven. Open type compressors are normally used in medium to
large capacity refrigeration system for all refrigerants and for ammonia (Due to
its incompatibility with hermetic motor materials). Open type compressors are
characterized by high efficiency flexibility better compressor cooling and
serviceability. However, since the shaft has to extend through the seal refrigerant
leakage from the system cannot be eliminated completely. Hence refrigeration
systems using open type compressors require a refrigerant reservoir to take care
of the refrigerant leakage for some time and then regular maintenance for
charging the system with refrigerant changing of seals gaskets etc.
We use the Hermetic piston compressor type in our project.

Hermetic compressors:

37

A hermetic compressor is a direct compressor a direct-connected motor


compressor assembly enclosed within a steel housing. It is designed to pump
low-pressure refrigerant gas to a higher pressure. A hermetic container is one
that is tightly sealed so no gas or liquid can enter or escape. Welding seals the
container. Tecumseh hermetic compressors have a low-pressure shell or housing.
This means that the interior of the compressor housing is subject only to suction
pressure. It is not subject to the discharge created by the piston stroke. This
point is emphasized to stress the hazard of introducing high pressure gas into the
compressor shell at pressures above 150 psig.
A. Motor rotor.
B. Motor stator.
C. Compressor cylinder.
D. Compressor piston.
E. Connecting rod.
F. Crankshaft.
G. Crank throw.
H. Compressor shell.
I. Glass sealed electrical connection.
The suction is drawing into the compressor shell then to and through the electric
motor that provides power to the crankshaft. The crankshaft revolves in its
bearings, driving the piston or pistons in the cylinder or cylinders. The crankshaft
is designed to carry oil from the oil pump in the bottom of the compressor to all
bearing surfaces. Refrigerant gas surrounds the compressor crankcase and the
motor as it is drawn through the compressor shell and into the cylinder or
cylinders through the suction muffler and suction valves. The gas is compressed
by the moving piston and is released through the discharge valves discharge
muffler and compressor discharge tube. The hermetically compressors can be
moved easily from one place to the other place they are highly portable. One
does not have to disassemble the compressor from the motor and no coupling,
belt and pulley arrangement is involved. The whole condenser unit of the
refrigeration or the air conditioning unit comprising of the condenser and the
compressor can be moved easily from one place to the other. Its location can be
changed easily. Since no coupling, belt or pulley is involved, the maintenance is
lesser. The lubrication system of the hermetically sealed compressor is inherent
and no external lubrication is required unless the fresh gas charging is done. The
installation of the hermetically sealed compressor is very easy. The suction and
discharge connections and the electrical connections are available externally.

38

Expansion Devices:

An expansion device is used to maintain a pressure difference between the highpressure (condenser) and low-pressure (evaporator) sides of the system established
by the compressor. This pressure difference allows the evaporator temperature to be
low enough to absorb heat from the air or water to be cooled, while also allowing the
refrigerant to be at a high enough temperature in the condenser to reject heat to air
or water at normally available temperatures.

39

There are several types of expansion devices, including expansion valves


(thermostatic or electronic), capillary tubes, and orifices. This clinic will limit its
discussion to thermostatic expansion valves (TXVs). Other expansion devices
perform essentially the same function.

In addition to maintaining a pressure difference, the thermostatic expansion valve


controls the quantity of liquid refrigerant entering the evaporator. It ensures that the
refrigerant will be completely vaporized within the evaporator (A) and maintains the
proper amount of superheat in the system.

40

Accessories:

Solenoid Valve
A solenoid valve is used to stop the flow of refrigerant within the system. These
valves are magnetically operated, and an electric winding controls the opening and
closing of the valve.
The valve is typically a normally-closed type of valve so that it is closed when it is
denergized.

41

One common use of a solenoid valve is to control the flow of liquid refrigerant to
multiple sections of the evaporator. In this application, a valve is installed in the liquid
line, upstream of the expansion valve for each individually controlled section of the
evaporator coil.
Using the example of a face-split evaporator coil, at lower loads a solenoid valve
may be used to shut off the flow of liquid refrigerant to the top section of the coil. A
portion of the air passes through the active lower section and is cooled, while the
rest of the air passes through the inactive top section and remains unconditioned.
The two airstreams mix downstream of the coil. At higher loads, both sections of the
coil are activated.

42

Another common use of a solenoid valve is to enable system pump-down and


prevent the refrigerant from migrating through the system when the compressor is
shut off. In this application, a single solenoid valve is installed in the liquid line,
upstream of all expansion valves.
When the compressor is shut off, the evaporator contains a large quantity of liquid
refrigerant. This can present a problem if some of the refrigerant drains into the
suction line and slugs the compressor when it starts up again. To prevent this from
occurring, many systems pump the refrigerant out of the evaporator and suction line
before shutting the compressor off. This is called a pump-down cycle. Instead of
shutting the compressor off right away, the solenoid valve is closed to stop the flow
of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator, and the compressor is allowed to run for a
short period of time. The compressor pumps the refrigerant from the low-pressure
side of the system (evaporator and suction line) to the high-pressure side of the
system (discharge line, condenser, and liquid line.)
43

As the low-pressure side of the system is pumped free of refrigerant, the pressure in
that part of the system drops. To end the pump-down cycle, a pressure sensor is
used to shut the compressor off when this pressure reaches a predetermined set
point. Prior to starting the compressor again, the solenoid valve is opened, allowing
the pressure on the low pressure side of the system to increase again.
The solenoid valve should be installed as close to the expansion valve as possible.
This will minimize the pump-down time and allow the liquid line to be used for storing
refrigerant when the system is off.

Liquid-Line Filter Drier


The next accessory to be discussed, the liquid-line filter drier, is installed upstream
of the solenoid valve and the expansion valve. It prevents moisture (water) and
foreign matter, introduced during the installation process, from entering the
expansion valve and the solenoid valve. Realize, however, that there is no substitute
for cleanliness during system installation.
Moisture and foreign matter can cause problems in any refrigeration system. When
water is mixed with refrigerant and oil, and heat is added by the compressor, acids
are formed that can damage the valves or compressor. Additionally, certain foreign
44

materials such as copper and brass particles can act as a catalyst in chemical
reactions that result in the formation of acids. These acids can corrode system
components and cause the oil to sludge.
The filter drier should be installed close to the solenoid valve to provide the most
protection for the solenoid and expansion valves.

Moisture-Indicating Sight Glass


A moisture-indicating sight glass is installed in the liquid line, upstream of the
expansion valve, and permits the operator to observe the condition of the refrigerant
prior to entering the expansion valve. The value of the sight glass is in its moisture
indication abilitythe sight glass should not be used to determine system refrigerant
charge or sub cooling. Actual temperature and pressure measurements are required
to determine proper charge and subcooling.
With the sight glass installed directly ahead of the expansion valve, it can also be
used to detect the presence of bubbles in the liquid line. This would indicate that
some of the liquid refrigerant has flashed into vapor upstream of the expansion
45

valve. Since the expansion valve is designed to control the flow of liquid refrigerant
only, the presence of refrigerant vapor results in a reduction in the quantity of liquid
refrigerant being fed to the evaporator.
There are many potential causes of liquid refrigerant flashing. The sight glass can
alert the operator to the condition.

Suction Line Filter


Similar to the liquid-line filter drier, the suction line filter performs the task of
removing foreign matter from the refrigeration system. It is installed in the suction
line, just upstream of the compressor.
The suction filter contains filter media to remove copper filings, flux, dirt, and other
foreign matter that may have been introduced during the installation process or as
the result of a compressor failure. It protects the compressor parts from the abrasive
action that could result if these materials enter the compressor. Dirt can obstruct oil
passages, robbing the compressor bearings of lubrication.

46

Similar to the liquid-line filter drier, the two common types of suction line filters are
replaceable core and sealed. The replaceable core type allows the core to be easily
changed. The sealed type is completely closed, reducing the chances of refrigerant
leaks.
Replaceable core suction filters are commonly installed after a compressor failure
has occurred. The core is replaced after the foreign matter or acid has been
removed from the system.
Additionally, suction filters should be installed in all field-assembled systems.
47

Shutoff Valve
Shutoff valves are used to isolate one part of the refrigeration system from the rest.
Additionally, they can be used to trap the refrigerant charge in one component of the
system, the condenser for example, to permit service or repair to another part of the
system.
Common uses of shutoff valves include:
Isolating the liquid-line filter drier and suction filter to allow easier core (or unit)
Replacement
Isolating the compressor from the rest of the system to allow for repair or
replacement
48

Isolating the charge within the condenser or a receiver to allow access to the rest
of the system

Access Port
An access port is used to add refrigerant to the system or for measurement. One
access port is typically installed in the liquid line in a convenient location and is used
to charge the system with liquid refrigerant. It is also used to measure the amount of
sub cooling in the system.
The suction line typically includes two access ports. One is installed near the
compressor and is used to measure suction pressure. The other is located near the

49

external equalizer line connection for the expansion valve, and is used to measure
superheat when checking or adjusting the expansion valve setting.

Review:
We will now review the main concepts that were covered in the components in a
vapour-compression refrigeration system.

Period One reviewed the vapour-compression refrigeration cycle using the P-h chart.
A cool, low-pressure mixture of liquid and vapour refrigerant enters the evaporator
(A) and absorbs heat from the relatively warm air or water that is being cooled. This
transfer of heat boils the liquid refrigerant in the evaporator and superheated
refrigerant vapour (B) is drawn to the compressor.
The compressor raises the pressure and temperature (C) high enough that the
refrigerant vapour can reject heat to another fluid. This hot, high-pressure refrigerant
vapour then travels to the condenser where heat is transferred to relatively cool
ambient air or cooling water.

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This reduction in the heat content of the refrigerant vapour causes it to de superheat,
condense into liquid, and further sub cool before leaving the condenser (D) for the
expansion device.
Finally, the high-pressure liquid refrigerant flows through the expansion device,
causing a large pressure drop (the line from D to A) that reduces the pressure of the
refrigerant to that of the evaporator. This pressure reduction causes a small portion
of the liquid to boil off, or flash, cooling the remaining refrigerant to the desired
evaporator temperature. This cooled refrigerant then enters the evaporator (A) to
repeat the cycle.

Period Two discussed the different types of condensers and methods of condenser
control.
The condenser rejects heat from the refrigerant to air, water, or some other fluid. The
three common types of condensers are air-cooled, water-cooled, and evaporative.

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Period Three presented the different types of evaporators and methods of evaporator
control. The evaporator transfers heat from air, water, or some other fluid to the cool
liquid refrigerant. The two common types of evaporators are finned-tube and shelland-tube.

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Period Four reviewed the operation of the expansion device, specifically the
thermostatic expansion valve. The expansion device is used to maintain the
pressure difference between the high-pressure (condenser) and low-pressure
(evaporator) sides of the system established by the compressor.
In addition, the thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) controls the quantity of liquid
refrigerant entering the evaporator. It ensures that the refrigerant will be completely
vaporized within the evaporator and maintains the proper amount of superheat in the
system.

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Period Five discussed several accessories commonly used in comfort-cooling


applications, including: solenoid valve, liquid-line filter drier, moisture-indicating sight
glass, suction line filter, hot gas muffler, shutoff valve, and access port.
The solenoid valve is used to stop the flow of refrigerant within the system. A liquidline filter drier prevents moisture and foreign matter from damaging the valves and
compressor. The moisture-indicating sight glass permits the operator to observe the
condition of the refrigerant within the liquid line before it enters the expansion device.
A suction line filter protects the compressor from foreign matter in the suction line.
The hot gas muffler is used to reduce noise and vibration associated with
reciprocating compressors. Shutoff valves are used to isolate one part of the
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refrigeration system, and access ports allow a technician to gain access to the
system for charging or measurement.

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