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# CONTENTS

Preface xiii
A Note to the Student

xvi

## PART 1 : VECTOR ANALYSIS

1

Vector Algebra
1.1
11.2
1.3
1.4
115
1.6
1.7
1.8

Introduction 3
A Preview of the Book 4
Scalars and Vectors 4
Unit Vector 5
Position and Distance Vectors 7
Vector Multiplication 11
Components of a Vector 16
Summary 22
Review Questions 23
Problems 25

## Coordinate Systems and Transformation

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
f2.5

28

Introduction 28
Cartesian Coordinates (x, y, z) 29
Circular Cylindrical Coordinates (p, <f>, z)29
Spherical Coordinates (r, d, z) 32
Constant-Coordinate Surfaces 41
Summary 46
Review Questions 47
Problems 49

VII

Contents

Vector Calculus
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
t3.9

53

Introduction 53
Differential Length, Area, and Volume 53
Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals 60
Del Operator 63
Divergence of a Vector and Divergence Theorem
Curl of a Vector and Stokes's Theorem 75
Laplacian of a Scalar 83
Classification of Vector Fields 86
Summary 89
Review Questions 90
Problems 93

69

PART 2 : ELECTROSTATICS
4

Electrostatic Fields
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10

103

Introduction 103
Coulomb's Law and Field Intensity 104
Electric Fields due to Continuous Charge Distributions 111
Electric Flux Density 122
Gauss's LawMaxwell's Equation 124
Applications of Gauss's Law 126
Electric Potential 133
Relationship between E and VMaxwell's Equation 139
An Electric Dipole and Flux Lines 142
Energy Density in Electrostatic Fields 146
Summary 150
Review Questions 153
Problems 155

## Electric Fields in Material Space

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
f 5.7
5.8

161

Introduction 161
Properties of Materials 161
Convection and Conduction Currents 162
Conductors 165
Polarization in Dielectrics 171
Dielectric Constant and Strength 774
Linear, Isotropic, and Homogeneous Dielectrics 175
Continuity Equation and Relaxation Time 180

CONTENTS

5.9

## Boundary Conditions 182

Summary 191
Review Questions 192
Problems 194

## Electrostatic Boundary-Value Problems

6.1
6.2
f 6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6

199

Introduction 199
Poisson's and Laplace's Equations 199
Uniqueness Theorem 201
General Procedure for Solving Poisson's or Laplace's
Equation 202
Resistance and Capacitance 223
Method of Images 240
Summary 246
Review Questions 247
Problems 249

PART 3: MAGNETOSTATICS
7

Magnetostatic Fields
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
f 7.8

261

Introduction 261
Biot-Savart's Law 263
Ampere's Circuit LawMaxwell's Equation 273
Applications of Ampere's Law 274
Magnetic Flux DensityMaxwell's Equation 281
Maxwell's Equations for Static EM Fields 283
Magnetic Scalar and Vector Potentials 284
Derivation of Biot-Savart's Law and Ampere's Law
Summary 292
Review Questions 293
Problems 296

## Magnetic Forces, Materials, and Devices

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
f 8.6
8.7
8.8

304

Introduction 304
Forces due to Magnetic Fields 304
Magnetic Torque and Moment 316
A Magnetic Dipole 318
Magnetization in Materials 323
Classification of Magnetic Materials 327
Magnetic Boundary Conditions 330
Inductors and Inductances 336

290

IX

Contents
8.9
f8.10
18.11

Magnetic Energy
Magnetic Circuits
Force on Magnetic
Summary 354
Review Questions
Problems 358

339
347
Materials

349

356

9

9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
t9.6
9.7

10

## Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

10.1
tl0.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
f 10.9

11

Introduction 369
Transformer and Motional EMFs 372
Displacement Current 381
Maxwell's Equations in Final Forms 384
Time-Varying Potentials 387
Time-Harmonic Fields 389
Summary 400
Review Questions 407
Problems 404

Introduction 410
Waves in General 411
Wave Propagation in Lossy Dielectrics 417
Plane Waves in Lossless Dielectrics 423
Plane Waves in Free Space 423
Plane Waves in Good Conductors 425
Power and the Poynting Vector 435
Reflection of a Plane Wave at Normal Incidence
Reflection of a Plane Wave at Oblique Incidence
Summary 462
Review Questions 464
Problems 466

Transmission Lines
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5

410

473

Introduction 473
Transmission Line Parameters 474
Transmission Line Equations 477
Input Impedance, SWR, and Power 484
The Smith Chart 492

440
451

CONTENTS

11.6
f 11.7
111.8

## Some Applications of Transmission Lines

Transients on Transmission Lines 512
Microstrip Transmission Lines 524
Summary 528
Review Questions 530
Problems 533

12 Waveguides
12.1
12.2
12.3
12A
12.5
12.6
tl2.7
12.8

13 Antennas
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
113.8
tl3.9

14

542

Introduction 542
Rectangular Waveguides 543
Transverse Magnetic (TM) Modes 547
Transverse Electric (TE) Modes 552
Wave Propagation in the Guide 563
Power Transmission and Attenuation 565
Waveguide Current and Mode Excitation 569
Waveguide Resonators 575
Summary 581
Review Questions 582
Problems 583

588
Introduction 588
Hertzian Dipole 590
Half-Wave Dipole Antenna 594
Quarter-Wave Monopole Antenna 598
Small Loop Antenna 599
Antenna Characteristics 604
Antenna Arrays 612
Effective Area and the Friis Equation 62 /
Summary 629
Review Questions 630
Problems 632

Modern Topics
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4

505

638

Introduction 638
Microwaves 638
Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility
Optical Fiber 649
Summary 656
Review Questions 656
Problems 658

644

XI

\ii

Contents

15

Numerical Methods
15.1
tl5.2
15.3
15.4
15.5

660

Introduction 660
Field Plotting 667
The Finite Difference Method 669
The Moment Method 683
The Finite Element Method 694
Summary 713
Review Questions 714
Problems 7 / 6

## Appendix A Mathematical Formulas 727

Appendix B Material Constants 737
Appendix C Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 740
Index 763

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