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Uses of Coal

Access to modern energy services not only contributes to economic growth and household
incomes but also to the improved quality of life that comes with better education and health
services. All sources of energy will be needed to meet future energy demand, including coal.

What is Coal used for?

Coal has many important uses worldwide. The most significant uses of coal are in electricity
generation, steel production, cement manufacturing and as a liquid fuel.
Different types of coal have different uses. Steam coal - also known as thermal coal - is mainly
used in power generation. Coking coal - also known as metallurgical coal - is mainly used in
steel production.

. Coal is also an essential ingredient in the production of specialist products:

Activated carbon - used in filters for water and air purification and in kidney dialysis

Carbon fibre - an extremely strong but light weight reinforcement material used in
construction, mountain bikes and tennis rackets.

Silicon metal - used to produce silicones and silanes, which are in turn used to make
lubricants, water repellents, resins, cosmetics, hair shampoos and toothpastes.

See Also
Around 6.6 billion tonnes of hard coal were used worldwide last year and 1 billion tonnes of
brown coal
Since 2000, global coal consumption has grown faster than any other fuel. The five largest coal
users - China, USA, India, Russia and Japan - account for 76% of total global coal use.

Other important users of coal include alumina refineries, paper manufacturers, and the chemical
and pharmaceutical industries. Several chemical products can be produced from the by-products
of coal. Refined coal tar is used in the manufacture of chemicals, such as creosote oil,
naphthalene, phenol, and benzene. Ammonia gas recovered from coke ovens is used to
manufacture ammonia salts, nitric acid and agricultural fertilisers. Thousands of different
products have coal or coal by-products as components: soap, aspirins, solvents, dyes, plastics and
fibres, such as rayon and nylon The biggest market for coal is Asia, which currently accounts for
over 67% of global coal consumption; although China is responsible for a significant proportion
of this. Many countries do not have natural energy resources sufficient to cover their energy
needs, and therefore need to import energy to help meet their requirements. Japan, Chinese
Taipei and Korea, for example, import significant quantities of steam coal for electricity
generation and coking coal for steel production.

Coal Mining in Mozambique

Since beginning of civilization, man has been continuously involved in finding new metals,
stones, ceramics and various other useful materials necessary of living. This process or activity
of locating new geographical locations and digging the earths surface for finding useful
commodities is defined as mining. Today, in present times mining activity has been hugely
commercialized with introduction of new mining techniques, mining methods and mining
procedures. The mining industry has become dramatically more efficient and prosperous with
rise of new technological developments within the industry. Zillion of jobs are generated every
year through this economic activity.
What is coal mining?
The mining sector is a mammoth industry largely dominated by coal mining. The main objective
of coal mining is to economically remove coal from the surface of the earth. Considered as the
most fruitful economic mineral, coal is regarded as the most valued energy source. Coal mining
processes are differentiated by whether they operate on the surface or underground and the
choice depends on various factors including density of the surface and thickness of the coal
seam. They are broadly classified as

Surface Coal Mining

Underground Coal Mining

In recent years, coal mining activity has mushroomed like never before. Commercially 7,036
Mt/yr of coal is mined in over 50 countries from all over the world. Technological advancements
have made coal mining procedures more productive then ever before.
Mozambique A natatorium of Coal Mines
Mozambique is the worlds 35th largest country located on the southeast coast of Africa. The
word Mozambique is derived from Mossa Al Bique, an Arab businessman who first visited the
island of Mozambique and later stayed there. The country largely comprises of many

topographical regions rich in coal mines as a result of which the country has become a favourite
hot spot of various mining companies. Coal found here is pure and is free of any impurities. No
surprise, Mozambique is also called natatorium of Coal Mines. It is fast becoming a region of
global significance for the coal sector. Various coal majors are now keen on entering into
strategic partnership with coal mining companies having technical expertise in mining and
exploring coal mines in Mozambique. As a matter of fact, Mozambique stands as Africas
second largest coal producer behind South Africa which holds Africas major coal reserves.
Various coal projects have come up that are planned for the development of the region as a part
of coal mining in Mozambique. Today coal mining exploration is the cornerstone industry of
Mozambique and is the major contributor of the countrys economy.
Scope of coal mining in Mozambique

Mozambique coal mines are distributed all over the country including Moatize,
Mucanha and Vuzi coal basins in the Tete province. The basin is said to contain as much
as 4000 Mt coal reserves.

Mozambican government has signed deals with various coal mining companies under
which these companies will undertake coal mining and exploration and locate coal
mines in various parts of the country.

The authority has also undertaken various industrial, developmental and infrastructure
projects for various coal mining projects in Tete province of Mozambique.

An estimated amount of 2.4 billion tones of coal reserves in Tete province of

Mozambique makes it a region with world's largest untapped coal reserves.

Several Mining majors have already secured their legal mining rights for coal
exploration in Mozambique that roughly amounts to over 3 billion tones.

Rachana Global Excavation Ltd. is the leading coal mining company and a future potential
source of coal mining exploration. The company is well equipped with latest and advanced stateof-the-art facility for finding new coal mine reserves in various parts of the world. It has
acquired legal rights and license for coal mining in Mozambique, Moatize - Minjova basin and
Zambezi basin around Tete. The organization has laid ardent plans to become a dominant player
of the mining industry.

Before the mining boom, Tete was similar to the rest of Mozambique provinces, with much of its
population living in poverty and in rural conditions. Now, foreign technicians are flcking to the
province, and the streets around Moatize are filled with trucks and four-by-four vehicles.
Thousands of people cross the iconic bridge daily, which connects Tete city to the Moatize

district. Such an influx of resources and people has been unexpected, and Tete province lacks the
necessary infrastructure and services (roads, accommodation, restaurants, clinics and schools) to
cater for the mining industry. Local government authorities have been illprepared to face the
sudden pressures arising from the arrival of the multinationals. A particular challenge has been
managing the population relocations to make space for the mining sites.
Local government has been faced with the sudden opportunity of channelling the large
investments of the mining companies to rebuild the provinces social infrastructure. The district
government of Moatize, which suddenly had to deal with international corporations, has turned
into a super district offie forced to build entire new villages quickly. Owing to their operational
deadlines, companies have often moved ahead with building new infrastructure without
undertaking the necessary consultations or waiting for the government to catch up with their
plans. Many mistakes have been made in the process, from which much can be learnt.2
Provincial authorities have been faced with the challenge of diverse departments including
agriculture, education, health and

public works dealing simultaneously with the mining

companies and often sending mixed messages. In 2012 an attempt was made to promote coordination among government departments by establishing a Provincial Relocation Commission,
aimed at guiding the community development activities of the various coal companies in the
The reality, however, is that the local authorities do not have much leverage over the foreign
investors, as most of the concessions and taxation agreements are negotiated at ministerial level
in Maputo. Although the Mozambican government and the major mining companies are
signatories to the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), the mining contracts still
remain closely guarded secrets. Civil society is not able to monitor the social commitments from
these contracts. Mozambique currently lacks a strong mining regulatory framework.
The government is, however, making an effort to increase its ownership of extractive activities in
the country through the recent establishment of the Mozambique Company for Mining and
Exploration. This state-owned enterprise holds a 15% share of Vales operation in Tete, and is
negotiating for 1020% of Rio Tintos production.