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Tutorial ─ MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G and 4G

Systems

Spatial Multiplexing
Markku Juntti & Juha Ylitalo
Contents
1. Introduction to spatial multiplexing
2. Layered architectures
3. Spatial multiplexing in 3G systems: PARC
4. Summary and Conclusions
References

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 1
1. Introduction to Spatial
Multiplexing
• The basic concept of multiplexing: divide (multiplex)
transmit a data stream several branches and transmit
via several (independent) channels in
– time Ö time–division multiplexing (TDM)
– frequency Ö frequency–division multiplexing (FDM)
• typical example: orthogonal FDM (OFDM)
– space Ö space–division multiplexing (SDM) or spatial
multiplexing
• different bits from different antennae
• requires independent channels
– code Ö code–division multiplexing (CDM)
• applied in 3G systems.

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 2
Spatial Multiplexing Idea

• Several different data bits are transmitted via


several independent (spatial) channels.

zF1s
s1
Output
s(n) Rx
S/P z*
F1
zFNs
Signal to be s2
transmitted
z*FN

Feedback: zF1 , ... , zFN

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 3
Characteristics

• No bandwidth expansion.
• Space–time equalization needed in the receiver.
– Conventionally: no. Rx antennae ≥ no. Tx antennae.
• The data streams can be separated by the equalizer,
if fading processes of the spatial channels are
(nearly) independent.
Ö Actual multiple–input multiple–output channel with
capacity linearly increasing the number of antennae
or more precisely independent spatial channels.
• Alternative to spatial diversity: multiplexing–diversity
trade–off is under intensive study.

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 4
Linear Dispersion Coding

• Linear dispersion coding (LDC) offers a framework


to combine spatial multiplexing and transmit
diversity.
• Code design consists of finding optimum dispersion
matrices.

1
sn Serial M1
Codeword
to
calculation
parallel MN
MT

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 5
2. Layered Space–Time
Architectures
• Bell Labs Layered Space–Time (BLAST) architecture
was one of the first spatial multiplexing systems.
– Called also layered space–time (LST).
• Detection originally based on linear and decision–
feedback equalization, i.e., nulling and cancellation.

Layer 1 Modulo-M
(mod/code)
ANT 1
shift of
S/P layer- M data
Layer 2 streams
(mod/code) antenna ANT 2

Layer M ANT M
(mod/code)
MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 6
Vertical LST (V–LST)

• Basic scheme with no coding involved.

Layer 1
Mod
ANT 1

S/P Layer 2
Mod
ANT 2

Layer M ANT M
Mod

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 7
Horizontal LST (H–LST)
Layer 1
Enc & mod
ANT 1
• Coding included.
S/P Layer 2
Enc & mod
ANT 2

Layer M ANT M
Layer 1 Enc & mod
Mod
ANT 1

Encoder S/P Layer 2


Mod
ANT 2

Layer M ANT M
Mod

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 8
Diagonal LST (D–LST)

• Coding and spatial interleaving included.


• Spatial interleaving to improve performance via
spatial diversity.

Layer 1 Spatial
Enc & mod
ANT 1
interleaving
S/P Layer 2
Enc & mod ANT 2

Layer M
Enc & mod ANT M

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 9
Nulling and Cancellation

MMSE Despread 1 Collect and Demap,


detection mux deinter-
for substreams leave,
remaining Despread 10 decode
antenna
with highest
SINR
Detect and
V–BLAST
reconstruct
signals for
cancellation

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 10
Nulling and Cancellation Order in D–LST

Detect later
Detect now nulled
Layer 1 Modulo-M ANT 1
(mod/code) shift of d a b c d a b c
layer- ANT 2
Layer 2 c d a b c d a b
(mod/code) antenna ANT 3
b c d a b c d a
Layer 4 a b c d a b c d
(mod/code) ANT 4 0 t 2t 3t 4t 5t 6t 7t
8t
Already detected cancelled
Diagonal layer a
a = N x 4-element (e.g one coding
vectors block)

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 11
Space–Time Equalization

• The optimum receiver for LST transmissions is


maximum a posteriori (MAP) equalizer similarly to
the intersymbol interference (ISI) or multiple–access
interference (MAI) channels.
• Suboptimal receivers include:
– linear equalizers
– interference cancellation (IC)
– iterative (turbo) receivers
– sphere detectors.
• Space–time equalization is under intensive study.

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 12
3. Spatial Multiplexing in 3G
Systems: PARC
• Current MIMO proposals (e.g., code reuse, code reuse with
STTD (DSTTD)):
– Node B transmits with the same rate on each antenna (or antenna
pair) depending on UE feedback and spatial channel realization

If the transmitter can adjust the antenna rates independently, a


layered receiver architecture (MMSE with successive cancellation)
can approach Shannon capacity. [Varanasi, Guess 1998] [Chung,
Huang, Lozano 2001]

• Per-antenna rate control (PARC) for HSDPA MIMO:


– Node B adjusts antenna rates independently depending on UE
feedback and spatial channel realization.
– Receiver consists of MMSE linear transformation followed by
interference cancellation based on decoded bits.
MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 13
PARC: Transmission technique
• PARC MIMO transmission example:
Spreading Code 1

Spreading Code 2 Scrambling


Code
Ant 1
16QAM ...
rate 1/2
High
speed
...
D
data E
stream
M ...
U Scrambling
X ... Code
Spreading Code 10
Ant 4
QPSK
...
rate 3/4

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 14
PARC: Receiver technique
• Proposed MIMO receiver for PARC transmission
– MMSE linear transformation followed by interference cancellation
based on decoded bits.
– Coding gain results in performance improvement over pre-decoding
interference cancellation receiver.
– This architecture can also be applied to conventional code reuse
transmission.

MMSE Despread 1 Mux Detect, Collect


detection demap, and
for deinter- mux
remaining Despread 10 leave,
antenna decode
with highest
SINR
Reconstruct
signals for
cancellation PARC

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 15
4. Summary and Conclusions

• MIMO techniques allow high user data rates


• Advanced receivers have to be applied for MIMO
systems
• Additional receiver diversity beneficial
• Feedback of CSI may lead to complex systems
• MIMO performance has to be evaluated at system
level

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 16
References
1. G. J. Foschini, “Layered space-time architecture for wireless communication in a fading environment
when using multi-element antennas,” Bell Labs Tech. J, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 41–59, 1996.
2. G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, R. A. Valenzuela, and P. W. Wolniansky, “Simplified processing for high
spectral efficiency wireless communication employing multi-element arrays,” IEEE J. Select. Areas
Commun., vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1841–1852, Nov. 1999.
3. G. D. Golden, C. J. Foschini, R. A. Valenzuela, and P. W. Wolniansky, “Detection algorithm and initial
laboratory results using V-BLAST space-time communication architecture,” Electronics Letters, vol. 35,
-no. 1, pp. 14–16, Jan. 1999.
4. B. M. Hochwald and S. ten Brink, “Achieving near-capacity on a multiple-antenna channel,” IEEE
Trans. Commun., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 389–399, Mar. 2003.
5. B. Vucetic & J. Yuan, Space–Time Coding. John Wiley and Sons, 2003. ISBN 0-470-84757-3
6. P. W. Wolniansky, G. J. Foschini, G. D. Golden, and R. A. Valenzuela, “V-BLAST: An architecture for
realizing very high data rates over the rich-scattering wireless channel,” in International Symposium
on Signals, Systems, and Electronics (ISSSE), 1998, pp. 295–300.
7. L. Zheng and D. N. C. Tse, “Diversity and multiplexing: A fundamental tradeoff in multiple-antenna
channels,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1073–1096, May 2003.

MIMO Communications with Applications to (B)3G © M. Juntti et al., University of Oulu, Dept. Electrical and Inform.
and 4G Systems ─ Spatial Multiplexing Eng., Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) 17