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for Machine Performance Evaluation1

JASPREET S. DHUPIA

A. GALIP ULSOY

REUVEN KATZ

NSF Engineering Research Center for Reconf igurable Manufacturing. System University

of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2250 GGBL, 2350 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, U.S.A.

(jdhupia@umich.edu)

BARTOSZ POWALKA

Technical University of Szczecin, Piastow 19, 70-310 Szczecin, Poland

(Received 8 August 20061 accepted 30 March 2007)

Abstract: Prediction of machine dynamics at the design stage is a challenge due to lack of adequate methods

for identifying and handling the nonlinearities in the machine joints, which appear as the nonlinear restoring

force function of relative displacement and relative velocity across the joint. This paper discusses identification of such a nonlinear restoring force function for an industrial translational guide for use with the

Nonlinear Receptance Coupling Approach (NLRCA) to evaluate machine dynamic characteristics. Translational guides are among the most commonly used joints in machine tools. Both parametric and nonparametric

techniques have been employed to identify the nonlinearities. A novel parametric model based on Hertzian

contact mechanics has been derived for the translational guide. A nonparametric method based on twodimensional Chebyshev polynomials is also used. The models derived from the two techniques, i.e., parametric and nonparametric, are fitted to the experimental data derived from static and dynamic tests to get the

restoring force as a function of relative displacement and relative velocity across the joint. The nonlinear representation obtained from both techniques is later converted into the describing function representation which

is needed for evaluation of machine dynamic characteristics using the NLRCA. The describing function representations obtained from the two approaches are compared. The design of experiments for evaluating the

nonlinearities in such industrial machine tool joints is a challenge, requiring careful alignment and calibration, because they are typically very stiff. This constrains the dynamic experiments to be carried out at high

frequencies (e.g. 20007000 Hz) where the experimental readings are very sensitive to errors in geometry

and calibration.

Keywords: machine dynamics, nonlinear joints, receptance coupling, frequency response functions.

1

1 2008 SAGE Publications Los Angeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore

2

DOI: 10.1177/1077546307081325

1. INTRODUCTION

Accurate prediction of machine dynamics at the design stage, before the machine is constructed, is an important goal, which has become even more important with introduction

of high-speed and high-performance machines. Research has been done on automatically

generating the possible machine configurations for a given kinematic task (Moon and Kota,

2002).However, the related work (Moon, 2000) on finding the dynamic performance of each

machine configuration is preliminary and is based on the linear receptance coupling theory

(Bishop and Johnson, 1960). The nonlinearities present in the machine structure make it

difficult to predict machine dynamics. Most current techniques are limited by linear model

assumptions, and are not suitable for handling nonlinearities such as those arising in joints.

Research has been done to formulate the effects of nonlinearities on machine dynamics in

the frequency domain (Ferreira and Ewins, 19961 Yigit and Ulsoy, 2002). However, identification of the nonlinear parameters in machine tool joints in a manner suitable for use

with frequency domain techniques can be viewed as a major barrier that prevents successful

industrial application of such techniques.

The load experienced at the machine tool joints appears as the restoring force developed

due to joint deflections. The nonlinearity in the joint manifests itself as a nonlinear restoring

force function of relative displacement and velocity at the joint. Much work has been done to

model the stiffness and damping components of this restoring force. The stiffness has been

modeled based on material properties along with Hertzian mechanics (Johnson, 1982) or the

asperity model (Greenwood and Williamson, 1966). The energy dissipation, or damping,

can be modeled in many ways. While sliding motion in a translational slide may need to

be modeled through the static or dynamic friction models (Dahl (Dahl, 1976), LuGre (de

Wit et al., 1995) and Lueven (Swevers et al., 2000)), our work is focused on the dynamic

properties in the normal direction. The damping is quite small and a viscous damping model

was experimentally found to be sufficient, as will be described later.

System identification techniques can be broadly classified into parametric or nonparametric methods. While parametric methods seek to determine the values of the parameter in

an assumed model structure for the system to be identified, nonparametric methods seek to

determine the functional representation as well as parameters of the system to be identified.

Most of the parametric and nonparametric identification methods employ the least squares

approach, in which the square of the errors between the measured response and that of the

identified model is minimized, to provide the best estimate. The most commonly used nonparametric methods employ the Volterra series (Lee, 1997) and two-dimensional Chebyshev

polynomials to represent the restoring force surface (Masri et al., 1982a,b1 Worden and Tomlinson, 2001). Most of the parametric identification methods are time based (Kapania and

Park, 19961 Mohammad et al., 19921 Yasuda and Kamiya, 1999). Time-domain techniques

have the advantage of requiring less time and effort for data acquisition than the sine-dwell

techniques used for frequency domain identification, and can be used for the identification

of strongly nonlinear systems. Potential drawbacks of such time-domain approaches include

problems of differentiating noisy signals and inability to accurately estimate the coefficient

of terms which are small (Malatkar and Nayfeh, 2003).Frequency domain techniques include

approaches based on the backbone (or skeleton) curve and limit envelope (Benhafsi et al.,

19951 Fahey and Nayfeh, 1998) and harmonic balance method (Yasuda et al., 1997).

This paper considers identification of the nonlinear restoring force function parameters

for an industrial translational guide and its subsequent conversion to describing function

representation (e.g., Atherton, 1975) for use with Nonlinear Receptance Coupling Approach

(NLRCA) (Ferreira and Ewins, 19961 Yigit and Ulsoy, 2002) to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of a machine structure. The paper considers both a parametric and a nonparametric

approach to identify the joint parameters. In the parametric approach, a nonlinear stiffness

relationship has been derived for translational guides with preloaded ball bearings based on

Hertzian mechanics. The parameters for the model are experimentally obtained from static

and dynamic tests on the translational guide. The results from this approach are compared

with a generalized nonparametric approach using a two-dimensional Chebyshev polynomial

developed by Masri, Sasri and Caughey (Masri et al., 1982a,b). The paper emphasizes the

design of experiments for estimating the nonlinearities in the translational guide. This is a

challenge because the machine tool joints are typically very stiff. Most literature on estimation of nonlinearities in the joints considers systems with low natural frequency (less than

50 Hz), while the isolated machine tool joints (e.g. translation guide) have high natural frequencies (e.g., 2000-7000 Hz). Thus, the dynamic experiments are constrained to be carried

out at high frequencies, where only small displacements may be obtained and therefore the

system is very sensitive to alignment.

Subsequently, the paper discusses conversion of the experimentally obtained nonlinear

restoring force function in the time domain to a describing function representation in the

frequency domain. The parametric approach for nonlinear joint identification will typically

yield a system of equations describing the relationship between the restoring force and relative displacement and relative velocity across a joint. As is the case here, it may not always

be possible to analytically convert such a representation into a describing function. Thus,

one may compute the describing function numerically for use with the NLRCA for evaluating system dynamics. However, a nonparametric approach, employing the two-dimensional

Chebyshev polynomials for nonlinear joint identification, yields a polynomial representation

for the nonlinear restoring force function. This paper presents a derivation for obtaining the

closed form describing function for such a nonlinear restoring force function. Finally, the

evaluated describing functions are compared in the frequency domain within the frequency

range of interest. The effect of these nonlinearities in the joints on overall machine performance is beyond the scope of this paper, but is described separately in Dhupia et al. (2007).

ANALYSIS

2.1. Geometrical Description of Translational Guide

Translational guides were chosen for experimental evaluation as they are among the most

common joints in machine tools. The translational guide chosen for the experiment was a

Bosch-Rexroth linear guide system: R1621, size 30. The cross-section of the translational

guide used for the experiment is shown in Figure 1. The joint consists of two components,

the rail and the runner block and the contact is made through the preloaded ball bearings. A

model for joint stiffness under normal load P is developed using Hertzian mechanics in this

Figure 1. (a) Cross-section of the translational guide, (b) Detailed view of ball bearing contact.

section. The model accounts for joint stiffness as a property based on material properties,

geometry and preload, but can be directly estimated from experiments.

2.2. Hertzian Contact Model for Translational Guide

The model is derived based on the assumption that the runner block and the rail are rigid

and all compliance in the system may be attributed to the ball bearings. The ball bearings

are located in four tracks as shown in Figure 1. The lower track bearings are denoted with

subscript L and the upper track by subscript U. The objective of the model is to describe the

relationship between external load P and relative displacement 1z, taking into account the

stiffness relationship at the ball bearings:

P 3 f 21z3

or ,

1z 3 f 41 2P3

where, 1z 3 z 1 4 z 2 4

(1)

The contact deformation of the single ball within two grooves can be found by Hertzian

analysis as dependent on the normal load Pball as (Rivin, 1999).

1

dball 3 2 5 1441n 1

2

Pball

2R1 4 R2

R1 R2

1 4 5 21 1 4 5 22

6

E1

E2

32

(2)

where,

dball 3 Deformation of a single ball

Pball 3 Force acting on a single ball

R1 3 Radius of the ball

R2 3 Radius of the groove

E 1 6 5 1 3 Youngs modulus, Poisson ratio of ball material

E 2 6 5 2 3 Youngs modulus, Poisson ratio of groove material

n 1 3 Parameter that depends on the ratio R1 and R2 . If R2 7 8 (i.e. ball in contact

with flat surface), then n 1 7 1

Or, the deformation-load relationship in equation (2) may be defined simply by the model

283

dball 3 7 Pball

(3)

Since the bearings are preloaded, a nominal deformation d0 is present even when no

external load P is applied. When load P is applied, the lower set of bearings experience

deformation d L and the above set of bearings experience deformation dU . When, the balls in

all tracks are in contact with the grooves, the amount of compression the balls in the lower

tracks experience must be equal to the amount of decompression the balls in upper tracks

experience (see Figure 1) and they can be related to the relative displacement 1z through the

following equation:

2d L 4 d0 3 sin 9 3 2d0 4 dU 3 sin 9 3 1z4

(4)

Let PL be the normal load experienced by the balls in the lower track and PU be the

load experienced by the balls in the upper track. Then, the relationship between the joint

deflection and the normal loads developed at the ball bearing may be obtained by using

equation (3) and equation (4):

4

5

4

5

283

283

283

283

1z 3 7 PL 4 7 P0

sin 9 3 7 P0 4 7 PU sin 94

(5)

Finally, to relate normal loads at the ball bearing (PL and PU ) to external load P, we

consider the free body diagram of the runner block and equate the forces in the vertical

direction to get the relationship:

P 6 2PU sin 9 3 2PL sin 94

(6)

Using equation (6) to substitute for PU in equation (5), we obtain the relationship between load at the lower bearings, PL and the external load, P. This equation may be used to

evaluate PL

2

2PL sin 9 4 P

2 sin 9

3283

283

3 2P0

283

4 PL 4

(7)

Equation (7) is solved numerically for PL as a function of the external load P and preload

P0 . Putting the resulting PL into equation (5), the relationship between external load P and

joint deflection 1z is obtained which is valid when both upper and lower tracks balls are in

contact.

Similarly if PL is substituted in equation (5), using equation (6)

2

PU283

2P0283

2PU sin 9 6 P

2 sin 9

3283

4

(8)

Equating, PU 3 0, we get

9

P 3 4 2P0 sin 94

(9)

If P exceeds this value, the balls in the upper track will cease to be in compression

and the joint stiffness is provided by the balls in the lower track only, i.e., the relationship

between P and PL becomes P 3 2PL sin 9. Putting this result into equation (5) gives the

relationship between external load and joint deflection which is valid when only balls in the

lower track are in contact.

Our parametric analysis assumes the model structure described by equations (5)(9).

The difference between the experimental and analytical results is attributed to any errors

associated with geometrical and material properties as well as the change in preload from

the factory settings, which is expected from regular wear and tear of the slide. Therefore, the

values of 7 and P0 are estimated from experimental data for 1z vs. P.

CHEBYSHEV POLYNOMIALS

A procedure described by Masri et al. (1982a,b) has been used for estimating the governing

nonlinear joint relationship when the joint dynamics can be represented by a single degreeof-freedom system. It was assumed that only the translational motion is present between

the slide and the runner block of the translational guide. Thus, there is no relative rotation

between the slide and the runner block and the joint can be modeled as a single degreeof-freedom system as shown in Figure 2(a). The restoring force which is a function of

relative displacement and velocity may be computed using equation (10), where z

2 is directly

measured by accelerometers mounted on the rail.

f 21z6 1z 3 3 4m 2 z

2 4

(10)

Figure 2. (a) Mass-spring-damper representation for the relative motion of the translational guide, (b)

Mass-spring-damper representation of translational guide with steel block.

The translational guide in itself has a very high natural frequency for normal translational

mode (e.g. 60007000Hz). However, as the dynamic experiments are carried out at higher

frequencies, the displacements observed reduce significantly. This is because the energy

required for same displacement is proportional to

2 where the dynamic experiments are

carried at the input excitation frequency

. However, high displacement range is desired

for nonlinear parameter estimation to capture the nonlinear trend effectively. Therefore, the

natural frequency of the system is lowered by attaching a steel block (see Figure 2(b) and

Figure 8) of mass m3 to the rail. Due to the high frequency nature of the experiment, the rail

and the steel block cannot be assumed to act as a single rigid body. Thus, the experimental

evaluation of the restoring force function is modified as:

f 21z6 1z 3 3 4m 2 z

2 4 m 3 z

3

(11)

where, z

3 is the measured acceleration of the steel block (Figure 2(b)). This equation may be

used to calculate the restoring force value at every relative displacement and velocity value

found through experiment. Once the surface is obtained, the restoring force may be expressed

as a nonlinear function expanded in the form of two-dimensional Chebyshev polynomials:

f 21z6 1z 3 3

Ny

Nx 6

6

Ci j Ti 21z3 T j 21z 3

(12)

i30 j30

Ti and T j being the ith and jth order Chebyshev polynomials, the Ci j being the associated

coefficient in Chebyshev expansion of the function.

The property of orthogonality may be used to calculate the Ci j coefficients, which give

results similar to the minimax polynomial fit, where the largest deviation in error is made

smallest (Worden and Tomlinson, 2001). However in this research we use least square estimates using the Chebyshev polynomial basis. The advantage of the Chebyshev basis function is that we can avoid the ill-conditioned matrices that are obtained when fitting regular

polynomial basis with higher order.

4.1. Hertzian Model Fit to Static Experiments

While static experiments were done to determine the parametric model, dynamic experiments

are needed to determine damping properties and for the nonparametric analysis. It was found

experimentally that the net energy loss due to damping per cycle was less than 2% of the

maximum potential energy, and thus damping had an insignificant role in the overall system

dynamics. This low damping is because it is of mostly material nature rather than frictional.

Frictional damping is commonly observed in bolted or riveted structures and is much larger.

Also, for these experiments the translational guides did not have any lubricant, which may

increase damping. Therefore, the viscous damping model was assumed sufficient to model

the joint damping when using Hertzian analysis. Static experiments allow large input forces

to be transmitted to the joint, and allow an understanding of the overall nonlinear relationship

between the restoring force and displacement. The restoring force function, f 21z6 1z 3, can

be related to the force exerted during the static experiments by:

f 21z6 1z 3 3 P 21z3 6 c1z

(13)

where, P is the restoring force developed due to static deflection or due to stiffness alone and

c1z represents the contribution due to the viscous damping.

The translational guide was clamped inside a two-piece vise (Figure 3). A Brinell calibrator was used to measure the amount of force transmitted to the joint. Two displacement

sensors were aligned symmetrically to measure displacement on either side of the runner

block to ensure that only normal translation was observed when external load is applied.

Care was taken to minimize any rotation effects in the joint and to ensure a uniform distribution of force on the joint surface.

The experimental results and the estimated nonlinear stiffness curve are shown in Figure 4. These results were obtained by sweeping the preload values and finding 7 using a

least square estimate. The Root Mean Square (RMS) error for each fit is calculated and the

fit giving the minimum RMS error is chosen (Figure 5). The parameters found for the given

results were P0 3 630 N, 7 3 448403 5 1047 m/N283 with a RMS value of 40.1 N.

4.2. Modal Simulation and Experiments

The formulation for both parametric and nonparametric methods assumes that the rail-runner

block system responds only in the translational direction when an external load P is applied

Figure 3. Top view of the experimental setup for determining static stiffness.

Figure 4. Comparison of analytically derived Hertzian model for joint with the static experimental data.

Figure 5. Variation in the RMS error as preload is varied for the analytically derived Hertzian.

Figure 6. (a) Three degrees-of-freedom model for translational guide, (b) Translational mode along

Z -axis at 4800 Hz, (c) Rotational mode around Y -axis at 2882 Hz, and (d) Rotational model along

X -axis at 2656 Hz.

to it. This is correct, when the system is symmetrical and free from any imperfections and

the load P is applied through the center of mass of the rail-runner block system. However,

in reality the load P can cause rotational motion around the X and Y-axes apart from the

translational motion along the Z-axis (Figure 6). Thus, modeling these three degrees-offreedom, i.e., relative translation about Z-axis and relative rotation around X and Y-axes

between the rail and the runner block is needed. Therefore, a corresponding six degrees-offreedom model, which included the translation displacement and the two rotational motions

for both the rail and the runner block was developed for simulation (for the purpose of this

simulation, the steel block was assumed to be rigidly connected to the rail) and later verified

experimentally to determine the natural mode corresponding to the translational response of

the system. The combined system will have three rigid body modes and three relative motion

modes. One of the relative motion modes corresponds to the relative translation between the

rail and the runner block. The dynamic experiments for estimating the nonlinearities of the

joint may be done around this natural frequency as the single degree-of-freedom assumption

for parametric and nonparametric model can be well justified near this natural frequency.

The various motions that need to be modeled are the translational displacements z 1 and

z 2 of the runner block and rail respectively and the angular displacements x 1 and x 2 around

the X-axis and y 1 and y 2 around the Y-axis respectively. The mass of the runner block, the

rail and the steel block are denoted by m 1 , m 2 and m 3 . These were measured and found to

be m 1 3 04942 kg and m 2 6 m 3 3 242 kg. The corresponding moment of inertia around

the X-axis was evaluated as Ix1 3 549927 5 1044 kg-m2 and Ix2 6 Ix3 3 746785 5 1044 kgm2 . Similarly, around the Y-axis they are evaluated as I y1 3 941761 5 1044 kg-m2 and

I y2 6 I y3 3 664867 5 1044 kg-m2 . The effective stiffness due to the ball bearings is k, and is

assumed to be distributed symmetrically at the four points as shown in Figure 6. The length

between equivalent springs along the X-axis is l x 3 1245 mm and along the Y-axis is l y 3 21

mm. After preliminary investigation of the joint, k was chosen to be 600 N/ m. The system

dynamics can be represented by the mass-spring system equation as

M

x 6 Kx 3 f

where,

x3

z 1 x1 y1

(14)

z 2 x2 y2

8T

M 3 diag

m1

Ix1

I y1 m 2 6 m 3

Ix2 6 Ix3

I y2 6 I y3

9

0

0

l x2 k

0

0

l y2 k

K3

0

0

4k84

0

0

4l x2 k

0

0

4l y2 k

4k

4l x2 k

l x2 k

is the stiffness matrix. The input force vector for this system is

f3

0 0 0

0 0

8T

2

4l y k

0

0

l y2 k

0

Figure 7. The frequency response magnitude of the translational guide from sweep sine tests.

It may be noted that the ideal system is decoupled in translation and for each rotational

direction. However, as mentioned earlier, the imperfections in the joint and excitation of

the system causes response in the rotational directions also. Modeling them is necessary to

verify that these do not lie close to the natural frequency corresponding to the translational

motion, in which case the single degree-of-freedom approximation will no longer be valid

even near the natural frequency corresponding to the translational mode.

The system has six eigenvalues, three of which correspond to the rigid body motions and

are zero. The remaining eigenvalues correspond to rotation around the X-axis at 2656 Hz,

rotation around the Y-axis at 2882 Hz, and translational motion along the Z-axis at 4800 Hz.

The natural frequency for translation was experimentally verified by doing a sine sweep

test and the frequency response magnitude is shown in Figure 7. The natural frequency

corresponding to the translational mode along Z-axis is found to be 4819 Hz from the sine

sweep test.

4.3. Hertzian Model Fit to Dynamic Experiments

The Hertzian model derived from the static test, along with the viscous damping coefficient

obtained from the data is used to obtain the restoring force function. Since the energy loss per

cycle is less than 2% of the maximum potential energy, damping has little role in the overall

dynamics of the joint and can be modeled adequately using a viscous damping assumption.

The setup for the dynamic test is shown in Figure 8. An electromagnetic shaker is used to

excite the translational guide at 4800 Hz which is close to the natural frequency of normal

translational mode. Since displacement and velocity are orthogonal, the viscous damping c

may be calculated as:

c3

f 21z6 1z 3 41z

2

3 503N 4s8m

1z

(15)

where n is the number of data points. Figure 9 shows the evaluated restoring force surface

from the Hertzian model vs. the experimental data from the dynamic test used to derive the

viscous parameter for parametric analysis.

4.4. Polynomial Fit to Dynamic Experiments using Chebyshev Polynomials

The experimental setup for nonparametric analysis of the translational joint was same as

that for determining the viscous damping coefficient in parametric analysis (see Figure 8).

The experimental results described here were carried out at 4800Hz, the natural frequency

attributed to the normal translational motion. The amplitude of the input excitation was

manually changed continuously during the experiment. This is done to distribute the data

points over the entire velocity and displacement range and hence improve the quality of

estimation of nonlinear restoring force function. A third order polynomial fit in displacement

and first order polynomial fit in velocity was chosen as it achieved most of the improvement

in the Root Mean Square (RMS) of residues. The evaluated nonlinear restoring force function

is as follows:

Figure 9. Experimental data and evaluated nonlinear restoring force surface from parametric analysis.

6 463406201z 4 22437441z1z 4 19484151z 2 1z 6 44430151z 3 1z (16)

where 1z is in m and 1z is in mm/sec. The RMS error was evaluated by calculating the

square root of the mean of the sum of squares of the residues at each data point. The RMS

error of the polynomial fit is 166N, which is less than 3% of the maximum of restoring force

measured. The experimental data used for determining the restoring force function and the

evaluated restoring force function are shown in Figure 10.

DESCRIBING FUNCTIONS

After determining the nonlinearities in the translational guide these characteristics are then

used to evaluate the dynamic characteristics of a machine structure. The relevant dynamic

characteristics of a machine structure can be obtained using the Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) and the Stability Lobe diagrams (SLDs) of the machine structure. However,

the SLD itself is found analytically by using the FRFs along with the information about the

cutting process. Thus, the evaluation of the FRF for the machine structure, including the

nonlinear joint, is discussed here. The displacement-force FRF is also referred to as receptance. The receptance for the machine structure can be found by the Nonlinear Receptance

Coupling Approach (NLRCA) described by Ferreira and Ewins (1996).

Figure 10. Experimental data for polynomial fitted nonlinear restoring force surface and evaluated

nonlinear restoring force surface.

The NLRCA represents the response of a post-coupled system to various input excitations based on relations determining response of the pre-coupled system to various input

excitations. The post-coupled system contains the pre-coupled system along with all the

connections. The local nonlinearities that may be contained within the connections are

approximated by describing functions to represent them in the frequency domain.

Two coordinate sets are defined for this approach: an internal coordinate set and a connection coordinate set. While those coordinates related to connections are in the connection coordinate set (referred by subscript n or N), the coordinates not related to connections

are in the internal coordinate set. The connection coordinates are always a union of a pair

of coordinates ( p j 6 q j ), which represent the locations across a connection. Index i refers to

the ith connection among a total of M. In the following equations lowercase indices are used

to represent the pre-coupled configuration, while uppercase indices are used to represent the

post-coupled configuration. The pre-coupled response of the system is defined through the

receptance matrices of the system and given by:

9

xn

Hnn

xp

3

H pn

xq

Hqn

Hnp

Hnq

H pp

H pq

Hqp

Hqq

fn

f

p

fq

(17)

where Hmn is the receptance matrix between the coordinate sets m and n. In the post-coupled

system, the response can be written as

xN

xP

xQ

HN N

HP N

HQ N

HN P

HN Q

HP P

HP Q

HQ P

HQ Q

f

N

fP

fQ

(18)

Ferreira derived the relationship for the post-coupled relationship (equation 18) in terms

of the pre-coupled receptance matrices as

xN

xP

xQ

9

Hnn

Hnp

3

H pn

Hqn

2Hnp 4 Hnq 3

H pp

2H pp 4 H pq 3

H pq

4

Hqp

Hqq

2Hqp 4 Hqq 3

T

fN

2H

4

H

3

[B]41

pp

pq

fP

fQ

2Hqp 4 Hqq 3

9

Hnq

2Hnp 4 Hnq 3

(19)

where

B 3 H pp 6 Hqq 4 H pq 4 Hqp 6 1 with 1 3 diag218G i 3

(20)

G i is the describing function (e.g., Atherton, 1975) representation for the local nonlinearities

in the connections. Under the assumption that the output of the nonlinearity to a harmonic

input is primarily dominated by the first harmonic, describing functions are a good approximation for the nonlinearity in the frequency domain. The describing function gain is the

fundamental component of the Fourier series representation of the periodic output obtained

from the nonlinear function to a sinusoidal input of frequency

. Let f i 21zi 6 1z i 3 represents

the ith nonlinear restoring force function for a joint in the machine structure, where 1z i is

the relative displacement for the joint along the direction of the restoring force. Thus,

gi 2t3 3 f i 2A sin

t6 A

cos

t3

(21)

is the output to the sinusoidal input at the joint and can be expanded in a Fourier series. The

describing function is then evaluated as:

G i 2

6 Ai 3 3

Ai

gi 2t3 2sin

t 6 j cos

t3 dt4

(22)

In the subsequent sections, the describing function evaluation from the nonlinear parameters

obtained from the two different approaches, i.e., parametric and nonparametric approach is

considered. It will be shown, that the even though the describing functions obtained from the

two approaches are different because the translational guide is modeled differently, however,

they yield similar results when evaluating a machines response. The detailed procedure

Stability Lobe Diagrams is described in Dhupia et al. (2006, 2007).

RESULTS

The NLRCA approach for determining machine dynamic characteristics involve representing all modules by their pre-coupled receptance matrices H and have the governing nonlinear

restoring force relationships, f i 21zi 6 1z i 3, of the interface between them. Equation 19 converts the nonlinear differential equations into a nonlinear algebraic approximation using the

describing function representation of nonlinearities at the joint. This nonlinear algebraic

system of equations needs to be solved using some numerical technique, e.g. the NewtonRaphson method. Use of the NLRCA to determine the receptance matrix of the structure

for different nonlinearities is described in (Ferreira and Ewins, 19961 Yigit and Ulsoy, 20021

Dhupia et al., 2006). All these have an assumed and simple analytical expression for nonlinear restoring force expression. However, as in this case, it may not be straightforward to

derive a simple analytical form from the evaluated nonlinearities for the joint, especially in

the parametric approach. This may happen because the parametric description of the nonlinearity cannot always be reduced to a simple nonlinear restoring force function description

described by one explicit equation. Thus, at every Newton-Raphson iteration step, the describing function has to be numerically evaluated for the chosen amplitude, which may be

obtained from the response variables 2xn 6 x p 6 xq 3 at that iteration and the chosen frequency

for the iteration. Figure 11, shows the describing function plot as the amplitude and frequencies are changed. At different amplitude levels of relative vibration amplitude, A, the

nonlinear stiffness of the joint leads to different DC gains. The roll-off frequency is determined by the stiffness-damping ratio. Since the damping is assumed to be viscous and the

change in stiffness is very small, the roll-off frequency,

c , remains almost a constant at

about 1.2 MHz.

Besides the numerical computation of the describing functions, the Newton-Raphson

technique to find a solution of nonlinear equations requires the computation of the Jacobian

of the system of equations describing the system (equation (19)). Because of the lack of

closed form representation of describing function this Jacobian has to be numerically computed by perturbing every variable in the connection coordinate set around the nominal value

of that iteration. The solution to this nonlinear equation is prone to the ill conditioning of

the Jacobian matrix and may require tuning of several parameters before the desired solution may be obtained. In the next section, the NLRCA approach using the nonparametric

analysis is discussed. Because of the representation of the nonlinearity in the form of a two

dimensional polynomial function, a closed form describing function can be obtained, which

avoids several of the above mentioned difficulties in applying the results obtained to the

NLRCA.

c 3 142 MHz.

ANALYSIS RESULTS

The two-dimensional Chebyshev polynomial obtained from the nonparametric analysis can

be expanded as a two dimensional polynomial representation, as in equation (16), of the

nonlinear restoring force function as:

f 21z6 1z 3 3

Ny

Nx 6

6

Cixjy 1z i 1z j

(23)

i30 j30

where Cixjy represents the coefficient of the term containing ith power of relative displacement

and jth power of relative velocity across the joint. Substituting 1z 3 A sin

t and 1z 3

A cos

t

g2A sin

t6 A

cos

t3 3

Ny

Nx 6

6

Cixjy

j Ai6 j sini 2

t3 cos j 2

t3 4

(24)

i30 j30

G 2

6 A3 3

Ai

0

2sin

t 6 j cos

t3

Ny

Nx 6

6

i30 j30

Cixjy

j Ai6 j sini 2

t3 cos j 2

t3 dt4 (25)

Substituting 3

t

Ny

Nx 6

6

1 x y j i6 j41

G 2

6 A3 3

C

A

ij

i30 j30

2

i61

sin

cos d 6

sin cos

i

j61

d 4

(26)

82

I 3

sinm cosn d4

(27)

Substituting, 3 sin2 ,

I 3

m41

2

21 4 3

n41

2

d 4

(28)

x41 21 4 3 y41 d

B 2x6 y3 3

B 2x6 y3 3

2x3 2y3

3 B 2y6 x3

2x 6 y3

erties:

(29)

8

0

2x 6 13 3 x 2x3

213 3 1, and

21823 3

9

4

(30)

82

Thus, the integral I 3 0 sinm cosn d, can be evaluated using gamma function properties for integers m and n, and may be written as:

I 3

0

82

2

sin cos d 3 B

m

m61 n61

6

2

2

3

3

m61

n61

2

2

4

24 m6n62

2

(31)

The describing function integral [equation (26)] can thus be evaluated using the result obtained in equation (31) as:

c 3 142 MHz.

G 2

6 A3 3

! 044N x 044N y

6 6

2

Cixjy

j Ai6 j41 B

i3odd j3een

044N

6x 044N

6y

i3een j3odd

2

Cixjy

j

Ai6 j41 B

i

j 61

6 16

2

2

3"

i 61 j

6 61

4

2

2

(32)

Thus, the describing function representation for the evaluated nonlinear restoring functions

using nonparametric analysis (equation (16)) is:

2

3

A2

3A2

46

46340620 4 1948415

6 j4

410

G 2

6 A3 3 65441640 4 147083 5

4

4

(33)

The describing function response from the nonparametric approach is shown in Figure 12.

In the nonparametric approach using Chebyshev functions, both the stiffness as well as

damping is modeled. While damping is quite small and leads to energy dissipation of less

than 2% of the maximum potential energy in the translational guide per cycle, the nonlinear

representation indicates that the damping function is itself quite nonlinear. This results in

varying roll-off frequencies for each of the describing function plots for different vibration

amplitudes. However, the small nonlinearity in stiffness, which affects the machine dynam-

Figure 13. Single degree-of-freedom system used for comparison of evaluated joint description.

ics significantly, affects the DC gain of the describing function response. The describing

function response plot from both approaches show similar trend till the roll-off frequency.

8. DISCUSSION

The nonlinear restoring force function has been evaluated using two different approaches,

i.e., parametric and nonparametric approach. Any joint may be evaluated by either of these

two techniques. The parametric approach requires considerable modeling effort and it may

be difficult to derive a physically relevant model for each joint. However, it is easier to

identify experimental errors from the parametric approach. Modeling of the joint also gives

considerable insight for the design of experiments. The nonparametric approach does not

require such extensive modeling and can be extended to different joints. But problems with

experiments may go unnoticed and yield unexpected or incorrect results later on. The modeling of the translational guide during the parametric approach is beneficial for the design

of experiment. However, with a good design of the experiment, the nonparametric approach

also gives good results. The objective of the nonlinear estimation of machine joints is that

the evaluated nonlinear parameters should be used to evaluate the machine dynamics at the

design stage. We are currently using a nonlinear receptance coupling approach to evaluate

the machine performance at the design stage. This approach uses the describing functions

to represent the joint nonlinearities. It is possible to obtain good closed-form describing

function representation for the polynomial fitted nonparametric approach presented in this

paper. This is an advantage because this approach may be used to solve for the dynamic

performance of machine tools efficiently and several problems regarding ill-conditioning of

Jacobian matrices and evaluation of each iteration step for the nonlinear algebraic equation

solver can be avoided.

The describing function evaluated for the translational guide using the two approaches

has a slightly different representation because of the different approaches that have been employed. In the Hertzian, or the parametric approach, the nonlinearity has been assumed only

in stiffness and damping has been assumed to be viscous. In the Chebyshev approach, or

the nonparametric approach, a two-dimensional polynomial function models nonlinearity in

Figure 14. (a) SDOF response with parametric describing function, (b) SDOF response with nonparametric describing function.

both stiffness and damping. Thus, while the describing function response at lower frequencies is quite similar, the higher frequencies response, i.e. after the roll-off frequency is quite

different. However this roll-off frequency is very high (

c 3 142 MHz) since the joint is

very stiff and the damping is quite small. To compare the effect of this describing function

on the machine structure a single degree of freedom system with the evaluated parameters

of the translational guide and a mass of 60 kg as shown in Figure 13 is considered. The

frequency response function for the SDOF system for parametric vs nonparateric approach

with constant displacement amplitudes vibration is shown in Figure 14(a) and (b). Despite

differences in the describing function response plot the FRFs of the SDOF system are very

similar. Even though the natural frequencies shift significantly for a small amplitude change

from 1m to 5 m due to the nonlinearity, the difference between the describing functions

at high frequencies does not affect the SDOF system whose frequency range of interest is

around its natural frequency and has the range up to kHz.

It can be observed from the static experiment results (Figure 4) as well as subsequent

discussion of results in the frequency domain, that the relative displacement vs. normal load

follows almost a linear trend. The dominating linear terms can also be seen in the restoring

force function representation in equation 16. Thus the joint is only weakly nonlinear. However, it should be noted that even such small nonlinear terms as observed in this joint can

cause significant variations in the machine dynamic performance. This important point is

discussed in detail in (Dhupia et al., 2006) and is also evident from Figure 14.

The nonlinear parameters for restoring force function of an industrial translational guide

have been evaluated and an approach to use these parameters for measuring the machine

dynamic performance in the design stage has been described. A translational guide has been

selected because it is among the most common joints found in machine structures. The

joint was found to have a weak nonlinear stiffness term. Two approaches: a parametric

approach based on Hertzian mechanics and a nonparametric approach based on Chebyshev

polynomials has been used. The parameters are later converted into their describing function

representation for use with the Nonlinear Receptance Coupling Approach to determine the

machine dynamic characteristics in the design stage. An algorithm to find the closed-form

describing function from the nonparametric approach using polynomial representation is also

described.

While the modeling of the translational guide via the parametric approach is essential for

proper design of experiments, the generalized nonparametric approach is desirable because

of the possibility to extend it to different joints and the nonlinear parameter results from the

polynomial fitted restoring force function yield closed-form describing function which may

be used to efficiently evaluate the dynamic performance of machine tools at design stage.

Acknowledgments. The authors are pleased to acknowledge the f inancial support of the NSF Engineering Research

Center for Reconf igurable Manufacturing Systems (NSF grant # eec-9529125) and the Foundation for Polish Science.

REFERENCES

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