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The need for communication was growing up, because the ALM and not the other methods

that emerged failed to meet the communication needs acquired by globalization, and the pursuit of
both political as economic point of view in the formation of economic groups such as Common
Market European and European Union. Several theorists contributed to the emergence of
communicative language teaching among them: Hymes, Halliday, Widdowson, Littlewood,
Brumfit, Candlin, Johnson among others.
And with the discussions about the best way of contributing to the communicative language
teaching. Appeared in 1970, the natural approach, developed by Tracy Terrell, who was a professor
of Spanish. In this method, as in Suggestopedia method where the student is placed under the most
possible knowledge (grammatical and lexical) acquired both by the teacher, teaching materials, and
knowledge these are called input, according to Oliveira "the first principle shows the importance
they give understanding, which is the axis around which classes should turn. Remember that input
is the set of lexical and grammatical information that the learner receives the teacher, the
colleagues, the teaching material and the environment you are in. "(Oliveira, 2014, p. 142).
And in the oral approach, the grammar is not placed in the foreground, with the logic that
humans learn their mother tongue without any grammatical framework for this, "the third principle
shows that grammar lessons do not occupy a central place the natural approach. The logic for this is
that humans learn their mother tongue without formal instruction of grammar. "(Oliveira, 2014, p.
And the natural approach had humanistic influences as one of its principles, therefore, was
concerned with the affective factors of learners, according to Oliveira "There are students who, for
example, are embarrassed when they are corrected by the teacher. Others are fearful that avoid, the
most talk in the classroom for fear of making mistakes, which is a major obstacle to the
development of their communication skills. "(Oliveira, 2014, p. 142).
And we have another method that emerged between 1960 and 1970 to meet the
communication needs and is well known for English teachers is the communicative approach. Such
an approach in its objectives has affinities with both the ALM and with the TPR (Total Physical
Response) plus differ in the way of how to achieve those objectives, as Oliveira "the word way it is
emphasized, as even the ALM or TPR, for example, has the ultimate goal of helping students to
become able to use the language studied to communicate, but differ in the way in which they can
reach that goal and in terms of language and concepts of learning that adopt. (Oliveira, 2014, p.
David Wilkins, theorist who created the communicative approach therefore criticized the
other methods that were concerned only with grammar and laid aside communication, according to
Oliveira, "his criticism is well founded, therefore, focus on grammatical structures and vocabulary,
without attention to contextual issues of sociolinguistics adequacy and production of meanings,
really does not help students to develop their communicative competence and are able to perform
more complex linguistic acts. "(Oliveira, 2014, p.147).
Another criticism that David Wilkins did was compared situational approaches or situational
syllabus, those likely situations that may occur in the restaurant, at the airport and elsewhere, more
that is not limited to learning only these situations to effect learning. According to Oliveira "after
all, if we think in situations traditionally presented in textbooks that follow the situational approach,
we realize how they are vague. For example, take a situation that was very common in textbooks
guided by a notional syllabus: at the airport .In an airport, people can have totally unpredictable oral
interactions: immigration officials interrogate a suspect passenger drug trafficking, a passenger
discusses with another passenger smoking in embargue area, a woman waiting for a passenger
conversation with a stranger at the airport bar on pets, a passing complains to the employee of an
airline because of flight delays. " (Oliveira, 2014, p. 147-148).
Another important point in the communicative approach is that the emphasis is on
communication, but without removing any of the grammar, and giving some importance to be
learned to facilitate learning, "this means that the teacher does not teach grammar just to teach
grammar, but to help students develop their ability to perform linguistic functions as, for example,

persuade, inform and threatening and inviting. Grammar is an important means, but a means to
achieve communicative purposes. "(Oliveira, 2014, p.151).
And another approach that emerged in the communication era was the height of the taskbased approach, created by the critic of the communicative approach, Rod Ellis. For him the
communicative approach was weak, and used grammatical points and used the situational terms,
"would be exactly the teaching based on a linguistic content, whether specified in structural terms, a
list of grammar points, or notional / functional terms ". (Oliveira, 2014, p.163).
Ellis's theory was based on the tasks, which was supported by a proposal created in 1990, it
was known as Task - Based Learning or TBL, and Ellis translated as task-based approach. And he
made a distinction between tasks supported in tasks and task-based approaches, whose distinction
was the fact that the activities supported by traditionalists tasks are focused on linguistic elements.
And the task-based approach is communication and social interaction. According to Oliveira "are
those focused on communication and social interaction and elect tasks as the basis for the planning
of lessons and the course as a whole." (Oliveira, 2014, p. 164).
One question that came up the difference between task, exercise? For seem homonyms, ie
having the same meaning. According to Ellis not have the same meaning therefore have different
concepts, "as well as communication tasks and activities creep activities were specifically directed
to the development of fluence of the students through the use of language. The exercises, as well as
pre-communicative activities and precision activities, would be aimed at the practice of
grammatical structures and vocabulary. "(Oliveira, 2014, p.165).
And the task-based approach is divided into stages according to the theory of Willis (1996),
which are pre-task, the task loop and focus on the tongue. In pre-task the teacher explains how it
goes activity, introducing the topic of task that can be with specific vocabulary or with related
information on the topic taught. "So, the teacher can prepare activities for the pre-task, focusing on
specific vocabulary or information related to the topic." (Oliveira, 2014, p.167).
Through the pre-job knowledge required to be made in a way task with clear and objective
instructions to be no interference in carrying out the task. "That this is where the teacher, after
introducing the topic and help their students to activate the necessary knowledge, gives instructions
for them to perform the task properly. The instructions must be clear and objective, because if they
are confusing instructions, probably interfere in conducting the activity, leading students, for
example, ask the teacher guidance during its implementation, which is not interesting, and even to
perform the task incorrectly ". (Oliveira, 2014, p. 167).
And the task cycle is the phase that occurs perform the task without interference from the
teacher unless requested by students, that this is where students use their knowledge to accomplish
the task. The teacher only observes the students, noting that find interesting, and if there are errors
not stop students. "The teacher should not interfere, except if requested. This is the time when
students use their knowledge to accomplish the task, and thus develop their fluency. The teacher
monitors students and note what draw your attention, more does not stop students or to make
corrections or to suggest something. If it noted that certain grammatical structure or lexical items
are not well established in the minds of students and therefore they find it difficult to accomplish
the task, the teacher comes to these elements in the final phase, what exactly is the focus on
language. "(Oliveira, 2014, p. 167- 168).
Lexical Approach, created by Michael Lewis, did not agree with the theories used as the
main point of grammatical structures. In lexical approach, the majority of input the student is
exposed is the lexicon or vocabulary. "The lexicon is central to the production of meaning;
grammatical structures function as the lexicon supporting this production. "(Oliveira, 2014, p. 173).
Other methodological approaches emphasized the lexicon, including the natural approach,
Suggestopedia and the famous audio lingual method. "However was the lexical approach that gave
the vocabulary or lexicon, as he prefers to Lewis, the most important role in foreign language
learning process." (Oliveira, 2014, p. 173). As we can see previous approaches to lexical approach
emphasized the lexicon any more could the relevance conquered by lexical approach.
Another important point to be mentioned in the lexical approach is that the previous

methods only emphasized the grammatical structures, forgetting the lexicon or vocabulary, as if
they were separate, "the understanding of Lewis, one should not think of the grammar and lexicon
as elements distinct, pois- and this is another dichotomy beginning- grammar / vocabulary is
invalid. "(Oliveira, 2014, p. 174).
And we can see some comparison of the lexical approach to the method of Grammar and
Translation (AGT), as was using single words in vocabulary learning as well as the lexical
approach, but with the difference of words blocks. "There is no way not to remember the word lists
of the method of grammar and translation, although there does not exist a concern with the
formation of words block, but with words viewed in isolation" (Oliveira, 2014, p. 177) .
And we still have a comparison with the Silent Way, because for Lewis is not good
emphasize the logo speaks in the early levels, for him the learner needs a mute at the beginning of
learning. "For Lewis, overemphasize the talks in the early levels of learning a foreign language
inhibits students, is counterproductive. Its position is consistent with the hypothesis that students
traverse a mute period at the beginning of learning. "(Oliveira, 2014, p. 176). In a way I agree with
Lewis, the more we should take into consideration that this could disrupt the teaching learning. You
can enter simple dialogues and is student criteria if they want to talk or not.
And as we saw the lexical approach has comparisons with other methodological proposals.
And to close the part of the lexical approach comparisons accept a translation to help students in the
early levels, comparing with Suggestopedia. "Anyway, just to reduce stress and inhibition of
students in the early stages, the translation is seen as a legitimate and inevitable technique in lexical
approach, approaching, thus, of proposing the Suggestopedia". (Oliveira, 2014, p.177).
Unlike other approaches that give importance to mistakes made by the students, the lexical
approach is concerned with learning, "the teacher who follows the principles of lexical approach
sees the errors of students as phenomena inherent in the teaching and learning process." (Oliveira,
2014, p. 178). The lexical approach to emphasize what they say and not as they say, is not that all
errors are undetected, "that does not mean that the teacher ignore all errors relating to structured he
only devotes more time to what students say and less attention to how they say it. "(Oliveira, 2014,
p. 178).
And to think, what would a lexical class on the lexical approach? According to Oliveira,
"there are no lexical classes or methods or lexical syllabus. There are theoretical conceptions of
language and learning linked to the lexicon and the role that the lexicon plays in the creation of
meaning in communicative interaction. "(Oliveira, 2014, p. 179). Lewis himself already knew it
would cause indifference, propose an approach using exercises with the face of ALM, saying it is a
"drill", or block different modern words of the old drill. "It feels distinctly uncomfortable with this
proposal and try to justify it saying that the drill is proposing differs from the drill out of fashion
because the practiced element can be a totally fixed block of words." (Oliveira, 2014, p. 178).
And the communicative methods continued to grow in the 1980s, when born to intercultural
communicative approach, and the proposal to use language as a communication was high among
English teachers because they had realized that language is also culture. And to learn the language
also means acquiring culture. The studied culture helps not create stereotypes about the other's
culture. "Intercultural attitudes are essential for students to be alert to the stereotypes, that is often
negative generalizations about others, for example, the idea that the French do not like to bathe or
that the Bahia are lazy or that the gauchos are racist or that the Americans are obese. "(Oliveira,
2014, p. 183).
And Intercultural approach is divided into five components: intercultural attitudes,
knowledge, interpretation skills and relationship skills and the discovery of interaction and cultural
critical consciousness. Intercultural attitudes are the experiences, research on the culture, the
learning acquired to eliminate the beliefs acquired about each other's culture, "curiosity, openness
and readiness to suspend disbelief about other cultures and beliefs about their own culture."
(Oliveira, 2014, p. 183).
Another component is the knowledge that is acquired on the social groups both in their own
country as the country that are interacting, and the general processes of interaction. Learn about the

other's culture helps shape their thoughts, often negative relative to each other, "clearly the
knowledge that build on the cultures of others help students modify their intercultural attitudes
towards becoming more open, curious and willing to give up certain ethnocentric beliefs they may
have. "(Oliveira, 2014, p. 184).
And we still have the acting skills and relationship, are those skills that students will acquire
in interpreting the attitudes, documents, meeting other cultures and make an interrelationship with
their culture, "for example, consider the event to go to food court of a mall to eat something and
take a geladinho draft, common event in some Brazilian cities. However, the Brazilian who will
study, work or sightseeing in the United States need to know that it is illegal to drink beer or any
other alcoholic drink on the street or in other public areas such as the feeding area of a shopping
mall in the country. "(Oliveira, 2014, p. 185)
Another component is the skills of discovery and interaction, are the skills acquired by the
new knowledge of each other's culture, traditions, social practices of certain groups is the ability to
know each other's culture, attitudes which become intercultural and that facilitate communication,
"they refer to the ability that the individual has to build new knowledge of a culture and on cultural
practices, and the ability to turn knowledge, attitudes and skills within the limits of communication
and interaction in real time" . (Oliveira, 2014, p.186).
Finally, adding the five components have the critical cultural awareness, and as the name
says is critical, the ability to evaluate critically, "based on explicit criteria, perspectives, practices
and products in their own culture and other cultures and countries. "(Oliveira, 2014, p. 186).
Study the language and culture of the people whose language you are learning, involves a lot
of research about it, because culture is the tradition of a people, it will not learn just going to foreign
language lessons, teachers often do not know all the culture, they only help students learn more, "so
the teacher's role is to help students develop skills to help them deal with situations of interaction
with people living in other cultures, avoiding misunderstandings with speakers of different cultures.
"(Oliveira, 2014, p.185).