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Welcome to "Explorations", in VOA Special English. I'm Steve Ember. This
week, Barbara Klein and I tell about one of the most influential thinkers in
science history.
about one of the most: acerca de uno de los ms; influential thinkers:
influyentes pensadores o filsofos; science history: historia de la ciencia;

Charles Darwin developed the theory of how living things develop from
simpler organisms over long periods of time. That theory is known as
evolution through natural selection.
developed: desarroll; theory: teora; living things: organismos vivos; develop:
evolucionan; through natural selection: a travs de la seleccin natural;

Charles Darwin read widely and sought ideas from other fields of study. He
was influenced by Thomas Malthus work, "An Essay on the Principle of
Population" written in 1798. Malthus argued that populations are always
limited by the food supply.
read widely: lea extensamente; sought ideas: busc ideas [seek / sought /
sought / seeking]; fields of study: disciplinas; influenced by: influido por; An
Essay on the Principle of Population: Ensayo sobre el Principio de la Poblacin;
argued that: sostena que; limited by: limitadas por; the food supply: el
suministro de alimentos;

Darwin would later say that this work caused him to realize the struggle for
limited resources was a fact of life. He said small changes took place in
individual animals. Changes that helped them survive would continue. But
those that did not would be destroyed. The result of this would be the
formation of new species.
would later say: expresara ms adelante; caused him to realize: le hizo darse
cuenta de; struggle: lucha, puja; a fact of life: una triste realidad; took place:
ocurran; changes that helped them survive: los cambios que les ayudaran a
sobrevivir; would continue: continuaran; would be destroyed: seran destrudos;
the formation of a new species: la creacin de una nueva especie;

The British philosopher Herbert Spencer described this struggle as

"survival of the fittest." But biologists use the term natural selection to
describe the evolutionary process.
British philosopher: filsofo britnico; survival of the fittest: supervivencia de los
ms aptos (la ley del ms fuerte); biologists: los bilogos; evolutionary process:
proceso evolutivo;

Charles Darwin developed his idea slowly over more than twenty years. He
was concerned that he would lose the support of the scientific community if
he revealed it. He wrote to his friend, botanist Joseph Hooker, that speaking
about evolution was like confessing a murder.
slowly: pausadamente; over more then: durante ms de; concerned:
preocupado; that he would lose: de perder; the support of the scientific
community: el apoyo de la comunidad cientfica; if he revealed it: si revelaba su
idea; botanist: botnico; like confessing a murder: como confesar un asesinato;

It was not until 1858 that Darwin was forced to release his theory to the

public. Another naturalist, Alfred Russel Wallace, had independently written

a paper that contained ideas similar to Darwin's concerning evolution.
Wallace had reached these ideas from his studies on islands in the western
Pacific Ocean.
it was not until 1858 that: recin en 1858; was forced to release: se vio
obligado a divulgar; naturalist: naturalista; a paper: un artculo; that contained
ideas similar to Darwin's: que contena ideas similares a las de Darwin;
concerning evolution: con respecto a la evolucin; had reached these ideas:
haba llegado a estas conclusiones; on islands: en islas; western: occidental;

With help from Darwin's friends, the two naturalists presented a joint
scientific paper to the Linnean Society of London in July of 1858. At first
there was little reaction.
with help from: con la ayuda de; joint scientific paper: artculo cientfico
compartido; Linnean Society of London: Sociedad Linneana de Londres (sociedad
cientfica); at first there was little reaction: al principio hubo poca oposicin;

Then, in November 1859, Darwin released the results of all his work on
evolution. The book was called "On the Origin of Species by Means of
Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for
Life." It was an immediate success.
released the results: public los resultados; On the Origin of Species: Del Origen
de las Especies (mediante la seleccin natural o la conservacin de las razas
favorecidas en la lucha por la vida); an immediate success: un xito rotundo;

The "Origin of Species" was praised by many scientists. But religious

leaders denounced it. For them, evolution opposed the explanation of
creation found in the book of Genesis in the Bible. Today, almost all
scientists accept the theory of evolution. But many non-scientists are
unsure about whether humans evolved over millions of years. In the United
States, public opinion studies have shown that less than half the population
believes in evolution.
praised by: elogiado por; religious leaders: lderes religiosos; denounced it: lo
condenaron, lo censuraron; for them: para ellos; evolution opposed: la evolucin
se opona a; found in: encontrada en; the book of Genesis: el libro de Gnesis;
almost all: casi todos los; are unsure about whether: dudan acerca de si;
humans evolved: los seres humanos evolucionaron; public opinion studies:
informes de opinin pblica; have shown: han demostrado; that less than half the
population: que menos de la mitad de la poblacin; believes in evolution: cree en
la evolucin;

Natural selection does not explain everything about why species evolve.
Darwin did not know about Gregor Mendels work on heredity. And the
discovery of genetics and DNA molecules took place long after his death.
Yet, Darwin theorized in a world much different from the one we know. That
is why scientists today wonder at the depth of his knowledge and the
strength of his arguments.
about why: sobre por qu; species evolve: las especies evolucionan; on heredity:
sobre los factores hereditarios (transmisin de cualidades genticas); discovery of
genetics: descubrimiento de la gentica; DNA molecules: molculas ADN
(molculas que contienen la informacin gentica de forma codificada); took place:
tuvo lugar; long after his death: mucho tiempo despus de su muerte; yet: sin
embargo; theorized: teoriz; much different: muy distinto; from the one we
know: del que conocemos; wonder at: se maravillan con; depth of his

knowledge: profundidad de su conocimiento; strength: fuerza; arguments:

argumentos, fundamentos;

Charles Darwin died on April 19, 1882. He was buried at Westminster Abbey,
in London, among other heroes of Britain.
buried at: sepultado en [bury / buried / buried / burying]; Westminster Abbey:
Abada de Westminster; among other heroes: junto a otros hroes;

This program was written and produced by Mario Ritter. Im Barbara Klein.
And Im Steve Ember.