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Shivaprasad K.Tavagad
Guided by

Prof.- Ankita Gupta


This is to certify that student Mr.Shivaprasad K.Tavagad is studying in TE
Computer Engineering

has successfully completed the seminar titled GRID

COMPUTING. This study is a partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelors of

Engineering in Computer Engineering of the University of Pune, PUNE during
the academic year 2014-2015.

Prof-Ankita Gupta

Prof. Arati

Head of the Department


I express my sincere thanks to Prof.Ankita Gupta for their kind co-operation

for presenting the seminar.

I also extend my sincere thanks to all other members of the faculty of

Computer Science and Engineering Department and my friends for their cooperation and encouragement.



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In the last few years there has been a big exponential growth in computer
processing power, large data storage and communication. But still there are many
complex and computation intensive problems, which cant be solved by
supercomputers. These problems can only be found with a large variety of non
homogeneous resources. The increased use and popularity of the Internet and the
availability of high-speed networks have gradually changed the way we do
computing. These technologies have enabled the cooperative use of a wide variety
of geographically distributed resources as a single more powerful computer. This
new method of pooling resources for solving large-scale problems is called as grid
computing. This report describes the concepts grid computing.
The Grid formulated by us uses the standard Globus Architecture, which is
the only Architecture currently used world wide for development of the Grid. And
we have created an algorithm for building our Grid Model that we consider as a
blueprint for further implementation of grid . When practically implemented, our
Grid provides the user to experience the good use over the Internet while
downloading multiple files.
Today we are in the Internet world and everyone prefers toget fast access to the
rnet. But due to more downloading, there is a possibility that the system haults or
slows down the its performance that leads to the restarting of the entire process
from the beginning. This is one of the major problems that need the attention of the
So we have taken this problem for our research and in this report we are
providing a layout for implementing our proposed Grid Model that can access the
Internet very fast. By using our Grid we can easily download any number of files
very fast depending on the number of systems employed in the Grid. We have used
the concept of Grid Computing for this purpose.

The popularity of the Internet as well as the availability of
powerful computers and high-speed network technology as lowcost commodity components is changing the way we use
computers nowdays. These technology opportunities have led to
the possibilaty of using distributed computers as a single, leading
to what is popularly known as Grid computing. The term Grid is
chosen as term

to a power Grid that provides continoues,

dependable, transparent access to electricity irrespective of its

resource. A detailed analysis of this analogy can be found in. This
new approach to network computing is known by several names,
such as metacomputing, scalable computing, global computing,
Internet computing, and more recently peer-to- peer (P2P)


Our goal in describing our Grid architecture is not to provide a complete

enumeration of all required protocols (and services, APIs, and SDKs) but rather to
identify requirements for general classes of component. The result is an
extensible, open architectural structure within which can be placed solutions to
key VO requirements. Our architecture and the subsequent discussion organize
components into layers, as shown in Figure. Components within each layer share
common characteristics but can build on capabilities and behaviors provided by
any lower layer.

In specifying the various layers of the Grid architecture, we follow the

principles of the hourglass model. The narrow neck of the hourglass defines a
small set of core abstractions and protocols (e.g., TCP and HTTP in the Internet),
onto which many different high-level behaviors can be mapped (the top of the
hourglass), and which themselves can be mapped onto many different underlying
technologies (the base of the hourglass). By definition, the number of protocols
defined at the neck must be small. In our architecture, the neck of the hourglass
consists of Resource and Connectivity protocols, which facilitate the sharing of
individual resources. Protocols at these layers are designed so that they can be
implemented on top of a diverse range of resource types, defined at the Fabric
layer, and can in turn be used to construct a wide range of global services and
application-specific behaviors at the Collective layerso called because they
involve the coordinated (collective) use of multiple resources.

The layered Grid architecture and its relationship to the Internet

protocol architecture. Because the Internet protocol architecture
extends from network to application, there is a mapping from Grid
layers into Internet layers.



This section briefly highlights some of the general principles that underlie
the construction of the Grid. In particular, the idealized design features that are
required by a Grid to provide users with a seamless computing environment are
discussed. Four main aspects characterize a Grid.









geographically distributed across multiple administrative domains and owned by

different organizations. The autonomy of resource owners needs to be honored
along with their local resource management and usage policies.

Heterogeneity. A Grid involves a multiplicity of resources that are heterogeneous

in nature and will encompass a vast range of technologies.

Scalability. A Grid might grow from a few integrated resources to millions. This
raises the problem of potential performance degradation as the size of Grids
increases. Consequently, applications that require a large number of
geographically located resources must be designed to be latency and bandwidth

Dynamicity or adaptability. In a Grid, resource failure is the rule rather than the
exception. In fact, with so many resources in a Grid, the probability of some
resource failing is high. Resource managers or applications must tailor their
behavior dynamically and use the available resources and services efficiently and


What types of applications will grids are used for? Building on experiences in
gigabit testbeds, the I-WAY network, and other experimental systems, we have
identified five major application classes for computational grids, and described
briefly in this section. More details about applications and their technical
requirements are provided in the referenced chapters
5.1) Distributed Supercomputing
Distributed supercomputing applications use grids to aggregate substantial
computational resources in order to tackle problems that cannot be solved on a
single system. Depending on the grid on which we are working, these aggregated
resources might comprise the majority of the supercomputers in the country or
simply all of the workstations within a company. Here are some contemporary
Distributed interactive simulation (DIS) is a technique used for training and
planning in the military. Realistic scenarios may involve hundreds of thousands of
entities, each with potentially complex behavior patterns. Yet even the largest
current supercomputers can handle at most 20,000 entities. In recent work,
researchers at the California Institute of Technology have shown how multiple
supercomputers can be coupled to achieve record-breaking levels of performance.
The accurate simulation of complex physical processes can require high spatial
and temporal resolution in order to resolve fine-scale detail. Coupled
supercomputers can be used in such situations to overcome resolution barriers and
hence to obtain qualitatively new scientific results


High-Throughput Computing

In high-throughput computing, the grid is used to schedule large numbers of

loosely coupled or independent tasks, with the goal of putting unused processor
cycles (often from idle workstations) to work. The result may be, as in distributed
supercomputing, the focusing of available resources on a single problem, but the
quasi-independent nature of the tasks involved leads to very different types of
problems and problem-solving methods. Here are some examples:







manufacturer Advanced Micro Devices used high-throughput computing

techniques to exploit over a thousand computers during the peak design
phases of their K6 and K7 microprocessors. These computers are located on
the desktops of AMD engineers at a number of AMD sites and were used
for design verification only when not in use by engineers.
The Condor system from the University of Wisconsin is used to manage
pools of hundreds of workstations at universities and laboratories around the
world. These resources have been used for studies as diverse as molecular
simulations of liquid crystals, studies of ground penetrating radar, and the
design of diesel engines.
More loosely organized efforts have harnessed tens of thousands of
computers distributed world wide to tackle hard cryptographic problems.



On-Demand Computing

On-demand applications use grid capabilities to meet short-term requirements for

resources that cannot be cost effectively or conveniently located locally. These
resources may be computation, software, data repositories, specialized sensors,
and so on. In contrast to distributed supercomputing applications, these
applications are often driven by cost-performance concerns rather than absolute
performance. For example:
The NEOS and NetSolve network-enhanced numerical solver systems
allow users to couple remote software and resources into desktop
applications, dispatching to remote servers calculations that are
computationally demanding or that require specialized software.
A computer-enhanced MRI machine and scanning tunneling microscope
(STM) developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications
use supercomputers to achieve real time image processing. The result is a
significant enhancement in the ability to understand what we are seeing
and, in the case of the microscope, to steer the instrument.
A system developed at the Aerospace Corporation for processing of data from
meteorological satellites uses dynamically acquired supercomputer resources to
deliver the results of a cloud detection algorithm to remote meteorologists in quasi
real time


Design Features
The following are the main design features required by a Grid environment.
Administrative hierarchy. An administrative hierarchy is the way that each Grid
environment divides itself up to cope with a potentially global extent. The
administrative hierarchy determines how administrative information flows
through the Grid.
Communication services. The communication needs of applications using a Grid
environment are diverse, ranging from reliable point-to-point to unreliable
multicast communications. The communications infrastructure needs to support
protocols that are used for bulk-data transport, streaming data, group
communications, and those used by distributed objects. The network services used
also provide the Grid with important QoS parameters such as latency, bandwidth,
reliability, fault-tolerance, and jitter control.
Information services. A Grid is a dynamic environment where the location and
types of services available are constantly changing. A major goal is to make all
resources accessible to any process in the system, without regard to the relative
location of the resource user. It is necessary to provide mechanisms to enable a
rich environment in which information is readily obtained by requesting services.
The Grid information (registration and directory) services components provide the
mechanisms for registering and obtaining information about the Grid structure,
resources, services, and status.
Naming services. In a Grid, like in any distributed system, names are used to refer
to a wide variety of objects such as computers, services, or data objects



There are currently a large number of projects and a diverse range of new
and emerging Grid developmental approaches being pursued. These systems
range from Grid frameworks to application testbeds, and from collaborative
environments to batch submission mechanisms.
It is difficult to predict the future in a field such as information technology
where the technological advances are moving very rapidly. Hence, it is not an
easy task to forecast what will become the dominant Grid approach. Windows of
opportunity for ideas and products seem to open and close in the blink of an eye.
However, some trends are evident. One of those is growing interest in the use of
Java and Web services for network computing.
The Java programming language successfully addresses several key issues
that accelerate the development of Grid environments, such as heterogeneity and
security. It also removes the need to install programs remotely; the minimum
execution environment is a Java-enabled Web browser. Java, with its related
technologies and growing repository of tools and utilities, is having a huge impact
on the growth and development of Grid environments. From a relatively slow
start, the developments in Grid computing are accelerating fast with the advent of
these new and emerging technologies. It is very hard to ignore the presence of the
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) in the background. We
believe that frameworks incorporating CORBA services will be very influential
on the design of future Grid environments.


Whatever the technology or computing infrastructure that becomes

predominant or most popular, it can be guaranteed that at some stage in the future
its star will wane. Historically, in the field of computer research and development,
this fact can be repeatedly observed. The lesson from this observation must
therefore be drawn that, in the long term, backing only one technology can be an
expensive mistake. The framework that provides a Grid environment must be
adaptable, malleable, and extensible. As technology and fashions change it is
crucial that Grid environments evolve with them.

Smarr observes that Grid computing has serious social consequences and is
going to have as revolutionary an effect as railroads did in the American Midwest
in the early 19th century. Instead of a 3040 year lead-time to see its effects,
however, its impact is going to be much faster. Smarr concludes by noting that the
effects of Grids are going to change the world so quickly that mankind will
struggle to react and change in the face of the challenges and issues they present.
Therefore, at some stage in the future, our computing needs will be satisfied in the
same pervasive and ubiquitous manner that we use the electricity power grid. The
analogies with the generation and delivery of electricity are hard to ignore, and
the implications are enormous. In fact, the Grid is analogous to the electricity
(power) Grid and the vision is to offer (almost) dependable, consistent, pervasive,
and inexpensive access to resources irrespective of their location for physical
existence and their location for access.



1. Foster, C. Kesselman, editors. The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing

Infrastructure, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, Calif. (1999).

2. Foster. I, Kesselman, C. and Tuecke, S. The Anatomy of the Grid: Enabling

Scalable Virtual Organizations. International Journal of High Performance
Computing Applications

3. Rajkumar Buyya, Mark Baker. Grids and Grid technologies for wide-area
distributed computing ,SP&E.

4. www.globus.org

5. Ian Foster. The Grid: A New Infrastructure for 21st Century Science, Physics