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WAP Case Study

A CASE STUDY
On Wireless Access Point and Its Application
Prepared by:
Rohan A. Chavan
(Roll-No 10, T.E-COMP)
Department of Computer Engineering, Shri. L.R. Tiwari College of Engineering,
Mira Road, Maharashtra.

Presented to:
Prof: Garima Mishra
(Lecturer, department of computer engineering)

Date of Submission
March 2015, 2015

Abstract: WAP is an open specification that offers a standard method to access Internet based
content and services from wireless devices such as mobile phones. The WAP model is very
similar to the traditional desktop Internet. The independent nature of WAP has proved to be a
breath of fresh air for an industry riddled with multiple proprietary standards that have suffocated
the new wave of mobile-Internet communications. WAP is an enabling technology that will
bridge the gap between the mobile world and the Internet, bringing sophisticated solutions to
mobile users, independent of the user and network. Backed by 75 percent of the companies
behind the world's mobile telephone market and the huge development potential of WAP, the
future for WAP looks bright. This paper discusses the various facets of WAP, its working and
application in the field.

Overview

In computer
networking,
a wireless
Access
Point (AP) is a device that allows wireless devices to
connect to a wired network using Wi-Fi, or related

WAP Case Study


standards. The AP usually connects to a router (via a
wired network) as a standalone device, but it can also
be an integral component of the router itself. An AP
is differentiated from a hotspot, which is the physical
space where the wireless service is provided.

What is WAP?
Wireless access points (APs or WAPs) are
special-purpose communication devices on
wireless local area networks (WLANs).
Access points act as a central transmitter and
receiver of radio signals. Mainstream wireless
APs support Wi-Fi and are most commonly
used
to
support
public
Internet hotspots and other business networks
where larger buildings and spaces need
Access points are small wireless coverage.
Access points are small hardware devices
closely resembling home broadband routers.
(Home routers actually integrate an access
point into the rest of the device.) AP hardware
consists of radio transceivers, antennas
and device firmware.
Access
points
enable
so-called Wi-Fi
infrastructure mode networking. Although WiFi connections do not technically require the
use of access points, APs enable Wi-Fi
networks to scale to larger distances and
numbers of clients. Modern access points
support up to 255 clients (while very old ones
supported only about 20). APs also
provide bridging capability that enables a WiFi network to connect to other wired
networks.

WIRELESS NETWORK
Network is described as a network of devices
which communicates by using wireless
technologies. Network Wireless communication is
used as a term for transmission of information
from one place to another. This may be one-way

communication as in broadcasting systems (such


as radio and TV), or two-way communication (e.g.
mobile phones ground to Air and Computer
network). In telecommunications, Network
wireless communication is the transfer of
information and without the use of wires .Wireless
Network communication refers to any type of
computer or devices (for examples Access point,
wireless Router) network that is commonly
associated with communications wireless network
to interconnections nodes. Network security is a
related topic in many organizations.
The widespread apprehension over network
security is due to the connectivity of many.
Consideration of security in the System
Development Life Cycle and save information is
essential for implementing and integrating a
comprehensive strategy for managing risk for all
information technology assets in a Networks.
Information security means that protecting
information and information systems from
unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption,
modification, perusal, inspection, eavesdrop,
recording or destruction. The terms information
security, computer security and assurance are
frequently used interchangeably. These fields are
interrelated often and share the common goals of
protecting the confidentiality, integrity and
availability of information; however, there are
some subtle differences between them.

CATEGORIES OF NETWORK
Wireless Networks can be classified into some
categories depending on different criteria (e.g. size
of the physical area that they are capable of
covering and domain of their use).The Wireless
networking refers to nearly every type of design as
some kind of area network. Common examples of
area network types are:
a. PAN - Personal Area Network
b. WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network
c. WAN - Wide Area Network
d. MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
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WAP Case Study


e. DAN - Desk Area Network

Introduction

[WAP is] the de facto worldwide standard for


providing Internet communications and advanced
telephony services on digital mobile phones,
pagers, personal digital assistants, and other
wireless terminals - WAP Forum.
WAP stands for Wireless Application Protocol.
Per the dictionary definition for each of these
words we have:
Wireless: Lacking or not requiring a wire
or wires pertaining to radio transmission.
Application: A computer program or
piece of computer software that is designed to do a
specific task.
Protocol: A set of technical rules about
how information should be transmitted and
received using computers.
WAP is the set of rules governing the transmission
and reception of data by computer applications on
or via wireless devices like mobile phones. WAP
allows wireless devices to view specifically
designed pages from the Internet using only plain
text and very simple black-and-white pictures.
WAP is a standardized technology for crossplatform, distributed computing very similar to the
Internet's combination of Hypertext Markup
Language (HTML) and Hypertext Transfer
Protocol (HTTP), except that it is optimized for:

low-display capability
low-memory
Low-bandwidth devices, such as
personal digital assistants (PDAs),
wireless phones, and pagers.
WAP is designed to scale across a broad
range of wireless networks like GSM, IS95, IS-136, and PDC.

Who is behind WAP?


The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a
result of joint efforts taken by companies teaming
up in an industry group called WAP
Forum (www.wapforum.org).
On June 26, 1997, Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and
Unwired Planet took the initiative to start a rapid

creation of a standard for making advanced


services within the wireless domain a reality. In
December 1997, WAP Forum was formally
created and after the release of the WAP 1.0
specifications in April 1998, WAP Forum
membership was opened to all.
The WAP Forum now has over 500 members and
represents over 95 percent of the global handset
market. Companies such as Nokia, Motorola and
Ericsson are all members of the forum.
The objective of the forum is to create a licensefree standard that brings information and
telephony services to wireless devices.
Why is WAP Important?
Until the first WAP devices emerged, the Internet
was a Internet and a mobile phone was a mobile
phone. You could surf the Net, do serious research,
or be entertained on the Internet using your
computer, but this was limited to your computer.
Now with the appearance of WAP, the scene is that
we have the massive information, communication,
and data resources of the Internet becoming more
easily available to anyone with a mobile phone or
communications device.
WAP being open and secure, is well suited for
many different applications including, but not
limited to stock market information, weather
forecasts, enterprise data, and games.
Despite the common misconception, developing
WAP applications requires only a few
modifications to existing web applications. The
current set of web application development tools
will easily support WAP development, and in the
future more development tools will be announced.

WAP Microbrowser:
To browse a standard internet site you need a web
browser. Similar way to browse a WAP enables
website, you would need a micro browser. A Micro
Browser is a small piece of software that makes
minimal demands on hardware, memory and CPU.
It can display information written in a restricted
mark-up language called WML. Although, tiny in
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WAP Case Study


memory footprint it supports many features and is
even scriptable.

When it comes to actual use, WAP works like this:


The user selects an option on their mobile device
that has a URL with Wireless Markup language
(WML) content assigned to it.
The phone sends the URL request via the phone
network to a WAP gateway using the binary
encoded WAP protocol.
The gateway translates this WAP request into a
conventional HTTP request for the specified URL
and sends it on to the Internet.
The appropriate Web server picks up the HTTP
request.
The server processes the request just as it would
any other request. If the URL refers to a static
WML file, the server delivers it. If a CGI script is
requested, it is processed and the content returned
as usual.
The Web server adds the HTTP header to the
WML content and returns it to the gateway.
The WAP gateway compiles the WML into binary
form.
The gateway then sends the WML response back
to the phone.
The phone receives the WML via the WAP
protocol.
The micro-browser processes the WML and
displays the content on the screen.

Today, all the WAP enabled mobile phones or


PDAs are equipped with these micro browsers so
that you can take full advantage of WAP
technology.

The WAP Model:


The figure below shows the WAP programming
model. Note, the similarities with the Internet
model. Without the WAP Gateway/Proxy, the two
models would have been practically identical.

WAP Architecture
WAP is designed in a layered fashion, so that it
can be extensible, flexible, and scalable. As a
result, the WAP protocol stack is divided into five
layers:

WAP Gateway/Proxy is the entity that connects the


wireless domain with the Internet. You should
make a note that the request that is sent from the
wireless client to the WAP Gateway/Proxy uses Application Layer
the Wireless Session Protocol (WSP). In its
essence, WSP is a binary version of HTTP.

Wireless Application Environment (WAE).


This layer is of most interest to content developers
A markup language - the Wireless Markup
because it contains among other things, device
specifications, and the content development
Language (WML) has been adapted to develop
programming languages, WML, and WMLScript.
optimized WAP applications. In order to save
valuable bandwidth in the wireless network, WML
Session Layer
can be encoded into a compact binary format.

Encoding WML is one of the tasks performed by


Wireless Session Protocol (WSP). Unlike HTTP,
the WAP Gateway/Proxy.
WSP has been designed by the WAP Forum to
provide fast connection suspension and
How WAP Model Works?
reconnection.

WAP Case Study

Transaction Layer

Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP). The WTP


runs on top of a datagram service, such as User
Datagram Protocol (UDP) and is part of the
standard suite of TCP/IP protocols used to provide
a simplified protocol suitable for low bandwidth
wireless stations.
Security Layer
Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS). WTLS
incorporates security features that are based upon the
established Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol
standard. It includes data integrity checks, privacy,
service denial, and authentication services.
Transport Layer
Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP). The WDP allows
WAP to be bearer-independent by adapting the
transport layer of the underlying bearer. The WDP
presents a consistent data format to the higher layers of
the WAP protocol stack, thereby offering the
advantage of bearer independence to application
developers.
Each of these layers provides a well-defined interface
to the layer above it. This means that the internal
workings of any layer are transparent or invisible to
the layers above it. The layered architecture allows
other applications and services to utilise the features
provided by the WAP-stack as well. This makes it
possible to use the WAP-stack for services and
applications that currently are not specified by
WAP.The WAP protocol architecture is shown below
alongside a typical Internet Protocol stack.

Protocol used by WAP?


The Wireless Application Protocol - defines a
network architecture for content delivery over
wireless networks. Central to the design of WAP is
a network stack based on the OSI model. WAP
implements several new networking protocols that
perform functions similar to the well-known Web
protocols HTTP, TCP, and SSL.
WAP includes the concepts of browsers,
servers, URLs, and gateways. Are intended to be
implemented on small mobile devices such as cell
phones, pagers, and PDAs. Instead of developing
content in HTML and JavaScript, WAP developers
use WML and WML Script.
Many WAP-enabled devices exist today, although
their capability is generally limited to news feeds,
stock quotes, and similar basic applications. WAP
is in the early stages of development relative to
other networking technologies, and its future
viability remains unclear.
The term "WAP" also is used to refer to wireless
access points.

Common AP applications
Typical corporate use involves attaching several APs
to a wired network and then providing wireless
access to the office LAN. The wireless access points
are managed by a WLAN Controller which handles
automatic adjustments to RF power, channels,
authentication, and security. Furthermore, controllers
can be combined to form a wireless mobility group
to allow inter-controller roaming. The controllers can
be part of a mobility domain to allow clients access
throughout large or regional office locations. This
saves the clients time and administrators overhead
because it can automatically re-associate or reauthenticate.

WAP Case Study


A hotspot is a common public application of APs,
where wireless clients can connect to the Internet
without regard for the particular networks to which
they have attached for the moment. The concept has
become common in large cities, where a combination
of coffeehouses, libraries, as well as privately owned
open access points, allow clients to stay more or less
continuously connected to the Internet, while moving
around. A collection of connected hotspots can be
referred to as a lily pad network.
APs are commonly used in home wireless networks.
Home networks generally have only one AP to
connect all the computers in a home. Most
are wireless routers, meaning converged devices that
include the AP, a router, and, often, an Ethernet
switch. Many also include a broadband modem. In
places where most homes have their own AP within
range of the neighbors AP, it's possible for
technically savvy people to turn off their encryption
and set up a wireless community network, creating
an intra-city communication network although this
does not negate the requirement for a wired network.
An AP may also act as the network's arbitrator,
negotiating when each nearby client device can
transmit. However, the vast majority of currently
installed IEEE 802.11 networks do not implement
this, using a distributed pseudo-random algorithm
called CSMA/CA instead.

centralize all WiFi clients on a local network in socalled "infrastructure" mode. An access point in
turn may connect to another access point, or to a
wired Ethernet router.
Wireless access points are commonly used in large
office buildings to create one wireless local area
network (WLAN) that spans a large area. Each
access point typically supports up to 255 client
computers. By connecting access points to each
other, local networks having thousands of access
points can be created. Client computers may move
or roam between each of these access points as
needed.
In home networking, wireless access points can be
used to extend an existing home network based on
a wired broadband router. The access point
connects to the broadband router, allowing
wireless clients to join the home network without
needing to rewire or re-configure the Ethernet
connections. As illustrated by the Linksys
WAP54G shown above, wireless access points
appear physically similar to wireless routers.
Wireless routers actually contain a wireless access
point as part of their overall package. Like
wireless routers, access points are available with
support for 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g or
combinations.

WAP Supporting Devices

Wireless
router
A wireless access point (sometimes called an "AP"
or "WAP") serves to join or "bridge" wireless
clients to a wired Ethernet network. Access points

Wireless computer adapter


A wireless network adapter allows a computing
device to join a wireless LAN. Wireless network
adapters contain a built-in radio transmitter and
receiver. Each adapter supports one or more of the
802.11a, 802.11b, or 802.11g Wi-Fi standards.
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WAP Case Study


Wireless network adapters also exist in several
different form factors. Traditional PCIwireless
adapters are add-in cards designed for installation
inside a desktophaving a PCI bus. >USB wireless
adapters connect to the external USB port of a
computer.
Finally,
so-called PC
Card or
PCMCIA wireless adapters insert into a narrow
open bay on a notebook computer.
One example of a PC Card wireless adapter, the
Linksys WPC54G is shown above. Each type of
wireless network adapter is small, generally less
than 6 inches (0.15 m) long. Each provides
equivalent wireless capability according to the WiFi standard it supports. Some notebook computers
are now manufactured with built-in wireless
networking. Small chips inside the computer
provide the equivalent functions of a network
adapter. These computers obviously do not require
separate installation of a separate wireless network
adapter.

wireless router over Wi-Fi, or it can be joined


using an Ethernet cable.
Most print server products include setup software
on a CD-ROM that must be installed on one
computer to complete the initial configuration of
the device. As with network adapters, wireless
print servers must be configured with the correct
network name (SSID) and encryption settings.
Additionally, a wireless print server requires client
software be installed on each computer needing to
use a printer.
Print servers are very compact devices that include
a built-in wireless antenna and LED lights to
indicate status. The Linksys WPS54G 802.11g
USB wireless print server is shown as one
example.

Wireless internet video


camera
Wireless
printer server
A wireless print server allows one or two printers
to be conveniently shared across a Wi-Fi network.
Adding wireless print servers to a network:

Allows printers to be conveniently located


anywhere within wireless network range, not
tied to the location of computers

Does not require a computer be always


turned on in order to print

Does not require a computer to manage all


print jobs, that can bog down its performance

Allows administrators to change computer


names and other settings without having to reconfigure the network printing settings.
A wireless print server must be connected to
printers by a network cable, normally USB 1.1 or
USB 2.0. The print server itself can connect to a

A wireless Internet video camera allows video


(and sometimes audio) data to be captured and
transmitted across a WiFi computer network.
Wireless Internet video cameras are available in
both 802.11b and 802.11g varieties. The Linksys
WVC54G 802.11g wireless camera is shown
above.Wireless Internet video cameras work by
serving up data streams to any computer
that connects to them. Cameras like the one above
contain a built in Web server. Computers connect
to the camera using either a standard Web browser
or through a special client user interface provided
on CD-ROM with the product. With proper
security information, video streams from these
cameras can also be viewed across the Internet
from authorized computers. Internet video cameras
can be connected to a wireless router using either
an Ethernet cable or via Wi-Fi. These products
include setup software on a CD-ROM that must be
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WAP Case Study


installed on one computer to complete initial WiFi configuration of the device.
Features that distinguish different wireless Internet
video cameras from each other include:

resolution of the captured video images


(for example, 320x240 pixel, 640x480 pixel,
and other image sizes)
motion sensors, and the ability to send
email alerts when new activity is detected and
captured
ability to time stamp images

built-in microphones and/or jacks for


external microphones, for audio support

types of WiFi security supported, such as


WEP or WAP

Limitation
One IEEE 802.11 AP can typically communicate
with 30 client systems located within a radius of
103 m. However, the actual range of
communication can vary significantly, depending
on such variables as indoor or outdoor placement,
height above ground, nearby obstructions, other
electronic devices that might actively interfere
with the signal by broadcasting on the same
frequency, type of antenna, the current weather,
operating radio frequency, and the power output of
devices. Network designers can extend the range
of APs through the use of repeaters and reflectors,
which can bounce or amplify radio signals that
ordinarily would go un-received. In experimental
conditions, wireless networking has operated over
distances of several hundred kilometers. [1]
Most jurisdictions have only a limited number of
frequencies legally available for use by wireless
networks. Usually, adjacent WAPs will use
different frequencies (Channels) to communicate
with
their
clients
in
order
to
avoid interference between the two nearby
systems. Wireless devices can "listen" for data
traffic on other frequencies, and can rapidly switch

from one frequency to another to achieve better


reception. However, the limited number of
frequencies becomes problematic in crowded
downtown areas with tall buildings using multiple
WAPs. In such an environment, signal overlap
becomes an issue causing interference, which
results in signal droppage and data errors.
Wireless networking lags wired networking in
terms of increasing bandwidth and throughput.
While
(as
of
2013)
high-density 256QAM (TurboQAM)
modulation,
3-antenna
wireless devices for the consumer market can
reach sustained real-world speeds of some 240
Mbit/s at 13 m behind two standing walls (NLOS)
depending on their nature &c or 360 Mbit/s at 10
m line of sight or 380 Mbit/s at 2 m line of sight
(IEEE 802.11ac) or 20 to 25 Mbit/s at 2 m line of
sight (IEEE 802.11g), wired hardware of similar
cost reaches somewhat less than 1000 Mbit/s up to
specified distance of 100 m with twisted-pair
cabling (Cat-5, Cat-5e, Cat-6, or Cat-7) (Gigabit
Ethernet). One impediment to increasing the speed
of wireless communications comes from Wi-Fi's
use of a shared communications medium: Thus,
two stations in infrastructure mode that are
communicating with each other even over the
same AP must have each and every frame
transmitted twice: from the sender to the AP, then
from the AP to the receiver. This approximately
halves the effective bandwidth, so an AP is only
able to use somewhat less than half the actual
over-the-air rate for data throughput. Thus a
typical 54 Mbit/s wireless connection actually
carries TCP/IP data at 20 to 25 Mbit/s. Users of
legacy wired networks expect faster speeds, and
people using wireless connections keenly want to
see the wireless networks catch up.
By 2012, 802.11n based access points and client
devices have already taken a fair share of the
marketplace and with the finalization of the
802.11n standard in 2009 inherent problems
integrating products from different vendors are
less prevalent.

Security
Wireless
access
has
special security considerations.
Many
wired
networks base the security on physical access
control, trusting all the users on the local network,
8

WAP Case Study


but if wireless access points are connected to the
network, anybody within range of the AP (which
typically extends farther than the intended area)
can attach to the network.
The most common solution is wireless traffic
encryption. Modern access points come with builtin encryption. The first generation encryption
scheme 'WEP' proved easy to crack; the second
and third generation schemes, WPA and WPA2,
are
considered
secure
if
a
strong
enough password or passphrase is used.
Some APs support hotspot style authentication
using RADIUS and other authentication servers.
Opinions about wireless network security vary
widely. For example, in a 2008 article
for Wired magazine, Bruce Schneier asserted the
net benefits of open Wi-Fi without passwords
outweigh the risks, a position supported in 2014
by Peter Eckersley of the Electronic Frontier
Foundation.
The opposite position was taken by Nick Mediati
in an article for PC World, in which he takes the
position that every wireless access point should be
locked down with a password.

Looking up interest rates.


Looking up currency exchange rates.
SHOPPING:
Buying everyday commodities.
Browsing and buying books.
Buying CDs.
TICKETING:
Booking or buying airline tickets.
Buying concert tickets.
Booking theatre tickets.
ENTERTAINMENT:
Retrieving restaurant details.
Looking up clubs.
Finding out what is playing in what cinemas.
Playing solitaire games.
Playing interactive games.
WEATHER:
Retrieving local weather forecasts.
Looking up weather at other locations.
E- MESSAGING:
Voice mail.
Unified Messaging.
Enhanced support of legacy SMS services.

Key Benefits of WAP


The following sections outline how various groups
may gain from WAP:

Core Services
A vast majority of WAP services are
available

in

the

market.

You

may

contact to some WAP lover to have a big


list of all the available services and then
you can start accessing those services
from your WAP enabled mobile phone.
However, some examples of useful mobile
services are in the following fields:
BANKING:
Accessing account statements.
Paying bills.
Transferring money between accounts.
FINANCE:
Retrieving stock and share prices.
Buying and selling stocks and shares.

Subscribers:
It is crucial that the subscribers will benefit from
using WAP based services, otherwise, there will be
no incentive neither for WAP as a whole nor for
any of the other groups mentioned below.
The key-benefits can be summarized as:
Portability
Easy to use
Access to a wide variety of services on a
competitive market
The possibility of having personalized services
Fast, convenient, and efficient access to services
To fulfil as many customers needs as possible,
WAP devices will be available in various form
factors, e.g. pagers, handheld PCs, and phones

WAP Case Study

Operators:

Many of the advantages mentioned under


"Service Providers" are be applicable to
operators as well. The operator's benefits
may include:
Address new market segments of mobile
users by enabling a wider range of mobile
VAS.
Deploy telephony services that in contrast
to traditional telephony services are easy

to create, update, and personalize


Use the flexibility of WAP as a tool to
differentiate from competitors

Attractive interface to services will


increase usage
Increased revenues per user due to higher
network utilization
Convenient service creation and
maintenance including short time-tomarket
Replace expensive customer care centers
with WAP based services (E-care)
WAP services are designed to be
independent of the network, implying that
an operator who runs different types of
networks only have to develop its services
ones
An open standard means that equipment
will be provided by many manufacturers

service

creation

and

Creating a WAP service is no harder than


creating an Internet service today since WML and
WMLScript are based on well-known Internet
technology
Use standard tools like ASP or CGI to
generate content dynamically
Utilise existing investments in databases,
etc that are the basis of existing Internet services

Manufacturers:
Mobile devices supporting WAP will be available
in many different form factors, e.g., cellular
phones, pagers, and handheld PCs. Hardware
manufacturers will also need to supply operators
etc with equipment, such as WAP Gateway/Proxys
and WTA servers. Manufacturer benefits are for
example:
WAP scales across a broad range of
mobile
networks,
meaning
that
WAP
implementations can be used in devices supporting
different types of networks.
The expected wide adoption of WAP
implies that economies of scales can be achieved,
meaning that the huge mass-market can be
addressed

The fact that WAP is designed to consume


minimal amount of memory, and that the use of
proxy technology relieves the CPU, means that
inexpensive components can be used in the
handsets

Create a service once, make it accessible


on a broad range of wireless networks

Reuse the deep knowledge about wireless


network infrastructure to develop advanced
servers that seamlessly integrates mobile VAS
with telephony

WAP opens new possibilities for service and


content providers since they not necessarily have
to come to an agreement with a specific operator
about providing services to their customers. The
gains are for example:

Convenient
maintenance

Service Providers:

Keep old customers by adapting existing


Internet services to WAP

Address new market segments by


launching innovative mobile VAS. Keep old

customers by adapting existing Internet services to


WAP

Seize the opportunity to introduce new


innovative products
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WAP Case Study

Future prospect
The future of WAP depends largely on whether
consumers decide to use WAP devices to access
the Web, and also on whether a new technology
comes along that would require a different
infrastructure than WAP.
On the consumer side, the factors largely involve
the limitations of WAP and of handheld devices,
the low bandwidth, the limited input ability, and
the small screens all require users to adapt from
their regular Web-browsing expectations.
In the next few years, mobile phones will start to
benefit from very high bandwidth capabilities. The
2.5G/3G systems will allow much higher capacity
and data rates, than can be offered by the restricted
bandwidth currently available.
These wireless devices will be supported by a
number of emerging technologies including
GPRS, EDGE, HSCSD, and UMTS:
So what is the future for WAP? It has been
designed to be independent of the underlying
network technology. The original constraints WAP
was designed for - intermittent coverage, small
screens, low power consumption, wide scalability

over bearers and devices, and one-handed


operation - are still valid in 2.5G and 3G networks.
The bottom line is that WAP is not and can never
be the Web on your mobile phone. WAP is great as
long as developers understand that it's what's
inside the applications that matters, and the
perceived value of the content to the user. The
browser interface itself, while important will
always be secondary to the content.

Conclusion
In this tutorial, you have been introduced to all the
basic concepts of WAP and WML, WMLScript,
and the WAP architecture.
WAP key features benefits have also been
discussed together with a look at what the future
holds in this quickly moving market.

References
www.wikipedia.org
www.wapdetail.com
www.wapdevices.net
www.tutorialpoint.com

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