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WaveMakingResistance

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Contents

1IntroductionWaveMakingResistance FromMarineWiki Contents 2Description 3References 4OtherLessons Share Introduction

2DescriptionWaveMakingResistance FromMarineWiki Contents 1Introduction 3References 4OtherLessons Share Introduction

3ReferencesFromMarineWiki Contents 1Introduction 2Description 4OtherLessons Share Introduction

4OtherLessonsContents 1Introduction 2Description 3References Share Introduction

1Introduction 2Description 3References 4OtherLessons Share Introduction

Introduction

Wheneverabodymovesinafluidthereispressureforceactingdevelopedthatisactingnormaltothesurfaceofthebody.

Earlierwehaveseenthatifthefluidisnon­viscousandcompletelyimmersed,thentheforwardcomponentofthepressureforcewould

cancelwiththeaftcomponentofthepressure(Idealfluidinidealscenario).Butasthebodycomesuptothesurface,thepressuredeveloped

aroundthebodygenerateswaves.Thiswavegenerationisdependentontheair­waterfreesurfaceandgravity.

Thenetfore­and­aftforcesupontheshipduetofluidpressureactingnormaltoallpartsofthehullisthewavemakingresistance.

Description

Ifabodyisjustbelowthesurfaceofwaterwaveswouldbegeneratedalthoughasmallone.Incaseofsubmarine,theresistancewouldbe

maximumjustbelowthesurface,whereinadditiontothefrictionalresistanceoftheentiresurfacethereiswavemakingresistance(middle

figure).Incaseoffloatingsubmarine,thefrictionalresistancewouldonlybeduetotheimmersedareaapartfromthewavemaking

resistance(leftfigure).Inthethirdcaseofdeeplysubmergedcase,frictionalresistanceissameasthemiddlefigurecase,however,the

wave­makingresistancewillnotbethere.

wave­makingresistancewillnotbethere.

In1887,LordKelvinshowedtheoreticallythatifapressurepointhasarelativemotionwithwaterthenitcreatesasetofwaves.These

includeasetofdivergentwavesgeneratedthatmovesaft.Therewouldalsobeasetoftransversewavesfollowingbehindthepointwhose

widthincreaseswithdistancefrompoint.Heshowedthattheentirewavesystemisincludedinastraightlinewithahalf­angleof19028’.

Farawayfromthepressurepointthedivergentwaveswouldbedominateandonlytheywouldbeseen.

Incaseofashipflowinginwaterthebowproducesasetofwavesasshownbelow.Onecanseethefirstcrestoftransversewavecloseto
Incaseofashipflowinginwaterthebowproducesasetofwavesasshownbelow.Onecanseethefirstcrestoftransversewavecloseto

Incaseofashipflowinginwaterthebowproducesasetofwavesasshownbelow.Onecanseethefirstcrestoftransversewavecloseto

thebow,andfurtherwavesaftoftheshiparetoosmall.

Thiscanbeclearlyseenintheprofileviewofaship.

Thiscanbeclearlyseenintheprofileviewofaship.

Thiscanbeclearlyseenintheprofileviewofaship.

Theabovesetconsidersonlythebowsetofwaves.Asthereisahighpressurepointinaftjustliketheforwardend,asetofwaveswould

alsobegeneratedinthesternasshownbelow.

alsobegeneratedinthesternasshownbelow.

Recollectingfromabove,thepressurepointiscreatedwhenthereisaabruptchangeintheflowlinesofwater.Incaseoftheship,atthe

bow,thereisachangeintheflowalongthewaterline(angleofentrance).Anadditionalpressurepoint,thistimenegativeisgeneratedat

theforwardshoulderduetothechangeinshape.Similarlytherearetwopressurepointsontheaftshoulderandsternasshownbelow.

Wigleyconductedalotofexperimentsbasedonwedgeshapedbodyandcameoutwithveryinterestingresults. File:Res­WR­img8.jpg

Wigleyconductedalotofexperimentsbasedonwedgeshapedbodyandcameoutwithveryinterestingresults.

Therearefourwavesystemsdevelopedinthebodyasshowninthefigure.Apartfromthisthereisthestationarysystemformedasaresult

ofthepressureatpointsofdiscontinuitiesasdescribedabove.

Thenextfourarewavesgeneratedfromthefourpointsofdiscontinuities.Intheordertheforwardwaveisgeneratedjustaftoftheforward

pointandcreatesagenerationofacrestofthewavewithreducingwaveheightasonemovesaft.Thereisanothercrestontheaftpointof

thebodybecauseofthediscontinuityasshown.

Sincethepressureinforwardandaftshoulderisnegative,thesepointsgeneratetroughasshowninthenexttwowavessystem.Incaseof

shipswithlessprominentshoulder(curved)thesewavesaremuchlessinsize.

Theforwardwaveandthesternwaveareprominentsystemswithcrestbeinggeneratedatthosepoints.

Theresultofthesewavessystemiswhatweseeonthesides.Theresultistheadditionofwavesbylinearsuperposition.Theforwardcrest

isunaffectedandthesternsideisacombinationofthefourwaves.

Onashipweseethedominantwavesaretheforwardwavesystem.Theaftandshoulderwavesareminorbecauseofthesmoothshoulders.

Tomaintainthiswavessystemitrequireslotofenergyandthisenergyisthewavemakingresistance.

Theinterferenceofthewaves(fromthefoursystems)caneitherincreaseordecreasetheresistancedependingonwhetherthesternwaves

addupordecrease.Iftherearetwocrestinthesternpartoftheship,thenthisincreasedwavecrestmeansthattherewouldbemoreforce

supportingmotionandtherebydecreaseresistance.Howeverifthetroughispresentwhichreducethesterncrestthentheforward

componentoftheforceisreducedandtheresistanceincreases.

Thetransversewavesmoveatthesamespeedastheship.Forthedivergentwaves,theaxialcomponentofthewavewillbeequaltothe

speedoftheship.

File:Res­WR­img9.jpgFig.showingwaveandcomponent

File:Res­WR­img9.jpg Fig.showingwaveandcomponent fortransversewave fordivergentwave

fortransversewave

Fig.showingwaveandcomponent fortransversewave fordivergentwave

fordivergentwave

Dependingontheinterferenceofthewavesystems,theresistancecurveformhumpsatlocations

CwmaximumatFn=0.1730.2050.2690.47

Minimum at Fn =

0.187

0.231

0.345

Minimum at Fn = 0.187 0.231 0.345 (constant+4oscillatingterms) File:Res­WR­eq4.png

(constant+4oscillatingterms)

File:Res­WR­eq4.png(constant+4oscillatingterms)

In1898Mitchellproposedatheoreticalmethodtoestimatewavemakingresistancecalled“ThinStriptheory”andthemodifiedonecalled

“SlenderStripTheory”.Themethodinvolvesindeterminingthenormalpressuredistributiononaflowandthenintegratingthefore­and­aft

componentsofthesepressuresoverthehullsurface.

Assumptionsofthetheory:

•Fluidisnon­viscous

•Fluidisirrotational

•Hullassumptionisthin(breadthislowcomparedtolength)

•Slender(breadthanddepthislowcomparedtolength)

•Waveheightissmallcomparedtolength

•Nosinkageortrim

•Radiationcondition(waveonlyinaftsideandnowaveinforwardsection)

Asecondmethodistocalculatethewavepatterngeneratedbytheshipatagreatdistance,andtodeterminetheenergynecessaryto

maintainthissystem.

AnalternatemethodistousethetheoryofsourceandsinkstomodelthethinshipinaflowdevelopedbyHavelock.

Source­sink

Observation:•Strengthofthesourceisdependentontheslopeofthewaterline

Toreducethewaveheightoftheforwardwave,thehalfangleofentranceneedstobereduced.AsL/Bratioisincreasing(forsame

displacement)thewavemakingresistancewillcomedown.

References

OtherLessons

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