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Form : S + V2 + O +...
Indicates that an activity or situation began and ended at a particular ( certain ) time in the
Adverbial of time : yesterday, .... ago, last......,this...., in......, just now.
Examples : 1. He bought a new car three years ago. ( + ).
He didnt buy a new car three years ago.( -).
Did he buy a new car three years ago ?( ? ).
Didnt he buy a new car three years ago ? (-) (?)
( Did he not buy a new car three years ago ?).
Did not he buy a new car three years ago ?
2. He lived in Paris for ten years.
3. I walked to school yesterday
4. The students were very tired because of ( due to )MOS
The students were not very tired because of ( due to )MOS
training. (-).
Were the students very tired because of ( due to ) MOS
Training ? (?)
Werent the students very tired because of ( due to ) MOS
training ?( -) ( ?)
Were the students not very tired because of ( due to ) MOS
training ? ( -) (?)
Were not the students very tired because of ( due to ) MOS
Training ?
WAS and WERE are followed by :
1. Adjectives.
Mr. A was lazy.
2. Nouns
I was the University Student of IKIP Semarang.
3. Adverb
Mr.A was at school yesterday.
Andika sang a song beautifully at school last week.

If a sentence contains when and has the simple past in both clauses, the action in the
when clause happens first.
Example :I stood under a tree when it began to rain.
1 st : The rain began.
2 nd : I stood under a tree.

Some exercises of past tense sentences :

- I was hungry.
1. We invited them to our party, but they decided not to come.
2. She passed her examination because she studied very hard.
3. Yesterday I went to London to see a friend of mine.
4.The police stopped me on my way home last night.
5.This house cost $ 35,000 in 1980.
6. Did you go out last night, Tom ?
Yes, I went to the cinema. But I didnt enjoy the film.
7. When did Mr. Edwards die ?
8. What did you do at the week-end ?
9. We didnt invite her to the party, so she didnt come.
10. I didnt have enough money to buy anything to eat.
11. Why were you so angry ?
12. They werent able to come because they were very busy.
13.Tom did not shave this morning because he didnt have time.


We didnt eat anything because we werent hungry.

I didnt rush because I wasnt in a hurry.
She wasnt interested in the book because she didnt understand it.
I was hungry, so I bought something to eat in the shop.


. Past Tense.
Form :
S + was / were + V3
For example :
Active : Bob mailed the package.
Passive : The package was mailed by Bob.
1. Someone published The Origin of Species in 1859.
= The origin of Species was published in 1859
2.The orchestra played that piece beautifully.
= That piece was beautifully played by the orchestra.
Didnt the orchestra play that piece beautifully ?
= Wasnt that piece beautifully played by the orchestra ?
3.They took photographs after the ceremony.
= Photographs were taken( by them ) after the ceremony.
4.Didnt they tell you to be here by six oclock.?
= Werent you told to be here by six oclock( by them ) ?
5. Who wrote it ?
= Who was it written by ?
Who made a sentence of past tense yesterday ?
= Who was a sentence of past tense made by yesterday ?
6.What caused the plane accident of Sukhoi ?
= What was the plane accident of Sukhoi caused by ?
7a. People said that he was jealous of her.
= a) It was said that he was jealous of her.
= b) He was said to be jealous of her.
7b. People said that laptop was more expensive than
a. It was said that lap top was more expensive than computer.
b. Laptop was said to be more expensive than computer.
8. Did she give him a new one ?
=1. Was he given a new one ( by her )?
2. Was a new one given to him ( by her )?
9.Noone drank out of this glass.
= This glass was not drunk out of.
10. What caused this crack ?
=What was this crack caused by ?
11.Nobody slept in that room yesterday.
=That room was not slept in yesterday.

Noone threw away an empty bottle outside the class.

= An empty bottle was not thrown away outside the class.
12.The teachers explanation confused Carlos.
= Carlos was confused by the teachers explanation.
Did the teachers explanation confuse Carlos ?
= Was Carlos confused by the teachers explanation ?
13.It is time they brought the cows in.
=It is time the cows were brought in ( by them ).
Change these sentences into active sentence !
1. The clothes were washed yesterday by my mother.
=My mother washed the clothes yesterday.
2. The assignment was not done last week.
=Nobody ( no one ) did the assignment last week.
3.Were the books borrowed by the students in the library two days ago ?
= Did the students borrow the books in the library two
days ago ?
4.Wasnt the radio listened to last night by Mrs. B ?
=Didnt Mrs. B listen to the radio last night ?


Form : S + was / were + Ving
The usage :

1. Past Continuous indicates that two actions occured at the same time, but one
action began earlier and was in progress when the other action occured in the
Examples :
a). I was walking down the street when it began to rain.
The 1st action : I was walking down the street.
The 2nd action : It began to rain.
= When it began to rain, I was walking down the street.
b). While I was walking down the street, it began to rain.
= It began to rain while I was walking down the street.

2. Past Continuous indicates that an activity was in progress at a certain time in

the past.( suatu tindakan yg berlangsung pada waktu tertentu di waktu lampau ).

Example :
e.g : At eight oclock last night, I was studying.
( My studying began before 8, was in progress at that time, and
probably continued ).
I started my studying at 7 oclock p.m and ended my studying at 9 oclock p.m. What was I
doing at 8 oclock last night ?

3.Past Continuous indicates that two activities or actions were in

progress simultaneously in the past ).
Example :
While I was studying in one room of our apartment, my roommate
was having a party in the other room.
= My roommate was having a aparty in the other room , while I was
studying in one room of our apartment.


FORM : WAS / WERE + being + V3

Example :
1.Active : The students were playing football happily at Kebumen Stadium
last week.
Passive : Football was being happily played by the students at Kebumen
Stadium last week.
2.Active : Werent the students playing football happily at Kebumen Stadium last week ?
Passive : Wasnt football being happily played by the students at
Kebumen Stadium last week ?
Write the story in the Past Progressive or Past Tense!
Yesterday, Tono ( go ) to Alis house in town to borrow a book. He ( leave ) his house,
when he ( see ) his classmate, Dewi Asuti. She ( come ) out of her house,too. Dewi Astuti
( want ) to go the post office, so they ( walk ) together.
Who ( you talk ) to when I ( see ) you yesterday ? Dewi ( ask ).
When ( be ) that ?, he ( ask ). Oh, I ( talk ) to my Australian friend, Phil, Tono
( say ). I ( not see ) you then. Where ( be ) you ?
I ( ride ) home in a becak. I ( call ) you, but you ( not hear ) me .
Im sorry. I ( tell ) him about tomorrows football game then, he ( reply ).
Just then they ( come ) to the post office, so they ( say ) goodbye, and Tono ( continue )
on his way.
went-left saw.
wanted walked
were you talking saw asked
was- asked
was talking said
did not see
called- didnt hear
told replied
came said - continued






Example :
As subject : 1. Should we help those people ?
2. Where did you go last week ?
As object : 1. Mary saw him on the street.
2. John talk to her for a while.



As possessive adjective : 1. This is my book. Where is your book ?

As possessive pronoun : 1. This book is mine, but that one on the table is
2. Whats your name ? Mine is Endang.

As reflexive and emphatic pronoun : 1. I myself went to the market

2. He drove his car to his office by
3. Yesterday , Hafiz borrowed a book
himself at the library.

Text :1
Once, a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. He took him to a policeman
and said, I have just found this penguin. What should I do? The policeman replied, take him to the
The next day the policeman saw the man in the same park, and the man was still carrying the
penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Why are
you still carrying that penguin about? Didnt you take t to the zoo? I certainly did, replied the man.
And it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today Im taking him to the movies!

Text: 2
The Blonde and the Lawyer
A blonde and a lawyer were seated next to each other on a flight from LA to NY. The
lawyer asked if she would like to play a fun game.
The blonde, tired, just wanted to take a nap, politely declined and rolled over to the
window to catch a few winks.
The lawyer persisted and explained that the game was easy and a lot of fun.
He explained, I ask you a question, and if you dont know the answer, you pay me
$5.00, and vice versa.
Again, she declined and tried to get some sleep. The lawyer, now agitated, said, Okay,
if you dont know the answer you pay me $5.00, and if I dont know the answer, I will pay you
This caught the blondes attention and, figuring there would be no end to this torment
unless she played, agreed to the game. The lawyer asked the first question. Whats the
distance from the earth to the moon? The blonde didnt say a word, reached into her purse,
pulled out a $5.00 bill and handed it to the lawyer. Okay says the lawyer, your turn.
She asked the lawyer, What goes up a hill with three legs and comes down with four
legs? The lawyer, puzzled, took out his laptop computer and searched all his references, no
answer. He tapped into the air phone with his modem and searched the net and the library of
congress, no answer. Frustrated, he sent e-mails to all his friends and coworkers, to no avail.
After an hour, he woke the blonde, and handed her $500.
The blonde said, Thank you, and turned back to get some more sleep.
The lawyer, who was more than a little miffed, woke the blonde and asked, Well,
whats the answer? Without a word, the blonde reached into her purse, handed the lawyer
$5.00, and went back to sleep.
Adapted from http://www.dizzyboy.com

Text: 3
Fixing the Headstone
Once, there were two men walking home after a Halloween party. They decided to take a

shortcut through the cemetery just for laughs. Right in the middle of the cemetery they were
startled by a tap-tap-tapping noise coming from the misty shadows. Trembling with fear, they
found an old man with a hammer and chisel, chipping away at one of the headstones.
Holy cow, Mister, one of them said after catching his breath, You scared us half to
death, we thought you were a ghost! What are you doing working here so late at night?
Those fools! the old man grumbled. They misspelled my name!
Taken from http://www.dizzyboy.com
Text: 4

Fluffy Bunny Rabbit

After a long day at the office, Chris came home one day and found his dog with the
neighbours pet rabbit in his mouth. The rabbit was obviously dead. Chris panicked!
If my neighbours find out my dog killed their bunny, theyll hate me forever, he
So he took the dirty, chewed up rabbit into the house, gave it a bath and blow-dried its
Chris knew his neighbours kept their backdoor open during the summer, so he sneaked
inside and put the bunny back into the cage, hoping his neighbours would think it died of
natural causes.
A couple of days later Chris and his neighbour saw each other outside.
Did you hear that Fluffy die? the neighbour asked.
Oh. Uhmm... Sorry to hear that. What happened? Chris mumbled.
The neighbour replied, We just found him dead in his cage one day. But the strange thing is
that the day after we buried him, we went out to dinner and someone must have dug him up,
gave him a bath and put him back into the cage!
Adapted from: http://www.webwombat.com.au