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Heavy Reinforced

Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0


Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

3.4 REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS


3.4.1 SUSPENDED SLABS
In general, there are six types of reinforced-concrete floors systems:
1. One way solid slab and beam
2. One way joist slab or Ribbed slab
3. Two way solid slab and beam
4. Two way waffle slab
5. Two way flat plate
6. Two way flat slab
Each particular system has its distinct advantages, depending upon the
spacing, of columns, the magnitude of the loads to be supported, lengths
of spans, and the cost of construction. Although the arrangement of the
plan of a building frequently determines the column spacing,
approximately square bays are desirable. Column spacing of 20 ft., more
or less, has proved to be most economical, but this, of course, depends
on the type of floor construction to be used.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
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Basement
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Reinforced Concrete
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Reinforced Concrete
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Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
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1. ONE-WAY SLABS
Probably the most commonly used type or reinforced concrete
construction consists of a solid slab supported by two parallel beams,
the beams framing into girders, and the girders in turn framing into
columns. The reinforcement slabs runs in one direction only, from
beam to beam, hence the slab is known as one-way slab. The number
of beams in a panel depends upon the column spacing and the live
load to be supported. The beams are spaced uniformly and generally
frame into the girders at the center, third or quarter points.
This type of framing is called the beam-and-girder floor. It is readily
constructed and the formwork is simple. The one-way slab is
economical for medium and heavy live loads for comparatively short
spans, 6 to 12 ft. For light live loads, 40 to 60 psf, the spans may be
increased, but long spans for one-way slabs results in comparatively
large dead loads.

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Steel Construction
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Pre-Stress Concrete
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The main tensile reinforcement (running along the short direction) in fully
continuous slabs are alternately bent up, usually at an angle of 30 to
45 degrees, at the fifth points of the span and extend over the supports
to the quarter points of the adjoining span. The remaining bars are
straight, placed in the bottom of the slab. For single span slabs the
bars are bent up at the quarter points.
Another method of placing the reinforcement is to place straight bars at the
bottom of the slab and the other straight bars at the top of the slab
over the supports. If the bent bars are used, bent bars from the
adjoining bars are extended over the supports, thus providing the
same amount of reinforcement over the supports as at mid-span.
In addition to the tensile reinforcement, temperature bars are also provided
running along the long direction. These serve to provide against the
effect of shrinkage and changes in temperature and also to distribute
possible load concentrations over larger areas. The size and spacing
of temperature bars depends upon the slab thickness.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
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Pre-Stress Concrete
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Minimum protective covering for slab reinforcement is 20mm ().

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

2. ONE WAY JOIST OR RIBBED SLABS


For medium span lengths with light or
medium live loads, ribbed slabs have
proved to have an economical type of
floor construction. They are not so
well suited to heavy concentrated
loads as the solid one or two-way
slabs. A one-way joist slab consists of
relatively small adjacent T-beams.
When the open spaces between the
webs or rings are filled with clay tile,
gypsum tile, concrete filler block or
steel forms, the floor system is called
a ribbed slab.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
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3.4
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Clay tile fillers are generally 12 x 12 in plan with depths of 4, 6, 8, 10, 12,
and 15 in. The usual practice is to place the tiles 16 o.c., thus
making the web 4 wide. The layer of concrete placed on top of the
tile is generally 2 or 2-1/2 in. thick. Reinforcement for this type of
construction may consist of two bars placed in the lower part of the
web, one bent and one straight, or of straight bars placed in the top
and bottom parts of the web.

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Pre-Stress Concrete
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Metal tile fillers are frequently used for ribbed floors. This is commonly
known as tin-pan construction. The metal forms are usually 36 long,
with 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 in. depths. They are placed on centers in
such a manner as to make the web 4 to 7 in. wide at the lowest point.
Form widths are generally 20 or 30 in.; a common condition is a form
20 in. wide, placed 25 in. on centers, to make a web 5 wide at the
bottom.
The metal forms may be removed or left in place after supporting
formwork has been taken down. To provide a greater web area near
the supports, where the shearing stresses may exceed the allowable,
special metal cores with the sides tapered in plan are used. The
degree of tapering generally is such that the web is increased 4 in
width. As in the case of clay-tile fillers, a 2, 2-1/2, or 3 in. slab is
placed over the metal tile forms, the slab and web forming a Tsection.
Gypsum-tile fillers have the advantage of providing a relatively lightweight
ribbed with a flush ceiling. Although they are made in various sizes, a
common width is 19, placed 24 o.c., with webs 5 wide. When block
12 wide are used, they are placed 16 o.c., thus forming 4 wide
webs.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
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Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

3. TWO-WAY SLABS

Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
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Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
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When a floor panel is square or nearly so, having beams or walls on four
sides, it is generally economical to use two sets of reinforcing bars
placed at right angles to each other. These bars in two directions
transfer the loads to the four supporting beams or walls. Slabs thus
reinforced are known as two way slabs or slabs supported on four
sides.
For square panels, with supports of equal rigidity, the live and dead
loads are distributed equally in both directions and the
reinforcements are the same each way. When the panel is oblong or
rectangular, the greater part of the load is transmitted by the
transverse or short reinforcement. If the length of the slab exceeds
1.5 times its width, the entire load is usually assumed to be carried
by the short reinforcement, and the long reinforcement used for
shrinkage and temperature reinforcement only; hence the slab would
become a one-way slab.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
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Reinforced Concrete
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In determining the reinforcement of two-way slabs two strips of floor are


considered. One is middle strip, one half of the panel in width,
symmetrical about the panel center line, and extending through the
length of the panel. The other is the column strip, one half of the
panel in width and occupying the two quarter-panel areas outside the
middle strip. In placing the reinforcement it is advantageous to place
the bars in the short direction, carrying the greater load, under the
longer bars. Bars are bent up at fifth points and extend over the
supports of the quarter points of the adjoining slabs as is done for
one-way slabs.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

4. TWO WAY WAFFLE SLAB

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A waffle slab is a two way concrete slab reinforced by ribs in two


directions. Waffle slabs are able to carry heavier loads and span longer
distances than flat slabs.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

5. TWO WAY FLAT PLATE.

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A flat plate is a concrete slab of uniform thickness reinforced in two or


more directions and supported directly by columns without beams or
girders. Simplicity of forming, lower floor-to-floor heights, and some
flexibility in column placement make flat plates practical for apartment and
hotel construction.

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Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
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6. TWO WAY FLAT SLABS.


A flat-slab is a flat plate thickened at its column supports to increase its
shear strength and moment-resisting capacity. The slab is commonly
reinforced with bars running in two directions. This area of increased
thickness is called a drop panel or drop. The columns are generally square
in cross section, but rectangular or circular cross sections are also used.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
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Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
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Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

3.4.2 REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
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Pre-Stress Concrete
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A beam may be defined as a structural member, resting on supports


usually at its ends, which supports transverse loads. The loads that act on
the beam, as well as the weight of the beam itself, tend to bend rather
than lengthen or shorten it. A girder is a term applied to a beam that
supports one or more smaller beams, as concentrated loads.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
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Reinforced Concrete
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3.4
Floor Systems
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Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
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Floor Systems
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Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
3.4
Floor Systems
Roof Decks

Beams may be classified as:


a. Simple beams. These are beams having a single span with a support
at each end, there being no restraint at the supports.
b. Cantilever beams. These are beams that are supported at one end
only, or they may be that portion of beams projecting beyond one of its
supports.
c. Continuous beams. These are beams resting on more than two
supports. The term semi-continuous is also frequently used in
reinforced-concrete. It refers to a beam having two spans with little or
no restraint at the two extreme ends of the beam. The end span of a
continuous beam, where little or restraint is provided at the end support,
is referred to as a semi-continuous beam.

Walls & Structural


Walls
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Pre-Cast Concrete
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When a beam is subjected to a given load, the beam is bent downwards at


the middle, the lower part of the beam being elongated while the upper
part is compressed. The lower part of the beam is said to be in tension,
while the upper part is in compression. In reinforced-concrete design, it is
assumed that the compressive stresses is resisted by the concrete and
all tension resisted by the steel. Thus the reinforcement of a beam is
placed near the bottom of the section.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
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At the supports, however, the upper surface of the beam becomes concave
downward; that is there is a reversal of stresses. The upper portion of the
beam is now in tension ( or the bending moment is said to change from
positive to negative). The section of a beam at which the bending moment
changes from positive to negative is called the point of inflection. The
exact position of inflection points depends upon the position and
magnitudes of the loads as well as the end conditions of the beams. For
continuous beams having equal spans and uniformly distributed loads, the
inflection point is considered to be one-fifth the clear span between faces
of support.
At this point some of the reinforcing bars are bent up at an angle of from 30 to
45 degrees and extend over the supports into the adjacent spans. The bent
up bars serve to resist the tensile stresses over the supports. Thus for
continuous beams with uniformly distributed loads the bars would be bent
up at one-fifth the clear span from the face of the supports and extend to
the quarter points of the adjacent span. Not more than half of the bears
should be bent up; the rest of the reinforcement extends straight through
the center of the supports.
Another method is to use separate straight bars in both the bottoms and tops
of the beams in place of bent bars. The slight cost in excess weight in this
arrangement over the combination of straight and bent bars is probably
balanced by the ease of preparing design and shop drawings, bill of
materials, and fabrication and placing of reinforcement. Bars not fabricated
according to drawings, or those lost and mislaid, are more easily replaced if
no bending is involved.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
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3.4
Floor Systems
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In addition to the tensile and compressive stresses in a beam subjected to


bending, there are also inclined tensile stresses. If a concrete beam is
reinforced with longitudinal steel only, these diagonal stresses tend o
produce cracks which are vertical at the center of the span and become
more inclined as they approach the support where they slope towards the
center at an angle of about 45. The stresses that cause these cracks are
known as diagonal tension. To prevent failure due to diagonal tension
additional reinforcing bars are used.
Sloping bars placed at right angles to the direction of these cracks would be
one method of reinforcing for diagonal tension, but, although this is
sometimes done, it is not the most economical method. The usual
procedure is to add #3 or #4 bars, bent in the shape of the letter U, in
vertical positions at those places in the beam at which the diagonal
tension stresses require their use. When the stresses are sufficiently
large. W-shaped bars are used. These bent reinforcing bars are called
stirrups. They should always have hooks at the ends to provide
anchorage to resist the tensile stresses.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
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3.4
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Reinforcement used to resist shearing stresses is known as web


reinforcement. Ties are frequently used for web reinforcement in place of
stirrups. A tie is generally made of #3 bars, but it completely encircles the
longitudinal tensile steel instead of being U-shaped with hooks.
Although it is occasionally necessary to put in two or more layers of steel,
particularly in large girders carrying heavy loads, it is usually more
economical to slightly widen a beam, thereby permitting all of the main
tensile reinforcement to lie in the same plane. Minimum clear distance
between bars should not be less than the nominal diameters of the bars,
not less than 1 (25 mm), nor less than 1-1/3 times the maximum size of
the coarse aggregate. If more than one layer is used the clear vertical
distance between layers shall not be less than 1 (25 mm), and the bars in
the upper layer shall be placed directly above those in the bottom layer.
The following table is useful in selecting the proper width of beam given
number of reinforcing bars:

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
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3.4
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NUMBER OF BARS IN BEAMS


Maximum number of bars for beams of various widths
Width
6
8
14
2- #5
2 - #11
2 - #11
3 - #6
5 - #9

10
3 - #11
3 - #9
4 - #6

12
4- #11
4 - #9
5 - #6

6 - #7
6 - #4
7 - #4

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An allowance of 1-1/2 (38 mm) for fireproofing is made outside the


reinforcement on each side of the beam, and there is also allowance
for #3 stirrups. It should be noted that this Table gives the maximum
size of bars. Thus, for instance, the Table indicates that 4 - #9 bars may
be used in a beam 12 in width. Obviously, four smaller bars, e.g., 4-#7,
may also be used for the same beam width.
Fireproofing for beams and walls is 1-1/2 (40 mm).

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
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Foundation Walls,
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3.4.3 TYPES OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
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1. Rectangular beams
2. T beams. When a reinforced
concrete floor slab and its supporting
beam (or girder) are built at the same
time and thoroughly tied together, a
part of the slab may be considered to
act with upper part of the beam in
compression. This form of a beam is
called a T- beam.
3. Beam with Compression
Reinforcement. These are beams with
reinforcement in the compression as
well as the tension side of the beam,
hence they are also called double
reinforced beams. In this type of beam
no bent up bars are required. Beams
with compression reinforcement are
used when the cross-sectional
dimensions of the beam are limited by
architectural or structural conditions so
that there is an insufficient concrete
area for the compressive stresses.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems

4. Cantilever Beams. The tensile


reinforcement is located at top of the
beam and inverted U-stirrups are
provided.

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Reinforced Concrete
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5. Hollow box girders. These are


double reinforced beams used for long
spans. In order to reduce the dead
load (the weight of the beam) it is
hollowed in the center of the section.
Diaphragms are provided at intervals
throughout the length of the beam.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
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6. Beam Brackets or Corbels. Short beam extensions from columns


used to support rafters or trusses.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
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3.5 ROOF DECKS


Reinforced concrete roof slabs (roof decks) are formed and sitecast in the
same manner as concrete floor systems. Roof decks are normally
covered with a type of membrane roofing for insulation and
waterproofing.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
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Reinforced Concrete
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Floor Systems
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Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

3.6 WALLS AND STRUCTURAL WALLS


3.6.1 TYPES OF WALLS

1. Bearing wall. A wall on which either floor or roof construction


rests.
2. Curtain wall. The enclosing wall of an iron or steel framework
or the non-bearing portion of an enclosing wall between piers.
3. Foundation wall. That portion of an enclosing wall below the
first tier of joists.
4. Retaining wall. A subsurface wall built to resist the lateral
pressure of internal loads.

5. Spandrel wall. The space between any arch and the beam
over the same; or an exterior non-bearing wall in skeleton
construction built between columns or piers and wholly
supported at each story.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls

3.6.2 CURTAIN WALLS


1. Panel walls are exterior non-load bearing walls whose outer surface
may or may not form the exterior facing of the building and whose
interior surface may or may not form the interior finish. It may rest on
the building structure or may be hung from the structure.
Masonry panel walls are exterior non-load bearing walls whose outer
surface may form exterior building face or it may be used back of
panel curtain wall as back-up.
The two types of masonry panel walls are: the stone masonry panel
and the pre-cast masonry panel wall units.

Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

a. Stone masonry panels are natural or artificial stone slabs which are
anchored to the building structure by masonry anchors.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

b. Pre-cast masonry panel wall units are ordinary reinforced or prestressed concrete wall units which may span one floor or several floors.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

2.

Panel curtain walls are exterior non-load bearing walls made up of


panels attached directly to the building structure with an adjustable
attachment or mounted on supports (sub-frame), which in turn, are
attached to the building structure by adjustable attachments. Exterior
face of panels form the face of the building; interior face may or may
not form the interior finish. The panels which protect the building from
the weather, may be one of the following types:

a. Window type panel. Transparent glass and frame incorporated in


panel curtain wall.
b. Skin type panel. Panel made up of one material.
c. Sandwich type panel. Panel made up of assembly of several
materials.
1. Open Sandwich type. Sandwich panel with top and bottom edges
closed.
2. Closed Sandwich type. Sandwich panel in which all edges of
panel are closed except for weep holes and vents.
d. Wall Units. Preassembly of several panels of any type. Units may be
one or several stories high.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Panel curtain walls may be classified into the following types:


Stick type. Refers to the method of installation where the mullions and
horizontal rails (gutter section and window sill section) are installed first
before installation of the window and wall panels.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

b. Unit and Mullion type. Supports (mullions) are clearly expressed.


Vertical lines dominant. Mullions are generally 4 4 max.; height, 8
0 maximum.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

c. Grid type (or Unit type). Supports (vertical and horizontal


members) clearly expressed. Vertical and horizontal lines
equally dominant. Area between support members, 32 sq. ft.
maximum. Width of panels, 4 4 max.; height, 8 0 max.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

d. Panel type (or sheathed type). Supports not expressed. Nonlineal pattern. Joints vertical and horizontal usually without trim.
Individual panel size: max. width, 3 10; max. height, 8 0.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

e. Spandrel type (column cover and spandrel system). Supports are


not a primary element of expression in this type of wall. Horizontal
lines are dominant and the length of spandrel unlimited. Width of
interlocking panels is 4 4 maximum; height is 8 0 maximum.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns

f. Sheathed type (Industrial). Supports not expressed. Non-lineal


pattern. Joints vertical. Panel size: width, approx. 4; height, 60 max.
Assembly methods of panel curtain walls may be by:
1. Individual panels.
2. Wall units. Width, 6 max.; height, one several stories.

Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

3.6.3 PRESSURE EQUALIZED DESIGN FOR CURTAIN WALLS.


Pressure differential between the outside atmosphere and an interior
environment can cause rainwater to migrate through even the smallest
openings in wall joints. Pressure-equalized design can significantly
reduce this cause of water leakage in wall construction by employing the
rain-screen principle.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

3.6.4 RETAINING WALLS, BREAST WALLS, AND VAULT


WALLS.

Foundations Systems

A retaining wall is a wall whose purpose is to resist the thrust of a


bank of earth or other material. It is differentiated from breast walls
which is similar to the retaining wall, in that in the retaining the earth
or other filling is deposited behind it after it is built, while the breast
wall (or face wall) is built to prevent the fall of earth which is in its
undisturbed, natural position, but from which part has been
excavated, leaving a vertical or inclined face.

Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls

Retaining walls are of three types:


a.

Gravity wall. This is a type of wall which is constructed of such


proportions that its weight alone resists the thrust of the earth. Low walls
are invariably gravity walls constructed of brick, stone masonry or
concrete.

b.

Cantilever wall. The cantilever wall is constructed of reinforced concrete


and makes use of the weight of the earth in resisting the tendency to
overturn at the outer edge. The vertical wall, supported on a horizontal
base, serves as a cantilever beam in resisting the earth pressure. Walls of
intermediate height are generally of the cantilever type.

Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems

C. Counterfort wall. It is similar to the cantilever wall with the exception


that the vertical wall is tied to the base at regular intervals with triangularshaped walls called counterforts ( a counterfort is similar to a buttress, but
where a buttress is placed on the side of the wall opposite the pressure
acting on it, a counterfort is placed on the same side of the wall ). It is
usually more economical to use the counterfort wall for heights of 20 ft. or
over.

Roof Decks
Walls & Structural 3.6
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

In large cities it is customary to utilize the space under the sidewalks for
storage or other purposes. This necessitates a wall at the curb line to hold
back the earth and the street pressures and also the weight of the
sidewalk. These are called vault walls.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

3.7 PRESTRESS CONCRETE

Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete 3.7
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

The concrete in the conventional reinforced-concrete beam is not


used economically. With respect to bending stresses, only the
concrete above the neutral surface resists compressive stresses. All
the concrete in the tension area, below the neutral axis, is disregarded
in designing because concrete is inherently weak in tension.
Therefore, only about one-third of the concrete resists compressive
stresses, the maximum stress being at the top of the beam, with the
stresses decreasing in magnitude to a zero stress at the neutral
surface.
Since in the usual reinforced-concrete beam the concrete cannot be
used efficiently, certain forces may be applied to beams that result in a
member in which all the concrete resists bending stresses. This is
known as pre-stressed concrete. A pre-stressed concrete beam is a
member so designed and constructed that all of the stresses in the
concrete resulting from bending are compressive, none is tensile. The
name is derived from the fact that the stresses are applied before the
beam is loaded.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete 3.7
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

There are two methods of prestressed concrete, namely:


a. Pre-tensioning or bonded prestressing. In this method the
reinforcing steel is first prestressed and then the concrete is poured.
When the concrete has developed strength, the stress in the steel is
released. The steel when stretched out becomes smaller in crosssection than when unstressed, and the concrete hardens around them
while they are still small. When their artificial tension is released after
the concrete hardens, they expand, reverting to their original shape,
grip the surrounding concrete. The bond between the concrete and
steel is sufficient to create compression in the concrete.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns

b. Post-tensioning or unbonded pre-stressing. In this method, tubes,


conduits, or channels are inserted in the concrete where reinforcing
steel is required. After the concrete is adequately cured, steel
reinforcement is inserted in the tubes or channels, stretched to the
proper tension, and anchored at the ends to put a squeeze on the
beam. Tensioning is done with hydraulic jacks.

Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete 3.7
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

The reinforcing for pre-stressed concrete is usually wire, strand, bar or rope
made of heat-treated steel. Concrete must meet strengths usually greater
than AA-type concrete which has a strength of 3750 psi in 28 days.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems

The advantages of pre-stressed concrete are:


1. It is economical of materials due to the use of higher steel and concrete
stresses.
2. It eliminates cracks because the concrete is always in compression.
3. It has remarkable elastic properties. For example, tests were made on a floor
slab only 1-5/s8 thick reinforced with not more than 1% steel. Although the
span was only 10 ft. the slab deflected 3 under a load of 1070lb. at its
center. When the load was removed it returned to its original level,
undamaged.

Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete 3.7
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

4. Beams do not have to be cast at the side in one form, but may be cast in
small sections or blocks at the factory with reinforcing wires threaded
through them. When the wires are stressed, the small units are brought
together like one large beam.
5. It develops remarkable resistance to shear stresses.
Pre-stressed concrete is used where spans and loads cannot be
adequately designed in reinforced-concrete, and for deckings, beams,
girders and other prefabricated units where greater spans and loads with
thinner, stronger, and in some cases, lighter members are required.
The designing of pre-stressed concrete for structures is highly technical and
the architect should always work with a structural engineer, even when
using prefabricated pre-stressed concrete units.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

3.8 PRE-CAST CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS

Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
3.8
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

Precast concrete slabs, beams and structural tees are one-way spanning
units that may be supported by site cast concrete, precast concrete, or
masonry bearing walls, or by steel, sitecast concrete, or precast concrete
frames. The precast units are manufactured with normal-density or
structural lightweight concrete and prestressed for greater structural
efficiency, which results in less depth, reduced weight, and longer spans.

The units are cast and steam-cured in a plant off-site, transported to the
construction site, and set in place as rigid components with cranes. The
size and proportion of the units may be limited by the means of
transportation. Fabrication in a factory environment enables the unit to
have a consistent quality of strength, durability, and finish, and eliminates
the need for on-site formwork. The modular nature3 of the standard-sized
units may not be suitable for irregular building shapes.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

3.8.1 Types of Precast Concrete Floor Units

Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns

1. Solid Flat Slabs

Reinforced Concrete
Columns

2. Hollow Core Slabs

Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems

3. Single Tees

Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
3.8
Floor Systems
Building Protection
Systems

4. Double Tees
5. Rectangular, LShaped and Inverted
Tee Beams

6. AASHTO Girders

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

3.9 BUILDING PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.9.1 CATEGORIES OF BUILDING PROTECTION SYSTEMS
1. Waterproofing a method of making building surfaces impervious to
water.
2. Damp-proofing applying a water-impervious material or a vapor
barrier to a surface, usually slab-on-fill, to prevent the penetration of
moisture, from the ground or the exterior or to prevent the penetration
of condensate to the surface material. Example is BARRAFILM vapor
barrier, one layer at six mils (0.006) thick, with 300 mm overlapping.
3. Water repelling or water sealing applying, by brush or lowpressure spray, a clear silicon water repellent or sealant to porous
surface material such as cement plaster and bricks to prevent
weathering or the growth of algae and moss. Example is
THOMPSONS Water Seal.

4. Thermal insulation method of installing thermal barriers in


surfaces of structures to keep the heat or cold away from the interior
spaces.
Vapor Barrier or Vapor Retarder 1. A membrane covering the outer surface of an insulated cold water pipe that is used to prevent moisture
from penetrating the insulation and reaching the pipe. 2. A layer of material or laminate used to reduce appreciably the flow of water
vapor into a roofing system.
Weathering 1. Changes in color, texture, strength, chemical composition, or other properties of a natural or artificial material due to the
action of the weather. 2. The cover applied to a part of a structure to enable it to shed rainwater.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

5. Termite (anay) proofing

Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems

Soil poisoning treating the soil surrounding the structure in touch


with the ground (footing bed and slab on fill) with a chemical. Example
is LENTREK TC Termicide Concentrate; dilution rating: 1 part
LENTREK TC to 50 parts water.
Factory-applied wood preservative factory pressure-applied
wood preservatives; such as boliden salts, WOLMAN preservative or
SOLIGNUM preservative of MATIMCO Wood (Manila Timber
Company).
Site-applied wood preservative application of a chemical liquid on
the wood surface (Solignum) to protect it against pest intrusion, such
as termites and powder post beetles (bukbok), and decay-causing
fungi, such as sap stain and rot.

Building Protection
3.9
Systems

Powder Post A condition of wood which has decayed to powder, or has been eaten by worms which leave holes full of powder.
Rot Decomposition in wood by fungi and other microorganisms; reduces its strength, density and hardness.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

Termite shields installing a


shield of non-corroding metal
or inorganic material, used as
protection against the
infiltration of termites in a
building; so placed as to
prevent their passage, usually
as a projecting shield on a
masonry foundation or pier (or
under a wood sill or beam
which it supports), or around
pipes which enter the building.
6. Rat proofing a method of protecting rooms against the intrusion of rats
and other small destructive animals from gnawing the wooden parts of the
house and habitating the under-ceilings and under-floors of houses and
buildings.
7. Fire proofing application of cover materials to structural steel components
or systems to provide increased fire resistance. Also called sprayed
fireproofing. Example is FLAMESHIELD FIREPROOFING, Filipino
invented, non-asbestos fiber mix on non-organic binder; 1 thk for 2-hour fire
rating, 2 thk for 3 hour fire rating and 3thk for 4-hour fire rating. Another
example is, MONOKOTE MK-6, a gypsum-based, cementitious spray
applied fireproofing product, from Grace Construction Products.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems

8. Floor protection a method of protecting finish floor surfaces from


wear and tear or from chemical abrasions due to heavy use.
9. Rust proofing a method of protecting the steel and other ferrous
materials from corrosion.
10. Descalers, paint and chemical strippers a method of removing
old paint by the use of a paint remover; and stains, rust, algae or
even cement build-up on forms or equipment, by the use of a chemical
stripper or descaler.

Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

Paint remover A liquid which is applied to a dry paint or varnish to cause it to soften or lose adhesion so that it may be removed
easily.
Stripper A liquid designed to remove coatings by chemical and/or solvent action.
Descaler A liquid designed to remove scale that forms on the inside of hot water heaters, boilers, etc.

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

3.9.2

WATERPROOFING

Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

1. Application Locations:

Top of roof decks


Top of concrete terraces, balconies, ledges and canopies
Under-sheathing for wood shingle and tile roofing
Interior surfaces of water tanks
Exterior surfaces of concrete roof gutters
Inside surfaces of plantboxes
Kitchen floor
Toilets
Basement floor and walls
Elevator pits
Swimming pools and fish ponds
Machine, mechanical and pump rooms
Refrigeration and cold storage rooms

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

2. Four Types of Waterproofing

Integral type powder form waterproofing compound mixed with the


cement-aggregate mixture. For example one bag of integral
waterproofing compound, such as SAHARA or SAKURA is added to
98 kilos off Portland cement.

Membrane type a hot or cold membrane applied to the surface; for


example asphalt paper laid with hot asphalt or self sealing asphalt
paper. Examples from WR Grace Co. are BITUTHENE CP for toilet
slabs and BITUTHENE 3000 for roof decks; and ICE AND WATER
SHIELD self-sealing and self-adhering rubberized membrane for main
entrance canopies made of metal.

Fluid type a fluid applied elastomeric coating formulated to


waterproof and preserve the substrate of concrete, wood, and steel.
The wide temperature range, withstands extreme thermal movement,
settling and cracking; resists puncture and tearing; and can be applied
by roller, brush, spray or squeegee. Examples of exposed type liquid
membrane waterproofing from WR Grace are NEWFLEX and
NEWFLEX R100 for ledges.

Cementitious type powder form waterproofing compound mixed


with water and applied by brush to the surface to be waterproofed.
Examples from WR Grace are MORTASEAL and HYDRATITE for
concrete gutters, ledges

Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

FOUNDATION AND SUB-STRUCTURE WATER PROOFING

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

GROUND BEAM
WATER PROOFING

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

BASE SLAB - PIPE PENETRATION WATER


PROOFING

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

THROUGH WALL PENETRATION


WATER PROOFING

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction

FLAT DECK WATER PROOFING

Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

UPSTAND DETAIL-SHEAR MEMBER

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

TYPICAL DRAIN DETAIL

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

TYPICAL PIPE DETAIL THROUGH ROOF SLAB


(LIQUID MEMBRANE DETAIL)

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

TYPICAL PIPE DETAIL THROUGH ROOF SLAB (SHEET MEMBRANE


DETAIL)

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems
Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

EXPANSION JOINT COVER


DECK OR WALL JUNCTION

Heavy Reinforced
Concrete, PreStressed Concrete & 3.0
Steel Construction
Foundations Systems
Foundation Walls,
Basement
Construction, Cisterns
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Reinforced Concrete
Floor Systems

3.9.3 THERMAL INSULATION


1. Application Locations of heat insulators:

Top or bottom of roof decks


Below roofing sheets
Above suspended ceiling

2.

Types of Thermal Insulators

Roof Decks
Walls & Structural
Walls
Pre-Stress Concrete
Pre-Cast Concrete
Floor Systems
Building Protection
3.9
Systems

Loose Fill fibrous type and granular type


Blanket Insulation is made from fibrous materials such as mineral wool, wood fiber,
cotton fiber or animal hair and made into batt[1] or boards. Example is PARSEC
Thermo Brite II for underneath metal roofing insulation.
Block or Rigid Slab Insulation stiff and inelastic such as foamed plastic, cellular
glass, foamed concrete, etc. Example is STYROFOAM ROOFMATE SL extruded
polysterene board as manufactured by DOW Chemicals, for inaccessible roof decks.
Foamed-in Place Insulation a polyurethane product made by combining a
polyisocyanate and a polyester resin. This type of insulation can be applied either by
pouring or by spraying. The basic ingredients for both are drawn from their containers,
measured and mixed by machine.
Sprayed-on Insulation materials used are polyurethane foam asbestos fiber mixed
with inorganic binders; vermiculite aggregate with a binder such as Portland cement or
gypsum and perlite aggregate using gypsum as a binder. Machines are used for
blowing these insulations into place and as a result, the shape and irregularity of the
surface being insulated is of little consequence. Example is MBA SPRAYED-ON
POLYURETHANE INSULATION; 25 mm thick x 1.5 pcf density for accessible roof
decks.

Batt Insulation A flexible blanket- type thermal insulation, commonly used as insulation between studs or joints in frame construction;
also used as an acoustical material or a component in sound-insulating construction. Usually made from rock, slag, or glass
fibers. Sometimes has a vapor barrier on one side or is entirely enclosed in paper with a vapor barrier on one side.