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Danny Doan

Introduction

SimulationandControlofWindTurbine
usingHydrostaticDriveTrain
Author:A.Nikranjbar

,A.NazarianSharbabaki

1 IslamicAzadUniversity/FacultyofEngineering,Karaj,Iran.Email:
a.nikranjbar@kiau.ac.ir(Correspondingauthor)
2 MalekAshtarUniversityofTechnology/Mech.&Aero.Dep.,Isfahan,Iran.Email:
amin.nazarian@yahoo.com
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Information aubout the paper


Received March 2012 /Revised Sept.
2012 /Accepted Dec. 2012
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TASK
ARTICLE
ABSTRACT
I.

Study about abstract


1. Purpose
In paper with the demands to obtain energy from renewable energy resources, utilization of the wind

turbines to convert the wind energy into the desired usable form with maximum efficiency has been faced with
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DEMONSTRATE & NOTE

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ever increasing research efforts. In this study taken a different approach with conventional systems, wind
turbine with hydrostatic power train system is considered.
2. Research Strategy/Design
Hydrostatic power train system characterized with high power and torque transmission along with
significant efficiency, capable of reliably controlling the performance of the system, and persistent hydraulic
components, has been replaced with the conventional mechanical power train system between the vane and
electric generator.
3. Fingding
To explain the performance of the proposed system, a mathematical model of wind turbine with variable
speed hydrostatic transmission in the MATLA/SIMULINK software has been established and the system
control algorithm is presented.
4. Conlusion
Based on the detailed mathematical model and using the information of hydraulic equipments from
famous vendors and manufacturers to make the results ever realistic, simulation results showing the great
B
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performance compared to the today's conventional wind turbines.


KEYWORDS: Wind turbines, Hydrostatic power train, Wind turbine simulation and control.
INTRODUCTION
II.

Research Problem/Purpose
1. What problem is being studied?
Resounding to the industrial and technological challenge to introduce the cost-effective, reliable wind

energy conversion solutions, considerable set of research efforts have been started.
2. Is there a stated purpose or set of study goals?
In conventional types, the wind passing over the blades exerting a turning force. The rotating blades turn
a shaft inside the nacelle, which goes into a gearbox. The gearbox increases the rotation speed for the
generator, which uses magnetic fields to convert the rotational energy into electrical energy. The power output
goes to a transformer, which converts the electricity from the generator to the right voltage for the distribution
system [2]. To overcome the drawbacks of the traditional method, specifically to eliminate the need to
gearbox, the new concept of hydrostatic transmission (HST), which is characterized employing the application
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of continuously variable hydrostatic transmissions for wind turbines, is introduced.


The author eliminate: The need to gearbox/The need for power electronics
III.

Background Literature
1. What kind of articles are described?
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_wind_power # Early_Middle_Ages.
[2] T. Burton, N. Jenkins, Sharpe D, and E. Bossanyi, Wind energy handbook, 2nd ed., John

Wiley & Sons: West Sussex, England, pp. 2-7, 2011.


[3] B. Bohlmann, Hydrostatic transmission for wind power,The National science foundation
engineering research center, College of Science and Eng., Dep. of Mech. Eng., University of Minnesota.
[4] J. Schmitz, N. Vatheuer, and H. Murrenhoff, Hydrostatic drive train in wind energy plants,
RWTH Aachen University, IFAS Aachen, Germany.
[5] X. Guo, X. J. Jibin, Z. Peng, and C. Jing, Numerical simulation and dynamic characteristics
of secondary controlled hydrostatic drive,presented at theIEEE International Conf. on Mechatronics
and Automation, Harbin, China, Aug. 58, 2007.
[6] P. Srensen, A. D. Hansen, and P. A. C. Rosas, Wind models for simulation of power
fluctuations from wind farms, Journal of Wind Engineering, Vol. 90, pp. 13811402, 2002.
[7] G. Marsaglia, and W. W. Tsang, The ziggurat method for generating random variables,
Journal of Statistical Software, Vol. 5, No. 8, pp.1-7, 2000.
[8] E, Muljadi, and C. P. Butterfield, Pitch-Controlled Variable-Speed Wind Turbine
Generation, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 37, pp. 240-246, 2000.
[9] B. Chitti Babu, and K. B. Mohanty, Doubly-Fed induction generator for variable speed wind
energy conversion systems- modeling & simulation, International Journal of Computer and Electrical
Engineering,Vol. 2, pp. 141-147, 2010.
[10] S. Heier, Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems,John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
1998.
[11] K. Tan, S. Islam, Optimum control strategies in energy conversion of PMSG wind turbine
system without mechanical sensors, IEE transactions on
energy conversion,Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 392399, 2004.
[12] F. A., Rassul Abbas, and M. A., Abdulsada, Simulation of wind-turbine speed control by
matlab, International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering, Vol. 2, pp. 1793-8163, 2010.
[13] www.Mathworks.com/Matlab/Simulink/SimHydraulic help.
[14] J. Johnson, Introduction to fluid power, 1nd ed.,Cengage Learning, 2002.
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By replacing the gearbox of traditional wind turbines with a continuously variable hydrostatic
transmission (HST), the rotor speed could be controlled independent of the generator speed.
Sim-Hydraulics is a block package under the Sim- scape in Simulink which is used to model up a
hydro- static drive train system. Also used from Sim-Mechanic blocks (another block package under
Simscape). The proposed model has been developed in Matlab- Simulink environment, Sim-Hyhraulics and
Sim- Driveline tool boxes is used simultaneously to optimal using of rapid prototyping facility.
2. Can you tell from the literature why the authors are doing this study?
Thus, by replacing the gearbox in a wind turbine with an HST, the reliability of the machine could be
increased.
This research aims to present a fixed speed wind turbine simulation with constant blade pitch angle and
a typical variable speed hydrostatic system as a drive train. For the purpose of this research a specific drive
train system with a secondary control unit in hydrostatic transmissions with a variable- displacement motor is
developed [5]. The secondary control unit is used to control hydro motor swash plate movements and
consequently the motor instantaneous displace- ment, output shaft angular velocity and amount of entered
torque to the generator.
3. Is the study important?
Yes, it is. Because in this study taken a different approach with conventional systems which help
decrease the high cost and increase the effection.
IV.

Research question/Hypothesis
1. Does the research question (hypothesis) follow logical from the literature review? Yes, it does.
2. Is there a clear rationable for the hypothesis?
This new concept also provides the generators rotational speed to be matched exactly to the frequency

of the power network by continuously varying the transmission ratio, thus omitting the need for frequency
converters and providing higher current quality. At the same time, the rotational speed of the wind turbine can
be controlled. Positive side effects are the good damping characteristics of the hydraulic drive train as well as
the high power to weight ratio which results in a significantly reduced weight of the nacelle. Due to a modular
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design the transmission can also be adapted to a wide power range by switching off several parts of the system
and virtually maintenance-free, which drastically reduces the operating and maintenance costs with ease of
D
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access to critical components [4].


MAIN IDEA
METHOD
V.
1.
2.
3.
4.

If sampling was used/identify (Nu c s dng phng php ly mu)


Who was studied?
How were they selected?
Name the sampling strategy?
Is the sample appropriate; would you suspect that any bias was introduced into the study because
of the sampling strategy?

VI.

Procedures/established method
a. WIND MODEL
[6] P. Srensen, A. D. Hansen, and P. A. C. Rosas, Wind models for simulation of power

fluctuations from wind farms, Journal of Wind Engineering, Vol. 90, pp. 13811402, 2002.
1. What is the implementation procedure?
The wind speed is calculated as an average value of the fixed-point wind speed over the whole rotor,
and it takes the tower shadow and the rotational turbulences into account.
2. What ideas were used into the study?
Wind models for simulation of power fluctuations from wind farms.
3. Is the study design appropriate for answering the question?
[7] G. Marsaglia, and W. W. Tsang, The ziggurat method for generating random variables,
Journal of Statistical Software, Vol. 5, No. 8, pp.1-7, 2000.
1. What is the implementation procedure?
A main component in this model is the normally distributed white noise generator. Therefore, in order
to obtain the same wind time series in all considered simulation tools used in the Simulation Platform some
investigations have been done. It has been found that the built in white noise generator from different
simulation tools uses a different algorithm and thus a different wind time series is obtained. A new normally
distributed white noise generator has been implemented using a 'C' S-Function based on the Ziggurat
Algorithm developed by G. Marsaglia [7]. The general structure of wind Simulink model is shown in Fig. 2.

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2. What ideas were used into the study?


The ziggurat method for generating random variables
3. Is the study design appropriate for answering the question?
A wind time series for 50 sec with 0.05 sec sample time, an average wind speed of 9 (m/sec) and (16
m/sec) and 12% turbulence intensity has been generated for the model as shown in Fig. 3.

b. WIND TURBINE ROTOR MODEL


[8] E, Muljadi, and C. P. Butterfield, Pitch-Controlled Variable-Speed Wind Turbine
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Generation, IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, Vol. 37, pp. 240-246, 2000.
1. What is the implementation procedure?
Models for the power producing capabilities of a wind turbine rotor have been previously developed [8].
The block diagram of the wind turbine rotor is presented in Fig. 4.

According to (1), the output mechanical power of the wind turbine (PT) is given by the usual cube law
equation [9].
Where, PT is mechanical output power of the turbine (W), C P is the power coefficient, is the air density
(kg/m3), A is the wind turbine rotor swept area (m2) and V is the wind speed (m/s).
Equation (2) present a generic equation i.e. used to model up C P. This equation, based on the modeling
turbine characteristics of [10] is presented below.

Where is tip speed ratio ( is shown as (4)), is blade pitch angle and the coefficients C1to C6 are;
C1=0.5176, C2=116, C3=0.4, C4=5, C5= 21 and C6=0.0068. The power coefficient for proposed model of
wind turbine rotor with various pitch angles versus tip speed ratio is presented in Fig. 5. According to shown
figure, the maximum value of Cp (CPmax= 0.48) is achieved for =0 degree and for =8.1. This particular value
of is defined as the nominal value (nom). Some relationship between C P, various and various wind speeds
are presented in [11], [12].

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Where T is the mechanical angular velocity of the generator (rad/s), R is the radius of the rotor (m) and V
is wind speed (m/s).

The wind turbine power characteristics for zero pitch angle (=0) with average wind speed of 12 (m/s) and
different values of the pitch angle are illustrated as Fig. 6.

The wind turbine rotor has been developed in Matlab-Simulink simulator software. The simulink model is
presented in Fig. 7.
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2. What ideas were used into the study?


Pitch-Controlled Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Generation
3. Is the study design appropriate for answering the question?
Fig. 5. Power coefficient versus tip speed ratio with various pitch angles
Fig. 6. The turbine power characteristics for zero pitch angle
Fig. 7. The Simulink model for the fixed speed wind turbine rotor
c. HYDROSTATIC DRIVE TRAIN SYSTEM
In this paper, the system demonstrates usage of the so-called ''secondary control'' in hydrostatic
transmissions with a variable-displacement motor. The drive train system consists of a hydrostatic
transmission built of a pressure compensated variable-displacement pump, a variable- displacement motor, a
fixeddisplacement pump as a booster pump, pressure relief valves, check valves, the secondary control unit
and so on. The block diagram of closed circuit hydrostatic transmition system is presented in Fig. 8.

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4.1. Hydraulic Pump


[13] www.Mathworks.com/Matlab/Simulink/SimHydraulic help.
1. What is the implementation procedure?
A variable displacement pressure-compensated pump has been used in hydrostatic drive train simulation.
This kind of pump tries to maintain preset pressure at its outlet by adjusting its delivery flow in accordance
with the drive train system requirements.
The flow rate equation for the main pump is presented in (5).
Where, q is pump flow rate (m3/s), D is pump instantaneous displacement (m3/rad), is pump angular
velocity (rad/s), kleak is pump leakage coefficient and P is the pressure differential across the pump (Pa) [13],
[14].
Torque at the pump driving shaft for the main pump is presented in (6).

Where, mechis pump/motor mechanical efficiency.


Pump instantaneous displacement (D), is proportional to the Pressure differential across the pump,
Proportion of the pressure and displacement is defined as (7) [13].

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Where, Pmaxis maximum pressure (Pmax=Pset+Preg),


Pset is pump setting pressure, P reg is pump pressure regulation range, D max is pump maximum displacement
and k coefficient is defined as (8) [13].

Leakage coefficient of pump/motor (k leak) and Hagen-Poiseuille coefficient of pump/motor (kHP) are defined
as (9).

Where, is fluid kinematic viscosity (cst), is fluid density (kg/m 3), nom is pump/motor nominal angular
velocity (rad/s), V is pump/motor volumetric efficiency, nom is nominal fluid kinematic viscosity (cst) and
Pnom is pump and motor nominal pressure (Pa) [13].
The pump/motor leakage flow is determined based on the assumption that it is linearly proportional to the
pressure differential across the pump/motor and can be computed by using the Hagen-Poiseuille formula as
(10).

Where, qleakis pump/motor leakage flow (m3/s), d and L are geometric parameters of the leakage path, is
fluid dynamic viscosity (= ) [13].
2. What ideas were used into the study?
SimHydraulic for Hydraulic Pump
3. Is the study design appropriate for answering the question?
4.2. Hydraulic Motor
[13] www.Mathworks.com/Matlab/Simulink/SimHydraulic help.
[14] J. Johnson, Introduction to fluid power, 1nd ed.,Cengage Learning, 2002.
1. What is the implementation procedure?
The hydraulic motors flow equation is presented as bellow.

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Where, q is flow rate through the motors (m 3/s), D is motor displacement (m3/rad), is output shaft
angular velocity (rad/s), kleak is motor leakage coefficient and P is the pressure differential across the motors
(Pa) [13], [14].
The torque at the motor output shaft (N.m) is defined as (12) [13], [14].
2. What ideas were used into the study?
SimHydraulic for |Hydraulic Motor
Introduction to fluid power
3. Is the study design appropriate for answering the question?
4.3. Secondary control unit
1. What is the implementation procedure?
In a hydrostatic transmission, the displacement of its variable-displacement hydro-motor is often regulated
by the swash plate angle using a hydraulic servo-mechanism. Therefore, the swash plate dynamics play an
important role in the dynamics of the hydrostatic transmission. The secondary control unit simulation in
presented in Fig. 9.

This unit is essentially a servo-cylinder controlled by a proportional 4-way valve. The servo-cylinder drives
the control member of a variable-displacement motor represented in the model with mass, spring, and damper.
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The model is designed as a closed-loop control system with an angular velocity feedback. Dynamic
compensator PD is installed in the secondary control unit to improve system stability.
The hydrostatic drive train with secondary control unit system has been developed by SimHydraulicsimulator environment (Fig.10). The variable displacement pressure compensated pump, variable
displacement hydraulic motor and fixed displacement pump (booster pump) parameters are presented in
Table_1. The model is developed by two main flexible pipelines with 30 (m) length and 0.05 (m 2) crosssectional areas.

2. What ideas were used into the study?

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3. Is the study design appropriate for answering the question?


Fig. 9. The Sim-Hydraulic model for hydro-motor control unit
Fig. 10. The Sim-Hydraulic model for the proposed hydrostatic drive train system in Matlab
environment
Table 1.The main hydraulic pump (MP), hydraulic motor (HM) and booster pump (BP) parameters
d. WIND TURBINE DEVELOPMENT
1. What is the implementation procedure?
The wind turbine development in Matlab-Simulink software environment is shown in Figure 11. The model
consists of three main subsystems; a) wind model simulation, b) wind turbine rotor, c) hydrostatic drive train
with sensors and a simple gearbox.

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2. What ideas were used into the study?


3. Is the study design appropriate for answering the question?
Fig. 11. The wind turbine development in Matlab- Simulink software environment
F

SIMULATION & EXPERIMENTAL RESULT


VII.

SIMULATION RESULTS
1. Was the statistic used to test the hypothesis appropriate for the scale of measurement and study
design? Yes, it was.

The output results according to various input, are presented in two sections, some different inputs are
considered as bellow;
a. The average wind speed of 9 (m/s) & 16 (m/s) with unit step input of secondary control unit.
b. The average wind speed of 9 (m/s) with unit step and unit ramp input of secondary control unit signals.
2. Were the study finding clearly presented? Yes, they were.
3. Did the statistical test support or fail to support the study hypothesis?
Yes, it support to the hypothesis aubout simulation
4. Did the figure effective display the study results?

6.1.Section1
The power coefficient, torque and power of wind turbine rotor, torque and mechanical rotation of
hydromotors (with unit step signal of secondary control unit) in the average wind speed of 9(m/s) and 16(m/s)
are presented in Fig. 12 to Fig. 16.
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6.2. Section 2
The simulation results of the hydro-pump flow rate, the servo-cylinder displacement in motor swash plate
control mechanism, hydraulic motor torque and mechanical rotation with unit step and unit ramp signal of
secondary control unit and the average wind speed of 12 (m/s) are presented in Fig. 17 to Fig. 20

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5. Can the results be used to answer the research question?


G

CONLUSION
VIII.

Conlusion
1. Did the author offer a strong explanation of their findings?
2. What do the study findings mean for theory?
3. How do the study findings build upon previous research?
IX.
Discussions
1. Did the authors present their view of study limitation

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