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CHAPTER 1

Prepared by: Siti Kamisah binti Mohd Yusof

The end of this chapter, student should be able to:


1) Understand the theory of survey adjustment
2) Understand mathematical model
3) Understand accuracy versus precision
4) Understand the types of errors

Survey Adjustment is a method to


adjust the observations to obtain the
most accurate value on these
observations,
in
addition
to
minimizing the error exist in the
observations.

1) Sizes of error can be assessed.


2) All quantities in a survey or network
are consistent.
3) Precisions of final quantities are
increased.

1) It is the most accurate of all adjustment


procedures.
2) It can be applied with greater ease than
other methods.
3) It enables accurate
analyses to be made.

post-adjustment

4) It can be used to perform pre-survey


planning.
5) It is the oldest currently used adjustment
method.

1) Precision estimates of measurements are


needed
2) The method is computation-intensive, and
therefore, a high speed computer is needed
3) A large redundancy (large degree of
freedom) is necessary to get a meaningful
adjustment
4) A knowledge of statistics is necessary to do
a good analysis of results

Probability is the ratio of the number of times


that an event should occur to the total number
of possibilities. There are two function of
probability:
i.

Function of cumulative distribution

ii.

Function of Probability density

i.

Function of cumulative distribution

F(t) = P (x t)

ii. Function of Probability density


Is a function that describes the relative likelihood for this
random variable to take on a given value.
Normal density

The value used to measure


the accuracy of a data set.
Population variance was
used to determine the data
set which consists of the
entire population.

Variance,

Difference value
between observation
value and the most
probable value.
v=x-x

Residual,

Redundant
of
observation
required for determining a
value.

From this value, it can


determining the best solution
set and will involve the part of
selection and removal.

Most Probable
Value,

Square root of population of


variance. The equation can be
used to Variance and Standard
Error for a quantity of n
observations.

Standard Error,

Covariance is a measure of the


degree of correlation between
any two components of a
multivariate.

Covariance
A quantities
theoretically correct or
exact value.

is defined as the square-root


of the sample variance.
The square of the standard
deviation 2 is known as
the variance

Standard
Deviation, S
The correlation Coefficient is a measure
of how closely two quantities are related.

The true value can be


determined.

True Value,

Correlation
Coefficient

The midpoint of the sample set


when arranged in ascending or
descending order.

For a set of n observations, x1, x2,


.., xn, this is the average of
the observation.

Arithmetic Mean,

Median
Within a sample of data,
the mode is the most
frequently occurring
value.

Mode

A mathematical model is comprised of two parts:


1.

Functional Model:

Describes the deterministic (i.e. physical, geometric)


relation between quantities.

Expresses the functional relationship between quantities (c,x,1)

cConstants
- e.g. the speed of light

xUnknown parameters
- the quantities we wish to solve for
- e.g., Area of a triangle, co-ordinate (x, y, z) of a point

lObservables

- Measurements
- e.g., distances, angles, satellite pseudoranges

2.

Stochastic Model :

Stochastic = Weighting
* Weighting measure of its relative worth compared to

other measurement.
- Used to control the sizes of corrections applied
to measurement.

Describes the non-deterministic (probabilistic) behaviour of


model quantities, particularly the observations.

Definition of Error:

Difference between a measured quantity and its true value.


=-
= error

= measured value
= true value

There are THREE (3) types of error:


1) Mistake Error / Blinder Error
2) Systematic Error / Biases
3) Random Error

By
confusion
By an
observers
carelessness.

They are not classified as


error.
Must be removed from any
set of observation
Example:
i. Mistakes in reading

MISTAKE ERROR

ii. Mistakes in writing down


(i.e : 27.55 for 25.75)

Error follow some


physical law
These error
can predicted

SYSTEMATIC ERROR

Some systematic error are


removed by following correct
measurement procedure.
Example:
i. Balancing backsight and
foresight.
ii. Index error of the Vertical
Circle of Total Station
instrument.
Correction can be computed.

Error after all


Mistakes &
Systematic error
have been
removed from
the measured
value.

RANDOM ERROR

Generally small
To be positive (+ve) and
negative (-ve).

Example:
i. Bubble not centered at the
instant a staff is read.

ii. Imperfect centering over


appoint during distance
measurement with Total
Station Instrument.

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