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URBAN RENEWAL

Urban Decay & Urban Revitalization


ARCH 162 Group Report
Prof. MV Tomeldan
Axalan, Dave Anderson | Co, Keren Maxine

Presentation Outline
Urban Decay
Definition
Causes
Effects
Case Studies

Urban Revitalization/Renewal
Definition
Implementation
Effects
Case Studies

Urban Decay
Also urban blight
Decay and deterioration of an urban area
due to neglect or age (Collins English
Dictionary)
Regression
of
an
urbanized
areas
functional condition (employment rate,
population, income-generating capacity)

Causes of Urban Decay


Development of urban areas nearby
o
o

More opportunities in the neighboring urban areas


Competition

Deindustrialization
Decline in importance of manufacturing industry
in the economy (Collins English Dictionary)
o Unemployment
o Economic problems
o

Causes of Urban Decay


Wars
o
o

Very slow recuperation


No funds for rehabilitation

Natural disasters
Poor urban planning
o

Pedestrian and vehicular navigation (Traffic)

o Inadequate zoning
o Waste of land resource

Effects of Urban Decay

Higher unemployment rate


Rising poverty
Increased crime rate
Abandoned buildings
o
o

Mainly due to businesses closing down and emigration


Eventually become home to informal settlers and for
criminal activity

Case Study - Detroit, Michigan, USA


Before the 1930s, Detroit first housed
industries such as tobacco, medicine, and
food production.
1930s: Boom of its automobile industry
1950s: Highest population record of over
1.8 million
1960: Highest per-capita income in the
United States

Case Study - Detroit, Michigan, USA


December 2000 - December 2010:
Began to experience regression in its
automobile industry
Population decline
December 2013: Filed for bankruptcy
One of the largest bankruptcies in the
history of the United States

Waiting Room, Michigan Central RR Depot


Before and After
http://www.messynessychic.com/2012/08/12/ruins-of-detroit-before-after/

Great Hall, Michigan Central RR Depot


Before and After
http://www.messynessychic.com/2012/08/12/ruins-of-detroit-before-after/

Stage, Vanity Ballroom, 1024 Newport


Before and After
http://www.messynessychic.com/2012/08/12/ruins-of-detroit-before-after/

Farwell Building, 1249 Griswold St.


Before and After
http://www.messynessychic.com/2012/08/12/ruins-of-detroit-before-after/

Fisher Body 21 Plant


http://www.weather.com/travel/news/eerie-before-after-images-urban-decay-detroit

Abandoned Packard Motors Plant


http://www.weather.com/travel/news/eerie-before-after-images-urban-decay-detroit

United Artists Theater


http://www.weather.com/travel/news/eerie-before-after-images-urban-decay-detroit

Case Study - Detroit, Michigan, USA


December
2014:
Successfully
exited
bankruptcy
Commercial establishments such as theaters
and stadiums are now being revitalized.
Some areas are now in the process of
redevelopment, while some areas remain
completely abandoned.

Cleveland Intermediate School


Before and After
http://www.buzzfeed.com/mjs538/pictures-showing-the-restoration-of-detroit#.ihqx706Rp

Seville Apartments
Before and After
http://www.buzzfeed.com/mjs538/pictures-showing-the-restoration-of-detroit#.ihqx706Rp

Kendrick Manufacturing Co.


Before and After
http://www.buzzfeed.com/mjs538/pictures-showing-the-restoration-of-detroit#.ihqx706Rp

The Book-Cadillac Hotel Dining Room


Before and After
http://www.buzzfeed.com/mjs538/pictures-showing-the-restoration-of-detroit#.ihqx706Rp

Hotel Fort Shelby Ballroom


Before and After
http://www.buzzfeed.com/mjs538/pictures-showing-the-restoration-of-detroit#.ihqx706Rp

Case Study - Birmingham, Alabama, USA


From being called The Magic City to
Tragic City
Mining and steel manufacturing
Commercial industries such as banking,
telecommunication, medical care, etc.
Houses Fortune 500 and Fortune 1000
company headquarters

Case Study - Birmingham, Alabama, USA


Urban blight has been around since the
1990s
2008: Spent $750,000 just tearing down
blighted residential structures
2010: Population decline
2011: Failing schools
2011: Crimes

Case Study - Birmingham, Alabama, USA


Land ownership processing (for abandoned
properties) would take at least 6 years.
Poverty
Dilapidated and/or abandoned structures
Blight is projected to worsen until the year
2030.

Abandoned house
http://weldbham.com/blog/2014/06/04/birminghams-fight-against-blight/

Abandoned Muscoda Mines


http://leftbirmingham.blogspot.com/2013/01/muscoda.html

Abandoned Metrocare Health Building


http://leftbirmingham.blogspot.com/2012/07/metrocare.html

Case Study - Birmingham, Alabama, USA


Despite the blight, the medical industry
within Birmingham is performing quite well.
Traffic within neighboring urbanized areas
might drive out some residents and cause
them to move to Birmingham.

Urban Renewal
Also Urban Revitalization
Process of redeveloping dilapidated or no
longer functional urban areas. (Collins
English Dictionary)
Process of making cities and neighborhoods
more competent to present day needs and
circumstances

Implementing Urban Renewal


Resolve the issues concerning incomegenerating capacity, unemployment rate,
population fluctuation, and crime rate
Might include: relocation of businesses,
relocation of people, and the use of
eminent domain

Implementing Urban Renewal


Investments could be drawn up, increasing
the income-generating capacity of the area
Generation of funds for further public
works, and at the same time ensuring job
opportunities

Implementing Urban Renewal


Improvements would need people to use or
utilize them
Different public and private establishments
would help drawing the wanted population
in
Needs would be met and would be easily
available

Implementing Urban Renewal


Construction of new highways and railways
Improvement of basic utilities to better
service the users and at the same time to
lessen any negative environmental impacts

Effects of Urban Renewal


Improved living conditions
Economic benefits
Improved safety and surveillance
Decrease in the number of substandard
living conditions or slums within the area
Employment opportunities
Gentrification

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


Cheonggyecheon is a public recreation
space in downtown Seoul
Between 2003 and 2005, the elevated
highway above the river was demolished to
improve the citys environmental and
aesthetic conditions.

Cheonggyecheon Site Plan


http://landscapeperformance.org/sites/default/files/styles/lightbox/public/Cheonggyecheon-Site%20Plan.jpg?itok=cDUcNFZw

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


Elevated walkway was first constructed as a
response to too much pollution and flooding
Structural flaws were detected which made
the elevated structure unsafe
The local government decided to focus its
efforts on recovering the flow of the river
and encouraging biodiversity in the area

Sanitation Problem
http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Covering Work (1958-1977)


http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


The urban renewal project focused on
uncovering the stream which flows along
the area
It received great criticism at first, but later
became a modern public recreation space
visited by many

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


Project Summary:
Location: Cheonggyecheon stream, Seoul,
South Korea
Length: 5.8 km
Cost: US $280million
Dates: 2000-2005

Before and After


http://www.kcet.org/socal/departures/cheonggyecheon_elevated_expressway.jpg
http://www.kcet.org/socal/departures/cgc-after.jpg

Before and After


http://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/img/original/seoul_cheonggye_cheon_restoration_project.jpg

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


Decline of old CBD
o
o
o

CBD redevelopment stopped where the Cheonggye


Expressway started
Business headquarters moved to Gangnam (new
sub-center)
Industries in CBD lost competitiveness

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


Safety Problem
o
o

Only small cars were allowed from 1997


Maintenance cost soared: US$50M (94-99)

Structural Problem
http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


Local cultural and historical sites were
restored
Center for business and finance was
encouraged
The project became a link in the
development between north and south
Seoul

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


The project was initiated on July 2003, with
a plan to remove the elevated highway and
expose the stream beneath;
Restore history and culture of the region;
Revitalize the economy; and
Pedestrianization of the area

Covered Structure and


Highway:
5.4 km
Waste:
Concrete and Asphalt
872,400ton (96%
recycled)

Demolition
http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Design Criteria:
- Minimize flow
resistance
- Create as cultural
places; artistic
landmark
Number of bridges: 22
International concept
design competition

Bridge Design
http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Concepts:

New green belt with waterfront: West to East


Gradual transformation from urban landscape to natural environment
Create ecological biotop and environment
Thematic places: waterfall and fountains

Landscape Design
http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


Zone 1: History
Underground waterways redirected to create a
new stream bed with landscaped banks;
former bridges used as decorative elements;
seating to encourage the public to use the
space.

Zone 1: History
http://ecrr.org/Portals/27/Cheonggyecheon%20case%20study.pdf

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


Zone 2: Urban and Culture
Created a park in the centre of the city with
recreation areas, waterfront decks and
stepping
stones;
designed
using
environmentally friendly materials, with
artwork and maps on walls along the river
corridor.

Zone 2: Urban and Culture


http://ecrr.org/Portals/27/Cheonggyecheon%20case%20study.pdf

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


Zone 3: Nature in the middle of the city
Designed to look natural and overgrown;
sections of the pier and overpass left as
industrial mementoes; wetland designated as
an ecological conservation area.

Zone 3: Nature in the Middle of the City


http://ecrr.org/Portals/27/Cheonggyecheon%20case%20study.pdf

Stage 1: Scaffolding (July 2003)


http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Stage 2: Highway Demolition (August 2003)


http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Stage 3: Covered Road Demolition (January 2004)


http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Stage 4: Sewer, Road, and Bridge Construction (September 2004)


http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Stage 5: Landscaping for the Recovered Area (May 2005)


http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Test Running and Final Touch (June-September 2005)


http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Grand Opening (1 October 2005)


http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


Changes due to project monitored
o from January 2003 to March 2006
o before, during and after the project

Monitoring Areas
o
o
o
o
o
o

Land Use
CBD Industry
Environment
Ecology
Traffic
Real Estate Changes

Fishes:
From 3 to 14 Species

Birds:
18 Species
Insects:
From 7 to 41 Species

Ecology
http://worldcongress2006.iclei.org/uploads/media/K_LEEInKeun_Seoul_-_River_Project.pdf

Case Study - Cheonggyecheon, Seoul


The river became a great venue for
biodiversity
Cultural activities are being revived
Cycling and walking was promoted within
the city
Vehicular traffic was improved; bus only
lane and improved subway system

Case Study - Fjord City, Oslo


An urban renewal
waterfront part of
redevelopment was
continuing to 2010 with
the ports of Oslo

project for the


Oslo, the first
started in 1980
the development of

Fjord City, Oslo


https://farm4.staticflickr.com/3858/14659974720_e1c0484e6f_z.jpg

Case Study - Fjord City, Oslo


The project included the construction and
renewal of residential and commercial
areas, transportation hubs, and cultural
centers

The Thief Hotel


http://edgeretreats.com/travel-articles/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/the_thief_oslo2.jpg

Oslo Opera House


http://d1fy7ceoqli51q.cloudfront.net/ImageVaultFiles/id_2828/cf_13/opera_norway_740.JPG

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