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Introduction to Cryptography Basic Principles

When we come the period cryptography, the main object and possibly the only thing that comes
to our mind is private communication during encryption. There is more to cryptography that just
encryption. In this article, we will effort to study the fundamentals of cryptography.

The basic principles

1. Encryption
A simplest form, encryption is to change the data in some illegible form. This helps incasing the
division the isolation while sending the data from sender to receiver. On the receiver side, the
called as decrypted and can be bring back to its creative form. the reserve of encryption is called
as decryption. The concept of encryption and decryption require some further in sequence is
called as decryption. The concept of encryption and decryption requires some extra information
for encrypting and decrypting the data. the information is known as key. there may be cases
when same key can be used for both encryption and decryption while in positive cases,
encryption and decryption while in positive cases, encryption and decryption may require
different keys.
2. Authentication
This is a new important principle of cryptography. In a layman`s term, verification ensures that
the message was originate from the creator claim in the, one may think how to
make it probable? Assume Alice seds a message to bob and now bob needs verification that the
message has been indeed sent by Alice. This can be made probable if Alice performs some action
on message that bob knows only Alice can do. This forms the basic original of confirmation
3. Integrity
Now, difficulty that a message system can face is the loss of honesty of messages being sent
from sender to reciver.this means the cryptography should ensure that the messages that are
received by the receiver are not altered anywhere on the communication path. this can be
achieved by using the concept of cryptographic hash.

4. Non Repudiation
If Alice sends a message to bob but denies that the she has actually sent the message? it`s like
these may happen and cryptography should prevent the originator or sender to act this way. one
popular way to achieve this is through the use of digital signatures.
Types of Cryptography
Cryptography is three types of cryptography techniques:

Privacy key Cryptography

Public key cryptography

Hash Functions

Secret Key Cryptography

Cryptography technique used by a single key. Senders apply a key to encrypt a message
as the receiver applies same key to decrypt the message. since it`s single key is used to in
this a symmetric encryption.

This technique is the biggest problem. it is the distribution of key as this algorithm makes use of
single key for encryption or decryption.
.2. Public Key Cryptography
Cryptography technique involves two key crypto system in which a secure communication it can
be take between sender and receiver over insecure communication channel. the pair of key is
applies here so this technique is also known as asymmetric encryption.

In this technique, each party has a public key and private key and private key private is secret
and Is not exposed while the public key is shared all those whom you want to communicate with.
if alice wants to a message send to bob, then alice will encrypt it with Bob`s public key and bob
can decrypt the message with its private key.
This is what we use as we group public key verification in open ssh to login from one server to
anther server in the backend without have to enter the key.
3. Hash Functions

Any key involve does not any technique. It uses a fixed size & hash value that is compute on the
basis of the plain text message. The hash functions are used to check the integrity of the message
to guarantee that the message has not be changed, compromise or artificial by virus.
So we see that how different types of cryptography techniques (described above) are used to
implement the basic principles that we discussed earlier. In the future article of this series, well
cover more advanced topics on Cryptography.