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FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY

LABORATORY INSTRUCTION SHEET

SUBJECT CODE
EXPERIMENT CODE
TEST
COURSE CODE

MA4
JAR TEST

FACULTY OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
SHORT REPORT
SUBJECT CODE
CODE & EXPERIMENT
TITLE
COURSE CODE
EXPERIMENT DATE
NAME OF STUDENT
NO. OF GROUP
NAME OF GROUP

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

MEMBERS

NAME OF LECTURER/
TUTOR/TRAINER
DATE OF SUBMISSION
MARK

ATTENDANCE & DISCIPLINE


INTRODUCTION
RESULTS
DATA ANALYSIS
DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
TOTAL

EXAMINERS COMMENT

FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT : WATER AND
ENVIRONMENTAL

/10%
/5%
/15%
/15%
/25%
/5%
/5%
/80%
APPROVAL RECEIVE

NO. OF PAGES :

1/6

EDITION :

MA4

REVISION NO. :

04

ENGINEERING
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

EFFECTIVE DATE :

0112/2007

TEST : JAR TEST

AMENDMENT DATE :

20/11/2007

1.0 OBJECTIVE

To determine the optimal coagulant dose which will produce the highest removal of a given water turbidity.

2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME


1. To identify the most common coagulant used in the coagulant process.
2. To determine the most effective and optimum dosage of coagulant for a particular mixing intensity and
duration.
3. To understand the complex interrelationships that exists between the chemicals and the constituents of the
water being treated, as well as other factors such as pH, temperature, the intensity and duration of mixing.
3.0 THEORY
Raw water and wastewater are normally turbid containing solid particles of varying sizes. Particles with sizes greater
than 50 m settle fairly rapidly. The settling velocities of colloidal particles of sizes less than 50 m are very slow.
Thus, these particles are encouraged to collide leading to coalescence of particle to form flocs particles, which are
bigger and heavier. These particles will have higher settling velocities and easily settle out. Colloidal particles do not
agglomerate by itself due to the presence of repulsive surface forces. A process is needed to suppress these forces
so as to allow flocs formation. This process is called coagulation process. It is actually the addiction of chemical
coagulant to the raw water or wastewater. Coagulant that normally used are salts of aluminium namely aluminium
sulphate and ferric salts namely ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride. The next process that follows the coagulation
process is flocculation. It is the process that promotes particles collision due to gentle agitation resulting in
agglomeration of smaller non-settleable particles into flocs (bigger particles) which settles easily to produce clarified
water. Addition of coagulant aid such as synthetic polymer will accelerate settling.

PREPARED BY : AZRA MUNIRAH MAT DAUD

SIGNATURE

DATE

: 20 NOVEMBER 2007

FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCE AND
ENVIRONMENTAL

4.0

NO. OF PAGES :

2/6

EDITION :

MA4

REVISION NO. :

04

ENGINEERING
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

EFFECTIVE DATE :

01/12/2007

TEST : JAR TEST

AMENDMENT DATE :

20/11/2007

EQUIPMENTS AND MATERIALS


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Jar test apparatus with six rotating paddles blade


Six (6) beakers
pH meter
Turbidity meter
Pipette

REAGENT
1. Aluminum sulfate (alum) with a known concentration or anionic/cationic coagulant such as ferrous
sulfate and ferric chloride.

5.0

PROCEDURES
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0

Select any coagulant aid from the bench.


Prepare samples of wastewater into six different beakers with one litre each and label the beakers.
Add in coagulant aid with different dosage and one control sample.
Run the experiment.
Observe the results.

PREPARED BY : AZRA MUNIRAH MAT DAUD

SIGNATURE

DATE

: 20 NOVEMBER 2007

FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCE AND
ENVIRONMENTAL

NO. OF PAGES :

3/6

EDITION :

MA4

REVISION NO. :

04

ENGINEERING
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

EFFECTIVE DATE :

01/12/2007

TEST : JAR TEST

AMENDMENT DATE :

20/11/2007

6.0 RESULTS AND CALCULATION


Fill in the table provided in the bench sheet.

7.0 DATA ANALYSIS


1.Compare the level of turbidity in each sample.
2.With the aid of a graph, show the relationship between pH and turbidity with respect to coagulant dosage.
3.From the graph, get the optimum value for pH and coagulant dose of the coagulation process.
4.Explain the implications of using different dosage of aluminium sulphate in the treatment process

8.0

DISCUSSION
1.

By using aluminium sulphate, the mechanism is :


Al3+

3H2O

Al(OH)3

3H

Describe the mechanism of reaction if the aluminium sulphate is replaced by ferum chloride
(FeCl3).
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

How the coagulant works?


Name three types of acid and base which are suitables for pH neutralization.
What are the benefits of using coagulant aids?
In what way the dosage of aluminium sulphate in the treatment process can be reduced?
Instead of Al2(SO4)3, name another three coagulants that can be best used as coagulant aid.

PREPARED BY : AZRA MUNIRAH MAT DAUD

SIGNATURE

DATE

: 20 NOVEMBER 2007

FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCE
AND ENVIRONMENTAL

NO. OF PAGES :

4/5

EDITION :

MA4

REVISION NO. :

04

ENGINEERING
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

EFFECTIVE DATE :

01/12/2007

TEST : JAR TEST

AMENDMENT DATE :

20/11/2007

Figure 1: Scale for measurement of floc sizes


Scale for measurement of floc sizes

Very fine

Very fine / fine

Fine

Moderately fine

Moderate

Coarse

Very Coarse

FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL

NO. OF PAGES :

5/6

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

EDITION :
REVISION NO. :
EFFECTIVE DATE :

MA4
04
01/12/2007

TEST : JAR TEST

AMENDMENT DATE :

20/11/2007

ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCE AND

9.0 BENCH SHEET

JAR TEST 1 (Set the coagulant dose)


Initial turbidity : _______ NTU
Initial pH : _______
pH adjustment (base) : ______ mg/L of ____________
pH adjustment (acid) : ______ mg/L of ___________
Coagulant concentration : _______ mg/L
Jar No
pH
Coagulant dose
(mg/L)
Agitate (minute)
Fast (rpm)
Slow (rpm)
Settling depth (mm)
Turbidity (NTU)
Floc formation (final
10 minutes) *

control

* Floc formation can be recorded by referring to the measurement scale as depicted in Figure 1.

PREPARED BY : AZRA MUNIRAH MAT DAUD

SIGNATURE

DATE

: 20 NOVEMBER 2007

none
none
none

FACULTY : CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL

NO. OF PAGES :

6/6

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING
LAB : ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

EDITION :
REVISION NO. :
EFFECTIVE DATE :

MA4
04
01/12/2007

TEST : JAR TEST

AMENDMENT DATE :

20/11/2007

ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT : WATER RESOURCE AND

JAR TEST 2 (Set the pH value)


Initial turbidity : _______ NTU
Initial pH : _______
pH adjustment (base) : ______ mg/L of ____________
pH adjustment (acid) : ______ mg/L of ___________
Coagulant concentration : _______ mg/L

Jar No
pH
Coagulant dose
(mg/L)
Agitate (minute)
Fast (rpm)
Slow (rpm)
Settling depth (mm)
Turbidity (NTU)
Floc formation (final
10 minutes) *

1
6.0

2
6.0

3
6.0

4
6.0

5
6.0

* Floc formation can be recorded by referring to the measurement scale as depicted in Figure 1.

PREPARED BY : AZRA MUNIRAH MAT DAUD

SIGNATURE

DATE

: 20 NOVEMBER 2007

6
6.0
control
none
none
none