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Chemistry I

Chapter 6 Introduction to Chemical Bonding

Answers to Chapter Problems
2. The three major types of chemical bonding are ionic, covalent, and metallic. In ionic bonding, large numbers of oppositely
charged ions join because of mutual electrical attraction. In covalent bonding, atoms join by sharing electron pairs. In metallic
bonding, atoms join through an attraction to a sea of valence electrons.
3. In general, the greater the electronegativity difference between two atoms is, the more ionic the bond between them is.
4. a. Polar refers to bonds that have an uneven distribution of charge. b. In a polar-covalent bond there is an unequal attraction
for the electron pair, resulting in one of the bonded atoms possessing a partial negative charge and the other atom possessing a
partial positive charge. In a nonpolarcovalent bond the electron pair is shared equally by the bonded atoms.

10 A molecule is a neutral group of two or more atoms, usually nonmetals, held together by covalent bonds.
13. a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding but instead belongs exclusively to one atom
14. A noble-gas configuration corresponds to a set of outer s and p orbitals that is completely filled with a total of eight electrons.
These eight outer electrons are referred to as an octet. Atoms that possess a noble-gas configuration are very stable because
the potential energy of their electrons is relatively low. The octet rule states that elements will gain, lose, or share electrons to
form a noble-gas configuration.
15. a. 1 b. 7 c. 2 d. 6 e. 3 f. 5 g. 4
18. A multiple bond is needed when there are not enough valence electrons to complete octets by adding unshared pairs.

30 a. Metals are better heat conductors than ionic or molecular compounds. In the solid state, metals are more easily deformed
and are better electrical conductors than solid ionic or molecular compounds. Unlike ionic and molecular compounds, metals are
also shiny in appearance. b. Metals are good electrical conductors because of the presence of highly mobile electrons within the
bonding networks of their atoms.
33. a. According to VSEPR theory, the shapes of molecules are classified based on the number of bonding electron pairs and
lone pairs that surround a molecules central atom. b. Both molecules are linear.
38. The larger the difference in electronegativities of the atoms in the bond, the greater the polarity of that bond.
39. a. Dipole-dipole forces are the forces of attraction between polar molecules. b. The overall polarity of a molecule is
determined by the polarity of the molecules individual bonds as well as the orientation of the bonds with respect to one another.
41. a. Hydrogen bonding is a particularly strong dipole-dipole force that occurs among molecules containing hydrogen atoms
and and highly electronegative atoms, such as those of N,O, and F. b. Because of the large electronegativity difference between
H and F, N, or O, an atom of hydrogen has a positive charge that is almost half as large as that of a proton. This, coupled with
the small size of the hydrogen atom, results in a very strong dipole-dipole attraction.
42. London dispersion forces are intermolecular forces resulting from the creation of induced dipoles due to split seconds of
uneven electron distribution.
45. The direction of the dipole is a. F b. Cl c. Br d. I
46. a. nonpolar b. polar c. polar d. nonpolar e. polar f. polar
47. a. polar b. nonpolar c. nonpolar d. polar e.nonpolar

51. a. tetrahedral b. linear c. trigonal-pyramidal

53. The energies of the atoms increase and the atoms become less stable.

58. two potassium cations, K+, and one sulfide anion, S2

62. aluminum

67. Most atoms are bonded to other atoms in nature because bonding lowers their potential energy and makes them more
71. Because of its shape (tetrahedral), methane is a nonpolar molecule. As a result, CH 4 molecules are not strongly attracted to
one another. In contrast, ammonia is a polar molecule. As a result, NH3 molecules are attracted to one another. Therefore, it
takes more energy to separate ammonia molecules and change ammonia to a gas than to separate methane molecules.