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OF COMPUTATION (3-0-0)

Module I 10 Hrs

Alphabet, languages and grammars. Production rules and derivation of languages.

Chomsky hierarchy of languages. Regular grammars, regular expressions and finite

automata (deterministic and nondeterministic). Closure and decision properties of regular

sets. Pumping lemma of regular sets. Minimization of finite automata. Left and right linear

grammars.

Module II 12 Hrs

Context free grammars and pushdown automata. Chomsky and Griebach normal forms.

Parse trees, Cook, Younger, Kasami, and Early's parsing algorithms. Ambiguity and

properties of context free languages. Pumping lemma, Ogden's lemma, Parikh's theorem.

Deterministic pushdown automata, closure properties of deterministic context free

languages.

Module III 14 Hrs

Turing machines and variation of Turing machine model, Turing computability , Type 0

languages. Linear bounded automata and context sensitive languages. Primitive recursive

functions. Cantor and Godel numbering. Ackermann's function, mu-recursive functions,

recursiveness of Ackermann and Turing computable functions. Church Turing hypothesis.

Recursive and recursively enumerable sets.. Universal Turing machine and undecidable

problems. Undecidability of Post correspondence problem. Valid and invalid computations

of Turing machines and some undecidable properties of context free language problems.

Time complexity class P, class NP, NP completeness.

Text Books:

1. Introduction to Automata Theory, Languages and Computation: J.E. Hopcroft and J.D Ullman,

Pearson Education, 3rd Edition.

2. Introduction to the theory of computation: Michael Sipser, Cengage Learning

3. Theory of computation by Saradhi Varma, Scitech Publication

Reference Books:

1. Introduction to Languages and the Theory of Computation: Martin, Tata McGraw Hill, 3rd

Edition

2. Introduction to Formal Languages, Automata Theory and Computation: K. Kirthivasan, Rama

R, Pearson Education.

3. Theory of computer Science (Automata Language & computations) K.L. Mishra N.

Chandrashekhar, PHI.

4. Elements of Theory of Computation: Lewis, PHI

5. Theory of Automata and Formal Languages: Anand Sharma, Laxmi Publication

6. Automata Theory: Nasir and Srimani , Cambridge University Press.

7. Introduction to Computer Theory: Daniel I.A. Cohen, Willey India, 2 nd Edition.

3-0-0)

Introduction of Automata, Computability, and Complexity ; Mathematical notations and terminology;

Finding proofs and types of proofs.

Finite Automata and regular languages: Formal definitions, Designing finite automata, Deterministic

finite automata, Non-deterministic finite automata, Equivalence of NFAs and DFAs, finite automata

with -transition; regular expressions and languages, Properties of Regular languages, conversion of

RE to FA and vice versa.

Module II (12 hours)

Push down Automata and Context free languages: Context free grammars, Designing context free

grammar, Ambiguity in CFG and its removal, Chomsky normal form

Push down Automata: formal definition, graphical notations, Languages accepted by PDA,

Equivalence of PDA and CFG, Non-context free languages.

Module-III (12 hours)

Turing Machines and Computability: Formal definition of Turing machines with examples, Graphical

notations, Variants of Turing machines, Church-Turing thesis, Hilberts problem

Decidability, undecidability and reducibility: Decidable languages; Decidable problems concerning

regular languages and context free languages, The halting problem, Post correspondence problems,

Undecidable problems, Mapping reducibility, Decidability of logical theories, Turing reducibility.

Recommended Texts:

1. Michael Sipser, Introduction to the Theory of Computation, Second Edition, 2007,

CENGAGE learning India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.

2. John E. Hopcroft, Rajeev Motwani & Jeffrey D. Ullman, Introduction to Automata

Theory, Languages, and Computation, Third Edition, 2007, Pearson Education Inc., New

Delhi.

Reference Books:

1. Nasir S.F.B., P.K. Srimani A text book on Automata Theory, Cambridge University press

India Pvt. Ltd.

2. Peter Linz, An Introduction to Formal Languages and Automata, Fourth Edition, 2007,

Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi.

3. John C. Martin, Introduction to Languages and the Theory of Computation, Third

Edition, 2003, Tata McGraw-Hill (TMH) Publication Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi

4. Thomas A. Sudkamp, Languages and Machines: An Introduction to the Theory of

Computer Science, Third Edition, 2006, Pearson Education Inc., New

Table of problems[edit]

Hilbert's twenty-three problems are:

Problem

1st

Brief explanation

Status

Year

Solved

1963

Problem

Brief explanation

Status

Year

Solved

Fraenkel set theory with or

without the Axiom of

Choice (provided the Zermelo

no set whose cardinalityis strictly between

numbers)

theorems such that one is a

negation of the other). There is no

consensus on whether this is a

solution to the problem.

There is no consensus on

whether results

of Gdel and Gentzengive a

solution to the problem as stated

by Hilbert. Gdel's second

2nd

Prove that

the axioms of arithmetic are consistent.

in 1931, shows that no proof of its

1936?

within arithmetic itself. Gentzen

proved in 1936 that the

consistency of arithmetic follows

from the well-foundedness of the

ordinal .

3rd

1900

Problem

4th

Brief explanation

Status

are geodesics.

or not.[n 1]

Year

Solved

Are

5th

groups?

statement is interpreted. If,

however, it is understood as an

1953?

conjecture, it is still unsolved.

how the original statement is

interpreted.[13] In particular, in a

further explanation Hilbert

proposed two specific problems:

(i) axiomatic treatment of

probability with limit theorems for

6th

Mathematical treatment of

the axioms of physics

and (ii) the rigorous theory of

limiting processes "which lead

19332002?

laws of motion of continua".

Kolmogorovs axiomatics (1933)

is now accepted as standard.

There is some success on the

way from the "atomistic view to

the laws of motion of continua". [14]

7th

by Gelfond's theorem or

1935

Problem

Brief explanation

Year

Status

Solved

theGelfondSchneider theorem.

any non-trivial zero of the Riemann zeta

8th

Unresolved.

Partially resolved.[n 2]

conjecture and the twin prime conjecture

9th

theorem in anyalgebraic number field.

10th

integer coefficients has an integer solution.

11th

numerical coefficients.

Resolved. Result:

impossible, Matiyasevich's

theorem implies that there is no

1970

such algorithm.

Partially resolved.[15]

Unresolved.

12th

any base number field.

Solve 7-th degree equation using algebraic The problem was partially solved

13th

(variant: continuous)functions of

two parameters.

14th

by Andrei Kolmogorov.

1957

[n 4]

1959

Problem

15th

Brief explanation

Status

byMasayoshi Nagata.

enumerative calculus.

Year

Solved

Unresolved.

16th

as limit cycles of a polynomial vector field on

the plane.

17th

function as quotient of sums ofsquares.

limit was established for the

1927

necessary.[citation needed]

Reinhardt).

(b) Widely believed to be

resolved, by computer-assisted

18th

density approximately 74%, such

as face-centered cubic close

packing and hexagonal close

packing.[n 5][citation needed]

(a) 1928

(b) 1998

Problem

Brief explanation

19th

necessarily analytic?

Status

Year

Solved

by Ennio de Giorgi and,

independently and using different

1957

20th

certain boundary conditions have solutions?

century, culminating in

21st

group

22nd

23rd

of automorphic functions

variations

depending on more exact

formulations of the problem.[citation

needed]

Resolved.[citation needed]

Unresolved.

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