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A constellation is a group of stars that, when seen from Earth,

form a pattern. The stars in the sky are divided into 88
The 12 Constellations of the Zodiac
Aquarius, the water
Aries, the ram

Libra, the scales

Pisces, the fish
Sagittarius, the archer

Cancer, the crab

Capricorn, the goat
Gemini, the twins

Scorpius, the scorpion

Taurus, the bull
Virgo, the virgin

Leo, the lion

Constellations 1.____________ is a group of stars that forms a
pattern in the night sky.

2.The constellation Aries is named after what

Balance Scale

3.The constellation Libra represents a


4.The constellation Gemini represents

5.You are this sign of the zodiac, known as The
Water Bearer, if you were born between January 20 & February

6.Also the name of a deadly disease, this
constellation is known as The Crab.
7.This constellation is also known as The
Virgin, is the second largest constellation next to Hydra.
8.Depicted in several films such as
Hercules, this constellation is known as The Winged Horse
9.This constellation is said to be the thirteenth
constellation in the zodiac family, also known as The SerpentBearer.
10.You are this sign of the zodiac, known as
The Goat or The Sea-Goat, if you were born between
December 22 & January 19.

11.____________ is the Latin word for Fishes.

12.This constellation was based on the myth
of The Cretan Bull.
13.This constellation is also as Scorpio. Its
name is Latin for Scorpio.
14.____________ is usually represented as a
centaur drawing a bow.
15.____________ is usually represented as the
Nemean Lion killed by the Greek Hero, Heracles.
16.This constellations name is Latin for
Eagle. It represents the bird who carried Zeus thunderbolts.

Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky, can be found in the
constellation of Canis Major.
Canopus, the second brightest star, can be found in the
constellation of Carina.
Serpens occupies two regions of sky. Ophiuchus, the Serpentbearer separates Serpens.

Columba, the Dove, is the only surviving constellation named

after an object in the Bible. It it the dove that Noah sent out to
test whether the waters from the great flood had abated.
Castor & Pollux are the two twin stars of the constellation
Lynx, the Lynx and Phoenix, the Phoenix are the only
constellations that doesnt have a Latin name.
The brightest constellation is Crux, the Southern Cross.
The constellation with the greatest number of visible stars in it
is Centaurus, the Centaur - with 101 stars.
The largest constellation is Hydra, The Water Snake which
extends over 3.158% of the sky..
Constellation Families:

The Zodiac: 13 constellations are star groupings that lie along

the ecliptic (the plane in which most of our Solar System lies).


The Ursa Major Family: 10 constellations circling the northern

celestial pole


The Perseus Family: 9 constellations depicting figures from the

myth of Perseus.


The Hercules Family: 19 constellations depicting figures from

the myth of Heracles.


The Orion Family: 5 constellations


The Heavenly Waters (aka the Cosmic Waters): 9 constellations

whose names are related to water.


The Bayer Group: 11 Southern Hemisphere constellations

depicting animals, named by Johann Bayer in 1603.


The La Caille Family: 13 Southern Hemisphere constellations,

named by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in 1756.

Name ______________________

Date _________________

Constellations Worksheet
The constellations are totally imaginary things that poets,
farmers and astronomers have made up over the past 6,000
years . The real purpose for the constellations is to help us tell
which stars are which, nothing more. On a really dark night,
you can see about 1000 to 1500 stars. Trying to tell which is
which is hard. The constellations help by breaking up the sky
into more managable bits. They are used as mnemonics, or
memory aids. For example, if you spot three bright stars in a
row in the winter evening, you might realize, "Oh! That's part
of Orion!" Suddenly, the rest of the constellation falls into place
and you can declare: "There's Betelgeuse in Orion's left
shoulder and Rigel is his foot." And once you recognize Orion,
you can remember that Orion's Hunting Dogs are always
nearby. Then you might recognize the two bright stars in the
upper and lower left of the photograph as Procyon in Canis
Minor and Sirius in Canis Major, respectively.



Non-bendable straws
Star template
A pencil

Double-sided tape
Colored markers or paints

1. Cut out seven cardstock stars from the template. Paint your
seven stars.

2. Cut the straws into the following lengths: 9 3.7 5 3.4 4

4.4 4.4 Make five cuts in both ends of each straw. Bend
the sections back until all the sections are splayed to form
bases at either end.

3. Tape a star to the splays on one end of the straw. 4. Using

the table below, glue your straw stars to the Big Dipper
template. Star Length Light Years Alkaid 9 210 Alioth 3.7 70 14 - Dubhe 5 105 Megrez 3.4 65 Merak 4 80 Mizar 4.4 88
Phecda (Phad) 4.4 90 5.


1.Explain how this activity demonstrates that the stars we see

in a constellation are at different distances from Earth.
2. How do modern sky watchers use the stars?

3. How could you use constellations today?

4. How many constellations we have and explain each


Chemical Bonding
The atoms of a compound are held together by chemical bonds
formed by the interaction of electrons from each atom.
According to the octet rule Section 5.7C1, atoms bond together
to form molecules in such a way that each atom participating
in a chemical bond acquires an electron configuration
resembling that of the noble gas nearest it in the periodic
table. Thus the outer shell of each bonded atom will contain
eight electrons (or two electrons for hydrogen and lithium).
The simplest chemical bond is that formed between two
hydrogen atoms. Each hydrogen atom has one electron. As the
two atoms approach each other, the nucleus of one atom
attracts the electron of the other. Eventually the two orbitals
overlap, becoming a single orbital containing two electrons
(see Figure 7.1).

FIGURE 7.1 Two hydrogen atoms, each with one

electron, combine to form a hydrogen molecule, in
which the two electrons are shared between the atoms
and serve to give each atom a filled valence shell.

This orbital encompasses space around both nuclei. Although

the electrons may be in any part of this orbital, we can predict
that they are most likely to be in the space between the nuclei,
shielding one nucleus from the other and being attracted by
both. In the resulting molecule, both atoms have two electrons
and a filled outer (valence) shell. These shared electrons form
a bond between the two atoms. This chemical bond is a
covalent bond, a pair of electrons shared between two atoms.
When this bond forms, energy is released. This release of

energy shows that the molecule of hydrogen is more stable

than the separate atoms.

Covalent, Polar covalent, and Ionic Bonds

Because the hydrogen molecule contains two identical atoms,

it can be assumed that the bonding electrons in this covalent
bond are shared equally by these atoms.
Most chemical bonds are not between like atoms but form
between atoms of different elements. These bonds are slightly
different from that in a hydrogen molecule. Consider the bond
between hydrogen and chlorine: Again both atoms require one
more electron to satisfy the octet rule. As the atoms come
together, their orbitals overlap and the two atoms share a pair
of electrons. However, the hydrogen-chlorine bond differs from
the hydrogen-hydrogen bond because the electrons are not
shared equally between hydrogen and chlorine but are more
strongly attracted to the chlorine. They are more apt to be
found close to the chlorine than close to the hydrogen.
Because of this unequal sharing, the chlorine atom assumes a
slightly negative character and the hydrogen atom a slightly
positive character. We say that the bond is polar covalent,
meaning that the bond consists of electrons shared between
two atoms (therefore covalent) but shared unequally, thus
giving the bond a positive and a negative end, a condition
described by the term polar. We can also say that the bond is a
dipole or has a dipole moment, meaning that the bond has a
positive end (the hydrogen) and a negative end (the chlorine).
The more negative atom in a bond is often shown with the
symbol and the more positive atom is shown with the
symbol. The bond between hydrogen atoms is nonpolar (has no
positive and negative ends) covalent (electrons are shared).
An ionic bond is the extreme case of a polar covalent bond. In
an ionic bond, the bonding atoms differ so markedly in their
attraction for electrons that one or more electrons are
essentially transferred from one atom to the other. The sodiumchlorine bond is an example of an ionic bond. The attraction of
the chlorine atom for electrons is so much greater than that of

a sodium atom that the 3s electron of sodium is said to be

completely transferred from sodium to chlorine.
In summary, then, the three types of bonds are: (1) a covalent
bond, in which the electrons are shared equally; (2) a polar
covalent bond, in which the electrons are shared unequally;
and (3) an ionic bond, in which electrons are transferred from
one atom to the other. These bonds are illustrated in Figure

FIGURE 7.2 Electrons in nonpolar covalent, polar

covalent, and ionic bonds: (a) the electrons are
shared equally; (b) the electrons are held closer to
the more-negative chlorine atom; (c) one electron
has been transferred from sodium to chlorine.

Single, Double, and Triple Bonds

A covalent bond represents the sharing of electrons between

two atoms. Single bonds result from the sharing of a single pair
of electrons. The covalent bonds shown in Figure 7.2 are single
bonds. Usually, as in the hydrogen molecule, each atom
forming the bond contributes one electron to the bond.
Sometimes, as in the reaction of ammonia, NH3, with a
hydrogen ion, H+, to form the ammonium ion, NH4+, both
electrons come from the same atom:

It is common practice to use a dash to represent a pair of

electrons. In this text we will use dashes for shared electrons
and dots for unshared (lone-pair) electrons. With this notation,
the above equation is written:

In the ammonia molecule, the nitrogen shares a pair of

electrons with each of the three hydrogens. In each bond, one
electron comes from nitrogen and one from hydrogen. The
nitrogen still has an unshared pair of electrons. A hydrogen ion
has no electrons; the single hydrogen electron was lost when
the atom became an ion and gained a positive charge. When
the hydrogen ion bonds to the ammonia molecule, both
electrons of the bond come from the nitrogen. A bond in which
one atom has donated both electrons is often referred to as a
coordinate covalent bond. It is most important to realize that
the different name refers only to the method of formation.
Once the ammonium ion is formed, all hydrogen-nitrogen
bonds in the ion are equivalent. Notice, too, that the entire
ammonium ion now carries a positive charge, denoted by
placing brackets around the ion and writing a superscript +.
In addition to single bonds, there are double bonds and triple
bonds. A double bond represents the sharing of four electrons
by two atoms. The bond between carbon and oxygen is often a
double bond, as in formaldehyde, CH2O.

Here carbon is singly bonded to each of the hydrogens and

doubly bonded to oxygen. Of this double bond, two electrons
have come from carbon and two from oxygen. The single
carbon-hydrogen bonds are nonpolar ( EN = 0.4); the double
carbon-oxygen bond is polar covalent ( EN = 1.0). Note that

each atom in the diagram of formaldehyde now follows the

octet rule. Each hydrogen has two electrons; the carbon and
the oxygen have eight electrons each. Notice too that the
oxygen has two pairs of unshared electrons. Such an unshared
pair is sometimes known as a lone pair. We will see that the
negative end of a polar bond often holds unshared electron
A triple bond is formed when two atoms share six electrons
(three pairs). The nitrogen molecule contains a triple bond. Its
structure is

Each nitrogen donates three electrons to the bond and retains

a lone pair.

Questions and Answers

1.True or false: Atoms are electrically neutral;
that is they do not have a charge.
2. Electrons have what kind of charge?
Valence Electrons
3. What is the name given to the
outermost electron(s)?
4. When an electron is added to or removed
from an atom, the atom
becomes what?
5. The process of removing or adding
electrons is called?
6. Positively charged ions, called
____________, result from loss of electrons.
One metallic element7. Metallic solids are solids made entirely
of _________.
8. True or false: Metals give up electrons
9. Because the electrons in a metallic
solid are ________, the metal can be bent
shapes or drawn into wire.
10. What is it called when a metal can be
drawn into wire?

11. When electrons cannot be gained or
lost, they are _________.
12. A _______ bond is a bond where atoms
share valence electrons.
13. The combination of atoms formed in a
covalent bond is called a ________.
14. Covalent molecules vary in strength
based on the number of _______ that
between atoms
15. True or false: Covalent bonding can take
place between atoms of the same
16. Covalent bonds always form
between nonmetals and ____________.
17. A _________ dot diagram is used to
represent covalent bonds.

Dry ice is the solid form of carbon dioxide, CO2.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element having different mass
The distribution of electrons in various shells or energy levels
in an atom is called the electronic configuration of that atom.
According to Bohr and Bury, the maximum number of electrons
that can be accommodated in any energy level of an atom is
given by the formula 2n2, where n represents the number of
the energy level.
In order to exist independently by itself an atom must have
eight electrons in its outermost shell two electrons if there is
only one shell. This is the octet rule.
Atoms try to attain stable configuration (completing their
outermost shell) either by losing, gaining or sharing electrons.

The force of attraction that holds atoms together in a molecule

is known as a chemical bond.
A bond between an anion and cation is called an ionic bond.
Cations give electrons to the anions.
A covalent bond id a bond in which both the reacting atoms are
short of electrons. Thus, they attain stable electronic
configuration by sharing electrons.

Coordinate bond is a covalent bond in which the shared pair of

electrons is contributed by only one of the two atoms.

Volcanoes are formed when magma from within the Earth's
upper mantle works its way to the surface. At the surface, it
erupts to form lava flows and ash deposits. Over time as the
volcano continues to erupt, it will get bigger and bigger.
A volcano is a rupture on the crust of a planetary-mass object,
such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to
escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
1. Main Parts of the Volcano
a. _________________
b. _________________
c. _________________
d. _________________
e. _________________
f. _________________
2. Types of Volcanoes
a. _________________
b. _________________

c. _________________
3. Types of volcanic activity
a. _________________
b. _________________
c. _________________
4. Types of volcanic eruptions
a. _________________
b. _________________
c. _________________
d. _________________
e. _________________

Answer Key

1. Main parts of the Volcano

Magma Chamber
Main Vent Crater
Pyroclastic Flow
Ash Cloud
Volcanic Bombs

2. Different Types of Volcanoes

Cinder Cones
Shield Volcanoes
Composite Volcanoes

3. Classification of prediction of volcanic activity

Active Volcanoes
Dormant Volcanoes
Extinct Volcanoes

4. Classification of volcanic eruptions

Hawaiian eruptions
Strombolian eruptions
Vulcanian eruptions
Peleean eruptions
Plinian eruptions

10 Interesting Facts About Volcanoes









Although volcanoes are all made from hot magma reaching the
surface of the Earth and erupting, there are different kinds.
Shield volcanoes have lava flows with low viscosity that flow
dozens of kilometers; this makes them very wide with smoothly
sloping flanks. Stratovolcanoes are made up of different kinds
of lava, and eruptions of ash and rock and grow to enormous
heights. Cinder cone volcanoes are usually smaller, and come
from short-lived eruptions that only make a cone about 400
meters high.

2. Volcanoes erupt because of magma escaping from





About 30 km beneath your feet is the Earths mantle. Its a

region of superhot rock that extends down to the Earths core.
This region is so hot that molten rock can squeeze out and
form giant bubbles of liquid rock called magma chambers. This
magma is lighter than the surrounding rock, so it rises up,
finding cracks and weakness in the Earths crust. When it
finally reaches the surface, it erupts out of the ground as lava,
ash, volcanic gasses and rock. Its called magma when its
under the ground, and lava when it erupts onto the surface.





active, dormant or


An active volcano is one that has had an eruption in historical

times (in the last few thousand years). A dormant volcano is
one that has erupted in historical times and has the potential
to erupt again, it just hasnt erupted recently. An extinct

volcano is one that scientists think probably wont erupt again.

Heres more information on the active volcanoes in the world.






Although some volcanoes can take thousands of years to form,

others can grow overnight. For example, the cinder cone
volcano Paricutin appeared in a Mexican cornfield on February
20, 1943. Within a week it was 5 stories tall, and by the end of
a year it had grown to more than 336 meters tall. It ended its
grown in 1952, at a height of 424 meters. By geology
standards, thats pretty quick.









Somewhere, around the world, there are likely about 20 active









experiencing new activity, others are ongoing. Between 50-70

volcanoes erupted last year, and 160 were active in the last
decade. Geologists estimate that 1,300 erupted in the last








underneath the ocean, and most are actively erupting and no

geologist knows about it at all. One of the reasons is that
volcanoes occur at the mid ocean ridges, where the oceans
plates are spreading apart. If you add the underwater
volcanoes, you get an estimate that there are a total of about
6,000 volcanoes that have erupted in the last 10,000 years.





But then you knew that. Some of the most deadly volcanoes
include Krakatoa, which erupted in 1883, releasing a tsunami

that killed 36,000 people. When Vesuvius exploded in AD 79, it

buried the towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, killing 16,000
people. Mount Pelee, on the island of Martinique destroyed a
town with 30,000 people in 1902. The most dangerous aspect
of volcanoes are the deadly pyroclastic flows that blast down
the side of a volcano during an eruption. These contain ash,
rock and water moving hundreds of kilometers an hour, and
hotter than 1,000 degrees C.






Geologists measure volcano eruptions using the Volcano

Explosivity Index, which measures the amount of material
released. A small eruption like Mount St. Helens was a 5 out
of 8, releasing a cubic kilometer of material. The largest
explosion on record was Toba, thought to have erupted 73,000
years ago. It released more than 1,000 cubic kilometers of
material, and created a caldera 100 km long and 30 kilometers
wide. The explosion plunged the world into a world wide ice
age. Toba was considered an 8 on the VEI.

8. The tallest volcano in the Solar System isnt on Earth

Thats right, the tallest volcano in the Solar System isnt on
Earth at all, but on Mars. Olympus Mons, on Mars, is a giant
shield volcano that rises to an elevation of 27 km, and it
measures 550 km across. Scientists think that Olympus Mons
was able to get so large because there arent any plate
tectonics on Mars. A single hotspot was able to bubble away for
billions of years, building the volcano up bigger and bigger.

9. The tallest and biggest volcanoes on Earth are side



The tallest volcano on Earth is Hawaiis Mauna Kea, with an

elevation of 4,207 meters. Its only a little bigger than the
largest volcano on Earth, Mauna Loa with an elevation of only
4,169 meters. Both are shield volcanoes that rise up from the
bottom of the ocean. If you could measure Mauna Kea from the
base of the ocean to its peak, youd get a true height of 10,203
meters (and thats bigger than Mount Everest).

10. The most distant point from the center of the Earth


You might think that the peak of Mount Everest is the most
distant point from the center of the Earth, but thats not true.
Instead, its the volcano Chimborazo in Ecuador. Thats
because the Earth is spinning in space and is flattened out.
Points at the equator are further from the center of the Earth
than the poles. And Chimborazo is very close to the Earths



The materials for this volcano experiment are simple and can
be found in your very own kitchen! The items you need are the


Dishwashing soap

Baking soda

Food dye





Warm water

Cooking oil

Plastic bottle


You must be excited to perform this volcano experiment. It is
like witnessing a real volcano erupt right before your very
eyes! But this version is much smaller! It is recommended that
you perform this activity outdoors because it could get a little
messy. Now, let's get started
The first thing you have to do is make the volcano itself. Create
the volcano by taking the cup and tablespoon for measuring
the ingredients and mix together 6 cups of flour, 2 cups of salt,
2 cups of water and 4 tablespoons of cooking oil. Start
moulding the mixture into a cone shape once the mixture is
smooth and firm. Feel free to add more water into the mixture
if the resulting material is not smooth enough. Place the soda
bottle in the baking pan before you start forming your volcano.
You will be moulding the cone shape around the bottle,
allowing the mouth of the bottle to function as the mouth of
your volcano.
Now that you are done with your volcano, it is time to add
some fun to it! Fill the bottle halfway with warm water and a
few drops of food dye, preferably red. Then, put about 6 drops
of the dishwashing soap into the mixture, 2 tablespoons of

Most probably your first question about the activity is "what
makes it behave that way?" It is not just random mixing of
substances and voila, you made it erupt. There is actually a
deeper explanation to that.

In a nutshell, the primary explanation to the chemical reaction

you have just witnessed is that mixing vinegar, which is acid,
and baking soda, which is base, results in the formation of
carbon dioxide gas, forcing the contents of the bottle out of the
When an acid and a base are mixed together, they react to
neutralize each other resulting in production of salt and also in
the process, produce carbon dioxide. In real volcanoes, carbon
dioxide is also present when they erupt


Chemical Bonding: