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PROCEEDINGS

Of the

Editors:
Dr. M. Afzal Khan
Dr. Ahmed Shuja Syed
Dr. Ghulam Yasin Chohan

Organized by:
Faculty of Engineering & Technology
International Islamic University
H-10, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan

PROCEEDINGS
of

International Conference
on

Power Generation Systems & Renewable Energy


Technologies (PGSRET)
Nov 29 to Dec 2, 2010, Islamabad, Pakistan
Editors:

Dr. M. Afzal Khan


Dr. Ahmed Shuja Syed
Dr. Ghulam Yasin Chohan
Sponsored by:

Higher Education Commission


H-9, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan

Organized and Published by:

Faculty of Engineering and Technology


International Islamic University
H-10, Islamabad, 44000, Pakistan
i

Copyright 2011 Faculty of Engineering and Technology (FET), International Islamic


University, H-10, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.
All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,
scanning or otherwise, except under the terms of the Copyright. This publication is designed to
provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered.
If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent
professional should be sought from Faculty of Engineering and Technology (FET), International
Islamic University, H-10, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan.
ISBN: 978-96 9-96 35 -00-7
Pakistan National Library, Constitution Avenue, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Published and printed by Faculty of Engineering and Technology (FET), International Islamic
University (Press), H-10, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Cover illustration by Sohail Ahmad Qureshi

ii

PGSRET 2010 Sponsors


Higher Education Commission
Pakistan Engineering Council
Chitral Engineering - Taxila
SANCO -Oxford instruments, Islamabad
International Polymer Industries (Pvt) Ltd
Agence Franaise de Dveloppement

Support:
Technology (PS3 T)
Journal of Nanosystems and Technology (JNST)
Magazine Engineering Horizons, Lahore

iii

Content List
Sr. No.
1

Title
Affordable, Stable & Assured Supply of Energy for Poverty Alleviation in
Pakistan.

Page
1

Shahab Alam.
Alternative Energy Technology Incentives

10

M.B.Khan, M.Z.Khan, U.Javed, A.Bahadur, T.Hussain


An Overview of Osmotic Power Generation and its Scope in Pakistan

16

Syed Waqar Hasan, Asif Mehdi, Syed Faraz Hasan


Biomass Gasification Trends for New Technology Development for The
Production of Energy
M. Ahsan, N. Ul-Haq, H. Nasir
Coal Liquefaction Technologies for Producing Ultra Clean Fuel
M. S. Tahir, N. Ul-Haq, H. Nasir, N. Islam
Combined Wind, Hydropower and Photovoltaic Systems for Generation of
Electric Power and Control of Water Resources

21

30

36

Kh.S.Karimov, Kh.M.Akhmedov, Muhammad Abid, G.N.Petrov


Computer Simulation for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Rotor Optimization

41

Ovais Mahfooz, Irfan Ullah


Concentrated Solar Power: An Overview

46

Zeeshan Najam , M. Ishfaq Khan


Design and Development of Direct Drive Generators for Wind Turbines

50

10

M. Nagrial, J. Rizk, A. Hellany


Development of A Scheffler Fixed Focus Concentrator for The Processing of
Medicinal Plants and Fruits

56

11

Anjum Munir, Oliver Hensel, Wolfgang Scheffler, Heike Hoedt


Drying of Fruits and Vegetables Using A Flat Plate Solar Collector with
Convective Air Flow

61

12

Mansoor.K. K, M. Hanif
Effect of Heating Environment On Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (F: Sno2) Thin
Films for Solar Cell Applications

72

13

Syeda Amber Yousaf , Salamat Ali


Energy Crisis in Pakistan An Opportunity for Renewable Energy

76

Attaullah Shah, Irfanullah Jan, Ehsanul-Haq, Sharifullah, Razaullah Khan

iv

14

Energy Harvesting Usingpiezoelectric Effect Through Wind

82

15

Umber Shafiq
Environment Friendly Use of Conventional Energy

87

16

Sadaf Noureen, Tashia Zaman, Tahira Sultana and Syeda Maria Ali
Environmental Impacts of Nuclear Power Plants and Comparison with Other
Technologies

17

Faisal Asfand, Mehboob Alam


Fuel Optimization in A Multi Chamber Incinerator By The Moisture Control of 96
Oily Sludge and Medical Wastes

18

Imran Haider, Shahid Hussain, Sultan Khan and M. Taqi Mehran


Lack of Indigenization of Renewable Energy Technologies and Its Effects On
Energy Situation in Pakistan

19

20

Ajaz Bashir Janjua, Muhammad Ashraf Butt , Liaqat Ali


Net Metering: Zero Electricity Bill
Aijaz Mangi, Zahid Khan, Inam Shah
Novel Hydrogen Production By Laser Induced Electrical Signals During
Plasma Electrolysis of Naoh Mixed Water

92

103

108

112

21

Muhammad Shahid, Noraih Bidin, Yacoob Mat Daud, Muhammad Inayat


Ullah
Optimization and Application of Hybrid Sustainable Energy Systems

117

22

M. Nagrial , K. Mitchell, J. Rizk


Performance of HTV SiR as Outdoor Insulation at High Altitudes

122

23

Muhammad Amin, Nazir Muhammad


Production of Biodiesel From Melia Azedarach Seed Oil: A Non-Edible
Feedstock for Biodiesel

25

Taslim Akhtara, Muhammad Ilyas Tariqa, Shahid Iqbal Ranaa


Production of Electricity using Methane Generated from Landfill Site at
Mehmood Booti, Lahore, Pakistan
Adeela Mahjabeen
Protection Performance and Operational Statistical Analysis for Karachi Grid.

26

Junaid A.Qureshi, Andaleeb Gufran , Waqar A. Qureshi


Reactor Kinetics Revisited: A Coefficient Based Model (CBM)

24

27

Wajdi M. Ratemi, Tripoli, Libya


Role of Iron Oxide Catalysts in Selective Catalytic Reduction of Nox and Soot
From Vehicular Emission

127

131

138

143

151

S. Anjuman, S.Tahira, K. Hizbullah

28

29

Simple Energy Auditing of Male and Female Campus International Islamic


University, Islamabad
S.Anam , S.Irum , S. Tahira , S.Anjuman
Survey,Design,Development,and Installation of Micro-Hydel Power
Generation

157

161

30

M.Ajaz
The Role of Photovoltaics in Energy Requirements in Pakistan

165

31

A. Shah, N. Ul-Haq, H. Nasir


U.S. NRC Training for Research and Training Reactor Inspectors

170

32

Gary M. Sandquist, Jay F. Kunze


Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): Clean Coal Technology (CCT)

179

33

N. Islam, N. Ul-Haq, H. Nasir, S. Tahir


Unified Force and its Relation with Global Warming Crave for Hydrogen
Energy and Promote Fuel Cell Technology

184

34

Kannan Jegathala Krishnan, Akhtar Kalam


2D Forward Modelling of Marine CSEM Survey Geometry for Seabed
Logging

191

35

Nazabat Hussain, Mohd Noh, Norashikin Bt Yahya


A Paper on National and Worldwide Nuclear Plant Safety Regulations and
Standards

196

36

Muhammad Sadiq, Kamran Mansoor, Waqas Sherani


Coagulation in Clarifier with Micro-Sand

203

37

Kamran Liaquat Bhatti, Waseem Qaiser Awan


Ethanol as an Alternative Source of Energy

211

38

S.E. Benjamin, Hamid Raza, Shah Muhammad Haroon.


Future Strategies for Oil Shale Development As A New Indigenous Energy
Resource in Jordan

214

39

Jamal O. Jaber, Tarek Tarawneh, Thomas A. Sladek


Utilization of Renewable Energy Potentional in Pakistan A Gole Oriented
Approach Through Industry-Cum-Academia Linkage.

233

Muhammad Shahid Khalil, Ajaz Bashir Janjua

vi

40

41

Prospective of Solar Thermal Energy Utilization: Applications for Rural


Population of Pakistan
Saqib Nasir
Understanding Ocean Wave Dynamics for Karachi-Makran Coasts As
A Case Study: Prior to Taking Up The Issue of Ocean Energy
Technology

241

249

42

M.Ayub Khan, Yousuf Zai, Jawwad Baig, Jawaid Quamar


Solar Energy: An Environment Friendly Reliable & Sustainable Source

261

43

Muhammad Abubakar Siddique, Waseem Akhtar


Nuclear Power and Mitigation of CO2 Emissions; Pakistan Case Study

267

44

G.R. Athar, Rehana Tariq, Ijaz Ahmad.


Thermal Analyses of Solar Swimming Pool Heating in Pakistan

272

45

Irshad Ahmad, Zafar Ullah Koreshi, M. Anwar


Modeling and Simulation of Syngas Purification and Power Generation in
Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC).

276

46

Nasir Mahmood, M. Zafar-Uz-Zaman, Muhammad Taqi Mehran


Energy Conservation Measures in Media

287

47

M. Sarfraz Alam
Renewable Energy The Best Remedy for Electrical Load Shedding in Pakistan.

290

48

S.M. Bhutta.
Green Electricity

297

49

Aamir Rasool Dar


Design, Analysis and Prototyping of A Hydraulic Ram Pump

305

50

M. Abid, A. Ahmad, H. A. Khan, R. Saleem


Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production by High Temperature Steam Gasification of
Biomass.

312

51

Qari M.K. Waheed, Paul T. Williams


Reduced-Order Modeling in Control and Optimization for High Performance
Energy Efficient Buildings.

318

52

Imran Akhtar, Jeff Borggaard, John Burns


Design and Development of an Affordable Solar Powered Street Lighting
System

322

53

M Junaid Khan, Yasir Arrfat


Sustainable Energy Development & Linking Renewable Energy Resources for
Pakistan

328

M Usman Haider, M Sohaib Irshad,Bilal Asad, M Qamar Raza, Fahad Saleem

vii

54

55

56

Test Results of Pongamia Pinnata Methyl Esters with Direct Injection Diesel
Engine
M. G. Bannikov, J.A. Chattha, Ahmed Faraz Khan, I. P. Vasilev
Major Prospects of Micro-Grids in Modern Power Systems
Muhammad Qamar Raza, Abdul Rashid, S. Muhammad Ali
Muhammad
Usman Haider
Man-Made Greenhouse Gases Trigger Unified Force to Start Global Warming
Impacts Referred to As Climate Change.

333

337

343

57

Kannan Jegathala Krishnan, Akhtar Kalam


Management and Conservation of Electrical Energy in Industrial Units.

351

58

Rehan Liaqat, Abdul Rauf Bhatti, H.T.Hassan


Microgeneration from Renewable Resources Secure & Sustainable

356

59

Shafiq A.Khan
Depletion of Energy or Depletion of Knowledge: Alternative Use of Energy
Resources.

364

60

Muhammad Arslan
Renewable Energy Distributed Power System with Photovoltaic/Thermal and
Bio Gas Power Generators

370

61

Muhammad Usman Haider, Bilal Asad, Sadiq Ur Rehman


Experimental and Computational Analysis of a 1.2 kw PEMFC Designed for
Communications Backup Power Applications

378

62

63

Kannan Jegathala Krishnan, Joevis Claveria, Lavanya Varadharajan Akhtar


Kalam
Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines and their Feasibility for Pakistan
Safi Ullah
Advanced Dust Control Techniques in Cement Industry Electrostatic
Precipitator A Case Study

386

394

64

Zulfiqar Khattak, Jamil Ahmad


Cogeneration an Opportunity for Industrial Energy Saving

403

65

Mirza Jahanzaib, Riffat Asim Pasha, Zahid Suleman Butt


Spintronics

410

66

Syed Ahmad, Waseem Kazmi


Energy Dynamics of Pakistan

418

M. Azhar, B.B. Rana, A. Sultan, A. Nouman, M. K. Saleem, A. Javed

viii

STEERING COMMITTEE
Prof. Dr. Anwar H Siddiqui
Dr. Samar Mubarakmand
Mr. Pervez Butt
Mi Karirn Ahrnad
Mrs. Rukhsana Zuberi
Prof. Dr. Harnid Saleern
Prof. Dr. Zahid Hussain

Patron

ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Mrs. Parveen Qadir Agha
Prof. Dr. Ahmed Shuja Syed
Prof. Dr. S. M. Bhutta
Prof. Dr. M. Afzal Khan
Dr. Ihsan ul Haq

Chairperson
Co-Chairman
Advisor
Secretary
Treasurer

Members:
Dr. A. Majeed
Dr. Arbab Ali Khan
Mr. Javed Ahmad Khan Tipu
Mr. M. Asghar
Mr. Adeel Sabir
Mrs. Saba Hameed
Mr. Khurshid Alam
Mr. Khalid Mehmood Raja
Mr. M. Ahmad Farooqi
Mr. S. Muzammil Husain
TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
Prof. Dr. Ghulam Yasin Chohan

Chairman

Members:
Prof. Dr. Ehsan UIIah Khan
Prof. Dr. M. Zubair Khan
Prof. Dr. Zaffar M Khan
Prof. Dr. M. Zafarullah Koreshi
Prof. Dr. Shahab Khushnood
Prof. Dr. Shahid KhaIiI
Mr. M. Shuaib
Mr. Fawad A. Qureshi
Mr. Zeeshan Najam
Mr.Wasim Khan
Mr. M. Imran

ix

INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC (REVIEW) COMMITTEE

Prof. Dr. Zahid Hussain, USA


Prof Dr. Ehsan UIIah Khan (Dean FBAS, IIUI)
Prof Dr. Irfan Ullah, UET Peshawar
Prof Dr. Fazal A. Khalid, GIKI
Prof Dr. M. Mujahid, NUST
Dr. Ahmed Shuja Syed, Dean FET, IIUI)
Dr. Shafaat Bazaz, GIKI
Dr. Amir Karim, Acreo, Sweden
Dr. Dean Aslam, Michigan State University, USA
Dr. Nazir Mustapha, Al-Imam bin Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Dr. S. Tajammul Hussain, National Centre for Physics, Pakistan
Mr. un Ning, Hangzhou, China

SUB-COMMITTEES
1. Editorial Committee
Dr. Ihsan ul Haq
Mr. Fawad Ahmad Qureshi
Mr. Muhammad Shoaib
Mr. Mshhood Murtaza
Mr. Adeel Sabir
Mr. M. Mobin Mirza
Mr. Muhammad Asad
Mr. Mohsin Khan

2 Publicity Committee
3. Transport Committee
4. Registration Committee
5 Technical Sessions Convener Committee
6.Arrangements Committee

International Conference
on

Power Generation Systems and Renewable Energy Technologies


(PGSRET)
November 29 December 02, 2010
-

Preface
A four days International Conference on Power Generation Systems and Renewable Energy Technologies
was held in the beautiful Capital City of Islamabad, at the International Islamic University, Old Campus
Auditorium (Faisal Masjid), Sector E-8, Islamabad, Pakistan. The foreign and Pakistani experts delivered
their keynote talks, contributory lectures and poster presentations on the conference topics. The topics
were selected to elaborate on the theme of the conference on new power generation technologies and
available hydro-power capacity in Pakistan. This conference offered an opportunity for engineers,
scientists, professionals, policymakers, investors and other parties for the review of the recent
developments in the energy systems and technologies.
The conference topics beside hydro power, nuclear power and fossil fuel power also included subjects
like: green power that is bio-fuels, sustainable energy, solar power, wind power, clean energy technology,
climate change and renewable energy which is an important input for economic development of a country.
Today, the worlds oil, gas and coal energy supply has proven to be contributors to our environmental
problems. Since exhaustible energy supplies are limited, there is an urgent need to focus attention on
development of renewable energy sources and use of energy efficient technologies. With increasing
scope, scale, research and development, the costs of renewable energy technologies will come down. It is
estimated that renewable energy could contribute at least half of all electric power in large economies in
the future. The renewable energy will drive worlds economic system in the future as its share rose to
16% 20% in 2009 with an estimated investment reaching to the tune of USD 100-130 billions.
-

The outcome of the topics, lectures, expert discussions, presentations and latest R&D on different power
generation systems and technologies will definitely help our societies in Asia and particularly in Pakistan,
to get rid of energy crises and power shortages. The experts have helped us during the discussions and
meetings for possible solutions on our industrial and domestic energy production goals.
I acknowledge the hard work of Dr. lhsan ul Haq, Sohail Ahmed Qureshi and Ali Murtaza for completion
of this book.

Dr. M. Afzal Khan


Secretary PGSRET Conference

xi

CONFERENCE TOPICS
1-Hydro power generation systems and technologies
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4

1.5

Dams and Civil Structures


Equipment and Technology
Project Development: Micro project, Macro project, Mega project
Water Resources Management: storm/flood water control and management; Flood forecast
and analysis, wastewater management, Water supply and distribution; Water demand
forecasting; water consumption trends; Water resources; groundwater; water saving
technologies; Rainwater harvesting; Grey water recycling;
Ocean energy; wave and tidal; conversion of wave, tidal and salinity gradient; wave
energy technology; Tidal Energy; Wave energy conversion principles, machinery, control
principles, materials, moorings, installation, operation and maintenance; The
development of tidal turbines, horizontal and vertical axis tidal turbine, oscillating
hydrofoil

2-Renewable Energy
Clean renewable energy, alternative/renewable sources for power, large-scale
incorporation of renewable energy, grid-connection, design and manufacturing of
renewable energy plant, connection with LT lines, sustainable energy supply
Green technology/renewable industry
2.2
Geothermal energy, geothermal energy with heat and cold storage in the ground,
2.3
thermal Storage; molten salt storage system; Concrete storage
2.4
Biogas: bio-fuels, biogas production, large scale biogas heat and electricity production;
technologies for biogas cogeneration, gas turbines and fuel cells; biogas grid connection;
biogas transportation, production, storage, fuelling and distribution; biogas from organic
waste, Industrial waste & waste water; biogas from sewage treatment plants; biogas
production from animal manure gasifying high yield from crops; biogas role in the
renewable energy supply systems
2.5 Wind Power / Energy
Offshore wind projects development and prospects, greenfield and brownfield sites;
efficiency and output of wind power plant, sources of technology, components and
manufacturing; drivers for joint wind and solar power plants; technology of seamless
interworking of wind and solar equipment; potential of offshore wind farms technology
options; power generators technology; innovations in turbine technology; technologies for
wind forecasting, measurement and meteorological data analysis; offshore Sites for
Maximum Power Generation; wind Forecasting to Power Levels; wind resource
aerodynamics and structural dynamics; new conceptual designs and technologies
2.1

xii

3-Solar power generation systems and technologies


3.1

3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

Solar Technologies and System Engineering: solar energy for rural and remote locations; solar
energy power plant; operational efficiency of solar power plant; advanced photovoltaic
technologies; concentrator; photovoltaic's; application of photovoltaic on grid; establishing
indigenous production of photovoltaic; photovoltaic systems; photovoltaic Solar Electricity;
Organic-based PV; polymer PV and hybrid approaches; components for pv systems and
manufacturing technology; large PV Power Plants;
high Penetration of
Distributed PV; solar thermal technologies; Solar cells; solar cell materials and
technologies; silicon solar cells; integrating solar into future grid supplies, dye-sensitized cells
and modules, carbon nanotubes.
Terrestrial Concentrator Systems: Materials and processing for very-high efficiency cells
Efficient silicon production technologies; wafer-based silicon; Mono- and Multicrystalline Silicon
Materials and Cells;
Thin film solar cells technology: Ternary Thin Film Solar Cells; CdTe Solar Cells
Inverters and grid interfacing; Connecting Concentrated Solar Power to the grid system
Batteries; charge regulators, mounting structures, trackers, cabling, measurements and testing,
standardization, and regulations.
Concentrated Solar Power (CSP); CSP industry; CSP Technology; CSP plant precise engineering,
synergies and R&D; Global Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Industry; Compact Linear Fresnel
Reflector (CLFR) technology; torresol Energies; advantages with regard to other CSP concepts

4-Energy Systems and Technology


4.1

4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9

All energies such as: blue energy, clean energy, energy production for the future,
global energy outlook, key energy industry, energy automation systems
energy supply systems, services, efficient use, operation and storage
Advanced energy systems: Fusion Plasmas, Lasers, Radiation, Nanomagnetism,
Spintronics, electrochemical energy systems etc
Energy and the Economy
Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Energy Technologies
Transportation Energy Systems
Thermofluids and Thermodynamics of Energy Systems
Energy Science and Technology
Distributed energy technology
Energy and Environment

5-Fossil fuels power generation systems and technologies


5.1
5.2

5.3
5.4
5.5

5.5
5.6
5.7

Oil power generation systems and technologies


Gas power generation systems and technologies, gas storage
gas to liquids conversion
Coal power generation systems and technologies
Unconventional Oil, unconventional gas, unconventional fossil fuels and liquids
Fuel supply and energy planning
Conversion technologies for heat and power applications
Equipment and Technology
CO2 reduction technologies
xiii

6-Nuclear power generation systems and technologies


6.1

6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

Advances in Nuclear Power Technology Development, advanced small reactors, safer new
reactor designs, cheaper models, National and worldwide nuclear plant safety regulation and
standards, environmental impacts of nuclear power plant, the future of nuclear power, Role of
the fuel cycle in a nuclear power program, fuel procurement, used fuel management,
reprocessing fuel, Underground Nuclear Reactors and subterranean power generation, NPP
materials fatigue, embrittlement study and NPP reliability, life enhancement analysis, NPP
Technology Transfer
Condensed Matter Nuclear Science
Fusion Device Engineering
Innovative transmutation systems
Best Practice Waste Management Techniques and Safety

7-Mixed Topics
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12

New technologies: Battery & Fuel Cell, carbon and Li+ materials structures, electrolytes and other
material developments, energy storage products, ultra capacitors and high power batteries.
Hybrid components; advances in the combination of battery and ultra capacitor structures to
optimize performance for specific applications or characteristics.
Smart grids, microgrid, energy storage in smart grid.
Smart Meters
New approaches such as nano technology and quantum technology
Renewable fuels for transportation.
Zero emission buildings, greenhouse gas emissions, green building, building blocks for high
efficiency energy storage
Lighting technology
B
Organic Solar Cells
Radically Novel Concepts in Plastic Solor Cells
Biovoltiacs Technologies
Portable or Miniaturized Energy Sources
B

8- Energy Applications of Nanotechnology


8.1

Nanomaterials for energy technology, for Fuel Cell Technologies and


Production and Storage

8.2

Nanotechnology for Efficient Energy Conversion

8.3

Functional Surfaces and Nanostructured Coatings for Energy Systems

8.4

Selective Nanostructured Absorbers for Thermal Collectors

for Hydrogen

xiv

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

AFFORDABLE, STABLE & ASSURED SUPPLY OF ENERGY FOR


POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN PAKISTAN
Shahab Alam
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Resources,
Islamabad, Pakistan
ABSTRACT
For people living in poverty, the most pressing
priority is the satisfaction of basic human needs, which
includes access to food, shelter, water supply and sanitation
and other services that will improve their standard of living,
such as healthcare, education, and better transport. Problems
of poverty in all its dimensions can be addressed with the
improved provision of energy services and it is significant that
most of those without having access to modern energy services
live in developing countries; like Pakistan and belong to the
segment of the human population that lives in poverty. While
assured and adequate energy supplies do not guarantee
economic growth and employment generation, their absence
typically limits growth. Although low energy consumption is
not a cause of poverty, the lack of available energy services
correlates closely with many poverty indicators.
The link between poverty and energy should not,
however, be construed simply in terms of ability of the poor to
afford better energy services. Energy services constitute a
sizeable share of total household expenditure in Pakistan.
People living in poverty often pay a higher price per unit of
energy services than do the rich. They also spend more time in
obtaining these energy services and rely on resource-scarce
and polluting ways of converting energy for services like
cooking, drinking water, heating and lighting, all of which
have associated health impacts. The production and use of
energy have environmental consequences at local, regional and
global levels. These impacts extend throughout the fuel cycle
of an Energy Chain.

for social uplift of the people of Pakistan at large through


affordable, stable, and assured supply of energy keeping in
view the environmental constraints.
KEY WORDS: Energy, Environment, Reference Energy
System, Poverty Alleviation
1. BACKGROUND:
Energy plays a substantial role in
the everyday lives of humans. Poverty describes a condition of
people who are denied the opportunities for sustainable
existence. There are multiple links between energy and the
poverty. People living in poverty have benefited very little
from conventional energy policies and their implementation.
At the same time, it has become widely recognized that
development depends on access to appropriate energy services.
Our goal for energy should be to make energy an instrument to
help realize the broader goal of sustainable development.
Energy services are the desired and useful products, processes
or services that result from the use of energy, for instance,
illumination, comfortable indoor climate, refrigerated storage,
transportation, appropriate temperatures for cooking,
materials, etc. The energy chain to deliver these services
begins with the collection or extraction of primary energy,
which is then converted into energy carriers suitable for the
end-use(s). Fig.1 depicts Reference Energy System of
Pakistan, which indicates how energy is converted to useful
product. These energy carriers are used in energy end-use
technologies to provide the desired energy services. Thus
improved energy services will increase the satisfaction of basic
needs of the end-user(s), and in the process, reduce energys
adverse impacts on the environment.

Energy plays a substantial role in the everyday


lives of humans. Poverty describes a condition of people who
are denied the opportunities for sustainable existence.

Natural gas consumption decreased slightly by 0.5%


during 2008-09 as compared to previous year. This decrease in
2. ENERGY SITUATION IN PAKISTAN:
consumption was due to cement industry by 43%, power
Uninterrupted supply of energy is not only the need of sector by 6% and industrial sector by 1% while the increase
the citizens but all sectors of the economy. The industrial was in transport sector (23%) followed by domestic (5%),
sector in Pakistan has already been hit very badly in the last commercial (5%) and fertilizer (0.5%) over the previous year.
three years. Prime Ministers Economic Advisory Council has
Coal production decreased by 9% in 2008-09 over the
developed an integrated energy plan to cater for the short-, previous year due to lesser production from Sindh and
medium-, and long-term energy needs of the country. Balochistans coal fields. Coal imports have also gone down
Government is well aware of the problems that have arisen in by 22.3% resulting in overall decrease in coal supplies/
the wake of energy crisis in the country.
consumption by 17% over the last year. Electricity generation
during 2008-09 decreased by 4.2% (with major decrease of
Pakistan is endowed with a variety of energy producing 47.5% in nuclear generation) over the last year and reached
natural resources, particularly oil, natural gas, hydropower, 91,843 GWh (including 227 GWh of electricity imported from
and coal as shown in Fig.2 (PPIS Annual Report, 2009-10). In Iran.). Electricity generation included 67.7% thermal, 30.3%
recent years, the use of commercial energy resources like oil, hydel, 1.8% nuclear, while 0.2% of electricity was imported
gas, and coal have increased very rapidly. There are a number from Iran. Electricity consumption decreased slightly by 4.1%
of overlapping factors which contribute to high energy usage; to 70.371 GWh during 2008-09 as compared to 73,400 GWh
e.g., industrialization, population growth, urbanization and so- last year. The electricity consumption in domestic, industry
called improving social conditions. The following sections and commercial sectors showed a decrease of 1422GWh, 1399
provide an outlook regarding supplies/ consumption of both GWh and 320 GWh respectively while the increase in
commercial as well as non-commercial sources of energy.
consumption was in the agriculture sector (324 GWh).
Transmission and Distribution (T&D) losses of public sector
2.1
Commercial Energy Supplies/ Consumption: power system were increased from 20.3% to 21.6% during
During financial year 2008-09, primary commercial 2008-09 (Pakistan Energy Year Book, 2009).
energy supplies in the country witnessed a decrease by 0.6%
Fig. 3 compares the share of commercial energy
to 62.6 million tones of oil equivalent (mtoe) from 62.9 mtoe
supplies
in Pakistan for the years 1988-89, 1998-99 and 2008in 2007-08. Oil, gas, coal, nuclear (although infinitesimal
09.
Fig.4
depicts Pakistans commercial Energy Supply Mix in
amount), and hydro-electricity are among the primary sources
of commercial energy supplies. The electricity generated from 2008-09 (DGPC, 2010)
oil, gas and coal is not considered to be a primary source. The 2. 2
Non-Commercial Energy Supplies:
share of natural gas in primary energy supplies during 2008-09
was 48.3% followed by oil 32.1%, hydroelectricity 10.6%,
Sixty-five to seventy percent of Pakistans population
coal 7.6%, nuclear electricity 0.6%, LPG 0.6% and imported is rural. These people fulfill
electricity 0.1%. Natural gas production during the year 2008- their households energy requirements through non09 increased from 3.973 to 4.002 million cubic feet per day commercial sources of energy. The following fuels comprise
(0.5% increase), while oil production decreased to 65,845 the non-commercial energy resources:
from 69,954 barrels per day (5.9% decrease). Oil consumption a). Fuel wood/ charcoal
e). Shrubs
decreased by 1% during 2008-09 over the preceding year. The b). Dung cake
f). Weeds
decline in consumption was due to agriculture (36%), c). Bagasse
g). Tobacco sticks
domestic (19%), industry (10%) and transport (6%) while the d). Cotton sticks
h). Rice Husk
increase was in government sector (18%), followed by power
(7%). Product-wise, Furnace Oil consumption increased by
Fuel wood and dung cake constitute the main sources
6% and gasoline by 5%, while HSD consumption was of rural energy (mostly for household) in Pakistan. The
decreased 8% over the last year. Consumption of furnace oil in possibilities of finding substitutes for these fuels in rural areas
cement industry dropped by 31% from 152014 tonnes in 2007- are limited. At present the replacement of such non08 to 105424 tonnes in 2008-09.
commercial fuels often implies a transition to petroleum
Imports of petroleum products increased by 10.5% as products which rural household can not afford. On the other
compared to the previous year. Furnace Oil imports increased hand, large-scale rural dependence on wood and dung has
by 19% while HSD imports decreased by 3% during 2008-09. resulted in deforestation, soil run-off and erosion,
The refineries production was down by 8.6% resulting in desertification and a steady decline in crop yields. The
production of 9% and 4% less quantities of HSD and gasoline planting of quick-growing trees and energy forests is,
respectively, during 2008-09 as compared to the preceding therefore, a matter that deserves serious consideration for
implementation on massive scale.
year.

Directorate General of
Petroleum Concessions

Pakistan Petroleum
Information Service

Energy Infrastructure Map - 2010


6100'

6300'

6200'

6400'

PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPLIES AND FINAL CONSUMPTION BALANCES


(2008-2009) (Unit - Million TOE) **

6900'

7000'

7100'

7200'

AGRICULTURE
2.10%

LOCAL CRUDE OIL


5.03%

IMPORTED CRUDE OIL


13.00%

SHOGO-SIN

INDUSTRIAL
39.80%

GILGIT

Chitral

Juglot

MATILTANT

CHITRAL
GABRAL-KALAM

1MW

BASHA

84MW
KAIGHA

137MW

NUCLEAR+IMPORTED
ELECTRICITY
0.69%

TRANSPORT
30.50%

KALAM-ASRIT

548MW

130MW

72MW

115MW
157MW

ALLAI

Charbagh

OTHER GOVT
2.10%

121MW
MALAKAND-III
81MW

147MW

Mardan
Sawabi

Khazana Shagar

200MW

31MW

ARL-PSO PROPOSED

ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION

BHAL SAYDAN

10

DIA

DIA

KM

DIA 6x2

PINDO RI

6 DIA

DCL
OG

720 MW

DIA

CHAK NAURANG
BALKASSAR

JHELUM

Khewra

RANGE

Khuthiala Sheikhan

Kotla jam

Total: 27.32 Million TOE

Farooq Abad

BHAKKAR

GE Power
150 MW

SUNDER

SHAHKOT
200 MW

FAISALABAD

SAMUNDARI

RENALA
Satgara

135MW

NISHAT POWER
200MW

Habibabad
1MW

Chunian
NISHAT CHUNIAN
200MW

OKARA

Sandhilianwali

BAHU

PACKAGES

201.30MW

PATTOKI

Tandlianwala

Samundri

RESHMA

ORIENT BALLOKI

225MW

150 MW

Gojra 200 MW

DHODAK

131MW

SOUTHERN

135MW

JARANWALA

INDEPENDED

CEMENT
0.60%

KOHINOOR

200 MW

101MW

UAE G.T.
240 MW

3100'

3100'

JHANG
SAVI RAGHA

Narowal

SHAHDRA
55 MW

LAHORE

225MW
ALSTOM

SPS FAISALABAD
132 MW

18/16 PARCO MFM PIPELINE

CEMENT/
OTHER INDUSTRY
45.30%
COKE USE
14.30%

Dhamthal

225 MW

62 MW
SHAHDRA
SAPPHIRE 55 MW
225 MW
ATLAS
Kala RUBA
225 MW
155.55 MW

TAPAL
70 MW

Machike SHEKHUPURA

Chak Jhumra 135MW

GTPS FAISALABAD
244 MW

FERTILIZER-FEED STOCK
3.10%
RHODO
PANJPIR

COMMERCIAL
2.80%
KOT ADDU KAPCO

HABIBULLAH P.H

Kach

BRICK KILNS
39.00%

POWER
1.30%

PIR ISMAIL ZIARAT


& MARGAT

QUETA
MACH-ABEGUM

QUETTA

35MW

140MW

CHAMALANG

362MW

D.G.KHAN CEMENT

18"x15 KM, MACH MVA-KOLPUR MVA


LOOPLINE

D.G.KHAN

18"x18 KM, ABEGUM-MACH


MVA LOOP LINE

Kolpur

PARCO

MULTAN

147 MW

Vihari

Jahanian

Machhianwala

BAHAWALNAGAR

Chishtian Mandi

12x2 KM LALPUR-AES
PSO PIPELINE

Hasilpur

26 PAPCO WHITE OIL PIPELINE

18"x40 KM, PIRKOH-SUI


PIPLINE(YEAR 1984)

Dadhar

BAHAWALPUR

Ahmadpur East

PIRKOH

18"x129.5 KM, JCB-DAMBOLI


LOOPLINE (YEAR 1998)
Dumboli

2900'

2900'

Fazilpur

18"x14 KM,BYPASS OF QPL


LAID IN DINGRA NALA

18"x17 KM, DHADAR-GOKART LOOPLINE

12"x303 KM, JCB-QUETTA


PIPELINE (YEAR 1983)

Burewala
PIRAN GHAIB
192 MW

TPS MUZAFFAR GARH

Kallarwali

NOK KUNDI

GRANGE HOLDING

120 MW

NGPS MULTAN
195MW

Basirpur

Pakpattan
Airfwala

1350MW

Khan Garh

16 PARCO KMK PIPELINE

Dipalpur
SAIF POWER
225MW

MIAN CHANNUN

18"x31 KM, DINGRA-SIBI


LOOPLINE (16-02-2007)

SIBI

20"x30 KM, KOLPUR-QUETTA


LOOPLINE (YEAR 1997)

450MW

Khanewal

SAHIWAL

CHICHIWATNI

ROUSCH

FKPCL

TAUNSA

LALPIR

MUZAFFARGARH

JANDRAN

20"x30 KM, SIBI-DADHAR


LOOPLINE (YEAR 1996)

JOHAN

Kamalia

NANDPUR

157MW

Chowk Sarwar
Shaheed

AES PAKGEN
365MW
AES LALPIR

DUKI

KHOST SHARIG HARNAI

ZARGHUN SOUTH

Sariab

HABIBULLAH

DOMESTIC
16.90%

10x32 KM LAILPUR-KAPCO
PSO PIPELINE

3000'

3000'

SOR RANGE DIGHARI

Sh.Manda

FAUJI KABIR WALA

1638MW

12"x64 KM, PROPOSED ZARGHUN GAS PIPELINE

FERTILIZER-FUEL
12.80%

GEN. INDUSTRIES
25.10%

GULF

65 MW

CHICHO KI MALIAN

526 MW 14 MW

HALMORE

Chiniot

200 MW

Bhawana

Total: 8.40 Million TOE

POWER
31.80%
TRANSPORT (CNG)
7.00%

SIALKOT

134MW

150MW

Lalian

COAL CONSUMPTION

150MW

HUBCO NAROWAL

SHAHPUR

Sahiwal

D.I.KHAN

Pasroor

GUJRANWALAGULISTAN

Hafizabad

SABAH POWER

Satiana Rd.
200 MW

GAS CONSUMPTION

14MW
Daska

Bhalwal

Hussain Shah

SARGODHA

BULK SUPPLIES
5.90%

DOMESTIC
45.90%

150 MW Badiana
RADIAN

NANDIPUR

425 MW

20MW

Khushab
KCP

Piplan

SHAHUWALA

NANDIPUR

SHADIWAL

Bhera
325MW

325MW

Tank

SIALKOT

GUJRAT

3200'

3200'
OTHER GOVT
2.10%
DOMESTIC
0.50%

Jalalpur Jattan

Mandi Bahauddin

Kundian

184MW
CHASHMA

Chakpirana

22MW

Gharibwal

CHAKWAL CEMENT
CHASHMA

Pezu

Kharian

RASUL

SALT

MIANWALI

83 MW

AGRICULTURE
12.50%

84MW

KAL

DAUD KHEL

10/12 GAS PIPELINE

Manjuwal
KURRAM TANGI

ARL-PSO PROPOSED
16 DIA WHITE OIL PIPELINE
MACHIKE-TARUJABBA

NEW BONG

RAJIAN

JOYA MAIR

96MW

KOTLI

RAJHDANI
132MW

BHANGALI MISSA KESWAL


MANGLA
ADHI
1000MW MIRPUR

TURKWAL

FIMKASSAR

3300'

12
KHAUR

JINNAH

D-SH

6 DIA
IA
4 D

-KUR
RWAL

DIA

KM

3300'

MAKE

DC
D)
NE
AN
(PL

6x2

DHURNAL
8 DI A

MEYAL 4 DIA

DHULIAN

LACHI-SHAKARDARA

BANNU

KOTLI

OG

RATANA

S
4x13KM

MELA

MAKORI

TOOT

4MW

SEHRA
130 MW

97MW
AZAD PATTAN
GULPUR
SIHALA 165MW
650MW
100MW
KAROT

NAUGHAZI

GALI JAGIR
DAKHNI

Lachi
MANZALAI

MANZALAI PLANT MANZALAI CPE

KURRAM GARHI

INDUSTRIAL
27.50%

JAMMU&
KASHMIR
(Disputed Territory)

600MW

ISLAMABAD
RAWALPINDI AGL
ARL

SADKAL

Sanjwal

CHOI

MAHL

Taxila
BESTWAY

Wah

ALTERN

12 DIA WHITE OIL PIPELINE


MACHIKE-TARUJABBA

Total: 5.67 Million TOE

SRINAGAR

MURREE

Haripur
Hazro Havailian
Kallar Kahar

Faqirabad

Hatar
ATTOCK

Kamra

T. Jabba

KOHAT

Kallar Kahar
40KW

1450MW

CHERAT

Hangu

CHAKOTI HATTIAN
500 MW

1100 MW

Topi

GHAZI BROTHA

Noshera

PESHAWER

Nassapura

10X78KMS GURGURI-KOHAT
GAS PIPELINE-MOL

MUZAFFERABAD

KOHALA

3478MW

243MW

HANGU-ORAKZAI

SECTORAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SOURCE

969MW

ABBOTTABAD

TARBELA

LOTI

ZIN

DERA BUGTI

8"x85 KM, JHAL-NUTTAL PIPELINE

18"x34 KM, SHKP-JCB


QPL SECTION (YEAR 1994)

UCH

Shori

Khanpur

SUI

Shahwali

GUDDU

UCH POWER

UCH-II

1655MW

586MW
450MW

FFC
HAMZA

8x15 KM

8 DIA MAZARANI GAS PIPELINE-PPL

HASEEB

227MW

8x19.6 KMS (PEL)

RETI

MARI

BADAR

4/6 PIPELINE

FFC-MM
Mirpur Methelo

MIANO

Sanghi

16 PSFL PIPELINE

DADU

24x132.33 KM SAWAN-QAADIRPUR
PIPELINE

LAKHRA

6x23KM LATIF GAS PIPELINE-OMV

TAJJAL-1 - SAWAN CPP

8X19.12 KM

20X19 KM SAWAN
GAS PIPELINE-OMV

10X23 KM
BADHRA TO BHIT PIPELINE

HYDERABAD-BADIN

SAWAN
LATIF

250MW

24x40 KM BHIT-BAJARA PIPLINE

KADANWARI

20IRBP DADU-SUI-ZAMZAMA
REVERSE GAS TO SNGPL

GREEN

16"x35 KM, MIANO-KADN


PIPE LINE 2001-OMV

ZAMZAMA

Jam Shoro

850MW

KOTHAR

160 0

FO TCO Jet ty

136MW

42"x249.5 KM

00

FO&HSD LINES FOTCO-ZOT

BIN QASIM

Buffe r Ter m ina l

GREEN 50MW
ZEPHYR 50MW
ARBIAN SEA 50MW
DAWOOD 50MW
BECON 50MW
TENAGA GENERASI 50MW

8"x11.5 KM, BP PIPELINE

B UZD AR

LA SHAR I S.

6"x7 KM, BP PIPELINE


TAN DO GHU LAM ALI

H ALIPOTA

24"x35KM, KUNAR-HQ3 PIPLINE

KATO
M AZARI

DAB HI

DARU

18"x108 KM, BADIN PIPLINE


(BGFIP)NARI-HYDERABAD

LAG HAR I

ZAUR DEEP

M AHI
DU PHR I

NAR I

N OO R

N. AKRI

KHOREWAH

B AGLA
TAJED I
P IR

MAKHDUMPUR

S HAH DIN O

24x116KM, JAMSHORO-

(SMS PAKLAND)LOOPLINE

G HU N GH RO

NUR

BAGLA

NARI

11
00

PIR
RAJO

JABO

CITIES

HEAD QUARTER (HQ) / TERMINAL

TOWN

REPEATER / TERMINAL STATION


31 00

3
6
2 00
3
0 10
0

21

16 0 0

HYDEL
THERMAL

OIL REFINERY UNDER CONSTRUCTION

21

NUCLEAR

CONDENSATE PLANT

00

WIND

CONDENSATE PLANT UNDER CONST.

21

00

2100'

16

31

2100'

POWER STATIONS PROPOSED/UNDER CONSTRUCTION

00

6,481
4,900
5,987
462
1955
19,785

Total

OTHER FUELS

LPG PLANT
LPG / NGL PLANT
LPG PLANT PLANNED/UNDER CONST.
AVIATION FUELING FACILITY

310

HYDEL

ENERGY RESERVES & PRODUCTION

THERMAL
NUCLEAR

OIL STORAGE EXISTING


OIL STORAGE PLANNED

260

WIND

Million US Barrels
Billion Cubic Feet
Megawatt
Tonnes of Oil Equivalent

6200'

PRODUCT
OIL (MBBLS)
GAS (BCF)
COAL (Million Tonnes)

OTHER FUELS
**Source: Pakistan Energy Year Book 2009

RESERVES
314.390
28902.713
3450.000

2008-2009

PRODUCTION
24.033
1460.678
3.74
2000'

2000'

6100'

KEY HOLE-G

WAPDA (Hydel)
PEPCO (Thermal)
IPPs (Thermal)
Nuclear
KESC (Thermal)

0
POWER STATIONS
6 0 EXISTING

2200'

2200'

OIL PIPELINE EXISTING


OIL PIPELINE UNDER CONST./PLANNED

RAJ

2008-2009 (Unit- Mw)

COAL OCCURANCES

COMPRESSOR STATION UNDER CONST.


2 6 00

ABBREVIATIONS
MMBBLS
BCF
Mw
TOE

INSTALLED CAPACITY OF
ELECTRICITY GENERATION BY SOURCE

EXISTING COAL FIELDS

COMPRESSOR STATION

OIL REFINERY EXISTING

GHUNGHRO

2300'

2300'

SHAHDINO

2 6 00

SSGCL GAS PIPELINE PLANNED

PURIFICATION PLANT

BADIN

TAJEDI

OIL FIELDS
GAS FIELDS
CONDENSATE FIELDS

SNGPL GAS PIPELINE PLANNED


SSGCL GAS PIPELINE EXISTING

DUPHRI
JOGWAI

N.AKRI

BADIN
BHATTI

GOLARCHI

160

SNGPL GAS PIPELINE EXISTING


10

MAHI

NAKURJI

BADIN

KHOREWAH DEEP
FATEH SHAH NORTH
FATEH SHAH
MAKHDUMPUR DEEP

J ABO
RAJ

K EYH OLE-G

31 0

MISSRI

KOLI

BADI N

24x6 KM SPUR
FOR FFBQL

BARI

BACHAL

KHASKHELI

BH ATTI
GO LA RC HI

PANIRO

LAGHARI

JUNATHI SOUTH

TURK
TURK DEEP

BADIN

MUBAN

JHABERI

BUKHARI ZAUR SOUTH


JHABERI SOUTH
BUKHARI DEEP

JALAL

KO LI
KHO REWAH

MATLI

ZAUR
ALI ZAUR
ZAUR WEST

T H A R

K HASK HELI

M AKHD UM PUR

SONRO
MAZARI
S. MAZARI DEEP
S. MAZARI

DABHI N
DABHI
DABHI S

KATO

RIND
PA NIRO

RIND

TANDO GHULAM ALI

LIARI

BHULAN SHAH

M ATLI
ZAUR
Z AUR S OU TH
B UKHA RI

THATTA

BQPS-2
528 MW FJFC GHARO
BQPS-1
1260MW

JHIM

24"x15 KM, MASSU-HQ3

KU NAR E.
THO RA

LIA RI

6"x34.1 KM, BP PIPELINE

2400'

2400'

260

PASAH KI
K UNAR

NO RAI JAG IR
DAR U

TU RK
M ars helling Yar d

ZO T

GUL AHMED

31

PASAH KI WEST DEEP

UAE G.T.
TAN DO ALAM
80MW

INTEGRATED
405MW

232MW

TAPAL
126MW

26 00

00

174MW

SON O

Zorlu
50MW

Jhimpir

IND
US

ACPL OFFICE

KARKEY
KARACHI

2 10 0

31

30"x9 KM,

HUNDI BYPASS ON 16ILBP


METRO 50MW
SAPHIRE 50MW
GUL AHMED 50MW
MAKWIND 50MW
MASTER 50MW
HOM 50MW
SACHAL 50MW
WIND EAGLE 50MW
FFC 50MW
LUCKY 50MW

SURJANI

THAT
JERR TA-S
UCK OND
-ONG A
AR

SARI

BOSI CAR

1292MW

137

MIRPUR KHAS
6"x4.5 KM, BP PIPELINE

UMAR

T.Allahyar

PA SA HK I N .
SH AH

BUZDAR SOUTH DEEP

2500'

2500'

ACPL

HUBCO

PALLI
ALI

205MW

EAS
T

PASNI

600

850MW

6X37 KM,BOBI-CHAK DIM-5


12X44 KM,BOBI-TANDO ADAM

USMAN

JAM SHORO WALTER

HYDERABAD
KOTRI

MISAN

BUZDAR SOUTH

SONO SAKHI DEEP


SAKHI SOUTH DEEP
NIM
SAKHI
M.ISMAIL
M.ISMAIL D JAGIR
BAQAR DEEP TANGRI
NORAI JAGIR
LIARI D. HALIPOTA

INDU

RAHIM
NAIM AT
BASAL

Tando Adam

KAUSAR DEEP

GWADAR

00

6X24 KM, BP PIPELINE

DHAMRAKI
BOBI

BILAL

ADAM-x1

150MW

18x18 KM, LHF KOTRI


16" ILBP PIPELINE

PIR
MET
ING

BILAL NORTH

LAKHRA
LAKHRA

SANGHAR

KAMAL N

8"x14.2 KM, BP PIPELINE

18"KHADEJI-FJFC
INTERLINK PIPLINE

CHANDIO
BUZDAR

KUNAR WEST
KUNAR SOUTH

TANDO ALAM
DHACHRAPUR LASHARI SOUTH

80MW

DA-JH
ERRU
CK-O
NGAR

ZIRKANI

24X132 KM
KARCHAT-KARACHI LOOPLINE

12"x25 KM
ACPL PIPLINE

17MW

PASAHKI DEEP
SHAH

KUNAR

UAE G.T
LALA JAMALI

CH AK-5 SOUT H

CHAK-63 SE

6x9KM, BP PIPELINE

120 KM DADU-KARCHAT (YEAR 1997)


24x40 KM BHIT-BAJAR PIPELINE

PASNI

CHAK-66
CHAK-5 DIM

CHAK-63

HAKEEM DAHO
JAKHRO

THAT
TA-S
ON

TURBAT

174MW

CHAK-7A
CHAK-2

BALOCH
RESHAM

6"x9.5KM, BP PIPELINE

THORA

KOTRI

2600'

2600'

BADHRA

DARS DARS WEST


DARS DEEP
T.A. YAR NNORTH
T.A. YAR

PASAHKI NORTH
PASAHKI NE

PASAHKI

PASAHKI WEST DEEP

UNAR
KUNAR DEEP

24"x84KM HQ2-TANDO ADAM SECTION


NAWABSHAH

24x200K BAJARA
KARACHI PIPLINE

BHIT

NIM
NIM WEST

HYDERABAD

20x280KM N.SHAH-

KAR SEC(YEAR 1994-2000)

24X64 KM
BAJARA-KARCHAT LOOPLINE

WALTER

250MW

LAKHRA
150MW

15 KM SAWAN-KADANWARI

24"x132 KM, KADANWARI-N.SHAH


SECTION (YEAR 1994)

Daulatpur
Bubak

18"x504 KM, IRBP SUI-KAR.(YEAR 1977)


20"x386 KM, IRBP LOOPS OTHER THAN
DADU KARCHAT (YEAR 1992)

2700'

2700'

CONDENSATE PIPELINE-BHP

12&10 TWO PIPELINE


TO ENGRO

12"x10 KM, MIANO2-KHIPRO1


PIPE LINE-OMV

16"x558 KM, INDUS LEFT BANK


PIPELINE (YEAR 1954)

PANJGUR

8 PIPELINE-TULLOW

ENGRO

235MW

REHMAT

MEHAR

38MW

SARA

SURI
SARA WEST

126MW

LIBERTY

KANDRA

26 PAPCO WHITE OIL PIPELINE

20/10X12 KM ZAMZAMA
GAS PIPELINE BY BHP

FAUJI MARI
202MW

Daharki
STAR

6x9 KMS (PEL)

16x35.56 KM PIPELINE
KANDRA
120MW

16 & 14 TWO PIPELINE


TO FFC

202MW

4x7 KMS (PEL)

SADIQ

HASAN

SUKKUR
NAUDERO
51MW

LARKANA

16"x55 KM, MEHARTH.MUHABBAT PIPELINE

SADIQABAD

MARU

FOUNDATION

4x13 KMS (PEL)

KH ANP UR

Shikarpur

16"x58.75 SUI-HASSAN
REVERSE GAS TO SNGPL

MAZARANI

PANJGUR

RAHIMYAR KHAN

Bhong

QADIRPUR ENGRO ENERGY

KONJ

KHUZDAR

GUDDU
750MW
TPS GUDDU
110MW

CHACHAR

KANDHKOT

QPL SECTION(1983)

2800'

2800'

12"x42 KM,RS1-JCB

JACOBABAD

18"x34 KM, SHKP-JCB


QPL SECTION(FUTURE PLAN)

JHAL MAGSI

11

3400'

3400'

CHARSADDA

Muzafarabad

NEELUM-JHELUM

MANSEHRA

Tangi Takhtabai

FRONTIER UNDEFINED

PATRIND

24DIA LINE BANDA DAUDSHAH TO NOWSHERA

6605MW

Net Energy Consumed


37.34

30MW

840MW

SAIDU

Malakand
Sakhakot

MUNDADAM

WARSAK

STREET LIGHT TRACTION


OTHER GOVT.
0.80%
COMMERCIAL
7.50%

JAGRAN

SUKI KINARI

Mingora

DOMESTIC
21.70%

Total: 17.91 Million TOE

3500'

3500'

KHAN KHWAR

MADIAN

*Excluding Consumption for Power Generation


and Feed Stock

TRANSPORT
49.30%

SKARDU

DASSU

4350MW
DUBER KHWAR

215MW

SHARMI

COMMERCIAL
3.90%

GAS
47.18%

LPG LOCAL
0.52%

OIL CONSUMPTION

4500MW

197MW
ASRIT-KEDAM

HYDRO ELECTRICITY
10.35%

Net Primary Energy Supply


62.55

POWER
42.30%

7900

7800'

132MW

Less Transformations, Distribution Losses


& Non-Energy Uses
-25.21

INDUSTRIAL
5.40%

7700'

(Excluding fuels consumed in thermal power generation)


Total : 37.30 Million TOE

IMPORTED LPG
0.10%
IMPORTED COAL
4.77%

COAL LOCAL
2.61%

AGRICULTURE
0.40%

7600'

144 MW

IMPORTED PETROLEUM
PRODUCTS
15.75%

10.84
16.30
0.57
3.90
5.73
37.34

Net Consumption

Net Energy Supply


37.34

7500'

SECTORAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION

GROSS ENERGY SUPPLIES

By Source*
Oil
Gas
LPG
Coal
Electricity

Less Exports, Bunkers & Stock Changes


-1.55

7400'

SHUSHGAI ZHENDOLI

Net Consumption

Gross Energy Supply


64.10

7300'

RASHIT

8.09
1.46
14.84
0.79
11.37
0.79
37.34

Domestic
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Transport
Other Govt.

8.33
10.10
0.07
3.06
0.05
21.61

6800'

Total : 64.10 Million TOE

Energy Consumed
By Sector

3.22
30.24
0.34
1.67
6.63
0.39
42.49

6700'

6600'

3600'

3600'

Indigenous Supplies
Crude Oil
Gas
LPG
Coal
Hydro Electricity
Nuclear Electricity
Total
Imports
Crude Oil
Pet. Products
LPG
Coal
Electricity
Total

6500'

S EA
ST

6000'

6300'

6400'

6500'

6600'

6700'

6800'

6900'

7000'

7100'

7200'

7300'

7400'

7500'

7600'

7700'

LMK Resources Pakistan (Pvt) Ltd.

Directorate General of Petroleum Concessions


Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Resources
1019-A Pak Plaza, Blue Area, Islamabad
Tel: 92-51-9204176 Fax: 92-51-9213245
http://www.mpnr.gov.pk

Pakistan Petroleum Information Service


www.ppisonline.com

NTC Centre
No. 53, G-5/2,
Islamabad, Pakistan
Tel: 92-51-111 101 101 Fax: 92-51-831 7933
E-mail: ppis@lmkr.com
www.lmkr.com

Figure: 2

In addition to the non-commercial fuels, Pakistan has


also potential for the development of new and renewable
energy resources for rural areas. Pakistan has a huge
renewable resource potential but most of it, except for some
hydel, remained unexploited. Wind, Solar and Bio-Energy can
play a major role in the renewable energy mix in Pakistan;
however, because of inherent technological deficiencies and
social acceptance problems, private sector can hardly be
attracted to invest in these technologies. In order to provide
thrust to the development of renewable energy, the
government has established Alternative Energy development
Board (AEDB) under an Ordinance, 2005. The Board has
prepared short, medium and long-term plans with ambitious
but not unrealistic targets in Wind, Solar (PV and thermal) and
is devising implementation strategies for these plans. AEDB
has launched 100MW Wind Energy project in Karachi and
also has completed 100 solar homes demonstration projects in
Islamabad ~ the federal capital.
The contribution of renewable resources to energy
consumption would however be very small unless the cost of
existing renewable technologies (especially solar) decreases
substantially or the cost of competing fuels, especially oil,
rises substantially.
3. ENERGY, POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION:
Although low energy consumption is not a cause of
poverty, the lack of available energy services correlates
closely with many poverty indicators. Moreover, the prospects
for income generating activities that can help break the cycle
of poverty often rely on the availability of energy. For
instance, nearly 2 billion people, constituting about a third of
humanity, continue to rely on biomass fuels and traditional
technologies for cooking and heating and about 1.5 2 billion
people have no access to electricity.

end-use. They could also manifest themselves over short,


medium or long time-scales, or have cascading effects by
combining with other environmental problems. Energy
services are the desired and useful products, processes, or
services that result from the use of energy, for instance,
illumination, comfortable indoor climate, refrigerated storage,
transportation, appropriate temperatures for cooking etc. The
energy chain to deliver these services begins with the
collection or taxation of primary energy, which is then
converted into energy carriers suitable for the end uses. These
energy carriers are used in energy end-use technologies to
provide the desired energy services. Energy interventions can
help in the challenges of poverty alleviation and environmental
protection. The conventional belief has been that poverty and
environment are linked in a downward spiral in which
people living in poverty, forced to overuse environmental
resources for their daily survival, are further impoverished by
the degradation of these resources. Increasingly, however, it
has become evident that people living in poverty are capable
of creating arrangements that protect the environment while
sustaining their livelihoods, to the extent that they are provided
access to superior technology and finance. Thus improved
energy services will increase their satisfaction of basic needs,
and in the process, reduce energys adverse impacts on the
environment. Nevertheless, realizing this dual potential
requires institutional as much as technological innovation.
Primarily, the level of energy services, rather than energy
consumption, needs to be taken as the indicator of
development.

Energy is directly related to the most pressing social,


environmental, economic and security issues which affect
sustainable development: poverty, jobs and income levels,
access to social services, the situation of women, population
growth, agricultural production and food scarcity, health, land
degradation, climate change and environmental quality.
Energy challenges should be tackled in ways such that these
social, environmental, economic and security problems are
Policies and programs that directly address the
ameliorated not aggravated as is typically the case with
creation of opportunities for people living in poverty to
conventional energy strategies, which either ignore these
improve the level and quality of their energy services (by
global problems or do not deal with them adequately.
making more efficient use of commercial and non-commercial
energy and by shifting to higher quality energy carriers) will
allow them to enjoy both short-term and self-reinforcing longterm improvements in their standard of living. The substitution
of modern energy carriers and more efficient energy
conversion devices would confer sizable gains in purchasing
power on poor households. Improvements in energy efficiency
have considerable potential to reduce poverty in all of its
major dimensions and to facilitate development.
The production and use of energy have environmental
consequences at local, regional and global levels. These
impacts extend throughout the fuel cycle of an Energy Chain,
that is, the entire chain of activities from resource through to

3.1
Households Willingness and Ability to Pay
for Fuels:
Whether or not cash outlays are required to use
a given fuel, it affects the households energy mix.
Those households that rely on free biomass to meet the
bulk of their fuel needs, especially among the poor,
rarely, if ever, abandon biomass even if relative fuel
prices are changed considerably. Therefore, how many
households rely on free biomass is an important policy
question. For instance, urban population using wood
and similar fuels purchase these fuels. In contrast, the
vast majority of rural households do not pay cash for
woodthe most commonly used fueland dung.
Therefore, the percentage of households that depend
primarily on free biomass is significantly higher in rural
areas than in urban areas. Among the rural poor, the
percentage is close to sixty. In contrast, only about a
tenth of the urban poor depend on free biomass to meet
the bulk of their cooking and heating needs.
Nationwide, about half of the poor depend primarily on
free biomass. For this category of households, there is
unlikely to be sustainable government support that will
induce them to switch out of biomass. To mitigate
adverse effects of biomass use, other measures such as
raising awareness about the health threat of smoke, and
the benefits of better ventilation, removing children out
of smoky rooms and improved stoves will need to play a
significant role (UNDP/ ESCAP, 2005).
Most estimates of household expenditures on
fuel are substantially understated for very low income
households because people living in poverty devote a
larger portion of their most important asset, their time, to
the production of energy services. In general, people
living in poverty spend more time and effort to obtain
energy services that tend to be of lower quality than the
energy services available to the rich. Poor women and
children, in particular, bear the burden of having to carry
water and firewood across long distances, while the
better-off typically enjoy the convenience of having
piped water and cooking gas delivered to their homes.

The fact that the poor, and especially poor


women, spend more time than others for energy
services, has a powerful implication. The economic
hardship endured by very low-income households is
understood when their incomes or consumption
expenditures are evaluated in terms of their command
over the basket of goods and services typically
consumed by households with average incomes or
consumption expenditures. In particular, most of
womens work remains unpaid in non-marketed or
subsistence activities and is thus unrecognized and
undervalued. Moreover, people living in poverty are
often more willing to pay for energy and energy-related
services than is conventionally assumed, and typically
do so for small quantities of kerosene, charcoal and, in
some cases, fuelwood.

4. FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS
RECOMMENDATIONS:

AND

Based on the analysis made in the preceding


sections, it is now concluded that conventional energy
strategies for the most part have failed to help meet the
basic human needs of the poor majority. In terms of
affordability and stable supply of energy, natural gas is
the preferred fuel for Pakistan for the next ten to fifteen
years. But this resource is available to urban population
only. Yet numerous opportunities are available for
meeting basic needs at much lower energy consumption
levels than has traditionally been the case. By using the
most efficient technologies available today, the focusing
increasingly on renewable sources of energy, the level of
energy services can be increased considerably. Those
increased services are essential for meeting basic human
needs and in the process of alleviating poverty and
protecting the environment.
For people living in poverty, the first priority is
the satisfaction of such basic human needs as access to
jobs, food, health services, education, housing, running
water, sanitation etc. Energy plays an important role in
providing for these needs. Although low energy
consumption is not a cause of poverty, the lack of
available energy services correlates closely with many
poverty indicators.
Now, based on analysis made in preceding
sections, recommendations can be made for the design of
sustainable energy policies for poverty alleviation.

Poor women spend far more time and effort than


men on energy-related activities. This gender bias is a
further reflection of energys largely non-monetized
attributes among the poor, since much of womens work
is characteristically unpaid work. Poor women are also
disproportionately the victims of energy scarcity, which
4.1 Designing Sustainable Energy Policies for
is expressed in their poor nutritional status, since fuel
Poverty Alleviation:
availability affects cooking habits and food availability,
poor health due to indoor air pollution, and even low
The central priority for people living in poverty
literacy rates, which could be attributed to the fact that
is the satisfaction of basic needs, which could be
girls are more likely than boys to spend about 5 hours a
addressed by increasing the level of energy services. In
day gathering fuelwood or drinking water.
fact, one of the ways in which energy strategies could be
7

sustainable, that is, meet sustainable development goals,


is by introducing specific technologies that would
increase energy services for people living in poverty
(e.g., efficient lighting technologies, water pumping
technologies, efficient cook stoves , modern energy
carriers for cooking). Such strategies could also promote
job creation in rural areas and thereby help those
currently living in poverty acquire the capability to free
themselves from poverty. Moreover, the emphasis given
to promoting the wide availability of modern energy
carriers and inherently clean energy technologies would
help improve their nutritional status and reduce their
risks of ill-health and resource depletion, while also
addressing global and regional environmental concerns.
Policies to promote the implementation of
sustainable energy strategies must be sufficiently
resourceful and yet adaptable to local situations to be
able to address the numerous institutional and other
challenges discussed in this paper. A few general
guidelines for the development of policy measures are
listed below:
Promote the creation of favorable
legal,
institutional and regulatory climates for sustainable
energy development and increased involvement of
private sector. Privatization policies must be designed
explicitly to improve the access to energy services for
people living in poverty, with incentives offered to
private power developers to make use of the best suited
technology options. In some case, where grid access is
convenient and cost-effective, flat rate, yet low cost,
billing can overcome barriers related to costly metering.
Similarly, many conventional problems of theft can be
avoided by encouraging local, self-governing
institutions to manage distribution of energy services,
for instance, through bulk sales to co-operatives.
Develop policies to phase out energy
subsidies by offering to provide improved energy
services to end-users such that their net expenditures
remain nearly the same. Currently, most energy prices
do not reflect externalities such as environmental and
social costs due to energy production and supply, initial
measures to increase energy efficiency and introduce
renewable energy sources may seem to be too costly in
some context. Thus, unless all costs are internalized in
energy pricing, consumers may find it difficult to justify
purchasing cleaner fuels or energy technologies that
would also promote sustainable development. Many
energy efficient technologies that could improve energy
services and benefit the environment (e.g., renewable
energy and energy efficiency technologies) without the
need for large investments to improve the supply of
energy (through grid extension, for instance) are placed
out of reach to poorer households.

Promote initiatives to overcome high


first
costs and risks associated with sustainable energy
technologies. This can be done by developing
innovative financing mechanisms for extending credit to
non-conventional borrowers through SME/ micro-credit
banks. This is particularly important for people living in
poverty because they think primarily in terms of the first
cost, rather than the life-cycle cost, which would
ultimately result in lower energy prices and improved
energy services. Early penetration of advanced
technologies (for instance, household lighting system
using photovoltaic technology or efficient biomass or
LPG stoves) will also help bring down costs, thus
widening the market even further to encourage new
entrants. In many cases, the initial cost of renewable
energy systems requires financial mechanisms to make
them affordable to consumers. Because most renewable
energy technologies are small and modular, their
manufacture can benefit from the economies of
producing large numbers of identical units. However,
consumers can not capture the full potential economic
benefits of mass production if the market volume per
supplier is small and if there are large transaction costs
associated with accessing this limited market.
Promote
the
development
of
productive
uses (e.g., creating an additional income stream) for
energy services. This could include developing
strategies to fully utilize natural resources in order to
create additional economic benefits and possibly the
establishment of new industries (e.g., food processing
industrial residues for ethanol). New urban industries
can be created in value added energy generation
activities, Such measures may persuade development
aid agencies, governments and entrepreneurs to perceive
the direct value in promoting sustainable energy
policies. In addition, well designed demonstration
projects may also cause governments to revise obsolete
laws and regulations that hinder the development of
renewable energy or energy efficient technologies.
Support
measures
to
develop
indigenous
capacity in the area of sustainable energy. This could
include training and education in order to create local
manufacturing capabilities, sales, and service industries
related to sustainable energy thus creating new jobs and
economic activity. It will be essential to consider both
value-added activities directly related to the delivery of
energy services (e.g., battery charging stations, CNG
filling stations or bottled gas distribution) and those that
are directly related (e.g., food processing industry, trade
and small scale manufacturing). Training will help build
awareness of sustainable energy opportunities, widen
skill levels and create a new manufacturing class that
could eventually form new lobbies for sustainable
8

energy. Training for government officials and


development workers is also essential to help build
organizational capability for creating and sustaining
energy programs that promote renewable energy and
energy efficient technologies.
Promote various means to improve the
utilization of modern energy services that will help to
improve the living conditions of people living in
poverty and promote the delivery of more energy
efficient municipal services for urban areas. This might
include improved stoves, better ventilation, provision of
hot water, improved sanitation, etc. Retrofitting existing

structures for energy efficiency improvements would


also improve energy services for people living in
poverty. Similarly considerations can be given to the
energy services required to provide adequate street
lighting, cleaner public transportation, communication
infrastructure, water pumping and delivery etc. All such
measures would help mainstream sustainable energy
strategies by including them in other development
initiatives considered by governments, donors and
NGOs.

5. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Alam, S. (1994), Fuel-Choice Model for Pakistan
A Multinomial Logit Approach, unpublished Ph.D.
thesis, Center For Energy and the Environment,
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
2. Bhatia, R., (1987), Energy Demand Analysis in
Developing Countries: A Review , The Energy
Journal 18(Special L.D.C. Issue): 1 33.
3. Directorate General of Petroleum concessions
(DGPC), (2010), Primary Energy Supplies and
Consumption, Energy infrastructure Map, M/o
Petroleum and Natural resources, Islamabad.
4. Husain, I. and Hanjra, M.A., Irrigation and Poverty
Alleviation: Review of the Empirical Evidence.
Irrigation and Drainage Vol.53 (2004), pages: 1 15.
5. Knox, R. (editor), Energy 2000, Sovereign
Publications Ltd., London, U.K.
6. Pakistan Energy Year Book (various issues),
Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan,
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources,
Islamabad.
7. Pakistan Energy Year Book (2009), Hydrocarbon
Development Institute of Pakistan, Ministry of
Petroleum and Natural Resources, Islamabad.
8. PPIS (2008-09), Petroleum Exploration and
Production Activities in Pakistan, Annual Report,
Directorate General of Petroleum Concessions,
Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Resources,

Government of Pakistan and LMK Resources Pakistan


(Pvt.) Ltd., Islamabad.
9. Smil, V., and Kuz, T. (1976), Energy and the
Economy A Global and National Analysis , Long
Range Planning 9(3): 65 - 74.
10. Tinker, I., (1987), The Real Rural Energy Crisis:
Womens Time , The Energy Journal 18(Special
L.D.C. Issue): 125 146.
11. UNDP, 1997: Energy after Rio. New York
12. UNDP/ ESCAP (2005),Regional Energy program
For Poverty Reduction Access to Energy:
Assessment of Policies, Capacities and Knowledge
Repositories at National Level, A Country report for
Pakistan.
13. USAID (June, 2007), Energy Sector Assessment
For USAID/ Pakistan, Office of Infrastructure and
Engineering Bureau For Economic Growth,
Agriculture and Trade, USAID.
14. World Bank (2000), Fuel For Thought: An
Environmental Strategy for the Energy Sector ,
Washington, D.C.
15. World Oil and Gas Review 2003 (June, 2003), Eni
, Rome, Italy.
16. www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/statistics/hies0708/table19.pdf

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Alteernatiive En
nergy Tech
hnologgy Inccentives
M.B.Khaan, M.Z.Khann, U. Javed,A
A. Bahadur annd T.Hussainn,
NUS
ST Rawalpindii Pakistan
0.35 KN is reccorded at a loadding rate of 0.05 KN/sec. for a
full scale loadd range of 25 K
KN. These resuults demonstratee
that the mannufactured com
mposite rotors had adequatee
structural integgrity, subsequenntly verified in actual windmill
operation at 4000rpm. The insttalled windmill now adorns thee
skyline of NU
UST.Fast Trackk liquid biofuells are producedd
from non-ediblle crop oil usingg bimodal nanoo materials. In a
process develloped at SCM
ME NUST, a conversion too
biodesiel time of 5 min. at 225oC is achieveed compared too
droxide catalyst
9O min. at 700oC for the conventional hyd
route. The process
p
param
meters, characcterization andd
evaluation testiing are presenteed.

Abstraact

The paper citess three praactical


propositioons to furnish vviable green eneergy in the Biofuels,
Clean Coaal Processes, annd Windmill seectors. We sharre our
experiencee on indigenoous fabricationn of 500 W, 1.5m
windmill rotors with a hub
h height of 6.0m above grround
UST-AERO-Fibber Tech outtreach
level as part of NU
industrial link project. Mirror proceess with matcching
r
receptaclees is used too fabricate thhe windmill rotors
according to NACA aerofoil
a
profilee. Full scale loadfness tests aree conducted using
deflectionn/bending stiffn
simulated aerodynamic load
l
with increemental loadingg. An
nding stiffnesss of 14.85 KN/m and mean
avg. ben
displacem
ment of 21.17mm
m for the maxim
mum applied looad of

I.
ND FABRICATIION
II. WIND MILL ROTTOR DESIGN AN

The first and foremost part


p of designinng a rotor bladde is to
select propper airfoil. Sincce blade is aerodynamic body, having
special geeometry characcterized by an air foil cross section,
s
extensive calculations are necessary in order
o
to determ
mine the
blade parameters such as
a chord and thickness
t
distriibution,
s
twist distrribution and tappper, which are matched with selected
airfoil seleection [1, 2].
equations to precisely geenerate the cross-section of thee airfoil
and
i properties. IIn this study we
w have used NACA
measure its
four digit profile. The Digits
D
involved in NACA seriees have
following significance
First Digiit: specifies thee maximum cam
mber (m) in perccentage
of the choord ( airfoil lenggth)
Second Digit:
D
specifies tthe position of maximum cam
mber (p)
in the tentths of chord
Third and
d Fourth Digitt: specifies thicckness (t) of aiirfoil in
percentagee of chord.
Measurem
ment of Coordinates
We can calculate
c
the cooordinates for an
a entire airfoiil using
the follow
wing principles:
Pick valuees of x from 0 too the maximum
m chord c.
Compute the mean cambber line coordinnates by pluggging the
f
equations
values of m and p in the following

Fiig 1 Profile cooordinates of winnd mill rotors


Thhe NACA airfoils have beeen developed by
b the National
A
Advisory
Comm
mittee for Aerronautics (NAC
CA). Series off
diigits is used to describe the shhape of airfoil. The parameterss
inn the numerical code can be enntered into
yc =

( 2px -

yc =
1.

for x =0 to x = p

[(1 2p
p)+2px-

] fo
or x=p to x=c

Calculate the thicknness distributio


on above andd
below the mean line bby plugging thee value of t intoo
fo
equaation for eacch of the x
the following
coordinnates.

yt =
(0..2969
0.1015 x4 )

2.

- 0.11260x -0.3516 x2
x +0.2843 x3 -

mine the final cooordinates for the


t airfoil upperr
Determ
surfacee and lower surrface using relattionship

10

Xu = x yt sin

Indigenous Rotor Fabrication


First mould of the rotor is prepared using appropriate airfoil
section designed and shaped according to NACA profile,
using GRP material. After mould fabrications, mould was
cleaned properly; Wax and Poly vinyl acetate (PVA) were
applied on it as releasing agent. Simple cavity moulds of
fiberglass composites are used.

Yu = yc + yt cos
XL = x + yt sin
YL = yc yt cos
Where

= arctan (

Rotor Blades
The most important part of wind turbine is the blade, which is
designed according to aerodynamics to get maximum output.
Horizontal axis blades are made from composite materials. A
wind turbine should be strong enough to withstand all loads
during its service life [3, 4]. Thus rotor designing is a
complete science.
Root of the blade Root of the blade constitutes heaviest and
thickest part. It should be designed to resist maximum
moments and torques which are transmitted by aerodynamic
forces through the blade to rotor shaft and therefore, the
stresses and strains are concentrated in the root sectional area.
The geometry of the root is complex and requires great
precision as it is attached with the steel hub. Static Proof test
is used to evaluate ultimate strength and fatigue
characteristics of the rotor blade .
The static poof-load is derived form the assumption of and
extreme thrust load of trot = 300N/m2 over the swept area. [5]

Fig 1 Die fabrication using perform mandrel

Fig 2 Matching receptacles fabricated using Mirror technique


Trot = trot A rot
Trot = (300 N/m2) (3.84 m2) = 1152 N
The load is equally shared among the three blades and
distributed in a triangular pattern from zero at the root centre
to maximum value at the tip. This means that each blade
should withstand an extreme load as computed below:

The process of applying wax yields the highest luster


possible with an easy application and excellent parting. Three
applications initially will effectively fill the pores and coat
the surface. On the second part, two applications are
executed. For the third part a single application would be
sufficient. A good mould surface is equally important for
proper luster. White gel coat is applied and properly dried.
Layers are added in mould by Hand lay up technique to
achieve the design thickness.

T Blade = Trot /B = 1152/3 = 384 N/ blade


The blade should withstand this load without sustaining any
damage. Actual testing was performed on Dynamic Test RIG,
DAQ Module, Lvdts. Results on bending stiffness and load
deflection data are provided in table 1.
SR

Max

Bendin

Bending

Bendin

Applie

Applie

Max

Max

Loa

g Stiff

Stiffness

d load

d load

Dis

Dis

KN/M

Downwar

Stiffnes

Upwar

Dwnwr

Upwr

Dwnwr

d (KN/M)

d KN

Averag

KN

KG

mm

Fig 3 Schematic showing components of rotor

mm

Hand Lay up Method

(KN/M
)

10

19.45

11.85

15.65

0.14

0.10

8.25

8.25

20

18.64

12.66

15.65

0.26

0.21

15.03

14.10

30

15.30

11.21

13.25

0.34

0.29

21.17

21.17

Hand lay technique is open mould technique used for variety


of composite products like boats, tanks and housing
components. Multiple moulds are used to produce substantial
production quantities. [6]

11

Power(Watt)

Fig 4 Setup for Hand Lay Up technique

The Performance of wind mill in terms of output wattage as a


function of pitch angle and wind speed is presented below.
These data are for the root portion, similar output is
computed for 40%, 60%, 80% and 95% downstream of the
root
using
MATLAB.

Fig 5 Fabricated rotor according to close weight balance


tolerance
The manufactured rotor is mounted on wind mill assembly
hub and tested for mechanical integrity and vibration free
operation. An electric motor is integrated with the wind mill
hub drive shaft and motion is induced to produce 400 rpm.
The experiment is repeated several times for durations of
eight hours each. The fabricated windmill assembly erected at
SCME, NUST appears below together with the Auto-Cad
drawing.

Fig 6 Wind mill assembly mounted at SCME, NUST for


trials

Fig 8 Power output graph of rotor blade


Innovative Bio-diesel Production
There is dire need to identify practical and sustainable
solutions for todays energy security, environment and
climate change challenges. Fossil fuels based on coal, oil,
gas, petroleum and nuclear sources have been the mainstay in
furnishing the energy needs of the world to date. They still
continue to provide the bulk of world energy requirements.
Nearly all the worlds power plants/transport runs on fossil
fuels.
However, the use of fossil fuels is replete with three major
limitations: (a) fast depletion rate concomitant with the
exponential rise in the energy needs, (b) global warming,
greenhouse effect and carbon loss associated with their
emissions, and (c) Fossil Fuel prices are volatile causing
unpredictable operating margins for power plant/transport
operators coupled with a direct negative impact on the
agricultural sector.
Conventional power plants, due to lack of profitability, are
often subsidized. Subsidized Power plants have a negative
impact on numerous revenue streams. Consequently, Power
Plants/transport/agriculture using fossil fuels result in
unpredictable prices/operating margins and harmful
environmental conditions. Over the past months, prices for
electricity, oil, gas and coal have shot upwards, at times
dramatically.

Fig 7 Dimensional drawing of Wind mill test rig

A modern energy supply follows the guiding objective of


sustainable development. It combines security of supply,
ability to compete and environmental compatibility.
Renewable energies are particularly suited to fulfilling these
criteria. Therefore, in common with many other countries
worldwide - as can be seen from the great interest here
Pakistan has decided to vigorously increase the use of
renewable in all areas of energy supply: in electricity, heat
and fuels!

12

Biomass energy crops run parallel to solar, wind and fuel


cells in this respect. Renewable energy is now on the world
stage and is seen as a viable source to address the rampant
energy crisis, more so in the liquid fuels sector. According to
Breamar Energy Ventures (USA), there isnt an imminent
overall global energy crisis with 1342 Billion Barrels of
proven reserves, but there is a looming crisis in liquid fuels
with world demand rising to a staggering

consumption of 130 million barrels/day of liquid fuel by


2030. Oil companies like PSO have set an ambitious goal for
this: the PSO aims to increase the share of renewable energy
derived from energy crops and biodiesel to 15 % by 2015
and to at least 20% by 2020. This is a step in the right
direction as competing technologies like wind and solar have
certain built in drawbacks like inconsistent power generation
and lower energy density, respectively. Typically, lead acid,
NiCd and Lithium ion batteries used for commuter and
hybrids possess an energy density of less than 2 Mj/kg as
compared to 45 Mj/kg for biodiesel used in on road trucking,
long range driving, generators and the more exotic sectors of
aviation and marine. The Government of Pakistan directive of
May 21, 08 to exempt all taxes on plant, machinery and
specific items used in the production of biodiesel is a timely
boost which will enable the required capacity building in this
utterly important sector of renewable energy.
The size of the economy can be visualized by considering
that Pakistan consumes around 8 million tons of diesel &
7.2 million tons of furnace oil per year. Around 9 million
tons of diesel & furnace oil is imported out of which PSO
alone imports 3.4 million tons of diesel & 4 million tons of
furnace oil. If 10 % of the total diesel & furnace oil
consumed by Pakistan (i.e. 0.80 million tons of diesel & 0.72
million tons of furnace oil) is switched to blended fuel the
countrys import bill can decline by ~ US $ 1.00 Billion.
Generally speaking, any type of energy crops can be used as
a biomass materials for the purpose of generating energy,
however, considering that the aim of various biomass projects
in general and this project in particular is to generate energy
economically viable on commercial scale, then the selection
process in choosing the most suitable biomass materials
would have to undergo strict testing from scientific and
technical factors to the market, business and regulations
factors.

Conventional Technology

Having said that, presently there are a number of popular


examples presently being researched and/or used as an
example of the types of biomass materials with possible
future commercial use. NUSTs initiative to employ Jatropha
Curcas as a preferred energy crop is based on its highest yield
per hectare compared to other land-based feedstock (table 1).
It is resistant to a high degree of aridity and as such does not
compete with food crops. The seeds contain 30-40% oil that
can be easily expelled and processed to produce a highquality biodiesel fuel, usable in a standard diesel engine. An
experimental farm at NUST campus green belt is being
nurtured with promising 80 % germination rate.
Feedstock

Oil / Hectare ( kg)

Oil / Acre ( Pounds )

Cotton

273

244

Soybean

375

335

Sunflowers

800

714

Rapeseed

1000

893

Castor beans

1188

1061

Jatropha Curcas

2800

2464

Table 1 Comparative Oil Yields for Competitive


Feedstock
The oil expelled from the energy crop is converted into
biodiesel by the trans-esterification process. The
conventional process based on hydroxide technology
consumes considerable energy at conversion temperatures of
80-90oC, it is remarkably slow (90 minutes reaction time)
and yields undesirable by-products with the attendant
separation costs. Recent collaborative research at SCME
NUST has defined new yardsticks in biodiesel production.
The innovative process using nanomaterials supplied by
NCP,QAU converts plant oil into biodiesel in mere 5 minutes
at ambient temperature, without the negative baggage of byproducts. This is a quantum leap in biodiesel production,
which has earned global recognition.Process comparison
between new and traditional routes is presented below:

Conversion Rate

Temperature Conditions

By-product Yield

90 min Process

70C

Glycerin10-12%
Soap

Investigated Technology

5 min Process

25C (Ambient)

2-4.0 %

Glycerin 1.0 %

Table 2 New and old process comparison

13

The work was presented in the ASEAN Workshop on new


and renewable technologies (June 2009), published by the
American Institute of Physics (Vol.1169, pp. 197-205,
2009) and cited by NASA/Harvard. A formal joint patent in
collaboration with NCP has already been filed through the
Technology Incubation Centre at NUST. The research was
further highlighted in the World Future Energy Summit (a

global energy moot featuring world leaders, experts and


capital ventures) at Abu Dhabi (January 18-21, 2010) with
the consensus that the new technology will go a long way in
improving the economy of biodiesel production. More
significantly, it promises to reduce the plant size and capital
investment, owing to the greatly reduced process time.

Pulverized Coal

Gas

IGCC
East. Coal

Wind

Nuclear

Solar

Geo-thermal

Bio
diesel

Capital Cost
($/kW)

2,438

700

2,795

1,700*

4,000

3,000

4,000

700
1,500

Total Cost
(cents/kWh)

5.8

6.8

6.8

7.1

7-11

5 10

6.9

CO2 Capture
Cost ($kW)

940

470

450

Cost for Carbon


Capture & Storage
(cents/kWh)

6.2

2.8

3.4

Cents / kWh

12.0

9.6

10.2

7.1

8.9

7-11

5-10

6.9

Cents / kWh
(credits $30)

7.9

7.7

8.7

7.1

9.1

7-11

5-10

6.9

Table 3 Fixed and operating cost comparisons of competing


technologies
The IR spectra comparing the fast track bio diesel with
standard bio diesel and that produced by PSO was reported
earlier [7].An invited round table discussion session was
conducted at a global esteemed moot and recently reported in
the 4th Annual Edition of the monthly Energy Update [8, 9].

The GCMS spectrum of the biodiesel is produced below.


Capital and energy production cost comparison of batch wise
biodiesel with other competing renewable technologies as
given by Delta Global Alternatives is quite favorable
(Table 3).
The major objective of Bio-diesel Production is to limit
reliance nationally on imported diesel, thus a significant
amount of foreign exchange can be saved. Bio-diesel
Production by Jatropha is cheaper than other sources and can
promote rural economic growth since Jatropha can be planted
at relatively barren land. The objective is to first demonstrate
and then share the technology with the farming community
and the largest stake holder namely PSO which imports
diesel to the tune of one billion dollars per annum. The
farming community consumes diesel at the rate of 5000
ltr/annum/100 acres, which implies that sparing less than 5 %
of land can make them self sufficient in their energy needs.
Such portion of land is normally available as
wasteland/spurious land with the agricultural community.

FIG 12 GCMS SPECTRUM OF FAST TRACK BIODIESL.

14

REFERENCES
[1] K.L.jackson and P.G. Migliore, Design of wind turbine
blades employing advanced airfoils, West Wind Indutries,
Inc., Windpower 87 Conf, San Francisco,CA.1987
[2] E.H. Lysen, Introduction to Wind Energy, 2nd edn,
CWD 82-1. Amersfort. The Netherlands 1983.
[3] P.D. Clausen, Ebert, P. Meyer, C. Peterson, P.D.H and
Wood, Development and testing of a prototype 5kW wind
turbine, Perth, Australia.
[4] D.M. Eggleston, D. M. and F.S. Stoddard, 1987. Wind
Turbine Engineering Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New
York.
[5] P.H. Jensen, 1986. Static test of wind turbine blades.
Test station for wind mills, Risoe National Laboratory,
Roskilde, Denmark, April, Jensen PH, Krogsgaard J,
Lundsger P, Rasmussen F. Fatigue testing of wind turbine
blades. EWEA Conference and Exhibition, Rome, Italy.
[6] T. Nishino, K. Hirao, M. Kotero, K. Nakamae, and H.
Inagaki,.Kenaf reinforced biodegradable composite,
Composites Science and Technology 63 , 1281-1286. 2003
[7] M.B. Khan, A. Bhadur, W. Anjum, American Institute
of Physics Vol.1169, pp. 197-205, 2009
[8] M.B.Khan, I.Durani and A.Bahadur, Innovative Biodiesel producton, 3rd World Future Energy Summit Abu
Dhabi (January 18-21, 2010)
[9] M.B.Khan, A.Bahadur and S.T Hussain, Fast Track Bio
diesel Process, Energy Update pp. 53 April May 2010.

15

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

An Overview of Osmotic Power Generation and its


Scope in Pakistan
Syed Waqar Hasan1, Asif Mehdi2 and Syed Faraz Hasan3
1

Final year undergraduate student


Department of Mechanical Engineering,
NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi
Email: waqar_hasan88@yahoo.com
2

Laboratory Engineer, Department of Automotive Engineering,


NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi
3

Lecturer, Department of Electrical Engineering,


NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi

Abstract
The need of introducing innovative power
generation methods is increasing rapidly. The
conventional fuel driven methods not only
require heavy financial investments, they have
also been held responsible for many natural
calamities faced by the human population. While
the research on better utilizing the renewable
resources such as wind, tidal and wave energy etc
is underway, the Osmotic Power has been
commercially introduced as a new fuel-free
energy resource. The energy in the osmotic
power is derived from the difference in salt
concentration between the fresh water and the salt
water. In an osmotic power plant, the river water
is used as the fresh water and the sea water is
treated as the salt water for getting electric power
through osmosis. While the hydroelectric dams
can threat irrigation activities in some areas by
blocking the water supply, the osmotic plants are
situated at locations where the river water falls
into the sea and hence cause no water hold-ups.
In this paper, we take an in-depth look into the
technical methods and the associated challenges
of the osmotic power generation. We highlight
the scope of osmotic power in Pakistan. We
identify important geographical locations in the

country which can be ideal for setting up an


osmotic power station.
Keywords
Osmosis, Osmotic power
generation, Renewable energy

plant,

Power

I. Introduction
Pakistan is facing an energy crisis which is
worsening every day. The difference between
supply and demand is increasing at a regular
pace, which affects commercial and domestic
activities alike. According to the latest figures
reported in [1], the gap between supply and
demand is between 3600-4000MW. This power
shortage has resulted in frequent elongated power
break downs across the country. While the
authorities consider getting more supply from
hydroelectric power generation and other fueldriven sources, the need for increasing the
installed capacity is plummeting drastically. A
power system is composed of three main
components, namely, generation, transmission
(and distribution) and utilization. For a power
system to run efficiently, all the three sectors
must perform satisfactorily. Utilization is one
sector which has attracted the attention of many

16

in the recent days. Closing the markets in the


evenings and taking 2 days off in a week are
tactics which aim at reducing utilization. The
approach of reducing utilization to cope up with
the energy crisis has serious drawbacks. It has
severe economic consequences and most
importantly, it does not solve the problem in the
long run. Many blame the transmission system
responsible for losing a significant amount of
generated power while delivering it to the
consumers. The transmission and distribution
system of the Lahore Electric Supply Corporation
(LESC), for instance, has become completely
outdated. It records dozens of transformer
tripping even under normal load conditions [2].
Theoretically, the transmission lines losses
amount to about 40% of the generated power.
Without undermining the need of an efficient
transmission system, authors believe that the
current installed capacity of the country shall still
not be able to cope up with the demand even if
the line losses are reduced. Furthermore, the
consumer load increases with the increasing
industrialization and urbanization, which cannot
be tackled merely by improving the transmission
system. We maintain that the generating capacity
of the country must be increased in order to deal
with the current energy crisis.
The country mainly relies on fuel-based power
generation with the main fuels being the Natural
Gas, Petroleum and Coal. Despite having
reasonable coal and natural gas reserves in the
country, much of the generated power comes
from the furnace oil. Despite having a staggering
economy, Pakistan chooses the most expensive
power generation method. Table I shows the
contribution of different resources in electricity
generation in Pakistan [3]. Todays world is
rapidly switching towards the alternate energy
sources in order to save the all important
economy. For instance, the United Kingdom aims
at providing one third of the countrys energy
demands from the renewable resources [4]. The
trend is even more popular in Norway which not
only supplies the power demands from the
hydroelectric plants; it is also exporting

electricity to the neighbouring countries. Very


recently, Norway has started a new form of
renewable power plant called the Osmotic Power
Plant [5]. In this paper, we give an overview of
this recent trend of power generation and relate it
with the opportunities to exploit the same in
Pakistan.
Table I: Power contributed by different sources in Pakistan
Hydel
Thermal (Gas and Oil)
Thermal (Coal)
Nuclear

Power generated
6500
13000
150
450

The rest of the paper is organized as follows.


Section II briefly describes the principles of
Osmotic Power, followed by a brief discussion on
the potentials of osmotic power in Pakistan in
Section III. The conclusions are given in Section
IV and the references are given at the end of the
paper.
II. Principles of Osmotic Power
The pressure exerted by the solution on a semi
permeable membrane that separates the solution
from a pure solvent is known as the Osmotic
pressure. Figure 1(a) and 1(b) show the solution
and solute separated by a semi permeable
membrane (permeable to solute). Initially, as
shown in Figure 1(a), same quantities of the
solvent and solution are added in the container.
The solute on one side tends to drift across the
membrane to dilute the solution on the other side
and hence increases the height of the solution in
the container. Consequently, a pressure difference
is generated on one side of the container [6]. The
membrane typically allows fresh water to pass
through it and hence the fresh water is normally
used as a solute in commercial installations [7].
The pressure difference Pdiff, shown in Figure
1(b), is referred to as the Osmotic Pressure and
can be used for generating electricity. This
pressure is later imparted against the turbine
blades to get renewable electricity.

17

Figure 1: Th
he principle off Osmotic Pow
wer

Fig
gure 2: Schem
matic diagram of an Osmoticc Power

A. Operaation of the Osmotic Po


ower Plant
d
off the
A convenntional schhematic diagram
Osmotic po
ower plant iis given in Figure
F
2 [8]]. The
plant requiires abundaant supplies of fresh an
nd sea
water to exploit
e
the principles of osmosiss. The
sea water is fed too Tank A after moddestly
pressurizinng it using the pressurre exchangger. In
terms of pressure eneergy, the plaant shown in the
s
excitedd. The sea water is fiiltered
figure is self
before it reeaches the tank. Simillarly, fresh water
is suppliedd into Tank B, which is
i separatedd from
Tank A via a semi peermeable membrane.
m
D to
Due
the osmootic pressuure differeence (disccussed

fr
water from
f
Tank B diffuses into
i
abbove), the fresh
Taank A and further inccreases the fluid presssure
innside Tank A. The ppressure buuilt up duee to
aggainst the turbine whhich
ossmosis is imparted
i
evventually produces
p
m
mechanical power at its
teerminals. Soome of the pressure frrom Tank A is
feed back to the pressuure exchannger, which
h is
uttilized in pressurizing the incom
ming sea waater.
Thhus, the eneergy requireed for presssurizing the sea
w
water
does not
n come fr
from any exxternal souurce.
Thhe turbine coupled w
with a geneerator conv
verts
thhis mechaniical power into electrricity. A more
m
deetailed andd illustratedd block diagram
d
of an
ossmotic pow
wer plant cann be found in
i [9].

18

Figure 3: The Pakistani coastal belt showing several rivers falling into the sea (image taken from www.mapsofworld.com).

For optimum performance of the osmotic power


plant, the selection of suitable membrane is a key
factor. In the following, we highlight some of the
issues related with selecting the appropriate
membrane for the plant.
B. Semi-permeable Membrane
A semi-permeable membrane is also termed as
the partially or differentially permeable
membrane because it allows certain liquids to
pass through and it resists the others. The process
of diffusion across a semi-permeable membrane
is also called the facilitated diffusion. The
penetration rate of molecules through a semipermeable membrane is a function of pressure,
temperature and the concentration of molecules
on both sides of the membrane, as given in
equation (1).
, ,

(1)

Where, is the penetration rate, P and T are the


pressure and temperature in the container, and
is the concentration of the molecules.
The permeability of the membrane and the tube
diameter which contains it have significant
impact on the osmotic power generated. The
membrane tube diameter has an inverse relation
with the output osmotic power, on the other hand,
higher the permeability of the membrane higher

is the output power. The diameter of the


membrane tubes must be selected carefully
because they are subjected to high fluid
pressures. Kulkarni et al. in [10] have selected
10mm of membrane tube diameter, which can
withstand a pressure of 100 bars. The reported
work deals with the design of 100kW osmotic
power facility and hence larger membrane tube
diameters may be selected for large scale plants.
Table II: List of major rivers falling into the Arabian Sea
River
Dasht
Hingol
Hub
Indus

Location
District,
Gwadar
Balochistan
Makran
Coast,
Balochistan
Lasbela, Balochistan
Karachi port, Sindh

Features
Mirani dam being
built
Part
of
Hingol
National Park
Houses the Hub dam
Key water resource
for Pakistan

III. Osmotic Power options in Pakistan


Pakistan has a reasonably large coastal belt
spread across the south of Sindh and Balochistan.
The southern areas of the two provinces touch the
Arabian Sea. It has been mentioned before that
the ideal locations for setting up an osmotic
power plant is where the rivers fall into the seas
and oceans. Figure 3 shows Pakistans coastal
belt at the Arabian Sea and the rivers which flow
into the sea. It is evident from the figure that
several places provide an appropriate opportunity

19

to set up an osmotic plant and reap the renewable


benefits for generating electricity. Table II details
the rivers falling into the Arabian Sea and the
developments made on them, if any. Authors
believe that considering these locations for
setting up an osmotic plant can be fruitful for
increasing the overall installed capacity of the
nation.
IV. Conclusion
The identification of new generation methods is
very important for Pakistan as the country faces
the severe power crisis. In this paper, we have
given an overview of an increasingly popular
renewable resource, namely the osmotic power.
In the first part of the paper, the main concept and
methodology of the osmotic principles have been
introduced. It has been discussed that the ideal
location of setting up an osmotic plant is where
the river water falls into an ocean or a sea. In the
second part, we have shown that the southern
coastal belt of Pakistan has several locations
where an osmotic plant could be set up.

References
[1] K. Kiani, Rs. 1.44 per unit hike sought in power
tariff, Dawn News Online (As of 20th March 2010).
[2] U. Bhatti, LESCO system too old to sustain load, The
News (As on 1st May 2010).
[3] W. Habib, Pakistan Electricity Crisis, Free online
articles
directory,
2009.
http://www.articlesbase.com/public-companyarticles/pakistan-electricity-crisis-912410.html
[4] Renewable UK The Voice of Wind and Marine
Energy, Manifesto 2010.
[5] M. Gregory, Norways Statkraft opens first Osmotic
Power Plant, BBC News (As on 24th November 2009).
[6] H. D. Gesser, Applied Chemistry: A textbook for
engineers and technologists, Springer, 2002.
[7]
Osmotic
Power
Inc.
Available
online:
http://www.osmoticpower.com/
[8] K. V. Peinemann and S. P. Nunes, Membranes for
energy conversion, illustrated edition, Wiley-VCH, 2008.
[9] O. S. Skramesto, S. E. Skilhagen and W. K. Nielsen,
Power Production based on Osmotic Pressure,
Waterpower VI, 2009
[10] D. S. Kulkarni and A. W. Date, Design of a 100kW
Pressure Retarded Osmotic Power Plant, available online
at
docstoc,
http://www.docstoc.com/docs/34289185/DESIGN-OF-A100-kW-PRESSURE-RETARDED-OSMOSIS-POWERPLANT
.

20

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Biomass Gasification Trends for New


Technology Development for the Production of
Energy
M. Ahsan, N. Ul-Haq and H. Nasir
*

Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical & Materials Engineering (SCME),


National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract--- The drive to find alternative fuels to replace such


hydrocarbons as diesel and petrol has resulted in an excess
of different fuelsfew of which are commercially available
in large quantities. As fuels, by their very nature, must be
combustible, the fire, explosion and explosion properties will
need to be known. The use of biomass as a source of energy
has been further improved in recent years and special
interest has been paid to biomass gasification. Due to the
increasing interest in biomass gasification, several studies
have been proposed in order to explain and understand this
complex process, and the design, simulation, optimization
and process analysis of gasifiers have been carried out. This
paper reviews several Biomass gasification studies.

I. INTRODUCTION
With increasing concern for greenhouse gas emissions
and anthropogenic climate change, consciousness in
renewable energy assets is substantial. This is evidenced
by the EU renewable energy directive, which imposes the
aim of a 20% share of energy from renewable sources,
with a necessary least share of 10% renewable energy in
the transportation sector [1]. Directive 2009/28/EC of the
European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009
on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable
sources and amending and subsequently repealing
Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, 2009 [1].
Biomass is projected to play a key role in getting the
goal, in particular but not only, for member states with
huge forest resources, as is the case in Sweden for
example. Since the delivery of biomass is limited, wellorganized use is vital. Today, biomass gasification is
considered as one of the main technologies for future
biorefineries where biomass will be changed into fuels,
power and value-added chemicals.
District heating (DH) offers opportunities to both
reduce the utilization of fossil fuels for space heating and
to attain high total energy conversion effectiveness. The
finest known example of the latter is combined heat and
power (CHP) production, which is accepted by the
European Parliament as a method to raise the energy
competence systems to decrease worldwide CO2
emissions [2]. Wide completion of gasification based
biofuel making in European DH systems is discussed by
Berndes et al. [3], who conclude that if the 2020 target for
biofuels would be met by gasification based fuels, the
total heat descend of the EU DH systems would be large

compared to the amount of heat delivered from the


biofuel plants.
In an previous study [4] it was established that the
municipal DH system of Linkping, Sweden wants
investments in new production capacity to be able to meet
an enlarged heat requirement with existing profitability
margins.
II. HISTORY
Since the beginning of idea, gasification has passed
through a number of phases of progress. Year wise
development of the technology is given in Table 1.
III. THEORY OF GASIFICATION
A.

Types of Gasifiers

Updraught or counter current gasifier:The oldest type of


gasifier is the counter current or updraught gasifier shown
schematically in Fig. 1.
The air enters from the bottom and the gas leaves at
the top. Near the grate at the bottom the combustion
reactions happen, which are followed by reduction
reactions somewhat higher up in the gasifier. In the upper
part of the gasifier, heating and pyrolysis of the feedstock
takes place as a result of heat transfer by forced
convection and radiation from the lower zones.
The tars and volatiles formed during this process will
be carried in the gas stream. Ashes are removed from the
bottom of the updraught gasifier.
The main advantages of this type of gasifier are its
simplicity, high charcoal burn-out and inner heat
exchange leading to low gas exit temperatures and high
equipment efficiency, as well as the chance of operation
with many types of feedstock (sawdust, cereal hulls, etc.)
Major drawbacks result from the option of "channelling"
in the equipment, which can lead to oxygen breakthrough and unsafe, explosive situations and the
requirement to install automatic moving grates, as well as
from the problems associated with disposal of the tar

21

TABLE I.
HISTORY OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION [5]
1669

Thomas Shirley conducted crude experiments with carborated


hydrogen

1699

Dean Clayton obtained coal gas from pyrolitic experiment

1788

Robert Gardner obtained the first patent with regard to


gasification

1792

First confirmed use of producer gas reported, Murdoc used


the gas generated from coal to light a room in his house.
Since then, for many years coal gas was used for cooking and
heating

1801

Lampodium proved the possibility of using waste gases


escaping from charring of wood

1804

Fourcroy found the water gas by reaction of water with a hot


carbon

1812

developed first gas producer which uses oil as fuel

1840

First commercially used gasifier was built in France

1861

Real breakthrough in technology with introduction of


Siemens gasifier. This gasifier is considered to be first
successful unit

1878

Gasifiers were successfully used with engines for power


generation

1900

First 600 hp gasifier was exhibited in Paris. Thereafter, larger


engines upto 5400 hp were put into service

1901

J.W. Parker run a passenger vehicle with producer gas

19011920

Many gasifier-engine systems were sold and used for power


and electricity generation

1930

Nazi Germany accelerated effort to convert existing vehicles


to producer gas drive as part of plan for national security and
and independence from imported oil

1930

1939

After
1945

19501970

After
1970

Began development for small automotive and portable gas


producer. British and French Goverment felt that automotive
charcoal gas producer is more suitable for their colonies
where supply of gasoline was scarce and wood that could
charred to charcoal was readily available
About 2,50,000 vehicles were registered in the Sweden. Out
of them, 90 % were converted to producer gas drive. Almost
all of the 20,000 tractors were operated on producer gas. 40
% of the fuel used was wood and remainder charcoal

operations.

Figure 1

Updraught or counter current gasifier

Downdraught or co-current gasifiers: A key to the


problem of tar entrainment in the gas stream has been
establish by designing co-current or downdraught
gasifiers, in which primary gasification air is introduced
at or above the oxidation zone in the gasifier.
The producer gas is removed from bottom of the
apparatus, so that fuel and gas go in the same direction, as
schematically shown in Fig. 2
On their way down the acid and tarry distillation
products from the fuel must pass through a glowing bed
of charcoal and therefore are converted into hydrogen,
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane.
The main benefit of downdraught gasifiers lies in the
possibility of producing a tar-free gas appropriate for
engine applications.
In practice, however, a tar-free gas is rarely if ever
achieved over the whole operating range of the
equipment: tar-free operating turn-down ratios of a factor

After end of second world war, with plentiful gasoline and


diesel available at cheap cost, gasificaton technology lost
glory and importance
During this decades, gasification was "Forgotten Technology
". Many goverments in europe to felt that consumption of
wood at the prevailing rate will reduce the forest, creating
several environmental problems
The year 1970s brought a renewed interest in the technology
for power generation at small scale. Since then work is also
concentrated to use fuels other than wood and charcoal.

containing condensates that result from the gas cleaning


22

TABLE II.
COMPOSITION OF PRODUCER GAS FROM VARIOUS FUELS [8]
Fuel

Gasification
Method

Volume Percentage

Calorific Value
MJ/m3

Charcoal

Downdraft

CO
28-31

H2
5-10

CH4
1-2

CO2
1-2

N2
55-60

4.60-5.65

Wood with12-20%
moisture content
Wheat straw pellets

Downdraft

17-22

16-20

2-3

10-15

55-50

5.00-5.86

Downdraft

14-17

17-19

11-14

4.50
5.80

Coconut husks

Downdraft

16-20

17-19.5

10-15

Coconut shells

Downdraft

19-24

10-15

11-15

7.20

Pressed Sugarcane

Downdraft

15-18

15-18

12-14

5.30

Charcoal

Updraft

30

19.7

3.6

46

5.98

Corn cobs

Downdraft

18.6

16.5

6.4

6.29

Rice hulls pelleted

Downdraft

16.1

9.6

0.95

3.25

Cotton stalks cubed

Downdraft

15.7

11.7

3.4

4.32

requirement to maintain uniform high temperatures over a


given cross-sectional area makes impractical the use of
downdraught gasifiers in a power range above about 350
kW (shaft power).
Cross-draught
gasifier:
Cross-draught
gasifiers,
schematically illustrated in Figure 3 are an adaptation for
the use of charcoal. Charcoal gasification results in very
high temperatures (1500 C and higher) in the oxidation
zone which can lead to material problems. In cross
draught gasifiers insulation beside these high
temperatures is provided by the fuel (charcoal) itself.
Advantages of the system present in the very small
scale at which it can be operated. Installations below 10
kW (shaft power) can under definite setting be
economically possible.
Figure 2

Downdraught or co-current gasifier

3 are measured standard; a factor 5-6 is measured


excellent.
Because of the lower level of organic components in
the condensate, downdraught gasifiers experience less
from environmental objections than updraught gasifiers.
A major drawback of downdraught equipment lies in
its incapacity to operate on a number of unprocessed
fuels. In particular, fluffy, low density materials give rise
to flow problems and extreme pressure drop, and the
solid fuel must be pelletized or briquetted before use.
Downdraught gasifiers also suffer from the problems
linked with high ash content fuels (slagging) to a larger
level than updraught gasifiers.
Negligible drawbacks of the downdraught system, as
compared to updraught, are somewhat lower competence
resulting from the lack of internal heat exchange as well
as the lower heating value of the gas. Besides this, the

Figure 3. Crossdraught or co-current gasifier

23

The reason is the very straightforward gas-cleaning


train (only a cyclone and a hot filter) which can be in use
when using this type of gasifier in conjunction with small
engines.
A disadvantage of cross-draught gasifiers is their
minimum tar-converting capabilities and the consequent
need for high quality (low volatile content) charcoal.
It is because of the ambiguity of charcoal quality that a
number of charcoal gasifiers employ the downdraught
principle, in order to keep at least a minimal tar-cracking
capability.
Fluidized bed gasifier: The operation of both up and
downdraught gasifiers is inclined by the morphological,
physical and chemical properties of the fuel. Problems
normally encountered are: lack of bunker flow and
extreme pressure drop over the gasifier
A design approach aiming at the elimination of the
above difficulties is the fluidized bed gasifier illustrated
schematically in Fig. 4
Air is blown through a bed of solid particles at a
sufficient velocity to keep these in a state of suspension.
The bed is originally externally heated and the feedstock
is introduced as soon as a satisfactorily high temperature
is reached. The fuel particles are introduced at the bottom
of the reactor, very rapidly mixed with the bed material
and almost immediately heated up to the bed temperature.

Problems with feeding, instability of the bed and fly-ash


sintering in the gas channels can take place with some
biomass fuels.
Other drawbacks of the fluidized bed gasifier lie in the
rather high tar content of the product gas (up to 500
mg/m gas), the partial carbon burn-out, and poor
response to load changes.
Mainly because of the control equipment needed to
cater for the latter difficulty, very small fluidized bed
gasifiers are not foreseen and the application range must
be cautiously set at above 500 kW (shaft power).
Fluidized bed gasifiers presently exist on a semicommercial basis from numerous manufacturers in
Europe and U.S.A.
Other types of gasifiers: A number of other biomass
gasifier systems (double fired, entrained bed, molten
bath), which are to a certain extent spin-offs from coal
gasification technology, are presently under development.
In some cases these systems incorporate needless
refinements and complications, in others both the size and
sophistication of the equipment make near term
application in developing countries unlikely. For these
reasons they are omitted from this explanation.
B.

Reaction Chemistryof Biomass


The following main reactions take place in
combustion and reduction zone [6].
1. Combustion zone: The combustible substance of a
solid fuel is generally composed of elements carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen. In entire combustion carbon
dioxide is obtained from carbon in fuel and water is
obtained from the hydrogen, generally as steam. The
combustion reaction is exothermic and produces a
theoretical oxidation temperature of 14500C. The major
reactions, therefore, are:
C + O2 = CO2 (+ 393 MJ/kg mol)
2H2 + O2 = 2H2O (- 242 MJ/kg mol)

Figure 4. Fluidized bed gasifier

As a result of this treatment the fuel is pyrolysed very


fast, resulting in a component mix with a relatively big
amount of gaseous materials. Further gasification and tarconversion reactions happen in the gas phase. Most
systems are equipped with an internal cyclone in order to
reduce char blow-out as much as possible. Ash particles
are also passed over the top of the reactor and have to be
removed from the gas stream if the gas is used in engine
applications.
The main advantages of fluidized bed gasifiers, stem
from their feedstock flexibility resulting from easy
control of temperature, which can be kept below the
melting or fusion point of the ash (rice husks), and their
capability to deal with fluffy and fine grained materials
(sawdust etc.) without requirement of pre-processing.

(1)
(2)

2. Reaction zone: The products of incomplete combustion


(water, carbon dioxide and uncombusted partially cracked
pyrolysis products) now pass through a red-hot charcoal
bed where the following reduction reactions occur [6].
C + CO2 = 2CO (- 164.9 MJ/kg mol)
C + H2O = CO + H2 (- 122.6 MJ/kg mol)
CO + H2O = CO + H2 (+ 42 MJ/kg mol)
C + 2H2 = CH4 (+ 75 MJ/kg mol)
CO2 + H2 = CO + H2O (- 42.3 MJ/kg mol)

(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)

Reactions (3) and (4) are major reduction reactions


and being endothermic have the ability of reducing gas
temperature. Consequently the temperatures in the
reduction zone are usually 800-10000C. Lesser the
reduction zone temperature (~ 700-8000C); lesser is the
calorific value of gas.
3. Pyrolysis zone: Wood Pyrolysis is an intricate process
that is still not fully understood [7]. The products depend

24

upon temperature, residence time, pressure and heat


losses. However following common remarks can be made
about them.
Up to the temperature of 2000C only water is given
off. Between 200 to 2800C carbon dioxide, acetic acid
and water are driven off. The real pyrolysis, which occurs
between 280 to 5000C, makes large quantities of tar and
gases containing carbon dioxide. Besides light tars, some
methyl alcohol is also produced. Between 500 to 7000C
the gas production is less and contains hydrogen.
Thus it is simple to see that updraft gasifier will
produce much more tar than downdraft one. In downdraft
gasifier the tars have to go through combustion and
reduction zone and are partly broken down.
Finally in the drying zone the major process is of
drying of wood. Wood ingoing the gasifier has moisture
content of 10-30%. Various experiments on different
gasifiers in different circumstances have shown that on an
average the condensate formed is 6-10% of the weight of
gasified wood [7].
C.

Properties of producer gas


The producer gas is affected by different processes as
outlined above hence one can suppose variations in the
gas produced from different biomass sources. Table II
lists the composition of gas produced from different
sources. The gas composition is also a meaning of
gasifier design and thus, the same fuel may give different
calorific value as when used in two different gasifiers.
Table III therefore shows approximate values of gas from
different fuels.
The maximum dilution of gas takes place
because of existence of nitrogen. Almost 50-60% of gas
is composed of noncombustible nitrogen. Thus it may be
beneficial to use oxygen as an alternative of air for
gasification. However the cost and availability of oxygen
may be a restrictive factor in this regard. However where
the end product is methanol a high energy quality item,
then the cost and use of oxygen can be justified [9].
On an average 1 kg of biomass produces about
2.5 m3 of producer gas at S.T.P. In this process it
consumes about 1.5 m3 of air for combustion [7]. For
complete combustion of wood about 4.5 m3 of air is
required. Thus biomass gasification consumes about 33%
of theoretical stoichiometeric ratio for wood burning. The
average energy conversion efficiency of wood gasifiers is
about 60-70% and is defined as:
Calorific value of gas/kg of fuel
(8)
Gas = -----------------------------------------Avg. calorific value of 1 kg of fuel
D.

Temperature of Gas
On an average the temperature of gas leaving the
gasifier is about 300 to 4000C [12]. If the temperature is
higher than this (~ 5000C) it is a sign that partial
combustion of gas is happening. This usually happens
when the air flow rate through the gasifier is higher than
the design value.

TABLE III.
AVERAGE LOWER HEATING VALUES

Fuel

Moisture content (%) 1

wood

20 - 25

Lower heating
value (kJ/kg)
13 - 15000

charcoal

2-7

29 - 30000

peat

35 - 50

12 - 14000

per cent of dry weight

IV. GASIFIER FUEL CHARACTERISTICS


Biomass fuels available for gasification contain
charcoal, wood and wood waste (branches, twigs, roots,
bark, wood shavings and sawdust) as well as a multitude
of agricultural residues (maize cobs, coconut shells,
coconut husks, cereal straws, rice husks, etc.) and peat.
Because those fuels differ significantly in their chemical,
physical and morphological properties, they make
different demands on the method of gasification and as a
result require different reactor designs or even
gasification technologies. It is for this cause that, during a
century of gasification experience, a large number of
different gasifiers have been developed and marketed, all
types geared towards handling the specific properties of a
usual fuel or range of fuels.
Each type of gasifier will operate suitably with respect
to stability, gas quality, efficiency and pressure losses
only within certain ranges of the fuel properties of which
the most important are:
A. Energy content of the fuel
The selection of a fuel for gasification will in part be
decided by its heating value. The method of measurement
of the fuel energy content will influence the guess of
efficiency of a given gasification system. Reporting of
fuel heating values is often confusing since at least three
different bases are used:
Fuel higher heating values as obtained in an adiabatic
bomb calorimeter, these values comprise the heat of
condensation of the water that is produced during
combustion. Because it is very hard to recover the heat of
condensation in actual gasification operations these
values present a too optimistic view of the fuel energy
content;
Fuel higher heating values on a moisture-free basis,
which disregard the real moisture content of the fuel and
so give even more optimistic estimates of energy content;
The only practical way therefore of presenting fuel
heating values for gasification purposes is to give lower
heating values (excluding the heat of condensation of the
water produced) on an ash inclusive basis and with
specific reference to the actual moisture content of the
fuel. Average lower heating values of wood, charcoal and
peat are shown in Table III.

25

B. Moisturee content of thhe fuel


The heatiing value of thhe gas producced by severall type
of gasifier deepends at leastt in part on thhe moisture coontent
of the feedstoock.
Moisture content can be determineed on a dry basis
plus on a wett basis.
Moisture conntent is explainned as:
(9)
Alternativelyy the moisturre content onn a wet bassis is
defined as:

TABLE IIV.
SLAGGING OF
F AGRICULTUR
RAL RESIDUES IN A SMALL
LABORATORY
L
DOWN DRAUG
GHT GASIFIER (JENKINS,
(
[18]
Slaagging fuels

Ash coontent
percennt

Degree
D
of
slagging
s

Baarley straw mix

10.3

severe
s

Beean straw

10.2

"

Co
orn stalks

6.4

moderate
m

Co
otton gin trash

17.6

severe
s

Cu
ubed cotton stalkss

17.2

"

RD
DF pellets*

10.4

"

Peelleted rice hulls

14.9

"

Saafflower straw

6.0

minor
m

Peelleted walnut sheell mix

5.8

moderate
m

Wheat straw andd corn


staalks

7.4

severe
s

(10)

Conversions from one to another


a
can bee calculated byy:

(11)

(
(12)
* RD
DF = refuse derived
d
fuel
High moisture
m
conttents decreaase the theermal
efficiency sinnce heat is used to drive offf the water annd as
a result thiss energy is not
n available for the reduuction
reactions andd for convertinng thermal eneergy into chem
mical
bound energgy in the gas.
g
Thereforre high moiisture
contents resuult in little gass heating valuees.
In downddraught gasifieers large moissture contents give
rise not onlyy to low gas heating
h
valuees, but also too low
temperaturess in the oxidaation zone, annd this can leaad to
unsatisfactorry tar convertiing capabilityy if the gas is used
for engine appplications.
Both because of the gas
g heating vaalue (engines need
m in order to keep a reasonnable
gas of at leaast 4200 kJ/m
efficiency) and of thee tar entraainment probblem,
downdraughtt gasifiers neeed practicallly dry fuels (less
than 25 perceent moisture dry
d basis).
C. Volatile matter contennt of the fuel
The amouunt of volatilles in the feedstock determ
mines
the need off special meaasures (either in design of the
o
gasifier or inn the layout off the gas cleannup train) in order
to eliminatee tars from the product gas in enngine
applications.
D. Ash conttent and ash chemical
c
compposition
Ashes cann cause a variiety of problem
ms mainly in up
u or
downdraughtt gasifiers. Sllagging or cliinker formatioon in
the reactor, caused by melting
m
and agglomeratioon of
ashes, at thee best will seeriously add to the amounnt of
labour requiired to operaate the gasifi
fier. If no unnique
measures aree taken, slaggging can lead to unnecessarry tar
formation annd/or completee blocking of the
t reactor.

E. Reactivity off the fuel


The
T reactivity is a main facctor determining the rate off
redu
uction of carbbon dioxide to carbon monoxide in a
gasifier. Reactivitty influences the reactor design
d
insofarr
h
requiredd in the reducttion zone.
as itt dictates the height
F. Particle size and size distribution
Up
U and downddraught gasifiers are limited
d in the rangee
of fuel
fu size satisfactory in thee feed stock. Fine grainedd
and//or fluffy feeddstock may cause flow pro
oblems in thee
bunk
ker section off the gasifier aas well as an unacceptablee
pressure drop over
o
the reduuction zone and a highh
prop
portion of dusst in the gas. Large pressu
ure drops willl
direcct to reductiion of the ggas load of downdraughtt
equiipment, resuulting in low
w temperatu
ures and tarr
prod
duction.
Acceptable
A
fuel sizes for gaasification systems dependd
to a certain levell on the desiggn of the unitts. In general,,
od gasifiers work
w
on woood blocks an
nd woodchipss
woo
rang
ging from 8 x 4 x 4 cm. to 1 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm. Charcoall
gasifiers are norm
mally fuelled bby charcoal lu
umps rangingg
betw
ween 1 x 1 x 1 cm. and 3 x 3 x 3 cm. Fluidized
F
bedd
gasifiers are usuaally able to handle fuels with particlee
meters varyingg between 0.1 and 20 mm.
diam
G. Bulk density of
o the fuel
Bulk
B
density is describedd as the weiight per unitt
volu
ume of looseely tipped fuuel. Fuels witth high bulkk
denssity are useful because theyy represent a high energy--

266

TABLE V.
AVERAGE BULK DENSITIES
Fuel
Wood
Charcoal
Peat

Bulk density (kg/m) *


300 - 550
200 - 300
300 - 400

* The bulk density varies significantly with moisture


content and particle size of the fuel.
for-volume value. Low bulk density fuels sometimes give
rise to unsatisfactory flow under gravity, resulting in low
gas heating values and ultimately in burning of the char
in the reduction zone. Average bulk densities of wood,
charcoal and peat are shown in Table V.
V. GASIFICATION SYSTEM
Gasification is a thermo-chemical procedure in which
carbonaceous (carbon-rich) feedstocks such as coal,
petro-coke or biomass are converted into a gas consisting
of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (and lesser amounts of
carbon dioxide and other trace gases) under oxygen
depleted, high pressure and high-heat and/or steam
conditions. The resultant gaseous compound is called
Syngas. Carried out under proper conditions, gasification
is a capable energy extracting process that can return
double benefits as a waste stream disposal system.
A. The Process: Gasification, not Combustion
Combustion is an exothermic (heat releasing) reaction
between a high carbon fuel and an oxidizer (a material
that supports combustion, usually oxygen) in which the
fuel is burned to generate heat as an energy source.
Carbon fuel + Oxygen Heat + Water + Carbon
Dioxide
Gasification is an exothermic reaction between a high
carbon fuel and a watchfully controlled and limited
supply of oxidizer, in which the fuel yields valuable
elemental and compound gases that can be made into
other products.
Carbon fuel + Oxygen Hydrogen + Carbon Monoxide
(plus trace Water and Carbon Dioxide)

The gasification story is not all magnificence. It has


its drawbacks and trade-offs just like any other difficult
endeavor, and whether it is eventually fruitful and
sustainable remains to be seen. Looking at the big picture
though, gasification, and its resulting Syngas, with its
potential to create all types of useful chemicals and
synthetic fuels, surely deserves a spot-at-the-table with
other alternatives [10].
VI. APPLICATIONS
A review of gasifier applications has been published
by Foley and Barnard [11], which discusses the use of
gasifiers for production of fuel gas for heat generation as
well as the operation of gasifiers in combination with
engines.
Production of fuel gas
Most gasifiers in commercial operation today are used
for the production of heat, rather than fuel for internal
combustion engines, because of the less stringent
necessities for gas heating value and tar content.

A.

B. Production of mechanical or electrical power in


stationary installations
Gasifiers connected to stationary engines offer the
option of using biomass to generate mechanical or
electrical power in the range from a few kW up to a few
MW.
It is convenient to differentiate between applications
in terms of power output. Figure 5 shows the power range
of the various systems [12].
a) Large scale applications (500 kW and above): This is
the domain of the specialized fluidized bed or fixed bed
installations.
Equipment costs are likely to be in the range of US$
1000 per installed kW and upwards.

B. Advantages of Gasification

Feedstock flexibility
Product flexibility
Near-zero emissions
High efficiency
Energy security

C. Disadvantages of Gasification

Complex multi-stage process


Up-front processing of feedstock

Syngas must be cleaned/purified


Initial setup is expensive

Figure 5

Application of biomass gasification processes

b) Medium scale applications (30 -500 kW): Fixed bed


equipment fuelled by wood, charcoal and some types of
agricultural wastes (maize cobs, coconut shells) is
presented by a number of European and US
manufacturers.

27

c) Small-scale applications (7 - 30 kW): This size would


be appropriate for a large number of village applications
in developing countries (e.g. village maize, cereal mills,
small-scale sugar crushers and looms, etc.).
The equipment must be cheap (less than 150
US$/kW), extremely consistent and should need no
special operation and repairs skills.
Designs fit for local manufacture are tested and
produced in the Philippines [13], Tanzania [14]-and a
number of other countries.
It is sometimes also supposed that charcoal gasifier
systems can be made cheaper than wood gasifiers
systems in the 7 - 30 kW power range. There is some
support for this in the prices charged for vehicle gasifier
systems throughout the Second World War [15].
d) Micro scale applications (1 - 7 kW): This is the range
use by small and medium farmers in developing countries
for providing power for irrigation systems.
C. Mobile applications
The exercise of down-draught gasifiers fuelled by
wood or charcoal to power cars, lorries, buses, trains,
boats and ships has proved its importance and at least one
European country (Sweden) maintains plans for largescale production in case of a crisis. This technique is
presently being studied for powering of tractors
(Switzerland, France, Finland, and Netherlands) as well
as small vans and boats (Philippines) and Lorries (Sri
Lanka).

been
based on downdraft gasification. However it
appears that for fuels with high ash content fluidized bed
combustion may suggest a solution. At present no
dependable and economically feasible systems exist.
Biggest
challenge in gasification systems lies in
developing consistent and economically cheap cooling
and cleaning trains. Utmost usage of producer gas has
been in driving internal combustion engine, both for
agricultural as well as for automotive uses. Though direct
heat applications like grain drying etc. is very attractive
for agricultural systems. A spark ignition engine running
on producer gas on an average produces 0.55-0.75 kWh
of energy from 1 kg of biomass. Compression ignition
(diesel) engines cannot run totally on producer gas. Thus
to produce 1kWh of energy they use 1kg of biomass
and 0.07liters of diesel. As a result they effect 80-85%
diesel saving. Future applications like methanol
production, using producer gas in fuel cell and small
scale irrigation systems for developing countries
recommend the greatest potentialities.
REFERENCES
[1]

[2]

[3]

VII. CURRENT STATUS OF BIOMASS GASIFICATION


Excellent survey of existing status of gasification
technology has been carried out by Foley and Barnard
[16]. They have reviewed the position in both developed
and developing countries.
The worlds biggest gasification manufacturing
facility is Gasifier and Equipment Manufacturing
Corporation (GEMCOR) in Philippines. They are
producing about 3000 units/year range in size from 10250 kW. Besides they have just started producing
gasifiers for
Direct heat applications. Their main applications
have been for irrigation pumps and power generating
sets. So far about 1000 units have been installed within
Philippines running on charcoal, wood chips and
briquettes.
In other countries of Asia and Africa the work is being
carried out in research institution and a small amount of
prototypes have been made and tested [17].

[4]
[5]
[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]
[11]

VIII. CONCLUSION
Biomass gasification is the most workable alternative
energy system for agricultural purposes. Most ideal fuels
for gasification have been charcoal and wood. However
biomass residues are the most suitable fuels for on-farm
systems and offer the maximum challenge to researchers
and gasification system manufacturers. Very narrow
experience has been gained in gasification of biomass
residues. Most widely used and researched systems have

[12]
[13]
[14]

[15]

Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the


Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy
from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing
Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, 2009.
Directive 2004/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the
Council of 11 February 2004 on the promotion of cogeneration
based on a useful heat demand in the internal energy market and
amending Directive 92/42/EEC, 2004.
Berndes G, Hansson J, Egeskog A, Johnsson F. Strategies for 2nd
generation biofuels in EU Co-firing to stimulate feedstock
supply development and process integration to improve energy
efficiency and economic competitiveness, Biomass and
Bioenergy, in press, doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2009.07.007.
K. Difs and L. Trygg, Pricing district heating by marginal cost,
Energy Policy 37 (2) (2009), pp. 606616.
Chandrakant Turare , ARTES Institute, University of Flensburg
Flensburg, Germany
Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Generator Gas- The
Swedish Experience from 1939-1945. SERI, Golden, Colorado,
1979, Chap. 2.
Schapfer, P.,
and Tobler, J., Theoretical and Practical
Investigations Upon the Driving of Motor Vehicles with Wood
Gas, Bern 1937
Anil K. Rajvanshi BIOMASS GASIFICATION Chapter (No. 4) in
book Alternative Energy in Agriculture, Vol. II, Ed. D. Yogi
Goswami, CRC Press, 1986, pgs. 83-102.
Reed, T. B., Graboski, M., and Markson, M., The SERI High
Pressure Oxygen Gasifier, Report SERI/TP-234-1455R, Solar
Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado, Feb.1982.
Christine & Scott Gable Gasification's History, Process, Pros and
ConsFrom, former About.com Guide
Foley, G. and Barnard, G. 1983. Biomass gasification in
developing countries. Earthscan Technical Report No. 1. London,
U.K.
Skov, N.A. and Papworth, M.L. 1974. The Pegasus unit. Pegasus
publishers Inc. Olympia, Washington, U.S.A.
Gasifier and Equipment Manufacturing Corporation (GEMCOR),
1982. Gasifier Applications, Manila, Philippines.
Zijp, T. and Stassen, H.E.M. 1982. Gasification of maize spills for
mechanical energy generation in rural areas in Tanzania. 1st Int.
Prod. Gas Conf., Colombo, Sri Lanka
The Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. 1979. Generator
Gas - The Swedish Experience from 1939-1945. Translated by the
Solar Energy Research Institute, U.S.A. SERI/SP-33-140.

28

[16] Foley, G., and Barnard, G., Biomass Gasification in Developing


Countries, Technical Report No. 1, Earthscan, London, 1983,
Chap 2.4.
[17] California Energy Commission, An Investigation of the
Downdraft Gasification Characteristics of Agricultural and
Forestry Residues; Interim Report, 1979.
[18] Jenkins, B.M. 1980. Down-draught gasification characteristics of
major California residue-derived fuels, Ph.D. Thesis, Engineering,
University of California, Davis, U.S.A.

29

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Coal Liquefaction Technologies for Producing


Ultra Clean Fuel
M. S. Tahir, N. Ul-Haq, H. Nasir and N. Islam
Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering,
National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
AbstractThe expanding demands for petroleum,
accompanied by the diminishing petroleum reserves and the
energy security, has intensified the significance in coal
liquefaction technologies (CTL) globally and specially in
Pakistan. Pakistan is rich in coal resources, but short of
petroleum. The Geological Survey of Pakistan based on
wide spread drilling over an area of 9000 sq. km, a total of
175 billion tons of coal resource potential has been assessed.
This paper overviews a general introduction on the
mechanisms and processes of CLT such as direct coal
liquefaction (DCL) and indirect coal liquefaction (ICL)
technologies.

INTRODUCTION
The Industrial Revolution has made coal an important
source of energy. Coal consumption exceeded the limit
that of firewood and charcoal for the first time in the
latter half of the nineteenth century, making coal a major
source of energy. Economically viable global coal
reserves are expected to total about one trillion tons,
about half of which is comprised of low-grade coal such
as sub-bituminous coal and brown coal. Coal has a larger
ratio of reserves to production (R/P) than that of oil and
natural gas. The main components of coal and different
liquid fuels are carbon and hydrogen. The molecular size
of coal is greater than 1000 which is greater than liquid
fuels as well as other chemicals (about 200 for liquid
fuels). The hydrogen to carbon ratio (H/C, molar) of coal
is about 0.8 while that of liquid fuels is about 2.0.
Pakistan is rich in its coal reserves. Thar coalfield is
approximately located between Latitudes 2415N and
2545N and Longitudes 69 45E and 70 45E in the
southern part of Sindh Province in the Survey of Pakistan
topo-sheet Nos. 40 L/2, 5 and 6. Based on available
infrastructure and favorable geology, the Geological
Survey of Pakistan selected four blocks near Islamkot for
exploration and assessment of coal resources. As a result
of wide spread drilling over an area of 9000 km2, a total
of 175 billion tons of coal resource potential has been
assessed.
Due to the rapid increase in demand for petroleum and its
declining reserves, the concern over energy security has
intensified the interest in coal liquefaction, especially for
those countries which are short of oil resources but have
abundant coal reserves, such as the United States, China

and Pakistan, etc [1]. Coal can be converted into liquid


fuels mainly by direct coal liquefaction (DCL), indirect
coal liquefaction (ICL) and Hybrid of both these
technologies. In direct coal liquefaction (DCL) processes
coal is liquefied directly into liquid fuels at around 450
500 C of temperature, under 1530 M Pa of pressure and
with hydrogen (H2) in a suitable solvent with appropriate
catalysts [2, 3]. Indirect coal liquefaction (ICL) processes
can be carried out through gasification followed by
catalytic conversion of synthesis gas into clean
hydrocarbons and oxygenated transportation fuels like
methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel or
gasoline [1]. The main function of the coal-to-liquid
processes are the breakage of the coals molecular size
and addition of hydrogen into coal, i.e. the destructive
hydrogenation of coal. Both the molecular structure of
coal (lignite, sub bituminous, bituminous and anthracite)
as well as the composition of Coal before and after Coal
Liquefaction Process is shown in Figure 1 [6].
BACKGROUND AND HISTORY
Direct coal liquefaction was developed as a commercial
process in Germany based on research pioneered by

Figure 1. Coal Composition before and after Coal Liquefaction


Process.

Friedrich Bergius in the 1910s. In addition to the Bergius


process (a high-pressure catalytic hydrogenation process),
other types of process, represented by the Pott-Bioche
solvent dissolving process were also developed before

30

World War II. Compared to the ICL processes, the DCL


processes produce a much larger variety of products
(primarily naphtha, a gasoline product) at a higher energy
efficiency, although they are disadvantageous with
respect to the operating difficulty resulting from the
abrasive nature of the coal slurry, the need for expensive
hydrogen-donor solvents (such as tetralin), and the
difficulties associated with separation of solids from the
liquid products [2].
Between around 1920 and 1930, the South Manchurian
Railway Co., Ltd. started basic research on coal
liquefaction using the Bergius Process, and around 1935
initiated operation of a bench scale PDU (process
development unit) plant. Based on this research, a plant
with annual production capacity of 20,000 tons of coal oil

after the war, the U.S. Armed Forces Headquarters


banned coal liquefaction research, alleging that it was
military research. In 1955, coal liquefaction research was
resumed at national laboratories and universities. This
was not, however, research on coal oil production but the
production of chemicals from the high-pressure
hydrocracking of coal. This research continued until
around 1975. The Sunshine Project was inaugurated in
1974 on the heels of the first oil crisis, encouraging
efforts to devise liquefaction technology unique to Japan
as part of an oil-alternative energy development program.
Under the Sunshine Project, technological development
was undertaken for three coal liquefaction processes,
(Solvolysis, Solvent Extraction, and Direct
Hydrogenation), to liquefy bituminous coal. The R&D of

Figure 2. Coal Liquefaction Concept

was built at the Wushun coal mine, China, and operated


until 1943. In the meantime, Korean Artificial Petroleum
Co., Ltd. succeeded, between 1938 and 1943, in the
continuous operation of a direct coal liquefaction plant
capable of treating 100 t/d of coal at its Agochi factory.
The production of coal oil at both of the above-mentioned
plants was suspended at the request of the military so that
the plants could be used for the hydrogenation of heavy
oil or to produce methanol. Around 1930, besides the
direct coal liquefaction method (Bergius Process), a
second process, the Fischer-Tropsch Process, was used as
an indirect coal liquefaction method to study coal
liquefaction technology and to produce synthetic oil. The
Fischer-Tropsch Process was introduced into Japan upon
its announcement in Germany in 1935 and, in 1937, the
construction of a plant commenced in Miike. This oil
synthesis plant was completed in 1940, with an annual
production capacity of 30,000 tons of coal oil. Under the
backdrop of war, production of synthetic oil was
continued until the end of World War II. Immediately

brown coal liquefaction processes began at the end of


1980 [4]. Figure 2 [6] depicts the coal liquefaction
process concept.

DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION (DCL) PROCESS /


TECHNOLOGY
Objectives of Direct Coal Liquefaction are first to break
down large coal molecules into smaller component
molecules, then adding hydrogen, which results in the
removal of oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen unwanted
contents. To make liquid fuels from coal there is a need

31
Figure 3. Direct Conversion Process.

to add hydrogen or reject carbon. The direct conversion


process of coal is shown in Figure 3 [7].
Direct liquefaction processes add hydrogen to the
hydrogen deficient organic structure of the coal, breaking
it down only as far as is necessary to produce distillable
liquids. Coal dissolution is accomplished under high
temperature (~400 OC) and pressure (~1500-3000 psi)
with hydrogen and a coal-derived solvent. The coal
fragments are further hydrocracked to produce a synthetic
crude oil. This synthetic crude must then undergo refinery
upgrading and hydrotreating to produce acceptable
transportation fuels. The flow chart of DCL technology is
shown in Figure 4 [7].

Direct Coal Liquefaction Benefits:


Followings are the benefits of the direct coal
liquefaction process:
1. Conceptually simple process.
2. Products have higher energy density (BTU/gallon)
than indirect conversion.
3. Direct coal liquefaction has a thermal efficiency of
around 60%, which is higher than that of FT
synthesis, 50-55%. One ton of a bituminous coal can
be converted into approximately three barrels of high
volatile high quality distillate syncrude oil for
refinery upgrading and blending.
4. Direct Liquefaction provides high octane, low sulfur

Figure 4. Flowchart of DCL Process


Catalyst

Coal + Hydrogen Linear + Ring Type Hydrocarbo ns

(1)
5.

Quality of Liquids Obtained from Direct Coal


Liquefaction Process:
Liquid Products of direct method are much more
aromatic than indirect one.
DCL Naphtha can be used to make very high-octane
gasoline component; however aromatics content of
reformulated gasoline is now limited by EPA.
DCL Distillate is poor diesel blending component
due to high aromatics which results in low cetane
versus U.S. average of about 46.
Raw DCL Liquids still contain contaminants e.g. Sulfur,
Nitrogen, Oxygen, possibly metals and require extensive
hydrotreatment to meet Clean Fuels Specifications.

6.

gasoline and a distillate that will require upgrading to


make an acceptable diesel blending stock.
Development of direct liquefaction technology could
lead to hybrid (direct/indirect) processes producing
high quality gasoline and diesel.
National Coal Council (NCC) and others suggest that
direct liquefaction may have a better carbon footprint
than indirect technology.

Direct Coal Liquefaction Disadvantages:


1. High aromatic contents.
2. Low-cetane number diesel.
3. Potential water and air emissions issues.
4. Fuels produced are not a good environmental fit
Direct Coal Liquefaction Challenges and Implications:
Following main challenges are involved in the direct coal
to liquid technology:

32

Uncertainty in World Oil Prices


High Capital Costs
Investment Risk
Technical Challenges are;
o First technology (since 2nd World War) is being
commercialized in the PRC (Shenhua)need
other first-of-kind large-scale operation (with
carbon management) to verify baselines and
economics.
o R&D activity should focus on remaining process
issues such as further improvement in efficiency,
product cost and quality, reliability of materials
and components and data needed to better define
carbon life cycle.
o The
timelines
for
demonstration
and
development of direct liquefaction technology
and carbon capture and storage must be
integrated.
o Hybrid technology needs development including
integrated demonstration.
Environmental Challenges are
o CO2 and criteria pollutants.

Different DCL Projects and Technologies:


1.
2.
3.

Brown Coal to Liquid (BCL) Technology


Shenhua DCL Project (in China).
Bituminous
Coal
Liquefaction
Technology
(NEDOL)
INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION (ICL) PROCESS /
TECHNOLOGY

Indirect liquefaction involves the gasification of coal


followed by the catalytic conversion of the product gas to
a liquid. Coal is gasified with oxygen to produce a
synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide and
hydrogen. This gas is cleaned of all impurities, and the
clean synthesis gas is sent to a Fischer-Tropsch (F-T)
reactor where most of the clean gas is catalytically
converted into zero-sulfur liquid hydrocarbon fuels.

Carbon dioxide in the tail gas can be captured for


subsequent storage, and the unconverted synthesis gas
combusted in a gas turbine combined-cycle power plant
to generate electric power. The indirect coal liquefaction
a two-stage process described by:
1. Gasification:

Coal + Oxygen + Steam


Syngas ( H 2 + CO)
2.

(2)

Syngas Conversion:

H 2 + CO Catalyst

Linear Hydrocarbons

(3)

ICL technology can also provide hydrocarbon fuels that


resemble crude oil-derived products. One possibility is
synthetic middle distillates derived via the F-T process
that can either be used directly as diesel or in blends with
petroleum-derived diesel. Another possibility is gasoline
via the route of first making methanol (MeOH) from
syngas and then converting MeOH into gasoline via the
Mobil process. But MeOH can also be used directly as a
fuel, and other oxygenates (fuels containing some
oxygen) such as DME can also be provided via ICL
process technology and used directly as fuels. Figure 5
depicts the processes and steps involved in ICL
technology [8]. At present the most important options are
hydrocarbon fuels synthesized via the F-T process,
MeOH, and DME [9].
Methanol (MeOH) as a synthetic fuel for transportation:
Because of its high octane rating, MeOH is well
suited for use in SIE vehicles. It can be used in such
vehicles with relatively modest modifications of the basic
vehicle. Used in SIE vehicles, MeOH offers air-quality
benefits that are thought to be comparable to those
offered by reformulated gasoline. The ozone formation
potential from formaldehyde emissions of MeOH is
thought to be less than the ozone formation potential of
unburned hydrocarbon emissions; NOx emissions from
MeOH engines operated at the same compression ratio as
for gasoline would be less than for gasoline, because of

Figure 5. Flowchart of ICL Process

33

the lower flame temperature, but when the


compression ratio is increased to take advantage
of MeOHs higher octane rating, thereby
improving engine efficiency, this advantage may
be lost. And just as some of the unburned
hydrocarbon emissions for gasoline are
carcinogenic, the US Environmental Protection
Agency has classified formaldehyde as a
probable human carcinogen, on the basis of
evidence in humans and in rats, mice, hamsters,
and monkeys [9].
The major drawbacks of MeOH as a
transport fuel are its low volumetric energy
density (half that of gasoline), its affinity for
water, its corrosiveness, and its toxicity -- a fatal
dose is 2-7 % MeOH in 1 litre (l) of water, which
would defy detection by taste. MeOH is
classified as a poison (it is rated as slightly more
toxic than gasoline), and it is infinitely miscible
with water (forms mixtures in all concentrations),
allowing ready transport in the environment.
Chronic low-dose MeOH vapor exposure from
normal vehicle operations is not likely to cause
health problems. However, exposure through
MeOH-contaminated drinking water is a concern.

TABLE1.SomePropertiesofAlternativeFuels
Gasoline

Diesel

Methanol

DME

Chemical Formula

---

---

CH3OH

CH3OCH3

Molecular Weight

---

---

32.043

46.069

Saturated Vapor
Pressure @ 20oC, bar.
Liquid Density @ 20oC,
Kg/l
LHV, MJ/Kg

---

---

---

5.1

0.738

0.856

0.797

0.668

42.58

41.68

19.9

28.5

LHV, MJ/l, 20oC

31.44

35.68

15.9

19.0

Carbon Contents Kg
C/GJ
Fuel Cycle, GHG
emissions (CO2
equivalents), Kg C/GJ

19.59

20.87

18.8

18.3

25.56

26.11

---

---

(prospectively at lower cost) in a single step by


combining mainly three reactions in a single reactor [1]:

Dimethyl ether (DME) as a synthetic fuel:


DME is a non-carcinogenic and virtually non-toxic
chemical produced at a rate of 143,000 t/year for
chemical process uses and one significant final consumer
market: as an aerosol propellant that replaced fluorinated
hydrocarbons phased out because of concerns about
ozone-layer damage. It is also usable as a fuel. Currently
DME is made by MeOH dehydration: 2 CH3OH
CH3OCH3 + H2O. But DME can also be made

CO + H 2 O
CO 2 + H 2 (Water Gas Shift )

(4)

CO + 2 H 2
CH 3 OH ( Methanol Synthesis)

(5)

2CH 3 OH
CH 3 OCH 3 + H 2 O

(6)

( Methanol Dehydration)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is a clean oxygenated


synthetic fuel that can be made from any carbonaceous
feedstock. It is a gas at ambient conditions but can be

Figure 6. Flowchart of HCL Process

34

stored as a liquid in mildly pressurized canisters like


those used for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), a
propane/butane mixture. As a liquid DMEs volumetric
energy density (MJ/l) is 82 % of that for propane and 55
% of that for No. 2 diesel (See table 1). DME is well
suited for use as a transport fuel (as an alternative to
diesel) as discussed in the main text, as a cooking fuel (as
an alternative to LPG), and as a fuel for stationary power.
DME can be substituted for LPG, currently the preferred
clean cooking fuel in rural areas where it is available and
affordable and in urban areas where natural gas is not
available [9].

HYBRID COAL LIQUEFACTION (HCL) PROCESS /


TECHNOLOGY
Combination of direct coal liquefaction with FT
synthesis (indirect coal liquefaction process) may be
synergistic on thermal efficiency and fuel quality. It is
generally accepted that fuels produced from direct coal
liquefaction contains more aromatic and is of lower
quality than the fuels from FT synthesis. With increasing
environmental concern and increasingly stringent
emission regulations, fuels produced from direct coal
liquefaction will be less competitive, with octane number
of 40-45 after hydrogenation for diesel. The fuels from
FT synthesis, however, are of super-high qualities with
octane number as high as 75-80, much exceeding the
current market specifications, but with somewhat lower
thermal efficiency (50-55%) compared to direct coal
liquefaction (60%). Blending of FT diesel with
petroleum-derived diesel has been proposed for meeting
the fuel specification at the lowest cost. Blending FT
diesel with direct coal liquefaction diesel would certainly
be a choice [5]. Figure 6 [8] shows the hybrid of both
direct as well indirect coal liquefaction processes. The
theoretical product yield of the hybrid plant consists of
C3-C4 18%, F-T naphtha 19 %, DCL Naphtha 26 %, F-T
diesel 22 %, DCL VGO 5 % and DCL distillate 10 % [7].
(1)

Summary

The brief discussion presented in this report results in the


following:
1. Coal liquefaction is a realistic approach for countries
deficient with oil but abundant with coal reserves.
2. Coal liquefaction processes are complex and
characterized by heavy investment, but they are
economically competitive at oil price of $25/bbl and
at cost of coal at coal mines (without cost of shipping
and handling). Thermal efficiency of coal
liquefactions is reasonably high, 60% for direct coal
liquefaction and 50-55% for indirect coal
liquefaction.
3. Liquefaction of coal significantly reduces shipping
and handling cost of coal, a reduction of 75-80% on
thermal energy equivalent bases. Coal liquefaction
produces ultra-clean fuels and converting the
polluting elements such as sulfur and nitrogen into
marketable products at low cost.

4.
5.

6.

High concentration carbon dioxide rejected from coal


liquefaction plants provides a good platform for
carbon dioxide sequestration at low cost.
Integration of direct and indirect coal liquefaction
processes and blending of the fuels produced in these
two processes will result in fuels that meet the
increasing stringent specification requirement at high
thermal efficiency. Integration of coal liquefaction
plants with modern electricity generation via
gasification of coal will result in about 15%
reduction in fuel cost.
Use of methanol directly to fuel automobile may not
be a realistic choice due to various types of
problems, and the cost of methanol production is not
significantly different from, or even higher than, that
of direct coal liquefaction and FT synthesis on
energy base.
(2)

References

[19] E.D. Larson, T. Ren, Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal


liquefaction, Energy Sustain Develop. Vol. 7, pp. 79-102, 2003.
[20] K.K. Robinson, Reaction engineering of direct coal liquefaction,
Energies vol. 2, pp. 976-1006, 2009.
[21] M. Kouzu, K. Koyama ,M. Oneyama, T. Aramaki, T. Hayashi,
M. Kobayashi, H. Itoh , H. Hattori, Catalytic hydrogenation of
recycle solvent in a 150 t/d pilot plant of the NEDOL coal
liquefaction process, Fuel vol. 79, pp. 365371, 2000.
[22] W. Sadao, "Bulletin of the Japan Institute of Energy", vol. 78 pp.
798, 1999.
[23] L. Zhenyu, Clean Coal Technology: Direct and Indirect Coal-toLiquid Technologies, Inter Academy Council, China, 2005.
[24] L. Jim, L. Theo, T. Sam, Recent Advances in Direct Coal
Liquefaction Technology, Proceedings ACS National Meeting,
Salt Lake City, Utah, 2009.
[25] J. Winslow, E. Schmetz, Direct Coal Liquefaction Overview,
presented to National Energy Technology Laboratory, DOE, USA.
[26] M. C. Lowell, Coal Conversion Technology, Congressional
Noontime Briefing, Rayburn House Office Building, Washington,
April 24, 2008.
[27] H.W. Robert, E. D. Larson, A comparison of direct and indirect
liquefaction technologies for making fluid fuels from coal,
Journal of Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. VII, pp. 103129, 2003.
[28] X. Zhengang,
The Development Status of Clean Coal
Technology in China, 3rd International Conference on Clean Coal
Technologies Sardinia, Italyon, 15~17 May2007.
[29] D.B. Dadyburjorand Z. Liu, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of
Chemical Technology, Editor-in-Chief: S. Arza, Wiley-Inter
science, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, Fifth
Edition, 2004,

35

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Combined Wind, Hydropower and Photovoltaic Systems for Generation of


Electric Power and Control of Water Resources
Kh.S.Karimov1,2, Kh.M.Akhmedov2, Muhammad Abid1 and G.N.Petrov2
1

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi, Pakistan.


Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Rudaki 33, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
khasan@giki.edu.pk, abid@giki.edu.pk

electric power. It is proposed that the utilization of water


Abstract In this paper the present day energy consumption
with the supplement of wind and solar energy will facilitate
and potentialities of utilization of wind- and hydropower
the proper and efficient management of water resources in
resources in some Central and Southern Asian Republics, in
Central Asia. In the future in Tajikistan, wind power systems
particular, in the Republic of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and
with a capacity of 30-100 MW and more will be installed,
Pakistan are presented. The maximum consumption of
providing power balance of the country in winter; hence
electric power is observed in winter time when hydropower is
saving water in reservoirs, especially in drought years. This
the minimum, but wind power is the maximum. At the same
will provide the integration of electricity generated by wind,
time water is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation
hydroelectric power and photovoltaic system in the unified
and in winter time for generation of electric power. This
energy system of the country.
results in conflicts between countries that utilize water mostly
for irrigation and those which use water for generation of
Keywords wind power, hydropower, photovoltaic, solar energy, mutual supplementary, irrigation, electric power generation, and
management of water resources.

I. INTRODUCTION
Rational utilization of hydro, wind and solar energy in
Central and Southern Asia is an important problem of
today. It is connected on one hand with an opportunity of
use of a huge renewable energy potential for the
production of electric power and on the other hand with
the necessity of the preservation and improvement of
ecology of environment by the prevention of pollution of
reservoirs, ground and air by different kinds of wastes of
non-renewable energies utilization and decrease in the
cutting down of woods [1] Around 75% population of
the countries live in the countryside and mountain
territories where there is shortage of energy resources,
but there are a lot of rivers that are the major source of
hydro power.
Countries like Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan
possess great potentialities of utilization of energy of the
sun, water and biomass. Furthermore, traditional life
style of inhabitants of villages, where practically, in each
yard there is the availability of water resources and
hydro-power origin for production of electric power.
However, till to-date these potentialities in the countries
are not used to their reasonable potential. Absence of
energy is directly affecting the population resulting in
substantial lower standard of living, in general to the
inhabitants of villages and specifically living in the
mountain areas [2-4].
In Central Asia the problem of water is one of the most
important problems of present days. Tajikistan and
Kurguzstan are situated in the flow forming zone of
rivers Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya; and Uzbekistan,

Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan are in the zone of


utilization of water resources [5]. At the same time water
is needed mostly in summer time for irrigation and in
winter time for generation of electric power. It can bring
to conflicts between countries that utilize the water
mostly for irrigation and those that use water for
generation of electric power.
In utilization of renewable energy resources (RER),
developed different schemes of combined or mutual
supplementary utilization of wind-solar energy,
hydropower-wind energy, hydro-wind and solar energy
utilization were developed [6, 7]. Combined schemes
have a number of advantages as reliability of the power
supply, stability of output parameters as power, voltage,
frequency, effective management of the resources etc.
In this paper data on hydro and wind power resources of
Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Pakistan are presented. As an
example, the project for control of water resources at
mutual supplementary wind, hydropower and
photovoltaic systems of Tajikistan is discussed.
Necessity of renewable energy utilization in Tajikistan
and Kyrgyzstan will clear if we look through the nonrenewable energy resources (NRER) in Central Asian
Republics. Table 1 shows the resources of NRER of
Central Asian Republic and shows as an example that
Tajikistan has very few gas and oil [8]. There are
relatively rich reserves of the coal, but is less utilized
because of lack of good roads in the mountains and/or
modem equipment for production.

36

Table 1: Non-renewable energy resources of the Central Asian


Republics
Sr
Republic
Total
Gas
Petroleum
Coal
#
Million Tons of equivalent fuel
1
Uzbekistan
3554.2
1425.4
190.5
1938.3
2
Kyrgyzstan
1359.9
7.7
87.4
1264.8
3
Tajikistan
719.3
15.0
37.0
667.3
4
Turkmenistan
2815.3
1971.4
840.9
3.0
II. HYDRO POWER RESOURCES
Table 2 shows hydro power resources of Central Asian
countries [8]. From the point of RER, in particular,
hydropower resources, Tajikistan is rich as compared to
NRER situation (Table 1). Concerning hydropower
Tajikistan occupies the first position in Central Asia, the
second in former Soviet Union and the eighth position in
the world. Indeed hydro power is the base of centralized
power system that provides energy to industry and to the
population of urban areas. Power engineering of
Tajikistan was founded in 1936 first of all on the base of
hydro power [9]. The total power of electric station was
almost 4420MW, including 378MW of thermal electric
Country
Hydro Power Resources (TWh)
Ss
rt
#
a
Potentia Technical Economical
util
t
l
ize
d
i
1o Uzbekistan
88
27.4
15
6.8
2n Kyrgyzstan
143
73
32
9.5
3 Tajikistan
300
144
88
15.
s
8
4
5(

6h

Turkmenistan
Kazakhstan
(south)
Afghanistan
Total

24
20

5.8
20

5.8
10

-1.7

10
585

10
280.2

6
156.8

0.6
34.
4

i
c
h is only 10 % of hydro power). Hence it is obvious that
hydro power plays a dominant role in Tajikistan. At the
time of Soviet Union, a number of hydropower plants
were constructed [8] (Table 3). At present the Republic
continues construction of hydroelectric power stations of
3600MW in Rogun and 220MW (Sangtuda-2). Experts
have estimated that Tajikistan from the point of technical
potentialities and ecological criterion can fulfils
countrys needs from electric energy and can even export
part of it to Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan, utilization its
hydraulic power resources only [8].
Table 2: Hydro Power Resources of Central Asian countries
Table 3: Main hydropower plants of Tajikistan
Sr. #
Details
Norak (3000 MW, height of dam is 300 m, constructed in
1
1960-1980)
Baipaza (600 MW).
2
Golovnaya (240 MW)
3
Kayarkkum (126 MW)
4
Sangtuda-1 (670 MW, constructed in 2009)
5
Sangtuda-2 (220 MW, constructing)
6
Rogun (3600 MW, height of dam is 355 m, constructing)
7
III. THE AVERAGE COST OF THE HYDROPOWER IS
ABOUT OF 2000 US$/KW. TARIFFS FOR LARGE AND
SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANTS ARE ALMOST 10 CENT

AND 4 CENT FOR 1 KWH RESPECTIVELY. SMALL


HYDROPOWER PLANTS HAVE ADVANTAGES DUE TO THE
SHORT TERMS OF CONSTRUCTION AND LOW COST OF
ELECTRIC ENERGY. AT THE SAME TIME THE LARGE
WATER RESERVOIRS OF THE LARGE HYDROPOWER
PLANTS CAN ACCUMULATE SUFFICIENTLY LARGE
VOLUME OF WATER THAT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE
IRRIGATION AND ELECTRICITY GENERATION IN DURING
OF LONG TIME

III.
WIND POWER POTENTIAL IN TAJIKISTAN
The gross wind power and energy potential of Tajikistan
is about 62GW and 5x104GWh approximately [10]. The
mean annual wind velocity (Vz) in some places of
Tajikistan, like to Khujand and Faizabad, is almost 5 m
s-1 (at height (Z) of 10 m over the earth surface), which
is sufficient for practical application [10]. As is known
[10] the wind velocity increases with increase of the
height:
Vz
=
V10
(Z
/
10)0.14
(1)
where V10 is velocity at Z=10 m. At present in
Tajikistan a few number of wind power systems of
power of around of 1 kW are producing electric power
for domestic application.
POTENTIAL OF WATER AND WIND ENERGY OF
PAKISTAN
The hydropower of Pakistan is about of 50GW and at
present about of 10% of that was developed [4,11,12] by
constructing large, small and micro-hydro plants. Well
developed irrigation system of Pakistan allows using the
potential of the canals network in Punjab area along with
the hydropower of rivers in northern part of the country
[4]. Pakistan has large potential for utilization of wind
energy, especially in the places that are near of coastline.
PCRET started installation of small stand-alone wind
power systems for generation of electricity in Sindh and
Balochistan provinces [4].
POTENTIAL OF WIND POWER OF KYRGYZSTAN
The average wind velocity in Kyrgyzstan is limited in the
range of 4-6 ms-1 [3]. For utilization of wind power the
area near of the town Balykchi in Issyk-Kul region is
considered as the best. At present, by collaboration with
Russian and Korean companies the project is developing
to install wind power systems with total capacity of 50
MW. Along with the traditional horizontal axis wind
power plants manufactured in China, installation of
vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) designed by A. V.
Bolotov is considered that will be fabricated by KazakhRussian company Eneksis. The power of these plants
will be in the range of from 300W to 20kW. It is
considered that VAWT has the following advantages [3]:
1.
The turbine does not depend on direction of the
wind.
2.
Wide range of power of the turbines.
3.
Possibility to use modular principle that allows
changing number of installed modules to vary output
electric power.

37

Fig.1 shows hydropower, wind power and consumption


of electric power in Tajikistan during a year. It is seen
that maximum of hydropower and minimum of wind
power are
in summer and vs. in winter time.
Consumption of electric power is the maximum in winter
time. It means utilization of wind power, especially in
winter time, will allow saving some amount of water in

Dec

Nov

Oct

Sep

Aug

Jun

May

Apr

Mar

Jul

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Feb

But for the effective and mutual supplementary use of


these kinds of energy, proper monitoring and assessment
primarily of wind power potential of Tajikistan for
sufficient practical utilization based on the preliminary
data to be collected is needed. Currently, a preliminary
assessment confirmed that there is sufficient wind
potential in several areas of the country, with much
stronger winds in the winter during the peak demand for
electricity. Preliminary calculations show that the
medium-term objectives for the installation of wind
power plants of total power of 500 MW (less than 15%
of the total installed hydropower plants in the country
today) would save annually about 1.2 cubic kilometers of
water in the Norak hydropower plant (11,4% of the total
volume of the Norak reservoir) .

Therefore by the government of the Republic of


Tajikistan and Academy of Sciences in collaboration
with government of the USA, the project is discussed for
the control of water resources of Central Asia by
combined utilization of wind and hydropower. In the
projects framework, assessment of the data will be made
on mutual supplementary wind- hydropower potentials
for effective management of the water resources of the
country and counteraction to the droughts. In practice, a
scientific and technical base will be created for the
installation of powerful wind power systems in the
regions where wind energy potential is sufficient for
practical utilization. In the case of the completion of this
project, the utilization of water for irrigation and
electricity generation will be improved significantly.
Mutual supplementary wind and hydropower project will
be proposed in order to ensure national energy security
and facilitate the management of water resources, as well
as counter drought. It is known that the cost of electricity
of wind power plants is higher than generated by
hydropower plants. However, Tajikistan has to use wind
power potential to solve the problems of dry years and
diversify its energy resources and to manage the water
resources.

Jan

IV.
COMBINED WIND, HYDROPOWER AND
PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS FOR CONTROL OF
WATER RESOURCES
Currently, Tajikistan is suffering a deep energy crisis
associated primarily with a deficit of traditional energy
resources (oil and gas), which adversely affects the
industrial potential and the economy as a whole. As
mentioned earlier that Tajikistan has huge hydropower
resources. Wind energy potential is almost never used in
industrial scale, and regulation of water is inadequate for
efficient irrigation and energy utilization. Because of the
shortage of electricity in the country the dumping of
water from largest at present, Norak hydropower plant
for electricity generation was much greater in the winter,
when other countries, for example Uzbekistan, do not
need the water for irrigation. As a result, in the region, a
conflict of interests for irrigation and energy generation
is increasing, that is between the demands for water for
irrigation in the summer and energy in the winter that can
be solved by the saving of water in the reservoirs during
the summer [13]. The estimates of potential of
hydropower and wind resources of Tajikistan are
sufficient not only for the needs of the country but for
export of electric power to neighboring countries as well
[5]. Integrated and sustainable use of these resources can
meet not only own needs of the Republic, but will also
allow to export the cheap and clean energy to other
countries, to improve the environmental situation in the
region [14,15].

reservoir for irrigation in summer period. From Fig.1


seen also that at present Tajikistan can export electric
power in summer time, whereas has to import some
amount of energy in winter time or utilize the water of
reservoirs for production of electric power for its needs.
But this scenario would have negative response to
Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan due to flood of the lands in
winter and shortage of water for irrigation in summer.

P/Pmax

4.
Generator is installed on the ground that makes
easier maintenance.
Communication companies show interest for the
installation of this kind of wind power plant, especially,
in triplication scheme of the power supply as wind power
plant plus photovoltaic power plant plus internal
combustion engine that make power supply very reliable.

Months
Figure 1: Hydropower (1), wind power (2) and consumption of
electric power (3) in Tajikistan during a year in arbitrary units:
P/Pmax is ratio of power to maximum power.

Report of the EBRD (Black and Veitch Renewable


Energy Assessment) assesses the potential of countrys
wind energy of 1.0 GW. This level can be achieved when
the melting of glaciers by 2030 will have a major impact
on reducing the level of the river, and when the total
installed hydropower will reach about 10 GW. The goal
is to get 300-500 MW in the next few years is now quite
realistic in view of existing 4.4 GW of wind power
potential. As a result of the completion this project will
provide the data and the necessary scientific and
technological base, allowing in the future, in practice,
implement pilot commercial projects on construction
and commissioning of wind power systems with a
capacity of 30-100 MW and more, that will assist in

38

filling the power balance of the country in winter, saving


water in reservoirs, especially in drought years and
getting of work experience for the integration of
electricity generated by wind and hydroelectric power in
the unified energy system of the country.
A preliminary assessment allows analyzing monthly data
on the wind power potential for following areas of
Tajikistan, as Khujand, Shurabad and Muminabad. It was
found that the wind power is stronger in winter time
than in the summer and in average the wind velocity is
equal to 5-6 ms-1. Wind energy component can reach
more than 10% of the hydropower component in energy
balance of the Tajikistan. Near the city of Khujand there
are several places where the exhausted uranium mines
(tails depositaries) are situated. These places cannot be
used for agriculture or industrial or urban construction
purposes. Therefore to the hydro and wind power
projects can be added large photovoltaic (PV) plants of
total power of about 500 kW as 300 days a year in this
area are sunny. The PV stations will be grid connected
containing PV generator, DC-AC inverter and
transformer, to supply electric power to the loads only in
day time [16].
Taking into account the discussion concerned utilization
of the hydro, wind and solar energies the combined
power systems (Fig.2) can be realized in practice. The
project actually has two basic aims: generation of
electric power and proper control or regulation of water
in reservoirs of the hydropower plants.
For the realization of the project the research work will
be conducted in the following areas:
1.
Under natural conditions the efficiency of the
demonstration (low power : 100 200 W) wind power
plants with Darya and Darya-Savonius rotors along with
small propeller type wind power units will be
determined. In addition these will be used as visual aids
for training of future professionals in the field of wind
energy.
2.
Simple and reliable probes for assessment of the
magnitude and direction of winds at different altitudes
(up to 65 meters) will be designed, manufactured and
tested. These probes will be used to obtain the relevant
information in this project. On these probes the sensors
of wind speed and its direction with digital output for

data processing in a computer network will be installed.


The installation height of the probes and sensors,
respectively, for estimation of wind speed and direction
will be adjustable.
3.
Photovoltaic stations will be installed in former
uranium mines (tails depositaries) in areas near the
Khujand city.
Water
Resources
(R
i)

Water Control

Irrigation

[1].

[2].

Hydro
Power
Plant

Wind
Power
Plant

PhotoVoltaic
Generator

Domestic
Applicatio
Loads
Agriculture
Figure 2: Combined hydro, wind and solar energy systems for
generation of electric power and control of water resources.

V.
CONCLUSSIONS
1.
Depending on local or regional conditions of
renewable energy resources, in particular, hydro, wind
and solar energy can be used at combined system that
allow from one point to provide sufficient electric power
and on the other hand to control water resources for the
needs of irrigation, i.e. agriculture and domestic
application of water.
2.
Realization of the project will create the
necessary conditions for the development of basic sectors
of the economy of the concerned countries as power
engineering that will assist to the economic and social
development, primarily, in the solving of the problem of
reducing of poverty, improving the ecological situation
and avoiding of conflicts between countries.
[3].

REFERENCES
B. Sirojev. Development of electroenergetics of Tajikistan. Irfon. Dushanbe
(1984).
B.Sirojev. Energetics of the Republic of
Tajikistan and perspectives of its
development.Scientific
Journal:
Economics of Tajikistan: strategy of
development, No.1 (1999) , pp.16-28.

Solar
Energy

Wind
Power

[4].

[5].

Renewable energy in Kyrgyz Republic.


Analytical Review, Edited by K.V.Latynin,
International Science and Technological
Center, Moscow, 2010.
N.A.Zaigham, Z.A.Nayyer, Prospects of
renewable energy sources in Pakisan,
Proceedings of COMSATS Conference,
Islamabad, Pakistan, 2004 on Renewable
Energy Technologies & Sustainable
Development, 2005, pp.65-81.
Kh.S.Karimov,
R.Marupov,
Kh.M.Akhmedov,
A.M.Ashurov,

39

U.Kh.Karimov. Potential of utilization of


solar energy and hydraulic power in
Tajikistan. Proceedings of Solar Experts
Meeting, December 18-21, 1995, Islamabad,
Pakistan, pp.204-206.
[6]. China new & renewable energy. 1999 white
book. China planning press, Beijing, (2000).
[7]. R.Marupov,
Kh.Karimov,
N.Nosirov.
Renewable energy resources and sustainable
development of mountain regions.-Scientific
Journal: Economics of Tajikistan: Strategy
of development, No.1 (1999)"pp.29-32.
[8]. G.Petrov, N.Leonidova. Power supply in the
Republic of Tajikistan and its correlation
with the problem of change of climate.Proc. of Seminar on problem of change of
climate. Dushanbe, 24-25April, 200l,pp.4356 .
[9]. U.Kh.Karimov,
Kh.S.Karimov
.On
utilization of micro hydroelectric power
stations in mountain regions of Tajikistan. Geliotekhnika, No.1-4 (1998), pp.87-90.
[10]. G.N.Petrov, Kh.M.Akhmedov K.Kabutov .,
Kh.S.Karimov Overall assessment of
situations in the energy sector in the world,
and Tajikistan. - Proceedings of the
Academy of Science and the department of
phys.-math., chemical, geological and

engineering sciences, 2 (135) 2009,


pp.101-110.
[11]. P. Akhter. Renewable Energy Technology
an
Energy-Solution
for
Long-Term
Sustainable Development. Proceedings of
the Renewable Energy Technologies for
Clean Environment and Sustainable
Development , Amman ,26-29 , March ,
2002 , pp.15-25 .
[12]. Z.I.Zaidi,
I.Ahmed
and
P.Akhter.
Renewable Energy Technologies in Pakistan
A Country Report. Workshop on
Renewable
Energy
Technologies
Dissemination and Market Development,
April, 3-6, 2000, Islamabad, Pakistan,
Editors P.Akhter and A.T.Naveed ,pp.156173.
[13]. Kh.M.Akhmedov
et
al.
Mutual
supplementary hydro and wind power
utilization for control of water resources.
Private information, Dushanbe, Tajikistan,
2010.
[14]. Kh.S.Karimov, Kh.M.Akhmedov Mikrohydropower engineering. Ltd Sapphire
Company ", Dushanbe, 2010, 96 p.
[15]. G.N.Petrov,
Kh.M. Akhmedov Small
hydropower plants in Tajikistan. Ltd
Sapphire Company ", Dushanbe, 2010, 148
p.

40

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Computer Simulation for Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Rotor Optimization


Ovais Mahfooz and Irfan Ullah
AbstractWind turbine design is a complex process that
includes multiple and conflicting criteria like maximizing
energy production and minimizing the cost incurred.
Often, such problems are solved using optimization
techniques. A computer simulation is essential in
analyzing the performance of a wind turbine rotor and
determining suitable values of various design variables.
The simulation will work with a design optimizer to
optimize the design. In this paper, the problem of optimal

rotor design is formulated and a computer simulation


presented to analyze the performance of a horizontal axis
wind turbine rotor of a given airfoil over a range of rotor
tip speed ratios. The MATLAB simulation takes inputs of
blade twist angle and chord solidity along the rotor radius
as well as wind speed distribution; it provides output in
the form of plots of coefficient of performance against tip
speed ratio, variation of induction factors, angle of attack
and coefficients of lift and drag with blade radial positions

. Index Terms Computer simulation, optimization, wind turbine rotor design.

IV. INTRODUCTION

HE wind turbine generates electricity by utilizing the available kinetic energy in the wind. The wind turbine rotor is the
key component which interacts with the wind and the performance of wind turbine is highly dependent upon the
aerodynamic
forces
acting on it [1, 2]. Rotor design process is complex
because improvement in the aerodynamic efficiency may
V. COMPUTER SIMULATION
lead to a design which has manufacturing complications,
Computer simulation is an effective tool that helps to
is not cost effective or violates structural constraints.
study the properties and predict the behavior of a
Therefore, the rotor design process can be formulated as
complex system. Wind turbine design is a complicated
multiobjective optimization problem with the objectives
procedure that includes multiple and contradictory
generally conflicting in nature. In addition to the
criteria and a computer simulation would be extremely
objectives, there are several other factors to be
helpful in analyzing and determining the wind turbine
considered, like the wind speed distribution at the
rotor design variables before going into prototyping and
intended site, airfoil selection, yaw errors and stall
wind tunnel testing.
conditions, which add complexity to the nature of the
The key indicators to characterize a wind turbine are
problem. Such problems are best approached using
the rated power, the torque that it would develop and the
optimization techniques. Researchers have addressed the
thrust the rotor would face due to incoming wind. The
wind turbine rotor optimization problem by either
power will provide us the energy that would be captured
treating a single objective at a time [3, 4] or formulating
by the rotor for defined wind speed(s) and thus the AEP,
it as multiobjective problem [5, 6]. In the latter case,
maximization of Annual Energy Production (AEP) and
the torque will be helpful in designing the gearbox and
minimization of Cost of Energy (COE) are usually taken
the thrust would be helpful for overall structural stability.
as the key objectives. A few authors [6, 7] have also
The rotor cannot utilize all the kinetic energy of the
included the structural integrity constraints in their
wind; the ratio of the amount that is converted into useful
models for a more comprehensive study. Optimization of
energy to the available energy is called Coefficient of
the material properties of a rotor [8] has also been
Performance (CoP) of the turbine, a term similar to the
studied using Finite Element Methods.
efficiency of a mechanical system. Theoretically, the
In this paper, details of a computer simulation
maximum energy that can be extracted is 59.3% [9]. The
developed for the optimization of a Horizontal Axis
CoP is a function of tip speed ratio (), the ratio of the
Wind Turbine are presented. The formulation of the
linear velocity of the blade tip to the wind speed which is
optimization model and the methodology to obtain an
given as
optimal rotor design is also discussed.

41

(1)
sin

Knowing the CoP of the turbine and the density and


speed of wind, we can calculate the instantaneous power
produced:
(2)

Calculation of the Annual Energy Production will


further require knowledge of wind speed variation over
the year at the installation site.
Wind turbines are either run at variable speeds to keep
the tip-speed ratio at its optimal value and thus extract
maximum power or they are run at a fixed speed for
easier control of the electrical output. Thus their
performance for all possible ratios is required to calculate
the energy produced annually (AEP). This result is
usually shown as a plot of CoP against tip-speed ratio.
A. Description of Simulation Program
This section gives detail of the computer simulation
written in Matlab in GUI format to analyze a given
design and calculate CoP versus values over a range of
rotor tip speed ratios. This simulation is based on Blade
Element Momentum (BEM) theory and empirical
formulations where BEM theory fails to predict the
phenomenon due to its inherent limitations. The
following equations [1] are used in the simulation:

(3)
(4)

tan

(5)

(6)
,

(7)

cos

(9)
1

0.143

(8)

0.0203

(10)

0.6427 0.889

(11)
(12)

sin

cos

cos

sin

(13)

cot

The blade is divided into a number of stations along its


radius, characterized by the factor r/R. Rotor design has
been specified at each station by values of blade twist
angle () and chord width (c) in the design files written
in text format. For a given value of tip-speed ratio, the
following calculations are performed at each station:

Calculate and using equations (3) and (4). (We take the number of blades as 3,
r
r
the most common value.)

Solve the system of non-linear equations (5) (10) to calculate , C , C , F, a and


l d
a. Equations (7) formally represents the experimentally-determined coefficients of
lift and drag for the given airfoil as depending on the angle of attack, .

If the computed value of axial induction factor a is greater than 0.5, the assumptions
of BEM theory are no longer valid; we then use equations (11) and (12) (instead of
9 and 10) to calculate the correct value of a.

Using these values the program calculates the CoP for


given using equation (13). The summation in equation
(13) is over the blade stations. Finally, power produced
by a turbine of swept area A at wind speed U may be
calculated using equation (2). The torque produced may
be calculated using the power and angular speed of the
rotor.
VI. OPTIMIZATION
Optimization is a process in which we seek the value
of design variables, x, that minimizes (or maximizes, as
appropriate) an objective function f(x), subject to
equality constraints h(x)=0, and inequality constraints,
g(x)0, relating the variables. In this case, we would like
to design the turbine to maximize the annual energy
production and, at the same time, minimize of the cost of
energy; therefore, it can be categorized as a multiobjective optimization problem. Constraints are imposed
on the design to ensure a structurally safe and
manufacturable design.
A. Problem Formulation
The objective function for Annual Energy Production
is best written as
kWh/year/m2
(14)
the division by R2 makes the function independent of the
size of turbine.
The function for Cost of Energy would be
&
(15)
where TC is the turbine cost, BOS is the Balance of
Station (including the costs of logistics, erection, tower
and grid connection), FCR is the fixed charge rate
(percent per year) and O&M is the operation and

42

maintenance cost (per kWh). If details of factors


included in turbine cost are not available then it may be
taken as a function of blade weight [5] because blade is
the most expensive item in a wind turbine [7]. Assuming
that the fixed costs are directly proportional to turbine
size (swept area) and that O&M charges are independent
of turbine size, the entire problem can be made
independent of turbine size.
The above objectives are subject to following
constraint, limiting the stress

, N/m2

(19)

where M is the bending moment due to blade rotation, ch


is the chord length, I is the moment of inertia, Fc is
centrifugal force due to rotation and Ah is the rotor area,
all calculated or measured at the hub.
The design variables in this formulation are the blade
chord distribution and the blade twist distribution; the
parameters include the chosen airfoil and wind speed
distribution.
If turbine costs are not considered directly
proportional to turbine size, we need to include the
turbine radius R as another design variable. In that case,
the turbine will be design for a specified power output.

TABLE I
BLADE DESIGN

Blade Radial Position


station
(r/R)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Chord solidity
(r)

0.15
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85

0.5344
0.3839
0.2935
0.2333
0.1903
0.1580
0.1329
0.1129
0.0964
0.0828
0.0712
0.0613
0.0526
0.0451
0.0385

Blade
angle,
(d 14.5 )
13.6
12.7
11.8
10.9
9.9
9.1
8.2
7.3
6.3
5.4
4.5
3.6
2.7
1.8

Plotof'a'vsmewat
OptimalLambda
0.0000
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

mew(r/R)
Fig. 1: Variation of a along the blade

Plotofa'vsmewat
OptimalLambda
a'

The simulation was applied to the design given in


Table 1, using NACA 4412 airfoil. Fig. 6 shows the
calculated CoP versus the tip speed ratio () curve. It was
found that this design will achieve a maximum CoP of
0.53 at an optimal tip speed ratio of 6. Fig. 1 and 2 shows
the variation of axial and tangential induction factors.
The ideal value of a is 1/3 and here the values vary from
0.33 to 0.47 which means that stall conditions do not
occur over any part of the blade at this tip-speed ratio;
however, for other ratios, it is observed that a part of the
blade operated under stall conditions thus producing no
torque. Fig. 3, 4 and 5 provide the variation of co
efficient of lift and drag and angle of attack along the
blade radius at the optimal lambda respectively. The
results of this initial design will be taken as a starting
point to find the optimum design.
Several techniques [3, 5] have been used to solve
constrained multi objective optimization problems. In
this ongoing work, we propose to use non-derivative
techniques because the functions involved are not
available in explicit form and their derivatives cannot be
calculated analytically. It is therefore, intended to
employ evolutionary computation techniques including
Genetic Algorithms (GA).

0.5000
VII. RESULTS

0.4000
0.2000
0.0000
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

mew(r/R)
Fig. 2: Variation of a along the blade

43

ofAttack(deg.)
f
k (d )

VariaationofAlphaw
with
Blad
deradiaalpositio
ons
(me
ew)

Fig. 3: Co
C efficient of lift
ft along the blade at = 6

20.00
0.00
0
0.00

0.20

0
0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00
0

m
mew(r/R)

Fig. 5: Angle of attack along the blade at


a =6

Cd

Varriationo
ofCdwiith
Blad
deradialpositio
ons
(me
ew)
0.0200
0.0000
00
0.0

0.20

0
0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

mew(r/R)
Fig. 4: Co
C efficient of draag along the bladee at = 6

VIII. CONCLUSIONS
O
mulation prograam to analyzee the
In this paper, deetails of a sim
perfformance of a HAWT are presented, which
w
is basedd on
BEM
M theory. Alsso a strategy to
t optimize thhe design of rotor
is proposed
p
andd formulated. This strateggy shows how
w a
sim
mulation can be
b integrated into an optimization proccess
usinng non-derivaative technique. The simulaation is applied to
a seelected airfoil and the resultts are also preesented.

NOMENC
CLATURE

Cd

Coeffficient of drag

Cl

Coeffficient of lift

CoP

Coeffficient of rotorr performance

Pranndtl Tip-loss facctor

Fc

Centtrifugal force att hub due to blaade

rotation, N
I

ment of inertia at
a hub, m4
Mom

Bendding moment att hub due to blaade

N
rotation, N-m

Axiaal induction facttor

Outpput power, W

a'

Tanggential inductionn factor

Rotoor radius, m

Rotor area, m2

Locaal radius, m

Ah

Hub area, m2

Windd speed, m-s-1

mber of blades
Num

Anglle of attack, deg


g.

Chorrd length, m

ch

Chorrd length at hubb, m

CTr

Locaalized thrust coeefficient

Angle between relativ


ve wind velocitty and

tangential direection, deg.

Bladde twist angle, deg.


d

44

Max stress in hub, N-m-2

Tip-speed ratio

max

Local tip-speed ratio

Chord solidity

Rotor angular speed, s-1

-3

Density, kg-m

REFERENCES
[1] J. F. Manwell, J. G. McGowan and A.
L. Rogers, Wind Energy Explained,
Theory, Design and Application, John
Wiley and Sons Ltd., 2002.
[2] T. Burton, D. Sharpe, N. Jenkins and
E. Bossanyi, Wind Energy Handbook,
John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 2001.
[3] M. S. Selig and V. L. CoverstoneCarroll, Application of a Genetic
Algorithm to Wind Turbine Design,
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.,
118 (1996), pp 2228.
[4] P. Gigure, M. S. Selig and J. L.
Tangler, Blade Design Trade-Offs
Using Low-Lift Airfoils for StallRegulated HAWTs, NREL/CP-50026091, 1999, National Renewable
Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.
[5] E. Benini and A. Toffolo, Optimal
Design of Horizontal-Axis Wind
Turbines Using Blade-Element
Theory and Evolutionary
Computation, ASME Journal of

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

Solar Energy Engineering, 124


(2002), pp 357363.
W. Xudong, W. Z. Shen,W. J. Zhu,J.
N. Srensen and C. Jin, Shape
Optimization of Wind Turbine
Blades, Wind Energy, 12 (2009) pp
781803.
P. Fuglsang and H. A. Madsen,
Optimization Method for Wind
Turbine Rotors, J. Wind. Eng. Ind.
Aerodyn.; 80 (1999), pp 191206.
M. Jureczko, M. Pawlak and A.
Mezyk, Optimization of Wind
Turbine Blades, Journal of Material
Processing Technology, 167 (2005),
pp 463471.
A. Betz, Das Maximum der
theoretisch mglichen Ausntzung
des Windes durch Windmotoren,
Zeitschrift fr dasgesamte
Turbinenwesen, 26 (1920), pp 307
309.

45

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Concentrated Solar Power: An Overview


Zeeshan Najam 1, and M. Ishfaq Khan
International Islamic University, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy and Technology, PCRET, Islamabad, Pakistan
zeeshan.najam@iiu.edu.pk
ishfaq_khan111@yahoo.com
Abstract
Solar thermal power is a relatively new technology and a fine
arrangement for the provision of Electrical Energy and Clean
Energy in general .The concentrated solar offers a viable option
for the Sunny Zones of the world. The efficiency of the System
depends on a few factors like Area, Intensity of Sunlight, Type of
receiver, Hybridisation etc. Solar Thermal Systems employ lenses
or mirrors to focus a large area of sunlight onto a small area.
Electrical power is produced when the concentrated light is
impunged onto photovoltaic cell made surfaces or used to heat a
transfer fluid for a conventional power plant. In this paper we
give a brief overview of a baseline Solar Thermal Power Plant,
Technological details, Cost and Benefit analysis, a glimpse of solar
thermal power and future of solar thermal power

produce superheated steam. They represent the most


established solar thermal power technology, with 354 MWe of
plants connected to the Southern California grid since the 80s
and occupies an area of more than 2 million square metres of
parabolic trough collectors. These plants supply an annual 800
million kWh at a generation cost of about 14-17 US cents/kWh

Keywords Concentrated Solar Power, Parabolic trough,

VI. INTRODUCTION
A simple and basic model for producing Electrical Energy
from the Solar Energy is fairly simple. We use mirrors or
receivers of sunlight to concentrate the sunlight to an area
which will heat up the fluid present inside the pipes. This fluid
travels and mixes with water in a heat exchange chamber or
compartment. As a result steam or fumes are produced. The
steam in turn drives the turbine which leads to usual power
plant based electricity generation. Solar heat collected during
the day can also be stored in liquid or solid media like molten
salts, ceramics, concrete or, in the future, phase-changing salt
mixtures. At night, it can be extracted from the medium and,
thus, continues turbine operation.

Fig 1 Parabolic Trough Reflector

B. Central Receiver
It is also known as a solar tower systems .It essentially comprise of a circular
array of Large tracking plain mirrors (heliostats) to Concentrate sunlight on to a
central receiver mounted on top of a tower. The heat produced as a result of the
focusing the solar energy is transported for power generation through a choice
of transfer media. Following the success after the installation of the first 10
MWe PS-10 demonstration tower plants, in Spain, and with a further scale up
of upto 30-50 MW capacity, solar tower experts feel confident that grid
connected tower power plants can be built up to a capacity of 200 MWe solaronly units with power generation costs then Comparable to those of parabolic
troughs.

VII.
TECHNOLOGICAL DETAILS
A Solar Thermal System consists of four main elements
namely: a concentrator, a receiver, some form of transport or
storage, and power conversion. The three most promising solar
thermal technologies are the Parabolic Trough, the Central
Receiver or Solar Tower, and the Linear Fresnel.
A. Parabolic Trough Reflector
Parabolic trough reflectors utilize trough shaped mirrors to
focus sunlight on to receiver tubes through which a thermal
transfer fluid is heated to a temperature of 4000C and used to

Fig 2 Central Receiver

46

C. Linear Fresnel Reflector:


In LFR technology, an elevated ground facing linear
receiver collects the concentrated solar radiation reflected by a
group of nearly flat reflector placed on the ground.
D. Benefits of Solar Thermal Power
A major benefit of solar thermal power is that it has little or
no impact environment. There is hardly any pollution in the
form of fumes or noise during operation. Decommissioning of
the system is a relatively easy. Each square meter of reflector
surface in a solar field is enough to avoid the annual production
of 150 - 250 kilograms (kg) of carbon dioxide. Solar thermal
power can therefore make a substantial contribution towards
international commitments to reduce the steady increase in the
level of greenhouse gases and their contribution to climate
change.
THE GLOBAL SOLAR THERMAL MARKET
VIII.
New avenues are being explored for the quest of solar
thermal power In face of the every increasing demand for clean
energy. Fresh initiatives are being taken at the national and
international level to promote and support the
commercialization of the technology. Legislation has been
introduced around the world which offers attractive tariffs for
potential investors in the solar thermal sector. High Power
transmission lines from high-insulation sites, such as in
northern Africa, could draw attention of the private project
developers or European firms to finance large solar plants
whose power could be used ultimately for consumption in
Europe. These and other factors have led to significant interest
in constructing plants in the sun belt regions from privatesector project developers and turnkey contracting firms. In
addition, interest rates and capital costs have drastically fallen
worldwide, increasing the viability of capital-intensive
renewable projects.
CURRENT PROJECTS AND DEVELOPMENTS
In this section we will provide instances of specific large solar
thermal projects currently under construction or in an advanced
Stage of permitting and development around the world include:
-

Algeria: 140-150 MW ISCC plant with 25 MW solar


capacities (Trough)
Egypt: 150 MW ISCC plant with 30 MW solar capacities
(trough)
Greece: 50 MW solar capacity using steam cycle (trough)
India: 140 MW ISCC plant with 30 MW solar capacities
(trough)
Italy: 40 MW solar capacities integrated into existing
combined cycle plant (trough)
Mexico: 291 MW ISCC plant with 30 MW solar
capacities (trough)
Morocco: 220 MW ISCC plant with 30 MW solar
capacities (Trough)
Spain: over 500 MW solar capacity using steam cycle (4 x
10-20 MW solar tower and 12 x 50 MW parabolic
troughs)
USA: 50 MW solar capacities with parabolic trough in
Nevada: using steam cycle, proceeded by a 1 MW

parabolic trough demonstration plant using ORC turbine


in Arizona.
USA: 500 MW Solar Dish Park in California, preceded by
a 1 MW(40 x 25 kW) test and demo installation

IX. THE FUTURE FOR SOLAR THERMAL POWER


A future scenario predicted by Greenpeace International, the
European Solar Thermal Industry Association and IEA Solar
PACES projects what could be achieved by the year 2025
given the favorable market Conditions. [2] This prediction is
based on expected progress in solar thermal technology with
the growing number of countries which are investing in the
clean energy. Over the projected period of the scenario, solar
thermal technology will have emerged from a relatively
subsidiary position in the hierarchy of renewable energy
sources to achieve a significant status alongside the current
market leaders such as hydro and wind power. It is speculate
that from a current level of just 354 MW total installed
capacity, the rate of annual installation by 2015 will have
reached upto a whopping 970 MW, thus reaching a total
installed capacity of 6454 MW [4]. By year 2025, It is
presumed that 4 600 MW will come on steam each year. By
2025, the total installed capacity of solar thermal power around
the world will have reached well over 36,000 MW. By 2025,
solar thermal power will have achieved an annual Throughput
of almost 100 million MWh.[4] This is roughly equivalent to
the utilization of over one half of Australias electricity
Demand or the cumulative electricity consumption of Denmark
and Belgium or Israel, Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. Capital
investment cost in solar thermal plant will mount US$
60million in 2006 to almost US$ 16.4 billion in 2025. [6]
The Expansion in the solar thermal power industry will result
in the Creation of over 50,000 jobs worldwide. The five most
potentially prolific regions, in terms of Solar Thermal
production targets, expected by 2025, are the Mediterranean,
Middle East states and North Africa, the southern states of the
USA, and Islands of Australia. During the period up to 2025,
[7] the toxic emission into the atmosphere of a total of 395
million tonnes of carbon dioxide would be eluded, making a
vital contribution to international climate protection targets. An
extended projection is made for the potential expansion of the
solar thermal power market over another 1 1/2 decades p to
2040.[7] This implies, by year 2030, the worldwide capacity
will have touched 100,000 MW and, by 2040, a staggering
600,000 MW. The increased accessibility of plant resulting
from the greater use of proficient storage technology will also

Fig 3 Array of Solar trough collectors courtesy document on


CSP Fundamentals
increase the amount of electricity generated from a given
installed capacity. The result is that by 2040 more than 5% of
the worlds electricity demand could be satisfied by solar
thermal power [10].
47

X. POWER FROM THE SUN


The principles of solar thermal power conversion have been
around for more than a century; its commercial upgrade and
utilization, however, has only taken place since the mid 1980s
with the advent of first 30-80 MW parabolic trough power
stations, built in the California Mojave desert. The technology
has notably established its technological and economic promise
with negligible environmental impediments and a colossal
resource, the sun; it offers an opportunity to the countries in the
sun zone of the world comparable to that currently being
offered by its counterpart offshore wind farms to European and
other regions with the windiest shorelines.
. Suitable sites should receive at least 2,000 kilowatt hours
(kWh) of sunlight radiation per m2 annually, at the same time
as best site locations receive more than 2,800 KWh/m2/year.
Usual site regions, where the atmosphere and Flora does not
produce high levels of atmospheric dampness, dust and fumes,
include steppes, bush, savannas, semi-deserts and true deserts,
should be technically and ideally located within less than 40
degrees of latitude north or south. Therefore, the most
promising areas of the world include the South-Western United
States, Central and South America, North and Southern Africa,
the Mediterranean Countries of Europe, the Near and Middle
East, Iran and the desert plains of India, Pakistan, the former
Soviet Union, China and Australia .In many regions of the
world, one square kilometre of land is sufficient to generate as
much as 100-130 gigawatt hours (GWh) of solar electricity per
year using solar thermal technology. [9] This Corresponds to
the annual production of a 50 MW conventional coal- or gasfired mid-load power plants. Over the total life cycle of a solar
thermal power system, its output would be equivalent to the
energy in more than 5 million barrels of oil. However, this
huge solar power potential can only be harnessed to a limited
extent as it is curtailed by local demand and by technological
and financial constraints. If solar electricity is exported to
regions with a high demand for power considerably more of the
potential in the Sun Belt countries could be maximised to
protect the global climate. Countries such as Germany are
already seriously considering importing solar electricity from
North Africa and Southern Europe as a way of contributing to
the long-term sustainable development of their power sector.
However, priority should be given primarily to supply for
legitimate indigenous demand. [10]

Fig 4 Solar thermal Plants water heating courtesy document on CSP


Fundamentals

Fig 5 Solar trough Collectors courtesy document on CSP Fundamentals

XI. CONCLUSIONS
Solar thermal are the important candidates for providing
clean and renewable energy for future. The technology has
already been there for a while for instance since 1985 nine
Parabolic trough type solar thermal type power plants in
California have fed more than 10 billion of KWh of solar based
electricity into the southern California, It is a demonstrated and
well established technology. At present Solar thermal power
plants of capacity of 500 MW are being built worldwide. Solar
thermal plants can provide dispatch able energy in combination
with solar thermal. Solar thermal is amongst the cost effective
technologies. It is expected that with the advances in the
technology and mass production of components they will
become competitive with the fossil fuel plants. Thermal power
plants can be utilized in the desalination of water alongside the
generation of electricity.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We wish to acknowledge PCRET (Pakistan Council of
Renewable Energy Technologies) and Dr S. M. Bhutta for their
support in writing this paper.
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Noor, N.; Muneer, S.; Concentrated Solar Power
(CSP) and its Prospects in Bangladesh,
ICDRET, 2009
http://www.reuters.com/article/companyNewsAndPR/
idUSN0522608420071105?pageNumber=2&sp=
true
P. Schramek, and D.R. Mills. Multi-tower solar array.
Euro Sun 2000, Copenhagen June 2000. See also
Later multi-tower concepts by Bright Source at
http://www.brightsourceenergy.com/dpt.htm.
D. Frier, and R. G. Cable, An Overview and
Operation Optimization of the Kramer Junction
Solar Electric
Generating System, ISES World Congress, Jerusalem
Vol. 1, pp. 241246, 1999.
R. Aringhoff. et al. AndaSol - 50MW Solar Plants
with 9 Hour Storage for Southern Spain, Proc.
11th
SolarPACES International Symposium, Zurich,
Switzerland, pp. 37-42,, 4-6 Sept, 2002
2006
ERCOT
Hourly
Load
Data
http://www.ercot.com/gridinfo/load/load_hist/ind
ex.html
48

CAISO - http://oasis.caiso.com, 2006 California


System Load.
[11] National Energy Renewable Lab TMY2 data,
available at
http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/tmy2/State.h
tml
[12] Edison Electric Institute, see

http://www.eei.org/industry_issues/industry_overview
_and_statistics/industry_statistics#generation
European Solar Thermal Electricity Association
(ESTELA); URL: www.estelasolar.eu
http://opensourceinnovation.wordpress.com/2007/0
6/18/why-we-need-electric-cars-part-ii/

49

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Design and Development of Direct Drive


Generators for Wind Turbines
M. NAGRIAL, J. RIZK AND A. HELLANY
School of Engineering
UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN SYDNEY
Australia
Email: m.nagrial@uws.edu.au
Abstract- This paper discusses various
options for wind generators in modern wind
turbines without any gearbox. Various
power converter configurations are also
discussed. The design of modern and
efficient variable speed generators is also
proposed. The design of a novel permanent
magnet generator is also given.
Index Terms- Wind Generators, Permanent
Magnet Generators, Reluctance Generators
I.

INTRODUCTION

The world relies heavily on fossil fuels to meet


energy requirements- such as oil; gas and coal
are providing almost 80% of global energy
demands. These energy sources will be unable
to cope with future energy requirements as
fossil fuel reserves are already on a steep
decline. Further, the use of fossil fuels in
energy production and increased use of such
energy are responsible for environmental
degradation, climate change, ecological
unbalance and human health. Because of the
awareness of global warming, researchers are
exploiting renewable energy sources that will
have less harmful effects and pollution on the
environment.
Renewable energy sources such as solar, wind,
hydro etc., have the potential to provide major
percentage of future energy requirements with
no harmful emissions and greenhouse gases
[1,2]. Among the renewable energy sources,
wind energy is most widely used because it is
economical and suitable for high power
applications [3-6]. Wind power is one of the
fastest growing renewable sources, being
exploited because of comparatively low cost
and mature technology. The annual market for
wind energy systems is increasing at the rate of
over 25 %. Many countries such as US, Spain,

China, India and Germany have installed


capacity in GW. Wind power had been used to
provide mechanical power to pump water or to
grind grains till the early twentieth century.
Wind energy has re-emerged as one of the
most important sustainable energy resources.
The wind energy is abundant and best
technology today to provide a sustainable
electrical energy supply in the world.
Wind power plants are different from
conventional power plants in that their fuel
supply is neither steady nor controllable and as
a result, they exhibit greater uncertainty and
variability in their output. Modern wind
turbines have three-bladed rotors and mounted
atop towers. Wind plants operate when the
wind blows and then power levels vary with
the
strength
of
the
wind.
The
electromechanical system of a conventional
wind power plant consists of three main parts:
turbine, gearbox and generator. The generator
is usually high-speed machine and it is
connected directly to the grid. The speed of the
generator is 1000 or 1500 rpm and this means
that a gear is needed between the turbine and
the generator as shown in Figure 1. However,
the gearbox adds to the weight, generates
noise, demands regular maintenance and
increases losses. Furthermore, there can also be
problems with materials, lubrication and
bearing seals in cold climates. The wind power
plant can be simplified by eliminating the gear
and by using a low-speed generator the rotor of
which rotates at the same speed as the rotor of
the turbine. Figure 2 shows typical wind
generator without gearbox. The number of
moving components and the noise caused
mainly by high rotational speed of the gear can
be reduced [7,8]. The advantages are also high
overall efficiency and reliability, and
diminished need for maintenance.

50

Figure 1: Wind generator with gearbox


II.

Figure 2: Wind generator without gearbox

WIND GENERATORS

Various types of generators have been


proposed and implemented over the years for
wind energy conversion [9-27]. Conventional
generators, used in present day power stations,
are exclusively synchronous generators with
DC excitation. These generators are efficient in
large power ratings, expensive and bulky and
not suited for wind power applications as these
generators are mounted on a tower.
The following types of generators have been
investigated for wind power applications.
Induction Generators (IG) [11-14]
Squirrel cage Induction Generators
(SCIG)
Wound-rotor or Doubly fed Induction
Generators (DFIG)

Induction Generators
Induction machines are widely used as industrial drives but
are being considered as possible generator for wind energy
systems [11-14]. Figure 3 shows a typical arrangement of
wind electric conversion system (WECS) with induction
generator (IG). Induction generators are well suited for
autonomous and grid-connected applications. The
induction generator operates in a narrow range above
synchronous speed, and hence operating as a constant
speed system. An induction generator would stay excited
even after the terminal voltage is disconnected provided
sufficient amount of capacitance is connected across
armature terminals and the rotation is maintained by some
external mechanical source. Induction generators, though
inexpensive but have few disadvantages:

Low efficiency
Lack of excitation
Reactive power compensation
Difficult to control

Reluctance Generators [15-19]


Synchronous reluctance Generators
(RSG)
Switched Reluctance Generators
(SRG)
Permanent Magnet Generators [20-27]
Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Generators (PMSG)
PM Assisted Reluctance Generators
(PMARG)

Figure 3: Wind Energy System with Induction


Generator

DC generators have found limited application in wind


energy owing to problems of reliability.

Figure 4: Wind Energy System with Doublyfed Induction Generator (DFIG)

The other type of induction generator is woundrotor (WRIG) or doubly-fed type, termed as
doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The
expression doubly-fed applies generally to
machines where electrical power can be fed or
extracted from two accessible windings [13,14].
External excitation is necessary before the
induction generator starts to work. For grid
connected systems, this is not a limitation as it
can draw reactive power from the grid. For
51

isolated power systems, external devices like


capacitors and batteries are required to provide
the excitation current to the induction motor.
Generally, the stator winding is connected to
the grid and the rotor winding is connected to
bi-directional power converter as shown in
Figure 4. Although, it has been extensively
investigated for wind energy applications, but
requires two excitation sources, one on stator
and the other on rotor. DFIG requires
sophisticated control but still inefficient due to
additional losses. The doubly-fed induction
generator (DFIG) is wound rotor induction
generator with partial-scale
frequency
converter on the rotor circuit. The converter is
to maintain the rotor frequency at the same
level as the grid. The DFIG can produce higher
output compared to standard induction
machines because of a wider operating range.
The power converter does not need to be rated
at generator capacity.
Reluctance generators

Reluctance generators are other types of


machines, being well suited for wind energy
applications [15-19]. Figure 5 shows a typical
wind power system where the generator is of
reluctance type. It is another generator, which is
well suited for low-speed prime movers such as
wind turbine [17-19]. Similar to induction
machines, reluctance machines can be made to
operate as generator if the mechanical input
power is increased. The reactive power can be
supplied from the supply mains and the
electrical power can be fed to the supply grid
and the machine will be operating as constant
speed generator unlike induction generator. The
reluctance machine can also be used as a selfexcited reluctance generator when suitable
capacitors are connected across stator terminals
to initiate self-excitation. This mode of
operation is quite attractive for operation with
variable-speed prime movers such as wind
turbines.A switched reluctance generator (SRG)
has a wound stator but has no windings on its
rotor, which is made of soft magnetic material.
The opposite poles on the stator are excited
with current at a proper time. When a pole of a
stator is aligned with a pole of a rotor, there is a
state of equilibrium and the inductance is
higher [17-19]. Thus a pair of poles of the rotor
tends to align itself with two excited poles of
the stator. When the rotor is moved from an
aligned position by a mechanical force, a torque
is produced to diminish the reluctance in the
magnetic circuit. The resulting torque produces
a back EMF in addition to the applied voltage.
There are few approaches to deal with the
control phenomena in a SRG. There are ways to
excite the SRG which is self-excited or

separately excited. Figures 6 and 7 show a self


excited circuit and externally excited circuit
that can be used in a SRG.

Permanent Magnet Generators


Permanent magnets have been extensively used
to replace the excitation winding in
synchronous machines [19-25] with the well
known advantages of simple rotor design
without field windings, slip-rings and exciter
generator, avoiding heat dissipation in the rotor
and providing higher overall efficiency. The
rotor design can be distinguished in three main
types according to the magnet position, namely
the interior , the peripheral and the claw
pole type. For wind power applications in
particular, multi-pole permanent magnet
generators have become very attractive
especially in small ratings [22]. Figure 8 shows
a typical wind power system where the
generator is of PM synchronous type. Recent
advances in power electronics enabling energy
efficient drives have aroused the interest in
using permanent magnet generators in small
and medium systems for both autonomous and
parallel operation with the electrical grid
[23,24]

Figure 5: Wind Energy System with Switched


Reluctance Generator (SRG)
10

Q2

Q7

Q3

Q5

L4
D9

L2
0mH

D8

D2

D3

L1
0mH

D4

D5

L3
0mH

D1
8

Q8

Q1

Q4

Q6

11

Figure 6: Circuit diagram for power converter


for self-excited SRG

52

D6

C1
1uF

Figure 7: Circuit diagram for power converter


for externally-excited SRG

Figure 10: PM Generator (8-polar design)


Figure 8: Wind Energy System with
PM Synchronous Generator
Permanent magnet wind generators have high power
density from magnetic torque and reluctance torque
components. A SR generator, which is made of only
magnetic core and windings, has a simple and robust
structure. A SR generator requires an external
exciting circuit and rotor position sensor. In order to
overcome disadvantages of interior permanent
magnet (IPM) and conventional reluctance
generators, a PM assisted reluctance generator
(PMARG) can be a good candidate due to its low
cost, high efficiency and reliability [26,27].
PMARG requires less quantity of permanent magnet
material and hence economical. Figure 9 shows a
cross sectional view of a PM assisted reluctance
generator. The permanent magnets are shown in the
interior of the rotor but in small quantity.

Figure 9: Cross section of PM assisted


Reluctance Generator

III.

EXPERIMENTAL MACHINE

In small and medium scale wind power


applications considered hereafter, the gearbox
can be avoided by using a multi-pole permanent
magnet generator [8-9]. In such applications
permanent magnet machines are usually
connected through a rectifier stage either to a
battery bank or to the dc bus of an inverter
producing 50 Hz power to the grid. The design
of the radial-flux machine is simple and widely
used in different types of asynchronous and
synchronous machines. The efficiency of the
PM machine can be made high and the pole
pitch small. Furthermore, the characteristics of
permanent- magnet materials are improving and
their prices are decreasing. The mechanical
design of the stator winding is very simple and
the machine is easy to manufacture. The rotor
of a present day typical wind turbine rotates at a
speed of 20200 rpm. The generator is coupled
to the turbine via a gear so that it can rotate at a
speed of 1000 or 1500_rpm. Usually, the
generator is a four- or six-pole induction
machine and it is connected directly to the grid.
The generator rotates at the same speed as the
rotor of the turbine in a gearless wind turbine.
Many types of low-speed generators have been
designed, for instance, special machines like
radial-, axial- and transverse-flux synchronous
machines, reluctance machines and linear

53

induction machine. The first commercial


directly driven generator in the power range of
some hundred kilowatts was a synchronous
machine excited by a traditional field winding.
Nowadays, the greatest interest is in PM
generators for gearless wind power plants. The
PM machines can operate with good and
reliable performance over a wide range of
speeds. The pole pitch of the PM machine can
also be made small. Furthermore, the
characteristics of permanent-magnet materials
are improving and their prices are decreasing. A
multi-pole radial-flux PM synchronous machine
is a good alternative for the design of a largescale directly driven wind turbine generator as
shown in Figure 10. Therefore, this type of
machine and advanced design of reluctance
generators are chosen for further investigation
and their performance reported
IV.

[8].

[9].

[10].

[11].

[12].

CONCLUSION

The authors have provided an overview of


various generator systems for wind energy
applications. These generators are being
investigated for both isolated and gridconnected power systems. New types of
permanent magnet, reluctance generator and
PM assisted reluctance generators are also
given. The optimum configuration of a practical
PM generator is also given.
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Chang, Y., On the design of power circuit
and control scheme for switched reluctance
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magnet generators for wind turbines
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April 2000
Chinchilla, M.; Arnaltes, S.; Burgos, J.C.;
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applied to variable-speed wind-energy
systems connected to the grid IEEE
Transaction on Energy Conversion, Vol.21,
Issue 1, March 2006 pp:130 135
Hansen, A.D.; Michalke, G. Multi-pole
permanent magnet synchronous generator
wind turbines grid support capability in
uninterrupted operation during grid faults
Renewable Power Generation, IET, Vol. 3,
Issue 3, Sept. 2009 pp:333 348
Chen Y, Pillay P, Khan A: PM wind
generator topologies IEEE Trans. Indus.
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2009 pp:963 972
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55

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Development of a Scheffler Fixed Focus


Concentrator for the Processing of Medicinal Plants
and Fruits
Anjum Munir#1, Oliver Hensel#2, Wolfgang Scheffler *3 and Heike Hoedt *4
#1, 2

#1

Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen, Germany


Department of Farm Machinery and Power, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Agriculture,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
1

anjum223@gmail.com
agrartechnik@uni-kassel.de

Third- Fourth Company


Solar Bruecke G.v. Werdenbergstr. 6 D-89344, Germany

Abstract
With the increasing population and industrialization, there is need to
cut down the load of fossil fuels and to reduce environmental
pollution. A large part of industrial process heat lies from low to
medium temperature range which can be supplied by solar energy.
Scheffler fixed focus concentrators are successfully used for medium
temperature applications in different parts of the world. These
concentrators are taken as lateral sections of paraboloids and provide
fixed focus away from the path of incident beam radiations
throughout the year. The paper presents description and experimental
results of medicinal and fruit processing using an 8 m2 surface area
Scheffler solar concentrator installed at solar campus, university of
Kassel, Witzenhausen Germany. The research was focussed to
promote solar renewable energy in rural and remote locations. The
solar system was equipped with Pyranometer and thermocouples to
evaluate real time data which was used for performance evaluation of
the solar system during processing of different products. In the first
phase of the research, several trials were made to evaluate the
performance of the system. Within the solar radiations range of 700800 W m-2, the receiver temperatures were recorded between 300400C. The average power was found to be 1.55 kW and system
efficiency was found to be 32.34%. Different medicinal plants like
Melissa, Peppermint, Rosemary, Cumin, and Cloves buds were
successfully processed by using solar energy. Different fruit and
vegetables like Apples, Plums, cherries, tomatoes were also
processed by using solar energy. Research results have showe that
solar energy can be successfully used for the post harvest and fruit
processing at rural location.
Keywords Scheffler fixed focus concentrator, Pyranometer,
medicinal plants, solar radiations, post harvest processing

XII.
INTRODUCTION
The limited availability of fossil fuels and their
environmental impact, have led to a growing awareness of the
importance of renewable energy sources especially in the
tropical countries. The available flux of incident radiant

energy is approximately 1100 W m-2 without optical


concentrating [1]. Solar thermal energy is the second
exploited renewable source of energy after wind; however its
share of world energy production is still negligible. The solar
thermal sector has been predominantly implemented in the
residential sector; only about 0.2% of the installed solar
thermal power employs heat for industrial processes. Solar
heat has a promising future application in industrial processes;
57% of the heat demand in the global industry is at
temperatures below 400C., 30% at temperatures below
100%. In some industrial sectors, like the food industry over
the 60% of heat is required at temperatures below 250C [2].
In developing countries half of the harvested perishable
foods are lost after harvest, it is estimated that in West Africa
about 50% of perishable food commodities, including fruits,
vegetables, roots and tubers, and 30% of grains are lost after
harvest [3]. The amount of undernourished people in the
world has been increasing up to more than 1 Billion people;
most of this people live in developing countries [4].
Various industrial surveys show that up to 24 per cent of all
industrial heat, directly used in the processes, is at
temperatures from ambient to 180C [5]. At present, various
types of solar collectors are in use yet their applications are
restricted to drying and low temperature water boiling for
heating houses and swimming pools etc.
Beyond the low temperature applications, there are several
fields of application of solar thermal energy at a medium and
mediumhigh temperature level. From a number of studies on
industrial heat demand, several industrial sectors have been
identified with favourable conditions for the application of
solar energy. The most important industrial processes using
heat at a mean temperature level are: sterilizing, extraction,
pasteurizing, drying, solar cooling and air conditioning,
hydrolysing, distillation and evaporation, washing and
cleaning, and polymerization. The ranges of all these

56

processes lie between 60 and 280C [6]. Several experiments


were carried out to utilize the solar energy at medium
temperature range using vacuum tube collectors to increase
the temperature at mediumhigh temperature range. The
conventional paraboloidal concentrators converge all the beam
radiations at the focus and are selected as the bottom part of a
paraboloid. Despite the high temperature output, such types of
concentrators are rarely used for industrial applications due to
frequent changes of the focus position and inadequacy of
handling approach at the receiver. This limitation, however, is
solved by the Scheffler fixed focus concentrator which not
only provides simple and precise automatic tracking but also a
fixed focus away from the path of incident beam radiations.
For small-scale-applications in agriculture, post harvest
technology and the food industry, this is a cheaper solution.
Keeping these facts in view, the research has been initiated to
develop a solar distillation system for the processing of
medicinal and aromatic plants. Provision was also provided to
the existing solar system to process different kinds of fruits
and vegetables to improve rural development. This solar
technology can be successfully used in rural and remote
areas.
XIII.

rotation (steel pipe) of the reflector assembly was inserted into


the journals bearings to complete the reflector. The Scheffler
fixed focus concentrator was installed at solar campus,
University of Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany to conduct
different experiments with perishable products as shown in
Figure 1.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

E. Construction of Scheffler Reflector


The Scheffler fixed focus concentrator was constructed in
the Agricultural Engineering workshop, University of Kassel,
Witzenhausen (Latitude: 51.3), Germany. The solar system
comprised of a primary reflector having 8 m2 surface area and
secondary reflector. The main components of the primary
reflector are elliptical reflector frame, a rotating support,
tracking channel, reflector stand, and daily and seasonal
tracking devices. The primary reflector is designed by
considering the lateral part of a specific paraboloid. The semimajor axis and semi-minor axis of elliptical reflector frame
were taken as 1.88 and 1.37 m respectively. Seven crossbars
were designed and used in the elliptical frame to form the
required section of a paraboloid. These crossbars were equally
distributed along minor axis with one crossbar at the center
and others were located at a distance of 0.48 m from the
preceding on both sides. These crossbars were checked with
the help of a jig specially designed for the profiles checking of
the Scheffler reflector. Aluminium profiles were fixed on the
crossbars and aluminium sheets were pasted on aluminium
profiles to give the required shape of the lateral part of the
paraboloid. The rotating support was fabricated as an integral
part of the primary reflector comprising of an axis of rotation
(constructed of a steel pipe), a tracking channel (channel bent
in semi-circular form and welded around the axis of rotation
with supports). The reflector stand was grouted vertically on
the site with its foundation firmly bolted with the steel plates
and reinforced by welding. The journal bearings assembly was
welded with the reflector frame along the line parallel to the
polar axis by setting it in north-south direction and inclination
angle (51.3) with the horizontal. At the end, the axis of

FIG. 1.A PHOTOGRAPH OF SCHEFFLER REFLECTOR

F. Daily and seasonal tracking system


Unlike the conventional paraboloid concentrators, Scheffler
reflector is a lateral part of a paraboloid. Scheffler reflector is
subjected to two axes tracking system which is termed as daily
and seasonal tracking system.
In daily tracking system, Scheffler reflector rotates along an
axis parallel to polar axis of earth with an angular velocity of
one revolution per day to counterbalance the effect of daily
earth rotation. The tracking mechanism normally comprises of
small self-tracking PV system or clock-work operated by
gravity. In clock-work system, a weight pulled the reflector
with the help of a string due to force of gravity through
tracking channel. The pendulum of clock mechanism
maintains the angular velocity of one revolution per day to
counter balance the effect of earth rotation. Performance
evaluation was carried out by both clock-work tracking
system and PV tracking system. Out of the two methods, exact
results were obtained by PV tracking system. In fact, this
system is based on the actual sensing of the sun position and
more realistic tracking approach. It comprises of two
aluminium plates to form a v-shape angle (51). Four small

57

photovoltaic panels (each having 0.5 volts, 300 mA) are


pasted on aluminium plates (two on either side) and covered
by cylindrical glass. This glass behaves like a lens and
produces concentrated line image for precise tracking. The
changing position of the sun causes a current difference in two
PV plated which actuates the DC geared motor. The structure
of primary reflector is completely balanced and need very low
power to track the sun. In this way, the primary reflector
rotates with the help of this motor by chain-sprocket
mechanism to track the sun very precisely as shown in Fig. 2.
Photovoltaic panels
(each panel
0.5 Volts, 300 m A)
Cylindrical glass object

Resultant
solar intensity

Differential
current

Two way
DC motor

aluminium profiles are prepared to the specific radius and are


fixed on the secondary reflector frame. The length of each
aluminium piece is 700 mm and width is 100 mm. These
aluminium sheets are attached on the curved steel bars to
attain the required curve. These plates have the same material
as used in primary reflector. These pieces are easy to take out
and refit after cleaning. The secondary reflector is placed on a
fixed concrete foundation bed which facilitates the accurate
position of the secondary reflector.
H. Fabrication of solar receivers for processing of
medicinal plants and fruits
For Scheffler reflectors, the receiver remains fixed while
the reflector automatically records a fixed focus at the targeted
focus. Separate receivers were fabricated for the processing of
medicinal plants and for the processing of fruits. For the
processing of medicinal plants, a stainless steel distillation
still was fabricated. The diameter of distillation still is taken
as 400 mm in order to reflect all the radiations on the bottom
of the distillation still. The top cover is of conical shape and is
made of 2 mm stainless plate and its lateral part is 4 mm thick
so that it may not distort during welding and must seat flat on
the rim packing to provide a pressure tight seal . The column
height of the still is 1210 mm which gives about 100 liter
capacity. Separate vessels were fabricated for fruits and
vegetables processing are of cylindrical shape can process up
to 40 liters.
XIV.

Anticlockwise
rotation

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

I.
Sun displaced
from central
position

FIG. 2. SCHEMATIC OF PHOTOVOLTAIC DAILY TRACKING SYSTEM

The seasonal tracking device is made of telescopic clamps


mechanism and is rotated manually at half the angle of solar
declination. It also induces the desired shape of the reflector
paraboloid in order to get the fixed focus through out the year.
G. Use of secondary reflector for the receivers
In order to fulfil the standards of solar cooking and for
processing of medicinal plants and fruit, a secondary reflector
was used to further reflect the beam radiations onto the bottom
of distillation still. In this way, the heat energy is supplied
from the bottom side of the cooking vessel as in case of
conventional cooking vessel. This design is easy to operate
and handle. The beam radiations are equally scattered onto the
bottom of the distillation still and solar thermal energy is best
utilized like a conventional furnace under the still. The
geometric concentration ratio of Scheffler reflector is 100.
The secondary reflector is designed to converge all the
radiations onto the bottom of cooking vessel (400 mm
diameter). The bottom surface area (400 mm diameter) and
120 mm of bottom lateral part of the still is exposed to solar
radiations. For an 8 m2 reflector design, seven pieces of

Performance evaluation of Scheffler reflector


Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the
performance of the solar distillation system by recording focus
temperature, water & steam temperature and beam radiations.
Beam radiations were measured with the help of a
pyranometer by mounting a 20 cm black pipe on it,
perpendicular to the plane of the device. When the
pyranometer was facing the sun only direct radiation could
pass through the device. The pyranometer was mounted on the
primary reflector. Water and focus temperature were
measured by means of thermocouples.
The principal expression for the efficiency calculation of
solar distillation system is given as under [7].

System efficiency ( %) = tp

10 3 E p

Gb

ave

100

(1)

As dt

t =0

where Ep is the total heat energy during process, t is the


time during the test, Gbave is the beam radiation at time t, As is
the aperture area of the Scheffler refector.
Total heat ebnergy (Ep) is calculated by adding heat energy
in sensible heat and latent heat phase and power was
calculated by dividing this heat energy by time. Within the
solar radiations range of 700-800 W/m2, the receiver

58

temperatures were recorded between 300-400C. Fig. 1


illustrates the variation of water temperature, temperature at
focus and beam radiations on a sunny day.
800

900
800

Fluctuations
due to clouds

Beam Radiations

600

700
500

600

400

500
Temperature at Focus (F)

400

300

300
Water temperature

200

HEAT ENERGY CONSUMED AND ESSENTIAL OIL EXTRACTED DURING SOLAR


Beam Radiation (W/m2)

700

Temperature (C)

TABLE 1

1000

DISTILLATION OF DIFFERENT PLANT MATERIAL

Plant
material

Part
used

Melissa
Peppermint
Rosemary
Cumin
Cloves

Leaves
leaves
leaves
seeds
buds

Weight,
kg

Heat
energy,
kWh

Essential
oil
extracted,
ml

11.6
9.1
3.0
1.2
0.8

3.868
3.180
4.626
8.910
7.744

1.425
28.2
4.6
12.4
44

200
100

100

15
:0
0

14
:0
0

14
:3
0

13
:0
0

13
:3
0

12
:3
0

12
:0
0

11
:3
0

11
:0
0

10
:3
0

10
:0
0

09
:3
0

09
:0
0

Time (hours)

FIG. 4 VARIATION OF BEAM RADIATIONS, TEMPERATURE AT FOCUS AND


WATER TEMPERATURE WITH TIME

The average power in terms of water boiling test was


calculated to be 1.55 kW. The efficiency of solar distillation
system was calculated as 32.34 %. This efficiency figure
relates to the perfection of the reflector surface area, its
reflectance, absorbance of the outer surface of the distillation
tank exposed to radiations and insulation of the remaining
surface.
J. Utilization of Scheffler concentrator for rural and remote
area
The Scheffler reflectors are used for a number of
applications all over the world. It can be used from small scale
applications to power generation by using steam turbines. The
present study was conducted for the processing of medicinal
and aromatic plants as well as for the fruit and vegetable
processing. The purpose of this study was to use the solar
energy in rural and remote locations.
1) Processing of medicinal and aromatic plants by solar
distillation system
Processing of medicinal and aromatic plants using solar
energy provides an excellent opportunity to process fresh
herbs for pure natural essence by using optimum harvesting
time. Process heat energy consumption for different plant
materials were calculated from the sensor system installed. In
order to record data in steam generation phase, quantity of
distillate (kg) and essential oils extracted (ml) were recorded
with a regular interval of 10 minutes till end of the process.
Beam radiations, water and steam temperatures, and
temperature at focus were automatically recorded in the
computer by data logger after 10 second pre-set interval.
Different medicinal and aromatic plants (Melissa, Peppermint,
Lavender, Fennel, Rosemary, Cumin, Basil and Cloves,
Lavender etc) were processed successfully by solar distillation
system [8]. The detail of some of the plant materials is gives
in Table 1[7]

Essential
oil per
unit
plant
d.m, ml
kg-1
0.558
11.918
5.476
11.355
61.798

Table 1 shows the solar distillation experiments with


different plant materials (Melissa, Peppermint, Rosemary,
Cumin and Cloves) conducted by using different weights
having different moisture contents. The heat energy
consumed, essential oils extracted and essential oil obtained
per unit weight of dry matter (d.m) were recorded for each
experiment. The results show that different plant materials
have different amounts of oils per unit dry matter. In these
experiments, Melissa, Peppermint, and Rosemary plants were
processed by using their leaves, Cumin plant by using seeds
and Cloves plant by using buds. Under practical conditions,
these specific parts of the plant materials are used for the
extraction of essential oils. During sunny days, 4-5 batches
can be processed with 10 kg per batch. These results show that
the solar distillation system can also be used for the
processing of different parts of the medicinal and aromatic
plants. The capacity of the solar distillation system can be
enhanced by increasing the solar concentrator area and other
components of the distillation unit accordingly.
2) Processing of different fruits and vegetables
Provision was also given to the solar system for the onfarm fruit and vegetable processing. For this purpose, special
cylindrical shaped food grade vessels (40 liters capacity) were
used after modifying them according to the existing design of
solar system. The back plate of secondary reflector was
fabricated as a removable assembly which facilitates easy
replacing of distillation still by food vessels. On the
experimental farms near solar campus, a variety of fruits
(Apples, Plums, cherries, Johannesburg, tomatoes etc) were
available. Experiments were conducted for the manufacturing
of jams from Johannesburg, apples, and plums and tomato
peeling from tomato using solar energy. The sterilization
processes of the vessel and glass bottles were also carried out
with solar energy before the food processing. These products
were sealed and preserved. These food products were
successfully processed by solar energy. The purpose of these

59

trials was to introduce the farmers about the multifunctional


use of solar energy in a very simple and easy method so that
they may process their perishable products at the farm level.

CONCLUSIONS
XV.
The complete description of Scheffler fixed focus
concentrator and processing of medicinal plants and fruits
have been presented. Within the beam radiation range of 700800 W m-2, temperature available at focus was between 300
and 400 C. On a sunny day with an average beam radiation
of 863 W.m-2, the output power and system efficiency during
distillation process using Scheffler fixed focus concentrator
were calculated as 1.55 and 32.34% respectively.
Experimental results showed that the beam radiation was
targeted and evenly distributed over the entire bottom of the
distillation unit. In this way, uniform steam generation
extracted the volatile components of the plant material
effectively. The integration of stainless steel distillation still
(1206 mm column height, 400 mm diameter and 2 mm
thickness) with fixed focus Scheffler concentrator gave
satisfactory results in terms of processing of different medical
and aromatic plants.
Different medicinal plants like Melissa, peppermint, fennel
seeds, rosemary, cumin, and cloves buds etc were processed
successfully by using solar distillation. During sunny days, 45 batches can be processed with 10 kg per batch. In addition,
the Scheffler solar cooker was also used for the processing of
different fruits and vegetables. The study concludes that the
Scheffler fixed focus concentrators provide an excellent
opportunity for the processing of medicinal and aromatic
plants as well as for fruits and vegetables. This technology is
cheaper, easy to construct and can be successfully used in
rural and remote locations.

Technology to Improve Nutrition and Promote National


Developmen. International Union of Food Science &
Technology (IUFoST), 2008.
FAO. The State of Food Insecurity in the World. Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome,
2009.
Garg, H.P., Prakash, J., 2006. Solar energy for industrial
process heat, in Solar energy fundamentals and
applications, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.
Kalogirou, S., 2003. Potential of solar industrial process heat
applications, Applied Energy 76, 337-361
Munir, A., Hensel, O. 2010 On-farm processing of
medicinal and aromatic plants by solar distillation system.
Biosystem Engineering (Elsevier), ISSN 15375110: 106
(2010) 268
Munir, A., Hensel, O. 2007 Development of solar
distillation system for essential oils extraction from herbs,
International conference on Utilization of diversity in
land use systems: Sustainable and organic approaches to
meet human needs (Tropentag 2007) under Category
Technological Innovations in Agriculture on October 911, 2007 in Witzenhausen organized by university of
Kassel and Gottingen.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author is highly grateful to the institute of Agricultural
Engineering, University of Kassel, Germany and Solar
Bruecke organization, Germany for their help during the
construction work of Scheffler fixed focus concentrator.

REFERENCES
Duffie, J., Beckman, W., 2006. Solar engineering of thermal
processes, 3rd edition, John Wiley& Sons, Inc.Hoboken,
New Jersey ISBN -13 978-0-471-69867-8
Vannoni, C., Riccardo , B., and Drigo, S. 2008 .Potential for
solar heat in industrial processes. IEA-SHC Task 33/IV,
CIEMAT, Madrid.
Aworh, O.C. 2008. The role of traditional food processing
technologies in national development: the west african
experience, Chapter 3 from: Using Food Science and

60

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Drying of Fruits and Vegetables Using a Flat


Plate Solar Collector with Convective Air Flow

Mansoor.K. K**, M. Hanif


Department of Agricultural Mechanization, Faculty of Crop Production Sciences, Khyber PukhtunKhwa Agricultural
University, Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract
This paper presents the analysis of drying of different
fruits and vegetables dried by a flat plate solar collector
developed at the Department of Agricultural
Mechanization, Khyber PukhtunKhwa Agricultural
University Peshawar, Pakistan. A small flat plate solar
collector is designed and tested for its maximum
performance in terms of efficiency with different
convective flow rates. The collector assembly is
divided into two parts. The flat plate solar collector and
the drying chamber. The materials used for flat plate
solar collector are wood, steel sheet, Insulation
materials, and glass sheet as covering material. The
insulation box (0.9 x 1.8 x 0.3 meter) is made up of
wood of popular and deodar, to be fully insolated with
the help of polystyrene. The absorber is black painted
v-corrugated steel sheet. Collector has a tilt angle of
34o (Equivalent to the latitude of Peshawar). The
covering material is (0.9 x 1.8 meter) and 5mm thick
glass sheet placed at the top of the wooden box. The
collector is supported and tilted with the help of a
frame made up of iron angled arms. While the drying

1. Introduction
Drying of fruits and vegetables by traditional methods
of open air sun drying is not satisfactory, as the product
become infested with bacteria and insect and
deteriorates rapidly in the uncontrolled ambient
temperature and high relative humidity. (Ayensu
1997).Pakistan is a region where solar radiation falls all
over the year with great intensity. The intensity flux is
very high and it is studied that daily, weekly and
monthly solar intensity at Karachi and other places of
Pakistan have very much bright prospectus of solar
radiation. In Pakistan it is about 20 MJ/m2d of solar
insolation with an annual total of 7000 MJ/m2. Accept
monsoon months the solar irradiance is very
encouraging. (Ahmad. 1989). We can utilize this
energy in the form of flat plate solar collector for
drying of various fruits and vegetables. This technique
is cheap and time saving. A flat plate solar collector
with convective heat flow having an efficiency of 40 to

chamber is a (1x 0.5 x 0.3 meter) wooden box


connected to the outlet duct of the collector with the
help of polyvinylchloride pipe.
Experiments were conducted different fruits and
vegetables and different parameters like moisture lost
by the products in each hour, drying rate at each hour
of drying, humidity and temperature of the drying
chamber. It was observed that the products such as
bitter guard and onion were dried in 10 to 2 hours up to
moisture content less then 8%. These two product lost
8% to 10% moisture during each hour of drying. While
grapes and Green chili are dried in 24 to 25 hours up to
moisture content less then 8%. These two products lost
4% to 5% moisture in each hour of drying. The drying
rate of all the products dried was very much consistent.
It was observed that onion and bitter guard showed a
good drying rate of 0.03[g(H2O)/g(d.m).cm2hr] to
0.04[g(H2O)/g(d.m).cm2hr]. Grapes and Green chili
showed
a
very
slow
drying
rate
of
0.001[g(H2O)/g(d.m).cm2hr]
to
0.002[g(H2O)/g(d.m).cm2hr] .
50 % is best choice for valuable drying of fruits and
vegetables. (Morrison. 1981). Post harvest losses in
drying of various crops due to open air drying or direct
sun drying is about 25 to 30 %. These losses can be
reduced by the use of solar dryer in the form of flat
plate solar collector. Flat plate solar collector provides
favorable drying conditions to the fruits to be
dehydrated and also it can minimize the development
of moulds, bacteria and other insect attack.
(Yaciuk.1981). Flat plate solar collector with
convective heat flow improved solar drying that could
facilitate early crop harvest, long term storage of fruits
and vegetables and quality improvement. The
mechanism of drying should be studied for improved
solar drying to get valuable dried products.
(Henderson.1976). In this article the mechanism
involve in drying of various fruits and vegetables are
studied. The parameters which are studied are the

61

efficiency of the flat plate solar collector, drying rate in


each hour of drying, moisture lost in each hour of
drying, humidity and temperature data of the drying
chamber.

2.

Description of the flat plate solar collector assembly


Figure.1. shows a general view of the Flat Plate Solar
Collector assembly. The collector assembly is divided
into two parts.

1.

2.

The drying chamber


A drying chamber which is a (1.06 x 0.65 x 0.5) meter
wooden box connected to the outlet duct with the help
of polyvinyl-chloride pipe. The box is divided into
three shelves which are provided with trays for drying
the products. Each tray is made of wooden frame the
middle portion of the frame is fill up with wire gauze
made up of steel. Each tray is 0.45m wide and 0.6m
long. Each tray provides a total area of 0.25 m2 for
drying.

The flat plate solar collector


The materials used for flat plate solar collector are
wood, steel sheet, Insulation materials, and glass sheet
as covering material. The insulation box (0.9 x 1.8 x
0.3 meter) is made up of wood of popular and deodar,
to be fully insolated with the help of polystyrene. The

Nomenclatures
Area of the collector , m2
Ac
Da
Density of air , Kg/m3
Ao
Area of outlet duct, m2
Difference between inlet and outlet temperatures, oC
T
Qi
Heat input, KJ
Qo
Heat 0utput, KJ
F.R
Mass flow rate, Kg/min
Is
Incident radiation, KJ/ m2.min
M.c
Moisture content, %
Wf
Final weight of the product, g
Wt
Total weight of the product, g
Ap
Area of cross section of the product, cm2
Dr
Drying rate of the product, g(H2O)/ g(dm) cm2
Ho
Relative Humidity at outside of the drier , %
Vo
Velocity of air at outlet, m/sec
Ca
Specific heat capacity of air, KJ/Kg oC

Efficiency of the collector, %


Ho
Relative Humidity at outlet ,%
Wi
Initial weight of the product , g
Dry matter in the product, g
Dm
Diameter of the product, cm
Rp
Relative Humidity of the drying chamber, %
Hdr
Pie (constant)

absorber is black painted


v-corrugated steel
sheet. Collector has a tilt angle of 34o (Equivalent to the
latitude of Peshawar). The covering material is (0.9 x
1.8 meter) and 5mm thick glass sheet placed at the top
of the wooden box. The collector is supported and
tilted with the help of a frame made up of iron angled
arms

Figure.1. Flat plate solar collector assembly


3.

Analysis

3.

1 Collector Performance

The collector efficiency is determined at seven


different levels of air flow rates and three different
ambient temperatures of 33oC, 35oC and 37oC which
are determined by a thermometer at a shaded place near
the collector to check the collector performance. The
efficiency is determined using equation .1.
--- Efficiency equation

QoQi

Where Qi is the heat available to the


the product of collector area and solar
area which is determined by
pyranometer. The heat available to
calculated using equation.2.
--- Heat input equation

100
collector and is
intensity at unit
a mechanical
the collector is

62

Qo Is the heat output of the collector which is


determined by the product of air flow rate, specific heat
value of air and change in collectors temperature of
inlet and outlet. The heat outlet is calculated using
equation .3.
--- Heat output equation Q

FR

--- Dry matter of the products equation

3.6 Determining the drying rate of the product to be


dried

3.2 Air flow rate calculations


Drying rate is defined as the quantity of water
evaporated per gram of dry matter per unit area in unit
time. The drying rate of various fruits and vegetables is
determined to study how much moisture is lost in each
hour of drying from a unit mass of dry matter in the
product. Various products are dried at high, medium
and low mass flow rates. The drying rate is determined
for these products by using equation .8.

The air flow rate through the collector is determined by


the product of air speed at out let, density of air and
outlet ducts cross sectional area. The flow rate is
calculated by using equation.4.
--- Air flow rate equation

FR

3.3 Moisture determination in the sample


The moisture in the sample is determined after each
hour of drying. The products are dried for less then
10% moisture content to minimize mold, insects and
other bacterial attacks. The initial moisture content is
determined by oven method while the moisture after
each hour in drying is determined by taking the initial
weight and weight lost after each hour with the help of
an electric balance. The formula for determining the
moisture lost is given in equation .5.
--- Moisture lost equation

100

3.4 Determining the cross sectional area of the products


to be dried
The cross sectional area of the fruits and vegetables
and vegetables is determined with the help of a steel
tape which is graduated in centimeters and millimeters.
Radius of the drying product is determined before
drying and after each hour of drying in the drying
chamber. The area is determined using equation. 6.
--- Products cross sectional area equation

3.5 Determining the dry matter in the product


The dry matter (also known as dry weight) is a
measurement of the mass of the product when
completely dried. The dry matter of fruits and
vegetables
would
be
its solids,
i.e.
water, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals,
and antioxidant. The dry matter can be calculated by
using equation .7.

--- Drying rate equation


4.

Experimental Procedure
The fruits and vegetables are cut into circular pieces
and are treated with 1% solution of potassium Meta-biSulphaid. The products are dipped for 10 minutes in
this solution. The pre treatment helps to prevent the
product from attack of moulds and bacteria. It also
helps to retain the color of the product as it reduces
oxidation of the metals present in the fruits and
vegetables.
Measure the air velocity of the air coming from
collectors outlet duct to the drying chamber by the help
of Anemometer and measure the air flow rate. Set the
flow rate to 2.85 kg/min. Note the dryer temperature
with the help of a thermometer placed in the drying
chamber. The temperature must not be less then 45oC.
The temperature of the drier should be 50oC. Also
determine the humidity in the drying chamber as well
as outside environment by the help of digital
hygrometer. The humidity must be less then 15%
inside the drier.
Then the products cross sectional area are determined
by determining the radius of the product to be dried.
The products are then placed on the trays of the drying
chamber and the trays are placed in the drying chamber
for drying the products. Now after each hour of drying
take the weight and cross sectional area of the products
to be dried to determine moisture lost and drying rate
after each hour of drying.

63

Dry the products until the moisture content reaches less


then 8%. This will helps to minimize insect, mould,
bacterial and attack of other pathogens.

5. Results and discussions


5.1 Daily Solar Radiation
Figure.2. Shows the daily solar irradiance for a complete 24 hours day cycle of 23 September. It is clear from the graph
that solar intensity is maximum at Noon that is at 12:00 pm. It is 1.0 calories per square centimeter per minute. The
solar radiation starts falling from 6:30am and it stops at 6:00 pm
Figure.2. Solar Irradiance data

Solarrridiance[cal/cm2 min]

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
24HoursofDay

5.2 Temperature data


Fig.3. shows the temperature of the drier, ambient temperature and temperature of the absorber with the time of
day. It is studied that at 12:00 pm the temperature of the drier as well as the absorber is maximum. It is due to the
fact that at noon there is maximum intensity of the solar radiation. The temperature data of the drier is recorded at
natural flow rate of air from the collector to the drier.

64

Figure.3. Solar collector temperature data

140

Tabs

Tamb

Tdr

Temperature [oC]

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
24 Hours of Day
5.3

Collector Humidity Data

Figure.4 shows the humidity data of out side environment and the drier. The drier humidity is less then 20 % for a drying
period which is good for drying perishable fruits and vegetables
Figure.4. Humidity Data of the Collector
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
Ho

10

Hdr

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
24Hoursof Day

65

5.4 Performance of a Flat Plate Solar Collector


It is absorbed that efficiency of Flat Plat Solar Collector is significantly increased with increase in the air flow rate. The
average efficiency of Flat Plate Solar Collector increases from an average 21% at natural flow rate of 0.57 Kg/min to
56% at a high flow rate of 17.1 Kg/min. as shown in the Figure.5.
Figure.5. Efficiency of Flat Plate Solar Collector

Efficiency

60
50

Efficiency[%]

40
30
20
10
0
0.57

2.8

5.6

8.5

11.3

14.5

17.1

Air FlowRate[Kg/min]
5.5

Moisture lost at each hour of drying products dried by the Flat Plate Solar Collector

The moisture lost in each hour of drying is determined for grapes, bitter guard, onion and chili. Figure.6. shows
moisture lost in each hour of drying of onion. Onion took almost 12 hours to lost moisture from 87% to a safe
moisture content of 7%.
Figure.6. Moisture lost data of Onion

100

Onion

90
80
70

Moisture[%]

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1

10

11

12

Drying Time[hr]

Figure.7. shows moisture lost in each hour of drying of bitter guard. It took almost 11 hours to lost moisture from
93% to a safe moisture content of 5%.
66

Figure.7. Moisture lost data of Bitter guard

100

Bitterguard

90
80

Moisture[%]

70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1

10

11

12

Drying Time[hr]

Figure.8. shows moisture lost in each hour of drying of grapes. It took almost 25 hours to lost moisture from 82% to
a safe moisture content of 6%.
Figure.8. Moisture lost data of Grapes
90
80

Grapes

70

Moisture[%]

60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
Drying Time[hr]

67

Figure.9. shows moisture lost in each hour of drying of chili. It took almost 25 hours to lost moisture from 82% to a
safe moisture content of 6%.

Figure.9. Moisture lost data of Green Chili


80
70

GreenChili

60

Moisture[%]

50
40
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
DryingTime[hr]

5.6

Drying rate of the products dried by the Flat Plate Solar Collector

The drying rate of different products that are dried by the Flat Plate Solar Collector was determined. Figure.10.
shows the drying rate of onion. It shows a drying rate of 0.03 g (H2O) /g(d.m).cm2.hr at first two hours of drying
which increased to 0.05 g (H2O) / g(d.m).cm2.hr after eight hours of drying.
Figure.10. Drying rate data of Onion
Onion

Drying Rate [ g (H2O)/ g (d.m) hr ]

0.05
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.00
1

DryingTime[hr]

10

11

12
68

Figure.11. shows the drying rate of bitter guard. It shows a drying rate of 0.026 g (H2O) /g(d.m).cm2.hr at first hours of
drying which decreased 0.021 g (H2O) / g(d.m).cm2.hr after a hours of drying. The drying rate then becomes steady and
after eight hours of drying the drying rate becomes 0.045 g (H2O) /g(d.m).cm2.hr
Figure.11. Drying rate data of Bitter guard
bitterguard
0.050

DryingRate [g(H2O)/g(d.m)hr]

0.045
0.040
0.035
0.030
0.025
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
1

10

11

12

DryingTime[hr]

Figure.12. shows the drying rate of grapes. It shows a drying rate of 0.014 g (H2O) /g(d.m).cm2.hr at first hours of
drying which increased 0.018 g (H2O) / g(d.m).cm2.hr after ten hours of drying. The drying rate after twenty three hours
of drying becomes 0.030 g (H2O) /g(d.m).cm2.hr
Figure.12. Drying rate data of Grapes
0.030

grapes

Drying Rate [ g (H2O)/ g (d.m) hr ]

0.025
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
DryingTime[hr]

69

Figure.13. shows the drying rate of green chili. It shows a drying rate of 0.003 g (H2O) /g(d.m).cm2.hr at first hours of
drying which remain 0.002 g (H2O) / g(d.m).cm2.hr after ten hours of drying. The drying rate after twenty three hours of
drying becomes 0.001 g (H2O) /g(d.m).cm2.hr

Figure.13. Drying rate data of Green Chili

DryingRtae[gH2O/gd.m.cm2.hr]

0.004
GreenChili

0.003
0.003
0.002
0.002
0.001
0.001
0.000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
DryingTime[hr]
Energy in drying of apricots. Department of Agricultural
Machinery Engineering, Department of Food Science,
Technology and Engineering, Faculty of Bio-systems
Engineering, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.2007.

References
[1]

Ahmad. F. Solar Radiation Studies at Karachi Pakistan. Ph.D


dissertation report. Department of Physics, University of
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[2]

Morrison. D. Agricultural Solar Design Booklet. Illinois


Department of Energy and Natural Resources. University of
Illinois, Urbana, united states. 1981.

[3] Yaciuk. G.. Food Drying. International Development Research


Center, Ottawa, Canada, ISBN 0-88936-333-1. Alberta
Department of Agriculture, Edmonton, Canada. 1981.
[4]

[5]

Henderson. S.M, R.L. Perry. Agricultural Process Engineering.


Department of Agricultural Engineering. Engineering University
of California, California, United States of America. ISBN 087055-212-0. 1976.
Mirzaee, E.S. Rafiee, A. Keyhani, Z. Emam-Djomeh.
Determining of moisture diffusivity and activation

[6] Ayensu. A. Dehydration of food crops using a solar dryer with


convective heat flow. Department of physics, University of Cape
Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. 1997.
[7]

Tonui J.K., Y. Tripanagnostopoulos. Performance


improvement of PV/T solar collectors with natural airflow
operation. Department of Physics, University of Patras, Patra
26504, Greece.2007.

[8] Zahid M, Abdul M, M. Khan, M. Asif and Amjad M, (2006).


Performance evaluation of solar dryers for drying onions in
NWFP. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 22. No. 1. 1-5
[9]

Zahid M, M. Khan, Amjad M, M. Asif, (2005) Design and


development of a Gable type solar dryer for drying fruit and
vegetables. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, Vol. 21. No. 4. 525529

[10] Suleyman .K. Performance analysis of new design solar air


collectors for drying applications. Department of Mechanical
Engineering, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey. 2006.
[11] Eisenmann. W, K. Vajen, H.Ackermann. On the correlations
between collector efficiency factor and material content of

70

parallel flow flat plate solar collectors. Philiphs University,


Marburg, Germany. 2003.
[12] Kang. M.C, Yong. H.K, Sang. H. L, Wongee. C. Numerical
analysis on the thermal performance of a roof integrated flat plate
solar collector assembly. Department on New and Renewable
Energy Research, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejon,
Republic of Korea. 2006.
[13] Adnan. S, Tayfun .M, Sinan.U. Determination of efficiency of flat
plate collectors using neural network approach. Department of
Mechanical Education, Faculty of Technical Education, Gazi
University, Ankara, Turkey. 2008.
[14] Ayensu. A. Dehydration of food crops using a solar dryer with
convective heat flow. Department of physics, University of Cape
Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. 1997.
[15] Ibrahim .M , K. Sopian , W.R.W. Daud . Study of the Drying
Kinetics of Lemon Grass. Solar Energy Research Institute,
University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor,
Malaysia.2009.
[16] Selmi.M, Mohammed.J, Al-Khawaja, Abdulhamid.M.
Validation of CFD simulation for flat plate solar energy
collector. Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Qatar, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, State of Qatar,
Qatar.2006.
[17] Fan.J, L.Jivan Shah, S.Furbo. Flow distribution in a solar
collector panel with horizontally inclined absorber strips.
Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of
Denmark, Brovej, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.2007.
[18] Ali .Liaqat. Development and Testing of Greenhouse
Type Solar Dryer. Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and
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Pakistan. 1990.
[19] Gul. N, A.Ali, J.Muhammad, Basharatullah, M.Asif,
Sanaullah, K.Das.Studies on Drying of Onions in Solar
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Enviroment, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Sindh
Agriculture University, Tando Jam, Sindh, Pakistan.2003.
[20] Karim .M, M.N.A. Hawlader.Development of Solar Air
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Australia. 2003.

71

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Effect of heating environment on Fluorine doped tin


oxide (F: SnO2) thin films for solar cell applications
Syeda Amber Yousaf
Department of Physics
Government College University, Lahore
Pakistan
s.amberyousaf@gmail.com

and
Salamat Ali
Department of Physics
Government College University, Lahore
Pakistan
salamatali@gcu,edu.pk
Abstract In this work a series of investigations were made, in
order to check the effect of heating environment and doping
concentration on opto-electronic and structural properties of
Fluorine doped tin oxide (F: SnO2). Soda glass was used as a
substrate onto which SnO2 with and without fluorine doping was
deposited utilizing sol-gel dip coating technique. The XRD results
confirmed the crystal structure of SnO2 and perfect substitution
of doped atoms with host atoms. Spectroscopy analysis revealed a
slight decrease in optical transmittance with increasing doping
concentration and change of environment from air to N2 while
band gap tends to increase. Electrical resistivity was calculated
using four point probe method and showed an inverse effect
comparing to optical transmittance.
Keywords-component; Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (F:SnO2),
Opto-electronic, solar cell applications, Dip-coating Technique.

INTRODUCTION
Comprising the properties of optical transmission and
electrical conductance, transparent conducting oxides are
special kind of materials, which are essential part of solar cell
applications. A wide band gap metal oxide is selected which is
degenerated either through the introduction of native or
substitutional dopants [1]. The nature, number and atomic
arrangements of metal cations play an important part. The
other essential features on to which these unique
characteristics depend are morphology and presence of
intrinsic or intentionally introduced defects [1]. These thin
films are fabricated in controlled environment in order to
introduce defects in the form of oxygen vacancy. Each oxygen
vacancy contributes two electrons thus enhancing the
electrical conductivity. The films are n type semiconductor
material with electron concentration of the order of 1020 cm-3
[2]. But films fabricated with oxygen vacancy only are not
practically suitable as these become unstable at higher
temperatures, so in order to use it as transparent electrodes for
solar cell and other opto-electronic applications, dopant are

introduced. This dopant also increases the electrical


conductivity by providing electrons for the conduction.
For our work we have chosen SnO2 as our desired materials as
it is chemically stable and is the only transparent conducting
oxide, which have enjoyed commercialization. F, Cl, Sb, Br,
Ni and Cu are few examples that can be used as dopants for
SnO2. Among them F: SnO2 and Sb: SnO2 have been studied a
lot and employed for device applications. Sb atoms substitutes
Sn where F atoms sits in the place of Oxygen. When F sits in
the place of Oxygen, it gives one free electron which is clearly
indicated from the hybrid orbital configuration of 2s22p5 and
2s22p4 for F and O, respectively. F with ionic radius 1.36 A
can easily replace O2- with ionic radius 1.40 A, hence doping
takes place easily [3].
EXPRIMENTAL PROCESS
The films were fabricated with few modifications in the
reported method [4]
The 1x1.5 inch soda glass slides were cleaned ultrasonically at
60o C, in order to use as substrates for the deposited films.
Firstly 0.5M solution of Stannic Chloride was made in 2propanol by carefully measuring its weight in which 0.5M HF
was mixed. The final solution was stirred for 1 hr at 70C
using magnetic stirrer.
The possible Chemical Reaction is as follows:
SnCl4.5H2O + 4HF SnF4 + 4HCl + 5H2O
We prepared 5 solutions for different samples
For un-doped thin films we took only Stannic Chloride
solution and continued the process.

72

For doped thin films, we made solutions and hence samples,


with varying fluorine and tin atomic ratios ranging from 1: 60
to1:30 respectively. Results of few samples are shown here.
DIP COATING
After stirring, the solution was aged for 2 hrs. We then started
dipping of glass slides. We took two slides for each solution
and the slides were dipped 10 times each. Between every two
dipping, the slides were dried at 90C. After 10 dipping, the
two slides were treated in two different environments.

structure. All the films exhibit the preferred orientation along


(110) plane which is has also been observed by other groups
with SnO2: F grown by dip coating technique [4]. As we can
see, there are no additional peaks in doped profile, which is
the evidence of perfect substitution of doped atoms with host
atoms. It is also observed that as the doping concentration
increases, the intensity of peaks decreases and FWHM
increases. This is probably because the crystal structure starts
deteriorating at higher fluorine concentration [5].

One slide was placed in muffle furnace for heat treatment at


500C in oxygen controlled environment. The slide was
treated for 1 hr and then taken out at 300C.
The other slide was placed in tube furnace for heat treatment
at 500C in N2 environment. The slide was heat treated 1 hr
and then taken out at 300C.
When glass slides are placed for heat treatment, oxidation
takes place. Oxygen replaces fluorine. But as oxygen is being
provided at limited rate fluorine stays at some lattice sites and
we get fluorine doped tin oxide.
SnF4 + O2 SnO2: F + by products
The whole process was repeated five times for each slide to
increase the thickness of the films.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION
To find the structural, compositional and phases present in the
fabricated samples, XRD (XPert PRO PANalytical Company
Ltd, Holland) was used.

Fig.2: XRD Pattern of Samples heated in N2 where (a) un-doped SnO2(b)


F: SnO2 with atomic ratio 1:60 (c) F: SnO2 with atomic ratio 1:40 (d) F: SnO2
with atomic ratio 1:35

For samples treated in N2, XRD data shows a decrease in


intensity of peaks compared to the samples treated in air.N2
environment sufficiently decreases the oxygen content hence
creating more vacant sites which act as donor states and
deteriorate the crystal structure to a larger extent.
OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION
A Spectrophotometer model [HR2000CG-UV-NIR] was used
to obtain transmission spectrum in visible region.

Fig.1: XRD Pattern of Samples heated in air where (a) un-doped SnO2(b) F:
SnO2 with atomic ratio 1:60 (c) F: SnO2 with atomic ratio 1:40 (d) F: SnO2
with atomic ratio 1:35

Figure 1&2 XRD pattern of F: SnO2 (fluorine doped tin oxide)


thin films fabricated with different fluorine concentration in
different heating environment. The pattern is in perfect
agreement with reference pattern of SnO2.It can be seen that
all the films are crystalline and contain the SnO2 tetragonal

Fig.3: Transmission Spectrum in Visible Region for samples heated in air


where (a) un-doped SnO2(b) F: SnO2 with atomic ratio 1:60 (c) F: SnO2 with
atomic ratio 1:40 (d) F: SnO2 with atomic ratio 1:35

73

No.

Sample

Band-gap, Eg (eV)

Un-doped

3.23

1:60

3.28

1:40

3.4

1:35

3.42

Table: 1, Atomic Ratios of F in SnO2 versus Band Gap Eg for samples heated
in air
Fig.4: Transmission Spectrum in Visible Region for samples heated in N2
where (a) un-doped SnO2(b) F: SnO2 with atomic ratio 1:60 (c) F: SnO2 with
atomic ratio 1:40 (d) F: SnO2 with atomic ratio 1:35

Figure 3&4 represents the Transmittance Spectrum of samples


in the Visible Region. The graphs show a decrease in
transmittance with increasing doping concentration, which is
due to the increase in fundamental absorption as photon
striking increases with increase in career concentration [5].
The decreasing behavior of transmittance is similar for both
environment but for samples heated in N2; transmittance is
slightly low which is due to the fact that these samples have
larger no. of free careers as compared to those heated in air.
The transmission data from figure 3&4 have been used to
calculate the band gap of the given samples using equation.
(h)2 = A( h-Eg)
Where A is a constant, h is the photon energy, Eg is the
energy band gap and is absorption. The plot between
(h)2and h is shown in figure 5. By extrapolating the linear
portion of the graph to h axis, band gap have been obtained at
the intercept [4].

No.

Sample

Band-gap, Eg (eV)

Un-doped

3.2

1:60

3.25

1:40

3.31

1:35

3.38

Table: 2, Atomic Ratios of F in SnO2 versus Band Gap Eg for samples heated
in N2

Using above described method, band gap for all samples has
been calculated. Table 1&2 shows the calculated band gap
data. It is evident from the data that band gap value increases
with increase in doping concentration which can be explained
with Burstein-Moss Shift [6] i.e. due to increase in career
concentration, the absorption edge shifts to higher energy
level. For samples treated in both environments, the band gap
behavior is similar.
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION
The Electrical Resistance test was done using Four Point
Probe Method.
No.

Sample

Electrical Resistivity (-m)

Un-doped

1.20

1:60

6.41X10-01

1:40

3.58X10-01

1:35

4.60X10-01

Table: 3, Atomic Ratios of F in SnO2 versus Electrical Resistivity for samples


heated in air

Fig. 5: Band gap calculation

No.

Sample

Electrical Resistivity (-m)

Un-doped

9.9X 10-1

1:60

4.77X10-1

1:40

1.76X10-1

1:35

3.39X10-1

74

Table: 4, Atomic Ratios of F in SnO2 versus Electrical Resistivity for samples


heated in N2

It can be seen here that initially with increasing doping


concentration, electrical resistance decreases due to
increase in no. of charge carriers. But as we kept on
increasing the doping concentration, a point reaches where
resistance starts increasing again. There can be two
probable reasons for this behavior. One is that at higher
concentration, Fluorine atoms incorporates at the
interstitial sites and crystal structure starts to deteriorate,
hence the mobility of the free electrons decrease and
electrical resistivity increases [4]. Another possible reason
can be that at higher concentration fluorine atoms starts
incorporating at the oxygen vacancy sites, decreases the
number of electrons and hence increases the resistivity [5].
Heating in N2environment creates more oxygen vacancies.
Each oxygen vacancy act as a donor state and contribute
two electrons for conduction and hencethe resistivity is
observantly low for samples heated in N2.
CONCLUSION
F: SnO2 thin films have successfully been fabricated using
sol-gel dip coating technique. It has been observed that
with increasing doping concentration, there is a decrease in
crystallinity, electrical resistance and optical transmission.
But at limiting doping concentration optoelectronics
properties stops being improved.
In comparative study of heating environments, the
resistivity has been sufficiently decreased for films treated
in N2 environment, because of oxygen desorption from the
surface pores and grain boundaries, resulting in creation of
vacant sites which act as donor states.
(1)

ReferenceS
[30] R. Boxman, "Tranparent Conducting Oxide Thin films: Physics, Current
Status, and Future Prospects" a keynote lecture at THIN FILMS 2008
conference held in Singapore, July 2008.
[31] T. Minami, New n-Type Transparent Conducting Oxides, MRS
Bulletin, August (2000) 38-43
[32] K. S. Ramaih, V. S. Raja, Structural and electrical properties of fluorine
doped tin oxide films prepared by spray-pyrolsis technique, Applied
Surface Science 253 (2006) 1451-1458
[33] A.N. Banerjee, S. Kundoo, P. Saha And K.K. Chattopadhyay, Synthesis
And Characterization Of Nano-Crystalline Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide
Thin Films By Sol Gel Method, Journal Of Sol-Gel Science And
Technology 28 (2003) 105110.
[34] S. Shanthi, C. Subramanian, P. Ramsamy, Preparation and Properteis of
Sprayed Undoped and Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Films, Material Sc.
And Eng. B57 (1999) 127-134
[35] H. Kim, R.C.y Auyeung, A. Pique, Transparent Conducting F-doped
SnO2 thin films grown by by Pulsed Laser Deposition, Thin Solid Films
516 (2008) 5052-5056

75

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Enerrgy Crrisis in
n Pakiistan
An Oppportuunity for
f Reenewaable Ennergy
Atttaullah Shahh*1, Irfanullahh Jan2, Ehsannul-Haq3, Sharifullah4 and Razaullah Khan4
* 1,4

P
Project
Directoorate Allama Iqbbal Open Univeersity Islamabaad Pakistan ( pddaiou@yahoo.ccom)

2.

National centtre of Excellennce in Geologyy Peshawar-P


N
Pakistan (ij21@
@le.ac.uk)
3.
Capital Devvelopment Autthority-Islama
abad Pakistann(engr59@gm
mail.com)
4
Natioonal Agricultuure Research Council
C
Islamabad Pakistann (R.U.Khan@
@massey.ac.nzz)
Absstract Pakisstan is facing severe eneergy crisis du
ue to
unp
precedented in
ncrease in the energy cost at
a the internaational
leveel and widenin
ng gap between
n supply and demand
d
of energy at
natiional level. Th
his crisis is erooding the econ
nomic growth of the
cou
untry achieved
d during lastt five years. At the same time
Pak
kistan is locatted at very feasible
f
built for harnessin
ng the
renewable energyy like solar en
nergy, wind en
nergy and bioomass.
nce the crisis of
o energy in Paakistan has beccome an opportunity
Hen
for the renewab
ble energy. In
n this paper the possibilities of
harrnessing the soolar energy in Pakistan havee been discusssed. A
praactical case stu
udy of Allamaa Iqbal Open University
U
Pak
kistan
has been develop
ped. The studyy has revealed
d that solar can
c
be
d for financiall and environm
mental benefits at Pakistan
used
Keyywords enerrgy cost, ecoonomic growtth, Pakistan, solar
energy, wind enerrgy, biomass

p
shortagge, estimated tto be 1000 to 2000 MW duuring
The power
the 2007,
2
touchedd 3000 MW inn 2008 with further
fu
increasse to
abou
ut 5300 MW inn 2010. The seector wise pow
wer demand up
u to
2010
0 has been shoown in Table2 [4]
Tablee 2. Sector Wisse Power Conssumption and demand
d
(20055-10)
in Meega Watts
Year
Y

Dom
m

Com

A
Agric

Ind

Other

Total

200
05-06
200
06-07
200
07-08
200
08-09
200
09-10

7,1999
7,5855
8,1277
8,7833
9,5311

1,216
1,251
1,312
1,354
1,408

1,763
1,820
1,893
1,979
22,079

5,891
6,481
7,252
8,181
9,267

1,035
1,086
1,159
1,243
1,341

15,5500
16,6600
17,9900
19,6600
21,5500

Intrroduction

The three
t
major reeasons for the energy crisis internally are

Pakkistan's energyy consumptioon has nearly quadrupled in


i the
lastt 30 years [1]. The energy consumption
c
i expected to grow
is
at double
d
digit if
i the overall economy suustains the tarrgeted
GD
DP growth ratee. The overalll energy requiirement of Pakkistan
is expected
e
to be
b about 80 million tons of oil equivaalents
(MT
TOE) in 20100, up by aboutt 50% from thhe 54 MTOE of
o the
yeaar 2007[2]. Paakistans energgy requiremennts are expectted to
douuble in the nexxt few years, and by 2015, it is likely to cross
1200MTOE. Tablle 1 shows thee future projecction of energgy use
in Pakistan
P
[3].

i. En
nergy sector loosses. ii. Perssistent failure at micro leveel to
end line
l losses, iii.. failure to envvisage and pu
ush for sustainnable
energ
gy. Pakistan is mainly relying on the Non Renew
wable
(NRE
E) source of energy
e
and onnly 180 MW is
i being produuced
from
m Renewable Energy (RE) Sources, as compared to the
total energy of 20000 MW. This is certainly
y less than 1 % of
otal energy prroduction.
the to

Tabble1: Future Energy


E
Mix Plan (MTOE)

2. En
nergy crisis in Pakistan aas an opportu
unities for ussing
Reneewable Energgy ( RE).
Pakisstan is fortuunately locatted on sub--belt zone with
w
appro
oximately 3000 sunny days every year and
a even if 5%
% of
the solar
s
energy iss utilized, it ccan generate 7 Million MW
W of
electricity [5]. Buut it is ironical that this maammoth sourcce of
gy has not been harnessed in true sense.. This is comm
mon
energ
with all the deveeloping counttries, particulaarly South Asian
A
Natio
ons. Some modest
m
efforts have been made
m
by Pakiistan
Coun
ncil of Approppriate Technoology (PACRE
ET), but the large
scalee application of solar ennergy both at
a domestic and
comm
mercial levelss as alternatiive source off energy requuires
both policy and institutional inittiatives. [6]

76

2.1) Solar Heat Applications:


About 3/4th of the domestic and industrial energy use is
thermal [7] and much of this can be directly harnessed from
the Sun. The potential uses of solar heating include solar
space and water heating and fuel generation.
2.1.1) Solar space and water heating.
Water is heated in the tubes of collector panels of the plate
collector and pumped into the storage tank. The hot water can
be used for space heating and hot water for cooking and
washing. This can reduce the residential fossil fuel use by
75% [7]

significant environmental and health advantages over the later


[10]
PV solar system design must be based on the following
principles [11]
1. The packaged system must be selected on the basis of
owner needs and customer expectations such as reducing the
energy bills,
environmental benefits, desire for backup
power, initial budget limitations, and basic design parameters.
2. Suitability of the roof area, orientation and location in
handling the desired system. The PV system must be placed at
proper location where these are not obstructed by foliage,
shading etc.

2.1.2) Fuel generation:


Here solar energy is focused on a chemical reactor containing
high pressure ammonia gas, which is split into Hydrogen and
nitrogen at high temperature and the energy released from
chemical reaction is used to run a generator. The energy
produced from this method is not as cheap as hydel
generation, yet it can be used in remote rural areas, where
diesel generation is carried out at much higher cost [8]

3. Durability of the selected material to withstand the


weathering etc.
4. Design the system with a minimum of electrical line losses
due to wiring, fuses, switches, and inverters.
5. Design of the system in compliance with all applicable
building and electrical codes.

2.2) Solar Electricity:

6. Proper protection of the batteries and other equipment.

The solar energy can be converted directly into electricity


either through photovoltaic cells or indirectly by
thermodynamic process.

7. The PV system must be properly integrated with the


existing electrical distribution system.

2.2.1) Thermodynamic Conversion:

8. For roof mounted system, the roof slab must be strong


enough to take the additional loads.

Solar collectors collect the sun energy and concentrate the


heat on a large volume of fluid, which is used into electricity.
Typically parabolic mirror dish are used to focus the sun light
on the tower. For best results the tilting and rotation of the
dish is controlled to track the sun. This system can be scaled
to generate few hundreds of megawatts of energy [9]
2.2.2) Photovoltaic Conversion:
Photovoltaic (PV) solar systems convert sunlight directly into
electricity. A residential PV power system enables a
homeowner to generate some or all of their daily electrical
energy demand on their own roof, exchanging daytime excess
power for future energy needs (i.e. night-time usage). The
house remains connected to the electric utility at all times, so
any power needed above what the solar system can produce is
simply drawn from the utility. PV systems can also include
battery backup or uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
capability to operate selected circuits in the residence for
hours or days during a utility outage. This is sometimes
referred to as Solar-UPS hybrid system. Environmental
considerations of PV system may include their energy
intensive production, the use of toxic substances; their
disposal may lead to hazardous substances. However
comparison of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of PV and non
PV power production technologies show that PV system has

9. The system must be properly earthed to avoid any electric


shocks to the users.
10. After installation, the system must be checked and by the
qualified electrical engineers.
3. System design consideration for Solar PV system.
Basically there are two options for PV electrical system for
using in houses and street lighting; [12]
3.1) Grid-Interactive Only (No Battery Backup)
This type of system only operates when the utility is available.
In cases, where the utility outages are less frequent, this
system is more favorable, as the return per dollar investment
is relatively high in such cases. The system remains shut down
till the restoration of the utility. Such system is comprised of
the following components;
i.
ii.
iii.

PV array
DC-AC inverter
Meters and switches etc.

A typical grid interactive only system has been shown in Fig.1


77

Faculties
Departmentts ( Academics)
Research Centers and insstitutes
Programs offered
Courses offfered and prodduced
Students unndergraduate
Students ( Bachelor
B
and Masters)
M
Students ( M.Phil,
M
PhD)
Others ( Dipploma and Ceertificates)
Totall Students Enrrolment

FIIG1

04
35
03
135
1200
221621
363854
896
118331
704702

: GRID INTER
RACTIVE PV SYS
STEM

3.2)) Grid-Interaactive With Baattery Backup


Heere the batteryy backups are used to store the energy. In
I day
tim
me, when the solar
s
energy iss available, thhe system enerrgy is
provided directlyy from PV sysstem, where at night outagees and
loadd shedding, thhe power storred in the battteries are provvided.
Thee amount of backup
b
time depends
d
on thhe battery sizze and
subb panel load atttached. Usually all the load is not attachhed to
the PV solar sysstem and a crritical sub paanel is installeed for
esseential loads. A typical batttery backup syystem may prrovide
1 KW
K power foor 8 hours of outages. Grrid-interactivee with
batttery system coontains the folllowing additiional componeents;

Batteriees and batteriees closure


Battery charge controoller
Separatee sub panel

popu
ulations belongs to lower m
middle and po
oor class. A great
g
majo
ority of these people are pllaced in the rural
r
areas, where
accesss of educatiion cannot bbe ascertained
d through forrmal
education system.
ma Iqbal Openn University w
was thus estab
blished in 19774 at
Allam
the model
m
of UK Open
O
Universsity. The Univ
versity duringg last
30 years
y
has beenn recognized as a mega naational instituution
proviiding educatiion to 700,0000 students in science, soocial
scien
nce and hum
manities. Preseently Universsity offers abbout
1000
0 courses and 120 program
ms from elemeentary to docttoral
levells. The facultyy wise studentts enrolment and growth trrend
has been
b
given in Table3
T
and figg1 respectivelly
U:
4.2) Energy probllems at AIOU
The students of AIOU are spparsely distriibuted across the
ntry. The weeb based innformation system plays an
coun
impo
ortant role in admission, exxamination, teeaching and other
o
studeents support. The internnal Managem
ment informaation
systeem, Radio brooadcast facilitiies, printing faacilities and other
o
operaations of thee University require unin
nterrupted poower
supply. The annuual energy coost of power supply to Main
M
mpus of AIOU
U, has crosseed the figuree of Pak Ruppees
Camp
(PKR
R), 30 Millionn, as against tthe total operrational budgeet of
PKR
R 2500 Millioon for the Unniversity. With
h the additionn of
new buildings andd ICT infrastruucture, and many new projeects,
e
demannd is likely too increase @ 15% per annnum.
the energy
Hencce the energgy cost is bbecoming on
ne of the major
m
comp
ponents of annnual costs. [133]
.
Student Enro
ollment
0.8

PV interactive baattery backup system has beeen shown in Fig2.


F

0.704

0.7

0.625

0.6

0.514

0.5
0.4

0.357

0.3
335

0.4

2000-01

2001-02

2002-03

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
2003-04

2004--05

2005-06

Fig3..Studentts Enrolment ttrend and grow


wth in AIOU
( 2000--2006)

Fig:2 Grid-Interactivve With Batteryy Backup

4. Allama
A
Iqbal Open
O
University-Islamabadd- PakistanA case study for
f solar energgy applicationn.
4.1)) Introductionn:
p
a uniique opportunnity to
Opeen and Distannce Learning provides
those who cannoot afford form
mal Universityy education due
d to
a
demogrraphic
theiir socio-ecoonomic, sociio-cultural and
connditions. Pakisstan is a deveeloping counttry with per capita
c
incoome less thann US$1000 and
a majority of
o the 160 million
m

w student ennrolment of AIIOU (2006)


Tablee3: Faculty wise
t
other hand,
h
the unnavailability of smooth and
At the
unintterrupted pow
wer supply duee to frequent load
l
shedding and
poweer breakdownns (for about 3-4 hours daaily), is creaating
many
y obstacles in
i providing essential students
s
serviices,
inclu
uding creatingg data bases of new stud
dents, mailingg of
78

study material, arranging of tutorial meetings, examinations


and results. The situation is worsening further as the demand
and supply gap is likely to shoot up to 6000 MW in summer at
national level. The productivity of the organization has been
severely affected by the delays and the annual revenue per
student is declining as a result.
Soon after the energy crisis appeared at national level, the
Executive management of University and Directorate of
Projects, developed a Four prong strategy to deal with the
problem;
i.

Exploring the alternate Renewable Energy


Resources (RER).
ii. Developing Power Management System for optimal
use of the power supply.
iii. Providing immediate power supply to the important
ICT resources for ensuring smooth functioning of
core operations through UPS System (Uninterrupted
Power Supply).
iv. Using Stand by diesel generation in case other
sources of power supply are not available.

4.3) Exploring Alternate Energy Sources with focus on


Solar Energy
The favourable location of the AIOU Main Campus
Islamabad with more than 250 sunny days, a strategic project
for use of solar energy as an alternate source of energy has
been initiated, which shall be implemented in 5-7 years. The
project has been divided in five phases;
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Using of Solar energy for security Street lighting of


Main Campus and Staff colony.
Block lighting and in house solar lighting.
Light equipment and Personal Computer on solar
energy sources.
Heavy equipment on solar lighting.
Solar energy sources for domestic units in staff
colony.

4.4) Phase 1: Use of Solar energy for street lighting System


at AIOU.
The existing street lighting system of the main campus AIOU
and staff colony is met from the electricity supplied by local
distribution firm known as Islamabad. Electric Supply Co
(IESCO). The distribution system has been divided into 16
control points, installed at nine different locations of the
Campus. The details of block-wise distribution have been
given in table 2 and Fig:1. Each control point is typically
connected to 7-9 lights. The lights are illuminated with 23
Watts energy savers for low energy consumption and more
reliability. The total streetlights provided at the Main Campus
are about 120 points. Hence the consumptions of the street
lights system are 23X120 = 2760 Watts. Hence about 3000
Watts (3KVA) was required to be generated from the
proposed solar system.
Design Parameters:

Pole mounted system


Panel based distributed system.
The pole mounted solar lighting system was not considered
mainly for two reasons;
i. The capital cost per pole mounted system was three times
more than the per light cost of the distributed panel system.
ii. The maintenance cost of the pole mounted system is
relatively higher.
The existing 16 sub distribution system has been installed
with controls at nine locations, hence panel based distribution
at these locations is more economical and easy to maintain.
The specification of various components of the proposed
design is as follows;
Main Panel specification:
Cell Technology: Mono Crystalline
Panel dimension (mm): 1847.5 x 1050 x 34
Front Cover: EVA
No of PV cells: 96
Cell Dimensions (mm): 125 x 125
Warranted minimum P max: 140 W
Battery Specification:
Nominal Voltage: 12 V
Capacity: 100 Ah
Dimension ( mm): 576 x 212 x 800
Maximum Charging Current: 20 A
Maximum discharge current: 50 A ( 5 sec)
2.4.1.3: Solar Charge Controller:
Charging Current maximum: 10 A
Load current: 10 A
System voltage: 12/24 V
Solar inverter:
Nominal Input voltage: 12V
Input voltage range: 10.5 16V ( 24 V Max)
Continuous power: 400 VA
Max asymmetrical load: 250 VA
The typical PV system has been given in Fig 3 and roof
mounted PV system has been shown in Fig.4

Fig 3.Tyoical components of PV solar system.

The following two options were available for use of solar


energy for street lighting.
79

The success of the solar energy application at AIOU will open


more venues for research of Environmental design program
for Engineers.
Renewable Energy research cell shall be established under the
project Directorate of AIOU.
4.5.2: Environmental benefits to the country from solar and
renewable energy. [14]

Fig.4: Roof mounted PV system. [11]


4.4.2: Procurement of the Solar PV system on the basis of
preliminary design:
On the basis of generic specification of various components of
PV system, open bids were invited from the experienced firms
and the project was awarded to the lowest bidder M/S
Solartech at the quoted price of Rs 1.200 Million (US$ 18500)
for 16 systems comprising the solar panels, solar PV cells,
batteries, charge controllers, solar inverter, change over
switches. These 16 panels shall be installed at nine locations
of the University, where the existing electrical control panels
of the street lighting system has been provided.
4.4.3: Cost Benefit Analysis of the PV solar System:
4.4.3.1: Direct Economic benefits:
Costs: System Capital Cost including provision and
installation of the PV system: US$ 18500
Benefits: The proposed system will provide about 3 KWh of
output, which shall be used for illuminating 120 solar security
lights. The average use of the lights for 8 hours and using 75%
of the total 300 available sunny days, the annual power which
will be generated by the system is
= 0.75 x 300 X3 x 9 = 6075 KWh per year.
At the average unit price of 18 cents, the annual saving in
energy costs = 0.18 x 6075 = $ 1093
Hence the payback period of the initial investment = 17 years.
In case the cost of standby diesel generation for 3 hours every
day @ $0.50 per KWh is included, during the power load
shedding, the additional benefits = 0.75 x 300 x 3 x 0.50 = $
338
The total benefits of the proposed solar system = $ 1093 + 338
= $1434. Hence the Pay Back Period of the initial investment
reduces as = 18500/1434 = 13 years.
This period can be further reduced to 10 years through better
design and large grid based solar power generation.
4.5 Non Financial benefits:

Reduction of local air pollution


Use of solar electric systems shall decreases the amount of
local air pollution. Solar rural electrification can also
decrease the amount of electricity needed from small diesel
generators.
Offsets greenhouse gases
Photovoltaic systems produce electric power with no carbon
dioxide (CO2) emissions. Carbon emission offset is
calculated at approximately 6 tons of CO2 over the twentyyear life of one PV system.
Conserves energy
Solar electricity for the third World can be an effective
energy conservation program because it conserves costly
conventional power for urban areas, town market centers,
and industrial and commercial uses, leaving decentralized
PV-generated power to provide the lighting and basic
electrical needs of the majority of the developing world's
rural populations.
Reduces need for dry-cell battery disposal
Small dry-cell batteries for flashlights and radios are used
throughout the un-electrified world. Most of these batteries
are disposable lead-acid cells which are not recycled. Lead
from disposed dry-cells leaches into the ground,
contaminating the soil and water. Solar rural electrification
shall dramatically decrease the need for disposable dry-cell
batteries. Over 12 billion dry-cell batteries were sold in
1993.
The Reduction of Waste
Electricity produced from Coal in Pakistan may produce a
large volume of wastes as discussed below;
Mining: Dust from surface mining, Drainage Water

4.5.1 Benefits for the institution:

Cleaning and Drying: Liquid and Solid Waste, Dust and Coal
Fines (30 tons)

Better image of the organization (AIOU), as leader in using


the solar energy as renewable energy.

Transportation: Spillage, Dust and Fines

Better security lighting and less chances of crimes, thefts and


pilferages.

Storage: Liquid Drainage, Dust and Fines


80

Power Plant: Liquid and Solid Waste (5000 tons of liquid;


360,000 tons of solid ash), Emissions (150,000 tons of mainly
SOx, NOx, CO2, and particulates) Water, Land, Energy, and
Heat are also wasted over the entire process of converting coal
to electricity

5. Conclusion;
There are very bright prospects in Pakistan to harness the solar
energy through which the challenge the energy crisis can be
faced. However academia, researchers, policy makers,
manufactures, investors
must come forward to take the
opportunity of the crisis.

References:
1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]

Gul.H. Renewable Energy Volume-1 Pakistan Council of Appropriate Technology-Pakistan pp. 160-167 ( 2006)
Khan, S, R. Need for enabling policies Part2 , Daily The News-Pakistan dated: 30.09.2007.
Economic Survey of Pakistan- 2004. Economic Division, Government of Pakistan.( 2004)
A report on power distribution and fore acting in Pakistan- Planning Commission of Pakistan-2006
Khurshedi, N. Prospects for renewable Energy in Pakistan Daily the News- Pakistan dated: 16.07.2007.
Abdullah, M. Micro hydel Plants ( MHP) Appropriate Technology Development Organization ( ATDO)-Pakistan2007
Dovers S. Sustainable Energy Systems: Path ways for Australian Energy reform. Cambridge University Press. 1994.
Gilchrist, G. The big switch: Clean Energy for 21st century Allen and Adwin ( 1994)
Kaneff, S. Solar Generator3: ANU s 400 sq-m Parabolic Concentrator Solar Progress , Vol 15(3) pp4-5 ( 1994)
Nieuwlaar, E. and Alsema, E Environmental aspects of PV power system
<www.wire1.ises.org/
wire/publication)
A Guide to Photovoltaic (PV) system design and installation- California Energy Commission Energy Technology
Development Division 1516 Ninth Street Sacramento, California USA, pp 40 ( 2001)

[12]

Reinders, A. Options for photovoltaic solar energy systems in Portable products Proceedings of TMCE 2002,Forth
International symposium April 22-26, 2002. Wuhan, P.R. China ISBN 7-5609-2682-7

[13]

Vice Chancellor Annual Report Allama Iqbal Open University-2006. ( www.aiou.edcu.pk)

[14]
"Solar is highly compatible with the values and desires of the environmentally-conscious citizen."
(http://www.aessolarenergy.com/environm

81

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectric Effect Through


Wind
Umber Shafiq
Abstractthis research paper targets the usage piezoelectric effect to
harvest ambient energy. There are many techniques to harvest
energy. Low cost and clean energy can be produced by deforming
piezoelectric material through the vibrations produced by mechanical
energy obtained from the environment. Wind is a great source of
vibrations needed to induce piezoelectricity. Along with many other
energy harvesting techniques being used, this paper presents a new
mechanism to utilize wind energy to produce electricity without huge
turbines and conventional wind mills. An overall circuit for obtaining
processing and storing this electric charge is also offered.

Index TermsEnergy harvesting, Kinetic energy of winds,


Piezoelectric effect, Pulsating DC.

IX.

INTRODUCTION

Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting is a new an innovative step in


the direction of wireless energy. Today great advancement
have been made in wireless data transfer, but they still suffer
extensive wiring or batteries that require replacements or
recharging periodically, in applications such as equipment
used in monitoring of remote or hazardous areas, or otherwise
in areas such as far flung areas, deserts, forests hilly areas or
in military where generally remote controlled devices are used
continuous charging of the microcells is not possible by
conventional charging methods. Here comes the need of
alternative energy generation, energy from natural source
which is essentially inexhaustible and free of pollution and
any cost.
In addition, energy harvesting can be used as an alternative
energy source to supplement a primary power source and to
enhance the reliability of the overall system and prevent
power interruptions.

X.

PIEZOELECTRICITY

The word Piezoelectricity is derived from the Greek piezo or


piezein, which means to squeeze or press. And electro an
ancient source of electric charge. Thus Piezoelectricity refers
to the production of electrical charges on the surface of the
piezo material when it undergoes pressure or strain.
Piezoelectricity is the direct result of the piezoelectric effect.
The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process so that
materials exhibiting piezoelectric effect generation of
electrical charge resulting from an applied mechanical force,
also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric (the internal generation
of a mechanical force resulting from an applied electrical
field.
XI.

HISTORICAL PREVIEW

According to a historical review of the literature by Ballato


(1995 and 1996), it was Coulomb (1815) who first theorized
that electricity might be produced by pressure application. But
the actual discoverers of the "piezoelectric phenomenon" were
P. Curie and J. Curie (1880). They narrate about their finding
as:
"Those crystals having one or more axes
whose ends are unlike, that is to say,
hemihedral crystals with oblique faces, have the special
physical property of giving rise to two electrical poles of
opposite signs at the extremities of these axes when they
are subjected to a change in temperature. This is the
phenomenon known under the name of pyro-electricity",
Cady (1964).

Researches on large scale are being carried out on various


"We have found a new method for the
methods of energy harvesting. One of the most promising
techniques is mechanical energy harvesting i.e. converting development of polar electricity in these same crystals,
mechanical energy from sources such as vibration, mechanical consisting in subjecting them to variations in pressure along
stress and strain into electricity through piezoelectric materials hemihedral axes"
where deformations produced by different means is directly
converted to electric charge and can be regulated and stored
XII. COMPONENTS OF PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY
for further usage.
HARVESTING SYSTEM
As piezo energy harvesting has been investigated only since
the late '90s, it remains an emerging technology. This research
paper proposes Piezoelectricity as an alternative Energy A Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System generally requires
source. This is a pollution free energy source to utilize the an energy source such as vibration stress strain resulting in
ambient energy being wasted.
any kind of deformation in the material and four other key
electronic components, including: (1) An Energy conversion
device such as an element that can translate the ambient
mechanical energy into equivalent electrical energy. (2) A

82

module to convert this AC voltage through rectification into


manageable (storable) DC electricity. (3) The storage module
e.g. battery of capacitor etc. (4) An End application

connected electrodes and in this way AC current will start to


flow through the system. As shown in figure 2 [2].

XIII. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION


The basic concept in Piezoelectricity harvesting involves a
thin layer of piezoelectric material over a surface which will
suffer vibrations, strain, pressure etc which intern cause
deformation in the piezoelectric component inducing charge
into it.
Unused power exists in various forms such as industrial
machines, human activity, vehicles, structures and
environment sources. Energy harvesting teaches us how to use
these ambient energy sources which are absolutely free of cost
and plenty in nature, by sensing, converting mechanical
energy into electrical and then storing this energy in DC form.

Fig 2. Schematics of the PEG (Piezoelectric Generator)


illustrating the movement of charge due to applied force (a)
when no force applied (b) when tensile force applied (c) when
compressive force applied .

XIV. MECHANISM
The Piezoelectric effect is pronounced by single crystalline
materials, both natural and man made like Quartz, Berlinite
(AlPO4), a rare phosphate mineral that is structurally identical
to quartz, Rochelle salt Topaz, Tourmaline group, Cane sugar,
Berlinite (AlPO ), bone, tendon, enamel, wood, silk, dentin,
4

Barium Titanate (BaTiO ), along with other composites, thin3

films and some ferroelectric materials [5]. But the majority of


the energy harvesting devices fabricated in the past work have
been made up of polymers like Poly-vinylidene fluoride
(PVDF) and ceramics (lead zirconate lead titanate, PZT) due
to there several degree enhanced piezoelectric behavior than
quartz, etc.
There are two types of Piezoelectric effects: 1) Direct
Piezoelectric effect, where electric energy is produced when
mechanical force is applied on the material. 2) Indirect
Piezoelectric effect, where the piezoelectric component
undergoes physical deformation when external voltage is
applied across it. As shown in the figure 1.

The positive atoms in the crystals do not lie in the center thus
causing dipoles in the structure. The direction of these dipoles
is towards the positive atom. The doping density P is thus a
vector quantity. The poling direction is random in the whole
Polycrystalline structure but the neighboring dipoles tend to
align themselves in the same directions creating regions called
the weiss domains. All the dipoles in a crystalline structure
can be aligned in a direction by (1) Heating the material to its
characteristic temperature called the cure temperature. This
temperature is different for different piezoelectric materials.
(2).Then the dipoles are aligned by applying a certain voltage
for some time. (3) The material is set to cool down. e.g. e.g.
generally PZT materials are heated up to 100 C and a voltage
of 90V dc is applied to it for 30min. The poles get aligned and
the material is cooled down and then used.
The poling direction is crutial in the sense that the input and
output characteristics depend on it a lot. Mostly when force is
applied perpendicular to the direction of polarization the
voltage is induced in the electrode surface perpendicular to the
direction of polarization (33 mode) and when force and
polarization are along the same axis then the voltage will be
induced in the direction parallel to the polarization direction
(31 mode). As shown below in figure 3 [1].

Fig 1. Direct Piezoelectric effect


In Energy harvesting the direct piezoelectric effect is
employed.
The Piezo electric material is a non-conductor. It has no free
electrons for conduction. In a single piezoelectric crystal
instead of free electrons there are fixed electrons in the crystal
lattice, they play a vital role in the generation of electricity
when the force is applied. When the piezoelectric ceramic
material undergoes external pressure these electrons are
displaced slightly from there position creating an imbalance in
the adjacent dipoles in the structure thus creating an electric
force. This causes the movement of free electrons in the

Fig 3. Poling direction: 33 mode and 31 mode


The piezoelectric effect shown depends upon (1) The crystal
symmetry (2) The direction of applied stress (3) Strength of
applied force (strain, pressure).The output wattage obtained
83

through a single piezoelectric crystal is in micro watts. Thus


many of these small generators are use d together in series in
different applications to generate considerable amount of
energy. All the innovation creativity and engineering now lies
in the optimum performance of these piezoelectric sensors.
The search for the best piezoelectric material and connected
PZG circuitry is going on along with the quest of
implementing them in various applications. In the coming
section a number of sources of vibrations for piezoelectricity
generation are mentioned, which are now being successfully
used, along with this I present my new idea in the field of
piezoelectric energy harvesting.

breakers because it works by the weight of a vehicle passing


over it. The vehicle pushes metal plates up and down. The
movement of the plates generates electricity and stores it
within the system.

XV. SOURCES OF MECHANICAL ENERGY FOR THE


PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY

E. POWER GENERATED IN GYMS:


Gyms are producing free electricity through piezoelectric
energy harvesting in Poland and many other places. Small
piezo generators are embedded in stationary cycles and in
other equipment to use human kinetic energy in motion. These
PZGs can also be placed in the resting chairs to convert the
pressure of the weight of a person in to voltage. The induced
electricity is stored in batteries to backup a power failure or to
be used to run other equipment and lights.

VII.I PREVIOUS ACHIEVEMENTS


In the section ahead I have presented some piezoelectric
energy harvesting techniques previously engineered and are
undergoing further development.
A. POWER GENERATING SIDEWALK:
Hundreds of thousands of joule of energy is lost to
environment everyday by pedestrians. This energy can be
harvested easily through arrays of piezoelectric crystals laid
underneath the sidewalks, zebra crossings, stairs, pavements,
bus stops, railway stations and other crowded areas. This
energy can then be used to power the street lights or else
stored in lithium batteries to be used in different applications
when required.
B.POWER GENERATION THROUGH SHOES:
Piezoelectric polymers can be fitted inside the shoes. The
mechanical strain produced by walking is then utilized to
produce electricity. Which is then stored in small mobile
battery sized batteries to later on charge other small devices
like, cell phones, I pods, transmitters and other portable
electronic appliances. This technology was used by DARPA
in the United States in a project called Energy Harvesting,
which includes an attempt to power battlefield equipment by
piezoelectric generators embedded in soldiers' boots.
However, these energy harvesting sources by association have
an impact on the body. DARPA's effort to harness 1-2 watts
from continuous shoe impact while walking were abandoned
due to the discomfort from the additional energy expended by
a person wearing the shoes. Kaajakari employed a low-cost,
polymer transducer, a soft, flexible material that replaces the
shoes heel shock absorber without sacrificing user
experience.
C.POWER GENERATION THROUGH ROADWAYS:
An Israeli company called Innowattech has been working with
the Israel National Roads Company and Israel's technological
institute Technion. This energy harvester involves placing tiny
piezoelectric generators below the road surface; the units are a
mere 5 cm below the surface and are activated by the weight
of cars driving above. According to research and real-world
use, the generators can capture 2000 watts per hour. The
energy is stored in roadside batteries. This kind of
arrangement can be arranged in high traffic areas and on speed

D. POWER GENERATION THROUGH DANCE FLOORS:


In Many European countries noticeably Holland has started to
generate electricity through webs of piezoelectric polymers
laid under the dance floors in their clubs. These PZGs are
powered by the enormous mechanical force produced when
large bulks of people use these dance floors. Large amount of
resultant voltage is used to power lights and stereos etc in
these clubs.

F. POWER GENERATED THROUGH MOBILE KEYPAD


AND KEYBOARDS:
Mill watts of power can be generated from vibrating materials.
In gadgets like mobile phones, television remotes, laptops and
other devices which employ key depressions for operation,
mechanical vibrations are produced while pressing the keys. If
these vibrations are successfully harvested, the resulting
energy could serve as an ancillary source of energy for
charging the batteries.
VII.II PROPOSED WORK:
With continuous increase in the demand of electricity
scientists and engineers are striving to find alternative energy
producing ways. Conventional ways like, coal, fossil fuel,
solar cells, hydro and nuclear power plants etc either prove to
be costly, pollution causing or unusable half the year (solar
cells) and by all the means insufficient to quench the demand
of power today. Wind turbines are an increasingly growing
industry for generating energy from ambient kinetic energy of
winds and are being rapidly adopted all over the world. This
supposedly nature friendly turbines kill more than 6,500 birds
and 3,000 bats annually in Washington and Oregon alone
according to a recent study in Klickitat County
in
Washington and Oregon as they sometimes cant see the
moving fan blades or are caught in the turbine[6]. Also people
living in the vicinity of these wind mill farms have shown
concerns about the continuous loud noise produced by
turbines and the low vibrations that seem to come from them.
Synthetic Straw farms is an interesting way to eliminate
such problems by eliminating the need of turbines and moving
fan blades. Through Synthetic Straw farms we can still
produce almost equal electricity than the windmills b Through
Synthetic Straw farms we can still produce almost equal
electricity than the windmills by the wind.
The basic idea is to imitate the motion of straws grown in the
fields when wind blow through it and to utilize the mechanical
84

energy obtained from vibrations produced in the structure


through wind to induce voltage. Webs of piezoelectric
polymers are embedded in the surface of these straws. As
small vessels take water and minerals from the root to each
cell of the stem in a plant, in the same fashion electrodes will
connect all the piezoelectric elements together to collect the
charge in the base of the straw. Electrodes from positive side
will combine parallel together and a main positive wire will
go to the rectifier circuitry. Same will be the case with
negative electrodes.
The figure 4 visualizes a single straw.
Straw

Fig. 5 Structure of Piezoelectric component


XVI. CIRCUITRY
The voltage produced by the piezoelectric elements is in AC.
This voltage has to be converted into DC to be stored in the
battery. This requires rectification of the AC voltage to DC
level.
Rectification may be half wave which can easily be done by
placing a single diode in series to the output. But almost half
the energy is lost through this method. So we will use full
wave rectification as shown in the figure 6 [4].

Foundation under the ground

Fig. 4 Synthetic straw, vibrations and base


The Straw Farm may be mounted on barren land or costal
areas where high winds continuously blow or in loans, roofs
of houses and especially sky scrapers which are hundreds of
feet in the high so that Straw form can utilize the maximum
kinetic energy of the winds that blow in the upper atmosphere.
These straw farms can be set on the ocean bed where they can
get mechanical energy from raging currents the same way as
sea weed do. The height of straw may vary from a few feet on
a house roof , to 15 to 20 feet on the roofs of skyscrapers to
50-60 feet on costal and barren grounds, where they can have
firm ground grip. This straw farm will require almost zero
maintenance once installed because of simple mechanical
design, and will be nature friendly and noise free. Pole can be
made from any flexible and strong material depending upon
its length, e.g. rubber, synthetic resin pipes etc. When the
wind will blow the pipes imitate real straw and bends under its
pressure. This causes strain on the embedded piezoelectric
material and voltage is induced.
Figure 5 illustrates the structure of Piezoelectricity harvesting
component being used [3].

Fig. 6 Circuit diagram of a PMPG system


Full wave rectifier bridge constitutes of diodes arrange so that
the positive and negative halves of the voltage signal are
handled by different pairs of diodes and the output of the
bridge is a pulsating DC instead of AC voltage.
Since a diode is being used in the rectifier, a p-n junction
diode or a Schottky diode can be used. The Schottky diode has
a threshold voltage which is smaller than that of a p-n junction
diode. For example, if the diode is formed on a silicon
substrate, a p-n diode may have a threshold voltage of
approximately 0.065 volts while the threshold voltage of a
Schottky diode is approximately 0.30 volts. Accordingly, the
uses of Schottky diode instead of p-n diode will reduce the
power consumption required for rectification and will
effectively increase the electrical charge available for
accumulation by the capacitor. When the electromotive force
in the piezoelectricity generation section is small, a Schottky
diode having a low rising voltage is more preferable [1].
The output of the rectifier module is in the form of pulsating
DC. If this is directly given to the battery for charging, it will
reduce the efficiency of the system hugely. Thats why the
85

pulsating DC is first smoothed to bring it to a constant DC


level.
For this purpose a simple circuitry is required. A storage
capacitor is placed in parallel to the load in the circuit. The
pulsating DC voltage coming from the source charges the
capacitor to its fullest. When the switch is closed the load
starts to get the DC pulse from the source, as soon as the
voltage starts to decrease the capacitor stats to discharge
providing voltage to the load and dose so until the source
voltage becomes equal to the capacitor voltage. In this way
the voltage is maintained at a certain level in through the load.
If a battery is present in the circuit instead of load then the
switch will get opened as soon the battery gets charged to a
certain predefined value.

[6] Tiffany Kaiser. (June, 2010). Title: Wind Farms = Bird


Killers.Available:
http://www.dailytech.com/Study+Wind+Farms++Bird+K
illers/article18641.htm

XVII. FUTURE PROSPECTS


Through this paper I wanted to share my knowledge and to
introduce a new technique to generate free electricity through
an environment friendly way. Our plan is to do further
research on the topic. and to practically implement the
presented idea. Energy from winds is an important and
inexhaustible source to produce electricity. Synthetic Straw
farm can possibly be one of the most successful methods in
energy harvesting.
XVIII. CONCLUSION
The ambient vibrational energy can be converted to electrical
energy via the MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesting device;
many of the techniques are discussed in this paper. The
Design for Synthetic Straw farm presented in this paper will
be quite effective in harvesting wind energy.
This design can also be modified to be used in many different
other applications where there is a scope for similar kind of
energy conservation.
XIX. REFERENCES
[1] Karthik Kalyanaraman, Jaykrishna Babu Power
Harvesting System in Mobile Phones and Laptops using
Piezoelectric Charge Generation Proceedings of the
World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science
2010 Vol II WCECS 2010, October 20-22, 2010, San
Francisco, USA
[2] Sunghwan Kim, Low power energy harvesting with
piezoelectric generators, (2002).
[3] Tanvi Dikshit, Dhawal Shrivastava, Abhijeet Gorey,
Ashish Gupta,
Parag Parandkar, Sumant Katiyal, Energy harvesting via
piezoelectricity, Proceedings of the 4th National
Conference; INDIACom 2010, Computing for Nation
Development, February 2526, 2010.
[4]
Y.B. Jeon, R. Sood, J.-h. Jeong, S.-G. Kim MEMS
power generator with transverse mode thin film PZT
2004.
[5] Takeuchi M, Matsuzawa S, Tairaku K, Takatsu C.
Piezoelectric generator as power supply for RFID-tags
and applications, Proc. IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,
New York City, USA,2831 Oct. 2007, pp. 25582561.
86

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY USE OF


CONVENTIONAL ENERGY
Sadaf Noureen, Tashia Zaman, Tahira Sultana and Syeda Maria Ali
International Islamic University, H-10 Islamabad

Nimbusts@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT:
During recent approach the basic emphasis is on
electricity generation from coal. Electricity generated
from hydroelectric power plants is not enough to meet
todays demands, so its the necessity of day to seek
alternate sources. Coal is the most abundant and
versatile fossil fuel. Pakistans total coal reserves are
estimated to be around 184.5 billion tones, which also
included recently discovered deposits of low sulphur
coal at Thar. Out of these large reserves Pakistan
utilizes only 40 million tones per year. The existing
coal reserves in the country could meet the
requirements of 6 power plants of 1000 MW for next
30-50 years, but currently coal makes merely 1% of
electricity generation.
In this coherence, coal-burning power plant with zero
toxic gases/solids emissions is proposed. The
traditional coal power plant can be installed for
electricity generation and with use of different
environmentally sound technologies, so that emission
of toxic gases or solids is captured at the source and
finally used for other useful purposes.

XXI. COAL

HIGHLY
COMPRESSED
IS
ORGANIC MATTER MOSTLY LEAFY MATERIAL
FROM SWAMP VEGETATION THAT DECOMPOSED
RELATIVELY LITTLE [1].

II.

WORLD ENERGY DEMAND

Energy demand around the world is rocketing.


Since 1980, the primary energy demand
increased by more than 50%, so it is forecasted
that this growth is continued at an annual
average rate of 1.6% between 2004 and 2030 [2].
The sources of total primary energy supply are in
figure 1. 87% of total energy comes from fossil

Keywords: Coal, Environment, Gases,


Distillation, Energy
I.

INTRODUCTION TO COAL

THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY SOURCES


PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE ADVANCE
OF TECHNOLOGICAL CIVILIZATION [1]. STEAM
ENGINE DEVELOPED IN THE LATE 1700S SERVES
AS A BREAKTHROUGH FOR INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION [1]. AT THAT TIME, THE MAJOR
FUEL FOR STEAM ENGINE WAS FIREWOOD [1].
THEN, IT WAS SUBSTITUTED BY COAL. COAL
HAD BECOME THE DOMINANT FUEL, BY THE
END OF 1800S, AND IT REMAINED SO INTO THE
1940S [1]. IN ADDITION TO BEING USED AS
FUEL FOR STEAM ENGINES, COAL WAS WIDELY
USED FOR HEATING, COOKING AND INDUSTRIAL
PROCESSES. IN 1920S, OUT OF ALL ENERGY
USED IN UNITED STATES AROUND WAS
PROVIDED BY COAL [1].

fuels [1]
As oil prices are souring. This suggests that oil
substitute fuels like coal will be needed soon
[3]. Based on current production levels, the oil
reserves of the world will last for 41 years,
and gas reserves will last another 65 years,
while the coal reserves which are total more
than a trillion tons worldwide, could last
almost 155 years [4].

87

III.

COAL ROUND THE WORLD

In more than 70 countries worldwide, the


reserves of coal are available that are
economically
recoverable
[Table
1].
According to authorities, out of all these
reserves, some 850 billion tonnes of coal is
currently recoverable, so this makes clear that

coal will be with us for many decades, if not


centuries, to come [2].

IV. Coal Quality and Resources In


Pakistan
Pakistans total coal reserves are estimated to
be around 184.5 billion tones, which also
included recently discovered deposits of low
sulphur coal at Thar [6]. Out of these large
reserves Pakistan utilizes only 40 million
tones per year. The existing coal reserves in
the country could meet the requirements of 6
power plants of 1000 MW for next 30-50
years, but currently coal makes merely 1% of
electricity generation.
In Pakistan coal is not present at one specific
site. It is present in different amounts in
different provinces of Pakistan [Fig. 2].

88

PROJECT DESCRIPTION:
WITH

THE INCREASE IN WORLD POPULATION,


THE DEMAND FOR FOSSIL FUELS ALSO
INCREASES AND THUS INCREASED DEMAND OF
FOSSIL FUELS CAUSES MORE POLLUTION. FOR
MANY YEARS, SCIENTISTS HAVE BEEN
WORKING TO MAKE COAL CLEANER TO BURN.
SCIENTISTS ARE TRYING TO REDUCE EMISSIONS
FROM POWER PLANTS MOST TYPICALLY FROM
THERMAL POWER PLANTS OR COAL-FIRED
POWER PLANTS, JUST FOR THE SAKE OF
ENVIRONMENT.

IN THAT SCENARIO WE ALSO TRIED TO PLAY


OUR PART IN CONSERVING THE ENVIRONMENT.
IN VIEW OF EMISSIONS THAT ARE THE MAJOR
POLLUTERS OF ENVIRONMENT, OUR PROJECT OF
USE
OF
ENVIRONMENT
FRIENDLY
CONVENTIONAL ENERGY IS BASICALLY
BASED ON TRADITIONAL COAL FIRED-POWER
PLANT.

A. TRADITIONAL POWER PLANT:


A COAL FIRED-POWER PLANT IS THE FACILITY
OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION THAT BURNS
COAL, WHICH IN TURN HEATS UP WATER THUS
CONVERTING IT INTO STEAM. THE TURBINES
ARE DRIVEN BY THE STEAM PRODUCED IN THE
PLANT. THE PULVERIZED COAL IS INJECTED
INTO THE FURNACE FOR BURNING. IT HEATS UP
THE BOILER CONTAINING WATER THUS STEAM
PRODUCES. THIS STEAM WILL TURN THE
GENERATORS TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY. THE
ELECTRICITY THUS PRODUCED WILL ASSIST THE
COUNTRY IN MEETING ITS ENERGY NEEDS AND
TO ELIMINATE BLACKOUTS. THE CONDENSERS
CONVERT THE STEAM AGAIN INTO THE WATER
AND THUS THE WATER CAN BE USED AGAIN
AND AGAIN.
B. EMISSIONS FROM POWER PLANT:
COAL IS SUPPOSED TO BE THE MATERIAL THAT
LAUNCHED THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, BUT
NOW COAL IS NO LONGER SO POPULAR. DUE TO
THE
MUCH
CONCERN
ABOUT
THE
ENVIRONMENT IN THE RECENT DECADE, COAL
IS DECLARED AS A DIRTIEST OF ALL ENERGY
SOURCES. THE REASON FOR THE DECLARATION
OF COAL AS A DIRTIEST FUEL IS BECAUSE OF
THE FACT THAT COAL-BURNING PRODUCES
SMOKE AND FUMES, WHEN RELEASED TO THE
ENVIRONMENT CAUSES AIR POLLUTION. THUS

REDUCING CO2 EMISSIONS BECOMES NECESSITY


AND CHALLENGE OF THE DAY.
TRADITIONAL COAL FIRED-POWER PLANTS
PRODUCE ENORMOUS AMOUNTS OF BY-PRODUCTS
IN THE PROCESS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION,
INCLUDING DUST, ASH, CINDER, SUSPENDED
PARTICULATE MATTER (SPM), SOOT, CLINKER (A
HARD MASS OF ASH AND PARTIALLY FUSED COAL
THAT REMAINS AFTER COAL IS BURNED IN A FIRE
OR FURNACE), FLUORIDE, EXHAUST GASES WHICH
INCLUDE CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2), CARBON
MONOXIDE (CO), OXIDES OF NITROGEN, OXIDES
OF SULPHUR, MERCURY, SELENIUM, CADMIUM
ETC.

`THE

C. WORKING:
i.

OXY-FUEL COMBUSTION:

IN

THE TRADITIONAL POWER PLANT THE


PULVERIZED COAL IS INJECTED. THE COAL
POWDER MIXES WITH OXYGEN, WHICH HELPS THE
COAL BURN MORE EFFICIENTLY. AS COMPARED
TO AIR, WHICH CONTAINS 20.95% OXYGEN,
HIGHER TEMPERATURES CAN BE REACHED USING
PURE OXYGEN.
BURNING THE FOSSIL FUEL
(COAL) IN OXYGEN INSTEAD OF AIR RESULTS IN
AN EXHAUST GAS CONSISTED OF CONCENTRATED
CO2 AND WATER VAPOR. WATER VAPORS
PRODUCED CAN BE CONDENSED INTO WATER AND
CAN BE USED IN THE BOILER.

ii.

Capturing of Solid By-products:

The solid by-products that include clinker or the


ash settles down at the bottom and this can be
periodically removed and disposed of.
iii.

Scrubbers:

In addition to the ash and clinker, coal-burning


also produces large amounts of hazardous and
toxic gases. For capturing SO2 scrubbers can be
installed. Scrubber systems are a diverse group
of air pollution control devices that can be used
to remove some particulates or gases from
industrial exhaust streams. All the materials
produced passed through the chamber where
scrubbers are being installed. The scrubbers
installed there in the path of leaving emissions,
spray limestone slurry directly on to the
materials leaving the boiler chamber. Sulphur
present in the gases reacts with the limestone.
The carbonate (limestone) and sulfur combines
to form the mineral gypsum (Desulphurization).

89

As gypsum is a solid, it falls out of the gas to


the bottom, from where it can be easily
collected.

iv.

Electrostatic Precipitator:

Then there is a chamber containing


electrostatic precipitator. It is a large emission
control unit. Its function is to trap and remove
soot or dust particles and SPM from the
exhaust gases. Precipitators typically collect
99.9% or more of the dust from the gas
stream. With in the Precipitators the dust
particles and SPM present in the gas passing
through it are charged. Such plates or
collection devices are installed at the bottom
of the precipitator, which attract the particles
towards them from where it can be
periodically removed and disposed of.

v.

Condensation:

After the removal of dust from the exhaust


gases, all the gases must be passed on to the
condensation chamber. In this chamber the gases
will be condensed to liquid and collected in a
container.
vi.

Distillation:

All the gases must pass through the distillation


chamber, installed in the vicinity of the power
plant, where the gases will be separated out at
their boiling points from each other and then can
be used for different purposes. The remaining
gases include CO2, CO, oxides of nitrogen,
argon. The boiling point of CO2 is -57 C, CO is
191.5 C, NO2 is 21.1 C, N2O is 88.48 C
and boiling point of argon is 185.7 C.

90

CONCLUSION:
THE ABOVE MENTIONED POWER PLANT HELPS IN
REDUCING THOSE EXHAUST GASES, IF RELEASED INTO THE
ATMOSPHERE BRING DETERIORATING EFFECT, SO THESE
GASES MUST BE CAPTURED. IN ADDITION TO REDUCTION,
THE GASES PRODUCED CAN BE COLLECTED AND APPLIED
FOR USEFUL PURPOSES. OUR ENVIRONMENT WILL REMAIN
SAFE AND OUR ENERGY NEEDS WILL ALSO BE MET.
Different by-products which had been traditionally
released into the atmosphere can be made useful. For
example,

Clinker and the ash are used as road


building materials and cement additives.

Gypsum can be used to make drywall


and bowling balls.

Carbon can be used as a decorative tool


in jewelry items and in inkjet printers.

Carbon (in the form of carbon dioxide)


is also used in carbonated and fizzy drinks and
fire extinguishers.

CO is utilized as a reduction agent in


order to derive many other elements and
compounds in metallurgy. In literal terms NOx
refers to NO and NO2.

REFERENCES:
1.
WRIGHT R.T, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, TENTH EDITION
2.
2007 SURVEY OF ENERGY RESOURCES, WORLD ENERGY COUNCIL 2007 COAL, REGENCY HOUSE
1-4 WARWICK STREET LONDON W1B 5LT UNITED KINGDOM, PP 1-12
3.
MADIGAN M., HIGH OIL PRICES MEAN INVEST IN COAL-TO-LIQUID TECHNOLOGY, MAR 08, 2007,
ARTICLEBASE
4.
LARRY F., COAL STOCKS SURGING WORLDWIDE ENERGY DEMAND TO FUEL COAL PROFITS,
PLUS 6 RUNAWAY COAL STOCKS, AN INVESTMENT U WHITE PAPER REPORT, THE INVESTMENT U
RESEARCH TEAM
5.
AHMED AND OTHERS, (1986), COAL RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN, GSP, REC. VOL. 73
ABDUL WAHEED BHUTTO, PAKISTAN'S COAL RESOURCES, 20 SEPTEMBER 2004,DAW

91

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Environmental Impacts of Nuclear Power Plants


and Comparison with Other Technologies
Faisal Asfand1) and Mehboob Alam2)
1) faisal.asfand@pnra.org, mehboob.alam@pnra.org

Abstract

Environmental impact assessment is the key


issue of concern before the installation and during operation
of a power plant. In this paper the environmental impact of
nuclear power plant is studied and is compared with other
technologies. The study comprise of two sections. In the first
section the gaseous releases are considered, showing that
nuclear technology is environmental friendly because of no
releases of greenhouse gas to the environment as compared to
conventional fossil fuel power plants. In the second section
liquid and solid waste with emphases on radioactive wastes
produced in nuclear power plants are discussed. It is
illustrated that radioactive effluent and other radioactive
wastes are disposed off in a well controlled manner. The
radiation dose level in the region is calculated and it is shown
from the results that the values are in safe limits to affect the
environment. From the study and analysis it is proved that
nuclear power plants have net environmental benefits with
consideration of greenhouse gas and global warming.

INTRODUCTION
The demand of energy resources has increased both in
public and private sectors. Industrial sector and
transport sector consumes a big ratio of the natural
energy resources such as fossil fuels. Due to increase in
the population the consumption of energy resources has
drastically increased. As there are fix reserves of fossil
fuels in the earth, therefore, the fossil fuels which are
the prime source of energy are continuously depleting.
Due to the depletion and unavailability of fossil fuels
the prices of fossil fuel are continuously increasing.
The contribution of fossil fuels to global warming is
another scorching issue. There is a growing consensus
in the world that alternate energy resources should be
availed as a clean source of energy. To date, nuclear
energy is a significant alternative to fossil fuel. Nuclear
energy is economical, safe and environmental friendly.
Renewable energy recourses will also play a part in the
future energy mix, but do not replace nuclear energy
because of their limited availability, high cost and
intermittent nature.
It is clear that to overcome the energy deficiency in
Pakistan alternate energy sources should be availed and
more nuclear power plants should be built. The main
hindrance in the development of nuclear industry is the
public confidence level. Nuclear power plants are
considered objectionable because these plants produce
radioactive wastes. In this paper the environmental
impact of nuclear power plant is analyzed and it is
affirmed that the radioactive waste produce in nuclear
power plants is well controlled and within required
regulatory limits.

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION


One of the positive aspects of nuclear power plant is
that it is a source of clean energy i-e it does not
produces greenhouse gas which is the major
contributor to global warming. In nuclear power plants
the energy is produced as result of a nuclear reaction
and not a chemical reaction as it happen in
conventional fossil fuels power plants. Therefore,
greenhouse gas or other pollutants are not release in
these reactions. Also nuclear power plants do not
contribute to acid rain. Nuclear technology is a clean
source of power generation. Due to increase in the
consumption of energy, CO2 emissions are projected to
rise in future. Nuclear technology can help in reducing
greenhouse gas emission; therefore, to control and
minimize the emission of greenhouse gas, nuclear
technology should be opted. It can be seen from Table
1 that nuclear technology for electricity generation can
reduce 6 mega tons of CO2 annually.

Table: COMPARISON OF ANNUAL ESTIMATES OF


ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH A 1000
MWE POWER PLANT
Figure 1 shows the amount of greenhouse gas emission
from various energy sources. It can be noted that
nuclear power plants contribute least to the greenhouse
gas emission.
* Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Islamabad,
Pakistan

Figure 1. Greenhouse gas emission (Source: Sokolov, IAEA, 2005)

92

RADIOACTIVE WASTE
Waste produced in nuclear power plants are broadly
characterized into radioactive and non-radioactive waste
products, which are further classified into solid, liquid and
gaseous wastes. In nuclear power plants the overall waste
produce is less in volume as compared to fossil fuel operated
thermal power plants. The environmental activist and general
public have serious reservations over the radioactive waste
produced in nuclear power plants. In this section it will be
shown that the radioactive releases from nuclear power plant
are well controlled and below the regulatory limits. Past data
of radioactive waste discharge for the nuclear power plants is
analyzed and it is shown that the radiation exposure from
these releases to the environment is well below the regulatory
limits.

Figure 2. Radiation exposure to public from all sources(mSv/year)

Fig. 2 shows the contribution of radiation emitted by all


sources including naturally-occurring and man-made. The
contribution of radiation exposure from natural radiation
sources for an average individual is 2.4millisievert (mSv) per
year. Naturally occurring Radon is the major contributor to
public radiation exposure. Radiation exposure for an average
individual due to nuclear power production including the full
nuclear fuel cycle is about 0.0002mSv/year, which is quite
less as compared to natural radiation exposure.
It has been observed that the ambient dose levels at the
boundary of nuclear power plants are generally close to the
level of natural background. These levels are far below the
world average background dose of 274nGy/hr. The ambient
dose levels calculated for a typical nuclear power plant for the
year 2007, 2008 and 2009 are 122, 109 and 115nGy/hr
respectively.
In nuclear power plants the volume of waste produce is very
less as compared to conventional fossil fuel operated power
plants. The waste that is produced in nuclear power plants are
discharged and disposed off in a controlled manner. Also
using the fuel recycling technology, the spent fuel can be
reused as fuel in nuclear reactors, thus the fuel toxicity,
activity and volume of waste can be reduced.
Radiation Protection at Nuclear Installations
To minimize the radiation exposure to workers and general
public, safety standards are implemented and effective

radiation protection is practiced at nuclear installations.


According to recently announced Nuclear Safety Policy
nuclear power plant licensee is committed to take appropriate
steps so that occupational radiation exposure to personnel
working in its nuclear facilities is maintained as low as
reasonably achievable (ALARA).
The nuclear installations have developed policies and
procedures, for the protection of workers, public and
environment from the harmful effects of radiation, in
conformance with the national regulatory requirements. It is
ensured that in all operational states radiation exposure within
the installation or due to any planned release of radioactive
material from the installation is kept below prescribed limits
and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), and that the
measures to mitigate the radiological consequences arising
from any design basis accident are in place. In this regard all
reasonably practicable steps are taken to ensure safe plant
operation and to keep radiation doses as low as reasonably
achievable (ALARA).
Radiation exposure is controlled by means of job planning,
job briefing, frequent radiation surveys, radioactive
contamination control, and regular training to keep the doses
well below the regulatory limits. In addition, a Health Physics
Coordinator is designated for radiation intensive jobs with
prime responsibility of taking part in each activity right from
planning to execution. Internal radiation dose is controlled by
providing suitable respiratory protection equipment, reducing
the airborne contamination level and bioassay sampling.
Internal uptake limits have been defined, which are followed
strictly.
A typical nuclear power plant includes an environmental
monitoring program that includes regular radiation dose rate
monitoring at plant periphery and in the city where the plant is
located. This is done by placing TLDs and high volume air
sampling system away from the plant. Environmental samples
from the vicinity of plant are collected and analyzed. The
records show that the radiation doses to the public are a small
fraction of the limiting values. Radiation exposure to the
public is kept as low as reasonably achievable by controlling
the release of radioactive effluents from the plant. This is done
by on-line monitoring of the releases, removing the Tritium
content from boiler room air, filtration of gaseous effluent
before releasing to the environment, decay and dilution of
liquid effluent before its release, collection, processing and
safe storage of solid radioactive waste, etc. As a result, the
gaseous and liquid effluent radioactive releases from the plant
are well below the Derived Release Limits.
At nuclear installations, monitoring and surveillance of doses
to radiation workers are conducted and records maintained.
For environmental monitoring, continuous air sampling and
ambient dose level monitoring are performed. Environmental
samples of air, water, soil, vegetables, fruits, milk, meat, etc.,
are collected and analyzed for estimation of radionuclide
content at frequencies prescribed in the radiological
environmental monitoring programs. On-Site and Off-Site

93

environmental monitoring points are selected at different


locations. Environmental TLD33 dosimetery is also
performed to record the cumulative dose levels on quarterly
basis.

Fig. 6 shows the Annual average ambient dose level for a


typical nuclear power plant. The calculated dose values are
well below the required regulatory limits.

Radioactive Waste Releases at Nuclear Installations


For a typical nuclear power plant the annual collective dose
during 2007, 2008 and 2009 was 481.161man-mSv,
592.280man-mSv and 232.733man-mSv respectively as
shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 4 shows average individual dose for
these years remained 0.275mSv, 0.341mSv and 0.204mSv
respectively.
Figure 6. Annual average ambient dose level at a typical nuclear power plant

TREATMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE


Radioactive waste produced in nuclear power plants are
well controlled and properly managed. Solid, Liquid and
gaseous wastes are separately treated and then disposed off.

Figure 3. Annual collective dose at a typical nuclear power plant

Figure 4. Average annual dose at a typical nuclear power plant

All liquid and gaseous effluents are monitored before


releasing to the environment. Liquid effluents are usually
released from a power plant into the discharge canal. Gaseous
effluents release from a typical nuclear power plant during
2007, 2008 and 2009 were 4.06TBq, 0.1TBq and 5.66TBq
respectively. On the average these releases remained less than
the release limit. Liquid effluent releases for the years 2007,
2008 and 2009 were 6.79TBq, 7.16TBq and 1.97TBq
respectively as shown in Fig. 5. These releases were far less
than annual release limit.

Treatment of gaseous wastes


Gaseous waste treatment includes pressurized storage of the
radioactive hydrogenated effluents. These are kept in hold-up
tanks for 60 days until they decay down to a value allowable
for discharge to the environment. Before discharge to the
environment the waste gases pass through the HEPA filter to
the iodine filter and then released to the plant main exhaust
stack. The discharge is continuously monitored by the gaseous
Radwaste monitoring system. The release is terminated
automatically and recycled for treatment if the radiation level
exceeds the prescribed limits. Discharge of gaseous waste is
allowed to continue if the radioactivity level less than 1 E
l0Bq / m3 while discharge is terminated if radioactivity level is
greater or equal to 1 E l0Bq / m3. Hydrogen concentration is
also monitored to avoid any explosive mixture of hydrogen.
Treatment of Liquid wastes
The liquid wastes depending upon radioactivity level and
nature of source are collected in three different and
independent collecting tanks. These liquid wasted are called
Clean Drain (350 m3/yr, 2.82E07Bq/ m3), Process Drain (2000
m3/yr, 7.4E07 - 7.4E05Bq/ m3), and Floor Drain (1000 m3/yr,
3.7E05Bq/ m3). If the radioactivity level of liquid waste
collected is less than the discharge limit (3.7E05Bq / m3)
liquid waste is directly discharged to environment, but if
radioactivity level is greater than that of discharge limit the
liquid wasted are treated by evaporators. The evaporated
water is condensed and reused by the plant as reusing water.
Floor drains collected is also analyzed for radiation, If the
radioactivity level is less than 3.7E05Bq/m3 it is discharged to
environment through main discharge line and if the
radioactivity level is greater than or equal to 3.7E05Bq/m3 it is
discharged to process drain hold-up tank.

Radwaste Complex for treatment and storage of wastes


Figure 5. Effluent releases at a typical nuclear power plant

The concentrate of evaporator is collected for the


solidification according to operating steps of Procedures for
Liquid Waste Treatment System and Radioactive Waste

94

Solidification System. An analysis report is prepared for the


nature of the concentrate before transfer of concentrate. The
analysis report also carries the references for acceptance
limits. A fully equipped truck is available for transportation of
cement to fulfill the requirements for solidification. Results of
solidification are continuously being improved by thorough
inspection of the drums after solidification. The solidified
drums are inspected for surface dose rate and 1 m distance
dose rate and their doses are recorded. If a drum is found with
dose rates for surface or 1m higher than the limits then it will
be treated for improvements. The limit for surface dose rate is
less than 2mSv/hr and for 1m is less than 0.lmSv/hr. The
solidified drums are stored before the final disposal to off-site
destination.
Treatment and storage of solid waste
The low-level solid wastes generated at the plants are store in
the storage building. The wastes include spent activated
charcoal, decontaminated large equipment & components,
spent filter cartridges, low level cartridges & contaminated
spare parts, spent HEPA filters and, miscellaneous dry wastes.
Only the miscellaneous dry soft wastes are hydraulically
compressed. All the wastes are stored with the help of electric
fork lifters in the specified rooms of storage building.
WASTE MONITORING ON-SITE
Radiation monitoring is carried out at every point of
radioactive waste collection and discharge. The effluent
radiological monitoring system is provided to sample and
analyze each plant effluent discharge path for radioactivity
prior to discharge. Activity level of a liquid effluent for
discharge through main discharge is 3.7E5Bq / m3. All the

holdup tanks for liquid and gaseous waste are monitored for
radiation. By sampling and lab analysis, the type of
radioactive material and specific radionuclide present are
determined qualitatively and quantitatively. Solid waste
generated is also monitored for radiation / contamination level
before and after packaging and storage. Radioactive
concentrate sample is also analyzed for radiation before
transferring of waste batch.

CONCLUSION
Environmental assessment of nuclear power plants shows that
the radiation exposure due to nuclear power plants is within
the required regulatory limits. Radiation exposure level at
nuclear facilities is continuously monitored to verify
compliance with radiation protection requirements. Pakistan
Nuclear Regulatory Authority performs regulatory inspections
and reviews reports of the licensees to verify compliance with
radiation protection and radiological environmental
monitoring programs. ALARA plans are implemented for
activities involving radiation exposures. It has been observed
that the doses to radiation workers remain well below the
radiation dose limits and the average dose received by an
individual remains less than a fraction of the annual dose
limit. Similarly, in the entire operating history of nuclear
installations in Pakistan the gaseous and liquid effluent
releases have been well below the derived release limits.
Radioactive wastes are managed in a well controlled manner.
Nuclear power plants do not produce greenhouse gas and
hence do not contribute to global warming. It can be
concluded that nuclear technology is a best option for clean
and safe power generation.

References
[36]
[37]
[38]
[39]
[40]

F. Asfand, M. Sadiq, Z. H. Shah and M. A. Nagrah, Energy Crisis and the Need to Enhance Nuclear Energy in Pakistan,
International Conference on Energy Systems Engineering, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2010.
U.S. EIA, Nuclear Power and the Environment, http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuclearenvissues.html
R. Hinrichs and M. Kleinbach, Energy: Its Use and the Environment. USA: Brooks/Cole Publications, 2002.
Sources and effects of ionizing radiation, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation
(UNSCEAR) Report, vol. 1, 2000.
Climate change and nuclear power, IAEA Report, 2009.

95

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Fuel Optimization in a Multi Chamber Incinerator


by the Moisture Control of Oily Sludge and Medical
Wastes
Imran Haider1*, Shahid Hussain2#, Sultan Khan3* and M. Taqi Mehran4**
*

Department of Chemical Engineering, NWFP University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar. Pakistan
1
imranhaider29@gmail.com
3
sultan_hayyan@hotmail.com
#
National Cleaner Production Centre Foundation (NCPC), ARL, Rawalpindi. Pakistan
2
malik512.hussain@gmail.com
**
Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Islamabad, Pakistan
4
taqimehran@yahoo.com

AbstractExperiments have been performed to study the effects


of %age moisture content on fuel optimization during the waste feed
combustion of oily sludge, medical waste and mix blend waste in a
50 kg/hr multi chamber incinerator installed at NCPC- ARL RWP.
Intention is to find out the optimum and in compliance with NEQs
incinerator performance at various moisture contents in the different
waste feeds. Optimum performances of the incinerator, so that
optimum operating moisture conditions, which has been used for
multi purpose waste, feeds, may be defined. Three waste feeds of
10kg batch size were used for the experimentation namely; Oily
Sludge, Medical waste and Mix blend waste (oily sludge & medical),
with the primary chamber preheating temperature 655oC for 15mins
interval monitoring. The secondary chamber temperature was set to
850oC. By the data obtained it is apparent that rising the waste
moisture content tend to increase fuel consumption specifically in
case of medical waste and hence lowering the overall combustion
efficiency. In the emissions the CO2 concentration is showing the
incineration efficiency. Higher efficiency of the system could have
been achieved by increasing the CO2 in the gases leaving the
incinerator, lower fuel usage per kg waste feed and maintain proper
operating conditions. Fuel consumption for the oily sludge with 10%
moisture content, was found to be least as compared with the same
%age of medical waste and mix blend waste. However
environmental compliance of the operation is shown by the flue gas
analysis. The results shows that using mix blend(oily sludge &
medical) waste having 12-13% moisture content would be suitable
for incineration in multi-chamber incinerator .Other makes it
possible to determine the optimum incinerator temperature control
settings and operating conditions, as well as to assure continuous,
efficient, environmentally satisfactory operation. The optimum fuel
consumption for 10kg each waste batch, 15min operation and PCC
temperature 655oC was found 2.09 m3/kg for oily sludge waste,2.52
m3/kg for medical waste and 2.23m3/kg for mix blend waste.
However the economy can be further improved by considering other
operating parameters.
Keywords Keywords: Oily sludge waste; incineration; Optimum
operating condition; moisture effects: medical waste, environmental
compliance

INTRODUCTION
Waste oily sludge (WOS) is one of the major wastes produced
by the petroleum refinery industry. Due to its content of
harmful organic compounds and heavy metals, in most cases,
oily sludge has been recognized as a hazardous waste [1]. In
recent years refinery solid waste management technology has
become more complex and the consequences of improper
techniques more severe. Investment and operating costs have
increased for complex equipment such as centrifuges, filters,
and incinerators. Along with this, the need for skills in such
areas as mechanics, chemistry, biology, heat transfer, and
materials engineering has increased. To achieve compliance
with environmental regulations at a reasonable cost, it is
incumbent upon refinery management to train process
engineers in the techniques of developing and operating solid
wastes programs [2]. Medical waste is discarded matter
generated from medical activities and has a severe environmental impact if not properly disposed [3]. Historically, much
of the medical wastes have been disposed in landfills or
burned in poorly designed and inadequately controlled waste
incinerators [4]. A number of alternative treatment
technologies have been proposed, including incineration,
autoclaving, chemical disinfections, gas disinfections and such
new technologies as microwave and irradiation [5]. However,
use of these technologies is still limited for several reasons.
For example, many of the technologies cannot handle all types
of medical waste, do not reduce the mass of the waste
significantly and do not render the waste unrecognizable
without grinding or shredding [6]. Furthermore, they rarely
achieve complete disinfection and do not destroy toxic and
hazardous chemicals in the waste stream. Of all the available
technologies, incineration has been found to be the most
effective overall for destroying the infectious and toxic
components, volume reduction and weight reduction [7].
Different hazardous wastes generated by the industry and

96

hospitals are disposed of by various treatments including


incineration, autoclaving, chemical disinfections, gas
disinfections and steam sterilization in order to save the
environment and also the resources [8]. Incineration is the
ultimate in volume reduction. It results in an ash which must
be land filled. Gases are passed out the stack where
particulates and acid vapours (CO2, SOx and HCl), if present,
are removed. Hydrocarbons present in the sludge reduce the
amount of auxiliary feed required. The chief disadvantages are
the high capital and operating costs [9]. These costs, per ton of
waste incinerated, are especially high for small incinerators
and for large incinerators, if not used to their full capacity.
Therefore in evaluating the need and economics for
incineration, three basic steps are required. First make an
accurate estimate of the amount and characteristics of the
waste to be incinerated. Then evaluate alternative disposal
methods and types of incinerators. Finally, make an economic
and environmental comparison of the alternatives.
Incineration if in compliance with environmental standards
and lucrative then it is one of the most efficient waste
management techniques [10-13].
All type of hazardous and non hazardous waste disposal is a
big problem in an all developing countries like Pakistan
.Waste incinerator installed at NCPC ARL RWP, is used for
the incineration of waste oily sludge, medical waste, oily rags,
other wastes from petroleum and food industry. This
incinerator is reported as a non- economical in terms of fuel
consumption and disposal matter. The present study is aimed
at the study of the optimization of fuel consumption in the
incineration operations. The main focus is given to the
variation of moisture content in the waste feed.
The key intention of the study is to determine the optimized
moisture content in various available wastes feed for
incineration so that optimum operating parameters for waste
decomposition along with fuel economy and in compliance
with Local Environmental Standards. The procedures adopted
in the experimentation can be pursued for the optimization
studies for other incineration systems to determine the
optimum operating parameters.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
Experimental work was done on the waste incinerator
installed at NCPC-ARL Rawalpindi. The equipment as shown
in Fig: 4.1, has an incineration capacity of 50 kg/hr. The
system is a multi chamber (three chambers) thermal
destruction unit with manual control of fuel burners.
Equipment start-up and stop can be done by using the valves
set by the operator. The shutdown of the equipment would be
done after the last cycle and can be re-activated next day after
removal of ash. The details of the equipment are mentioned
below.
The Primary chamber of the unit is (1402 mm x 1493 mm
in size) to receive the waste feed for burning the waste
material in a controlled atmosphere. A burner with adjustment

dampers is provided to ignite and sustain combustion to


ensure complete decomposition of waste at high temperature.
Waste decomposition produces carbon dioxide, water vapor,
inert ashes and some other gases. A blower fan (forced draft)
is also provided for primary chamber to allow complete
combustion of sufficiently large volume of waste. Waste feed
is incinerated in the primary chamber with air that is forced
into the chamber thorough air-ports in the floor. Burning
condition of the waste feed would be observed by temperature
rises inside the chambers shown by thermocouple.
The flue gases from the primary chamber come in the
secondary combustion chamber (609 mm x 1493 mm) for
complete destruction of any partially burned gasses and
organic compounds to minimize smoke and odours. Retention
time is 2-3seconds between the temperature ranges of between
850o-1200oC. An after burner is provided to maintain high
temperature in this chamber. The third chamber (884 mm x
1494 mm) of the unit is for setting fly ash. The un-burnt
material, usually 1-2% of waste feed is remained as ashes
which can be disposed off in landfills.

FIGURE1: WASTE INCINERATOR AT NCPC ARL RWP


Natural Gas is used as a starting fuel and is being regulated
as per operation. The negative draft is maintained in the
incinerator to avoid back pressure and better operation .In this
stack design is very important. The stack of the equipments is
self supported (bolted) on chimney made-up of brick masonry
and tied with guy ropes on three sides. For the monitoring &
observation of stack gases a sampling point is provided to
insert the flue gas analyser probe. A gate valve is provided at
the bottom of the chimney to drain rainwater before operation.
The diameter of stack is 508mm. and total height from ground
level is around 21192 mm. In the operation, negative draft is
maintained in the incinerator and is monitored. Emissions
from the multi-chamber incinerator are exhaust directly from
the stack. For the measurement of temperature K-type
thermocouples are installed at 914mm above the door of
combustion chambers.
Waste feeding is done manually by the operator. After
achieving the primary combustion chamber preheating
temperature at set value i.e. 655oC, the batch of the waste is

97

weighed on the weighing scale and then put in the primary


combustion chamber through the charging door. After the
waste has been charged the operator closes the door and
regulates the natural gas flow through the adjustment
dampers. The combustion characteristics are monitored from
the flue gas analyzer which is installed on the stack for
monitoring. For complete and efficient incineration the
primary combustion temperature, secondary chamber
temperature and flue gases composition are important factors.
Waste feed used, in this experimentation, is composed of
oily sludge from refinery crude, medical waste and a mix
blend prepared (oily sludge and medical waste). The
identification of the all three type of the waste feeds according
to the nature and moisture is shown in Table: 1. The waste
feed used in the experimentation was first weighed and then
put for the charging. The moisture is generally varied from
ranging 12-20% in the waste used in the incinerator
equipment.
For these experiments, waste feed sample were prepared
having the specific waste percentage as shown in table: 1.
Four batches of each sample were prepared having 10%, 12%,
16% and 18% moisture contents. The %age of moisture was
taken as representative for the operation, however more
experimentation can be done to achieve additional results.
Table 1: WASTE feed identification

WF-1
WF-2

Moisture
(%age)
10,12,16,18
10,12,16,18

Calorific
value
32.12 MJ/kg
27.02 MJ/Kg

WF-3

10,12,16,18

29.93 MJ/kg

Waste Feed

ID

Oily Sludge
Medical Waste
Mix Blend
(Oily sludge+
Medical waste)

The composition of the waste feed type, showing the


amount of different constituents, is represented by the
ultimate analysis of waste feeds (WF-1, WF-2&WF-3) are
tabulated in the table: 2, table:3 and table :4.
TABLE 2 ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF WF-1(DRY BASIS)
Sr.

Moisture

Cl

Ash

10

64.1

10.1

15.5

0.4

10

4.86

12

62.8

9.83

16.3

0.4

12

5.3

16

62

9.01

17.15

3.85

16

5.5

18

60.86

8.55

17.25

2.15

5.86

No

TABLE 3 ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF WF-2(DRY BASIS)


Sr.

Moisture

Cl

10

64.1

10.1

15.5

0.4

10

3.25

12

62.8

9.83

16.3

0.4

12

4.3

16

62

9.01

17.15

3.85

16

2.25

18

54.52

6.92

29.46

0.29

4.64

3.0

Ash

No

Ash

TABLE 4 ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF WF-3(DRY BASIS)


Sr.

Moisture

Cl

10

62.8

12.6

18.02

0.35

0.85

12

61.2

13

18.6

2.1

.95

16

60.89

13.2

17.4

2.36

1.32

18

61.95

12.5

18.02

2.63

1.05

No

4.96
4.01
4.3
3.43

Methods
Experimental procedure is shown in the Table: 5. three types
of waste feed namely WF-1, WF-2&WF-3 with different
moisture %age were studied to obtain the data. In each of the
experiments performed, the preheating temperature of primary
combustion temperature secondary combustion temperature,
stack temperature, fuel consumption and flue gas
analysis were recorded.
Incinerator operation is started with pre-heating process in
which the unit pre-fired to achieve the set temperature (around
655C) and is preheated in 45-50minutes. After that
temperature has been reached the waste, in the weighed
quantity, is charged into the incinerator. Negative draft is
maintained in the incinerator so that whenever the door is
opened for waste feed charging, there is no discharge of hot
gases from the door. Also it makes the entire destruction
without generation of smoke or odour.
After the start up of the incineration operation the flue gas
analyser probe was inserted in the sampling point at the stack
for the continuous monitoring of combustion characteristics.
The data obtained from the analyser was recorded. Residue
generated after combustion is removed manually and cleaning
conducted through ash doors.
For the measurement of temperature, K Type thermocouples
were used. Mass flow rate of the fuel (Natural gas) was
regulated by ball valve, and the value of the flow rate was
finally adjusted on the emissions showing the CO and CO2.
From the sample point at the stack, flue gases were monitored
continuously by flue gas analyser. Data obtained from the
analyser was recorded.

98

INCINERATION

WASTE
FEEDS

STARTEGY

FLUEGAS
ANALYSIS

Figure 5: oily sludge waste


FUEL
USAGE

Figure 3: Overall skcteh of experimentation

In the whole experimental work all parameters, were


measured and logged, including inside temperature of PCC
and SCC, natural gas consumption, CO and CO2 level in
the stack gas, periodically after every minute for 15
minutes cycle time, for each type of waste fed. Before
feeding the waste in the chamber the temperature of the
primary combustion chamber was maintained to 655+ and
secondary combustion chamber to 850+, while ambient air
flow rate is 1.805m3/min. The overall procedure is
tabulated in Table: 5.
Fuel consumption vs. moisture
In the experiments, 10kg batch of each waste feed
was charged to the incinerator. Natural gas consumption
against %age moisture content of selected waste feeds was
shown in table: 5.
Oily Sludge

10kg waste Oily sludge was charged with 10%, 12%, 16% and
18% moisture contents. At 655oC preheating temperature fuel
consumption was observed.

Mix Blend (Oily Sludge & Medical waste)

10kg of Mix Blend (5kgwaste Oily sludge+5kg Medical


waste) was charged with 10%, 12%, 16% and 18%
moisture contents. At 655oC preheating temperature fuel
consumption was observed.

Figure 6: mix blend waste(oily sludge +medicalwaste)


TABLE5 Experimental plan for the waste feeds

Parameters
PCC
temperature
Quantity
Moisture
Content
SCC
temperature

Figure 4: Oily sludge waste

Medical Waste

10kg Medical waste was charged with 10%, 12%, 16% and
18% moisture contents. At 655 o C preheating temperature
fuel consumption was observed.

Unit

Moisture

Exp#

Exp#

Exp#

Exp#

10

655

655

655

655

12

10

10

10

10

%age

16

10

12

16

18

18

850

850

850

850

kg/batc
h

Moisture contents vs. CO2


In this experimentation the incineration efficiency was studied
by effect of moisture contents variation on CO2 emissions.
The CO2 level in the stack gases was observed by flue gas
analysis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
During the experimental work on the incinerator installed
at NCPC-ARL, optimization of fuel was remained focus
on the incineration of waste oily sludge, and medical waste
and mix waste feed 5kgwaste Oily sludge+5kg Medical
waste). The result of the natural gas flow rate for the
different waste feed with variation in the moistures
contents is shown table: 6.

99

Moisture
%age
10
12
16
18

Oily Sludge
Waste(WF-1)
m3/kg
2.09
2.27
2.63
2.88

Medical
Waste(WF-1)
m3/kg
2.52
2.81
3.10
3.46

Mix Blend
Waste(WF-1)
m3/kg
2.33
2.45
2.85
3.06

FuelConsumption
m(3/kg)

The discussion on the results are primarily depends data


obtained by the primary combustion temperature and on
the flue gas analysis data received from the flue gas
analyser. The overall profile shows that in increase in
moisture content would cause increase in overall fuel
consumption. The results are on the basis of the data
obtained by varying moisture content on the various waste
feeds.
3.8
3.3
2.8

Oilysludge
waste

2.3
1.8

10

12 MoistureContent(%age
14
16
18
20 )

Figure 7: Moisture %age vs. fuel consumption

Moisture content effects on fuel usage for Oil Sludge


waste
Oily sludge waste is composed of hydrocarbons and
residue matter mud. So the decomposition of the waste oily
sludge is rapid than the medical and mix blend waste. At once
combustion starts then it take lower supplement fuel due to its
combustible nature. Four samples with 10%, 12%, 16%,18%
moisture content were incinerated at PCC temperature 655oC
for 15min.The fuel consumption for the waste oily sludge was
found increasing upon increasing the moisture contents. At
10% moisture content the consumption per kg was 2.09m3,at
12%,its was 2.27m3, at 16% it was 2.63m3 and at 18% 2.88m3
.The fuel consumption was found highest 2.885m3/kg in the
oily sludge waste sample having 18% moisture content. More
amount of fuel is required, so that first to vaporize the
moisture in the waste feed and then release of volatile gases.
Generally the oily sludge contains 12-13% moisture content
and at that moisture content %age the fuel consumption was
found about 2.274m3/kg. However the CO2 in the stack is
showing the incinerator having the combustion efficiency
better than that of the higher moisture content. To maintain
moisture content below 12% the sludge needs extra preheating
or drying to attain the moisture level. Drying at ambient

conditions require extra time where as preheating needs extra


energy.
3.3

Oilysludgewaste

FuelConsumption
m(3/kg)

FUEL CONSUMED FOR DIFFERENT WASTE FEEDS (M3/KG WASTE)

2.8

2.3

Oilysludge
waste

1.8
8

10 MoistureContent(%age)
12
14
16
18

20

Figure 8: moisture %age vs. for oily sludge waste

Moisture content effects on fuel usage for Medical waste


Medical Waste has heterogeneous properties. In
medical waste due to most of the plastic materials, the
decomposition of the organic matters completes at high
temperature. Decomposition of the medical waste (long
molecular weight chain) release heat. As a result of the energy
released there would a high temperature in the secondary
combustion chamber without use of supplement fuel.
10kg Medical waste was charged with 10%, 12%,
16% and 18% moisture contents. At 6550C preheating
temperature of primary combustion chamber, the fuel
consumption was observed. The Natural gas usage for the
medical waste was found increasing upon increasing the
moisture contents. At 10% moisture content the consumption
per kg was 2.52m3, at12% it was 2.81m3, at 16% it was
3.10m3 and at 18% 3.46m3. Generally the medical waste
contains 16-20% moisture content. The lowest fuel usage was
att10% moisture content. For 10% moisture content the
sample should be dried prior to incineration to achieve such
moisture. However the trend shown in fig: 4, that the average
optimum gas consumption, for medical waste, was observed
2.95m3 at 14% moisture content. At this moisture the CO2
level in emissions shows that combustion efficiency of the
equipments is well. Hence overall the incineration process is
feasible and in compliance with the local environmental
standards.
3.8
FuelConsumptionm(3/kg)

TABLE 6

MedicalWaste

3.3
2.8

Medical
Waste

2.3
1.8
8

10 MoistureContent(%age)
12
14
16
18

20

Figure 9: moisture %age vs. for medical waste

100

3.3
FuelConsumption
p
m(3/kg)

M
MixBlen
ndwastte

2.8

2.3

MixBlen
nd
waste

1.8
8

10 MoistureC
12
14
16 ) 18
ontent(%age)

20

Figu
ure 10: moistu
ure %age vs. foor mix blend (ooily sludge +m
medical
wasste)

At 10% moisture conntent the Naturral gas


coonsumption peer kg waste fedd was 2.23m3, at 12% it waas
2.445m3, at 16% it was 2.85m3 and at 18% it
i was 3.06m3.To
obbtain the compplete combustiion of mix feeed waste contaaining
166 % moisture the
t average fuuel consumptioon per kg wass
2.885m3 .The proofile is showinng that fuel coonsumption is
raiised due to inccrease in moissture content for
f the mix blend
waaste feed (meddical waste+ oily
o sludge waaste).For mix blend
b
waaste up to 16%
% moisture conntent is relatiively better. The
T
low
w fuel consum
mption observved at low moiisture content,, also
thee emissions arre associated with
w feed typee as explainedd
eaarlier. Thereforre, for 10 kg mix
m blend wasste with 12%
mooisture the ressults shows that fuel consum
mption is
coomparable withh the other waaste feed. Mixx waste feed caan be
used at this moiisture %age. Iff medical wasste is burnt aloone
theere is more chhance of toxic composition release in the
em
missions.
Moisture effects on CO2 emisssions at optimuum fuel usagee
The purrpose was to loocate the optim
mal combustioon
effiiciency againsst %age moistuure content off selected waste
feedds. Also the em
missions needds, to be in com
mpliance withh the
locaal environmenntal standards,, to make the incineration
i
envvironmental friendly along with
w the econoomic
connsideration. Thhe results of moisture %agge variation onn
inciineration efficciency were shhown by CO2 levels (analyssed
by using
u
flue gass analyser) aree tabulated. Foor the each traail,
dataa was recorded and tabulateed table: 7.

TABLE
E7

:CO2 AT VARIOUS
V
MOIS
STURE %AGE FO
OR DIFFERENT WASTE
W

FEEDS
S

Moisture
M

Oily Sludge
O
W
Waste
(WF-1)

Medical
Waste(WF-2)

Mix Blend
Waste(WF-33)

Carrbon dioxide (%age)


(

%age
%
10
12
16
18

122
101
72
60

202
122
87
66

211
140
99
72

The obtaiined data refleects that the effficiency of thhe


incin
nerator is decreeased with inccrease in moissture content for
f
all th
he three waste feeds types. IIn all cases thiis is due to higgher
moissture content, a part of energgy supplied firrstly evaporattes
the moisture
m
conteent in the wastte feed and theen start its
decomposition. Thhis will decreaase over all eff
fficiency.
Moreeover the moissture %age also reduces thee flame
temp
perature and afffects the rate of heat transffer. However
16% and 18% moiisture contentss the combusttion
charaacteristics shoowing increasiing the CO2 leevel. The effecct of
moissture content variation,
v
on C
CO2 concentraation in
emissions, for all the
t waste feedd types is repreesented in thee
Fig.:6.

CO2(%age)
CO2 (%age)

Moisture conteent effects on fuel


M
f usage forr Mix Blend waste
w
The com
mbustion of mix
m blend wastte fed containiing
equual amount (5kkgwaste Oily sludge+5kg Medical
M
waste)) of
oilyy sludge and medical
m
waste, decreases the hazardous
emiissions in operrational condiitions. 10kg off Mix Blend was
w
chaarged with 10%
%, 12%, 16% and 18% moiisture contentss. At
65550C preheatingg temperature fuel consumpption was
obsserved. Data of
o fuel consum
med during thee incineration of
mixx blend waste feed is shownn in Table: 6.

250

OilySludgge
Waste

200
150
100
50
0
8

12
16
Mo
oisture

20

Figurre 11: Percentaage CO2 as a ffunction of Moisture


M
conten
nt

CONC
CLUSIONS
To examiine the affect oof the operatin
ng variables on
o
the in
ncineration off refinery oily sludge, mediccal waste and mix
blend
d waste feed inn a multi cham
mber incinerattor of 50 kg/hhr
incin
neration capacity, experimenntation was caarried out. Thee
incin
neration results of various w
waste feed is sh
howing that thhe
moissture in the waaste feed has a great influen
nce on the fuell
consu
umption and CO
C 2emissionss. The key find
dings regardinng
the fuel
fu optimizatiion are as folloowing.
The emissions from thee incinerator at
a the optimum
m
fuel usage
u
are alsoo quiet in com
mpliance with the
t nation
envirronmental quaality standardss. The flue gass contains the
hazarrdous substannces within thee safe limits. The
T results
obtaiined are tabulaated in the tabble: 6 for referrence. On the
basiss of experimenntation carriedd out for vario
ous type of waaste
feed to determine the
t fuel econoomy along witth environmenntal
pliance, the feeasible operatiing parameters depending upon
u
comp

101

the values of CO2 in emissions, primary combustion chamber


preheating temperature and secondary chamber temperature,
can be concluded:
In test run for the 10kg Oily sludge waste incinerated at
preheating PCC temperature 655oC ,the incinerator operation
is feasible and economical up to 16% moisture content .Also
at this the CO2 emissions from the stack were found on higher
side showing that efficient combustion.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors extend their gratitude to Department of
Chemical Engineering, NWFP University of Engineering and
Technology for their support, HCDIP ISD for analysis and
especially to NCPC-ARL Rawalpindi for use of facilities,
great encouragement and help during the whole work for
successfully completion of the project.
REFERENCES

For the medical waste burned in these tests, at preheating


PCC temperature 655oC, the optimum conditions that
resulted reasonable fuel usage was found highest at least
moisture content i.e 10% moisture along with increasing CO2
emissions from the stack. But on the basis of data the
equipment is to be operated on 14% moisture content to
optimize the overall performance.
In case of complete combustion of mix feed waste
containing (waste oily sludge and medical waste) the optimum
results ranging from 14 to 16% moisture content. These
results are quite acceptable and reasonable in case of fuel
economy. Also the efficiency is comparable for the oily
sludge waste having 18% moisture and medical waste having
12% moisture. Combustion of mix blends waste (oily sludge
together with the medical waste feed) cause the higher
CO2level in emission and also reduces the overall utilization
of supplementary fuel in the operation. At lower moisture
contents in the waste feed, minimum time and energy is
necessary for de-volatilization and thus overall efficiency of
the incinerator would be on higher side.
During normal operation, recording of primary combustion
chamber (PCC) and secondary combustion chamber
temperatures, as well as CO2, assures continuously efficient
combustion and minimum impact on the environment.
However other wastes and other settings of air supply to the
PCC (primary combustion chamber) and SCC (secondary
combustion chamber), flue gas analysis and instrumentation
would result in different optimum settings. CO2 measurements
pro-vide the means for determining and maintaining optimum
conditions.

P.E. Bonnier, G.L. Akoun, E Properties of Navy Oily Sludge, NTIS


No. ADA l64 533. HDM, 1984, USA.
Manual on Disposal of refinery waste, Volume of solid waste API.
Li, C.T. "PAH emission from the incineration of waste oily sludge
and PE plastic mixtures", Science of the Total Environment,
The, 19950929.
Guo Hui Liu. "Study on the Optimization Design of MSW
Incinerator Combustion in O2/CO2 Atmosphere", Challenges
of Power Engineering and Environment, 2007.
Lee CC, Huffman GL. Review of federal/state medical waste
management. Paper No. 91-30.9, 84th Annual Meeting and
Exhibition, Air and Waste Management Association,
Vancouver, BC, June 1621, 1991.
Borowsky AR, Fleischauer PD. Medical waste disposal, 86th
AnnualMeeting and Exhibition, Air and Waste Management
Association, Denver, CO, June 1318, 1993.
Exhibition, Air and Waste Management Association, Cincinnati,
OH, June 1924, 1994.
Yang, Y.B. "Converting moving-grate incineration from combustion
to gasification - Numerical simulation of the burning
characteristics", Waste Management, 2007.
Jangsawang, W. "Effects of operating parameters on the combustion
of medical waste in a controlled air incinerator", Energy
Conversion and Management, 200512 L.A. Karr and I. Lysyj,
Physical, Chemical and Toxicological.
Yao Bin Yang. "Numerical simulation of Municipal Solid Waste
incineration in a moving-grate furnace and the effect of waste
moisture content", Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics
an International Journal, 2007.
S. Sankaran. "Experimental investigation on waste heat recovery by
refinery oil sludge incineration using fluidised-bed technique",
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part a, 07/1998.
Karayildirim, T. "Characterisation of products from pyrolysis of
waste sludges", Fuel, 200607/08.
Anderson, S.R. "Multi-objective optimization of operational
variables in a waste incineration plant", Computers and
Chemical Engineering, 2005.

102

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Lack of Indigenization of Renewable Energy


Technologies and its Effects on Energy
Situation in Pakistan
Ajaz Bashir Janjua, Muhammad Ashraf Butt and Liaqat Ali
AbstractPakistan is blessed with abundant renewable energy
resources. Identified potential of wind and hydro electricity is at least
twenty times more than the current total power generation of the
country. Despite availability of such a large potential, Pakistan is one
of the most power deficient countries on the globe. There are
numerous reasons for power crisis in the country, lack of
indigenization of renewable energy technologies is one of the most
prominent reasons.

For energy-production in the developing countries, the


expansion of existing energy resources and exploration of
new sources is an important exercise to be considered, in
order to ensure their future and sustain their development
initiatives. It is indeed the developing countries that have to
bear the maximum pressure of energy-scarcities.
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES OF PAKISTAN

The present indigenization status of different renewable energy


technologies has been given in the paper. A critical analysis of the
efforts being made by the government and the industry to improve
the situation is also carried out and presented.
Key words Renewable Energy, Hydro-power, Wind energy,
sustainability, indigenization.

INTRODUCTION
PAKISTAN

IS AN ENERGY-DEFICIENT COUNTRY. ENERGY


PLAYS AN INCREASINGLY CRUCIAL ROLE IN THE
DEVELOPMENT AND WELL-BEING OF A NATION.
ENERGY HAS IMPACT ON LIVES, LIVELIHOODS,
GROWTH AND PROGRESS, NOT ONLY AT A
COLLECTIVE LEVEL BUT ALSO AT THE INDIVIDUAL,
GRASSROOTS LEVEL. GIVEN THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF
TODAY, THE SOURCE AND NATURE OF ENERGY, THE
SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF ITS
SUPPLY AND THE UTILIZATION NEED TO BE
ADDRESSED IN A COMPREHENSIVE AND EFFECTIVE
MANNER.

Renewable Energy resources and technologies have the


potential to provide solutions to the long-standing
problems being faced by the country's economy, the
industry, the environment and the masses in the
consumption of traditional sources of energy. It is only
through devising such solutions that the development of
nations can continue without hindrance, and so contribute
towards sustainable developmental goals. The renewable
energy sources like wind energy, solar energy, geothermal
energy, ocean energy, biomass energy and fuel cell
technology can be used to overcome energy shortage in
Pakistan.

Energy has always been a vital and indispensable input in


any economy. It functions as blood stream in production, a
fuel for transportation and power source in electricity
generation. The population of Pakistan is growing at an
alarming rate and the demand on the existing energy supplies
are also increasing; therefore it is necessary to identify
alternate/Renewable energy sources.
Since, Renewable resources of energy has been considered
non depleteable therefore attention of the policy makers and
researchers has been focused on efficient exploration of
alternative energy resources for catering a portion of total
energy requirements in the future.
Pakistan has wide spectrum of high potential of renewable
energy sources, conventional and non-conventional as well,
which have not been adequately explored, exploited or
developed. As a result, the primary energy supplies today are
not enough to meet even the present demand. Moreover, a
very large part of the rural areas does not have the
electrification facilities because they are either too remote
and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. So,
Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is
facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. The
development of the renewable energy sources can play an
important role in meeting this challenge.
The Countrys energy demand had grown at an annual
consumption growth rate of 4.8% in the past five years but
now it is expected to grow at 8 to 10% per annum till the end
of current decade [2]. Therefore, need exists for a high and
sustained growth in energy supply and infrastructure capacity

103

of 7 - 8% per annum to support the steady growth in the


Countrys GDP. Hydel power being most inexpensive needs
utmost attention.
Pakistan has abundant energy resources, which need to be
harnessed through an institutionalized strategy for optimum
utilization. The Government has set out an action plan to
achieve exploration and maximum utilization of indigenous
resources like oil, gas, coal and alternative sources like hydel,
wind energy, solar energy etc. Maximum participation of the
private sector in this regard is encouraged.
Government of Pakistan is putting greater emphasis on
Renewable Energy and has set a target of 10% renewable
energy or 2700 MW in the Country's energy mix by 2015.
Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is
facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. Renewable
Energy resources can play an important role in bridging this
deficit. More importantly, Renewable Energy can take
electricity to remote rural areas, where power transmission
becomes too expensive. The Government of Pakistan aims
that all localities not planned to be connected with national
grid in next 20 years, be earmarked for Alternative/
Renewable Energy resources and the solar/ wind energy
related technologies be indigenized in next decade through
national/ international collaboration.

Recently the Government realizing the importance of the


renewable in the development of remote areas, has
established an organization namely Pakistan Council of
Renewable Energy Technologies to do research, development,
promotion, dissemination, policy-making, advising and
assisting government and related industries in this field.
Alternate Energy Board has been established in the country to
facilitate the deployment of the renewable energy
technologies. Like wise Heavy Mechanical Complex , state
owned company is taking part in the development of
renewable energy technologies mostly in the hydro-power
sector.
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES OF PAKISTAN
Hydropower source of energy is very well known in Pakistan
and there is ever growing experience in this sector to develop the
hydropower potential indigenously in the country. The hydro
potential was estimated at about 50,000 MW out of which
about 6,464 MW has been developed over the past 50 years
through mega-hydel plants and the remaining has yet to be
exploited. The canal system has a huge hydropower potential at
numerous sites / locations. Also the northern areas of the
country are rich with hydropower resources.

The energy of water has been harnessed as early as the


antiquity through the water mill. Nowadays, this energy is
used in hydroelectric power stations to generate electricity. Its
working principle is simple: water drives turbines, which in
turn drive alternators. These alternators turn the mechanical
energy developed by the turbines into electrical energy. The
power of a hydro power plant depends on the quantum and
head of water that is available.
Hydro energy is a renewable source of energy based on the
natural rhythm of water cycle. It generates about 15% of the
power generated in Europe. About 80% of all the
hydroelectric production of the world is concentrated in four
regions: North America, Western Europe, South America and
Eastern Asia.
Table-1 to 4 show the hydro-power potential in the country
[7]. Figure-1 and 2 show the Pakistans electric power demand
(2007-2030) and year-wise hydro-power induction in the
country respectively.
TABLE-1
INSTALLED HYDROPOWER STATIONS IN PAKISTAN
Sr. No.

Name of Station

Installed capacity (MWs)

Tarbela

3478

Ghazi Barotha

1450.

Mangla

1000.

Warsak

240.0

Chashma

184.0

Rasul

22.0

Malakand

19.6

Dargai

20.0
13.8

Nandipur

10

Shadiwal

13.5

11

Chichoki Malian

13.2

12

K.Garhi & Renala

5.1

13

Chitral

1.

14

Satpara

4.86

Total

6464

TABLE-2
HYDROPOWER PROJECTS IN PRIVATE SECTOR
Name of Project

Capacity (MW)

Tentative Commissioning

New Bong Escape at

84

2010

Rajdhani at Punch
(AJK)

132

2011

Matiltan at Swat

84

2012

Malakand III(Shydo )

81

2008

Kotli

100

2011

Gulpur (AJK)

120

2012

Gabral Kalam

101

2012

104

TABLE-3
PAKISTANS HYDRO-POWER POTENTIAL
Sr.
No.

CONTRIBUTION OF HMC IN DEVELOPMENT OF HYDRO-POWER.


Power
(MW)

River/ Tributary

1.

Indus River

35760

2.

Tributaries of Indus (Northern Areas) of NWFP

5558

3.

Jhelum River

3143

4,

Kunhar River

1250

5.

Neelum River & its Tributaries

2459

6.

Poonch River

397

7.

Swat River & its Tributaries

2388

8.

Chitral River & its Tributaries

2282

9.

Schemes below 50 MW on Tributaries

1290

TOTAL =

Heavy Mechanical Complex being the largest industrial


unit in Pakistan have the most adequate facilities and
skills for the design, engineering and manufacturing of
heavy, medium and small components of all kind of
industrial plants, like cement plants, sugar plants, cranes,
boilers, heat exchangers, and also hydro-power plants.
Based on the capabilities and skills available, HMC have
completed different projects of hydro-power sector, out of
which some are mentioned in the Table-5. In general, HMC
has all the facilities required for production of a complete
Hydro Power Plant.
HMC is also in the process of indigenous development of
wind turbines to utilize the wind power energy of the country.

54, 527
TABLE-5
PRESENT INSTALLED CAPACITY IN PAKISTAN

TABLE-4
PRESENT INSTALLED CAPACITY IN PAKISTAN
Sr. No.

Type

Capacity
(MW)

%age of Total
Capacity

WAPDA Hydro

6464

32.9

Thermal (GENCOs)

6590

33.5

Thermal (IPPs)

6155

31.3

Nuclear (PAEC)

462

2.3

TOTAL:

19671

Project.
Ghazi
HPP

Barotha 290 MW Turbine spiral casing, draft tube liners,


pier nose & pit liners, 70 & 6 tons cranes, HP
vessels, misc. equipments
Turbine head covers, bottom plate & rings, wicket
Warsak
HPP
gates, trash rack, bulk head gates, sill beams, stop
Rehabilitation
logs, draft tube gates & trash rack followers, 50 & 5
Project.
tons cranes.
250 & 50 tons cranes, draft tube gates, lifting
Terbela HPP
beam, sill cleaning device.
Chashma HPP
Monorail crane with grab for under water trash cleaning.
NAPWD
Khan Pur Dam

120000

101478

Description

36 Nos. small hydro power plants of 300 KW to 1250


KW
Design, engineering & manufacturing of spill way gates

Kurram Garhi HPP 01 MW Francis turbine runner

100000

MW

Abbasia
Canal
System
Kundal Shahi HPP
(AJK)
Mahawali
Irrigation System,
Penstock for
81MW MalakandIII HPP.
Penstock for AJK,
HPP's.
Nandi-Pur HPP

72169

80000

60000

44903
35413

40000

22353
20000

17328
0

2007

2010

2013

2016

2019

2022

2025

2028

Fig. 1 Pakistans Electric Power Demand (2007-2030)


7000

Manufacturing repair & rehabilitation of 1 MW


hydro power plant
32 Nos. sluice & fixed wheel gates
01 No. 770m long Penstock with dia=4000mm and
Manifold for three turbine units.
03 Nos. Penstocks for 3.2MW Sharian HPP, 3.2MW
Rehra HPP and 3.0 MW Qadirabad HPP in AJK
Development of 04 Nos. Kaplan Turbine Runner Blades

6464
6174

6000
5000
MW

70 Nos. cross regulator & head regulator gates

5014

4730
4198

4000
3000

2902

2000
1599
1000

868

62
0
1952

1962

1972

Fig. 2 Year Wise Hydel Power Induction

1982

1992

2002

In line with the objectives set out in vision 2030 and Medium
Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005 for the
development of local capability to design, manufacture,
install and commission hydro power plant, the Government
of Pakistan has decided to award a 16 MW hydro power
project Naltar-III to Heavy Mechanical Complex as a model
project on turn key basis.

105

Photographs of some of hydro-power plant equipments


manufactured by HMC for various power projects are shown
in Figure-2.

Average wind speed is more than 7 m/s in Gharo Wind


Corridor. Estimated wind potential in costal areas of Sindh alone
is more than 50,000 MW. Other sites in Balochistan and
Northern Areas being identified In the same geographical
environment as we have in Pakistan, India has set up the first of
its ten 55 KW plants at Gujarat in1986 whereas 700MW have
been produced in Gujarat in 2007. Total installed wind capacity
in India now exceeds 10,000 MW mark.
Following factors are hindering the utilization of wind
power in Pakistan;
1) Lack of technical expertise for wind project development
and construction.
2) Lack of local manufacturing base for wind turbines.
3) Poor transportation infrastructure leading to wind sites
(road, culvert, bridge replacement or
4) upgrades necessary).
5) Lack of heavy lift cranes.
6) Financing issues - Lenders cautious.
IV.1 FUTURE PROSPECTS OF WIND ENERGY IN PAKISTAN
1) Currently, Market is dependent upon foreign supplies
2) Local manufacturing industry has the capacity to start
manufacturing of towers and other parts of wind turbines
3) Manufacturing of complete micro-wind turbines units
has already been started
4) Interest shown by several investors in local
manufacturing of WTG
5) Transfer of Technology is being considered by leading
manufacturers and a few such proposals are under review
Year-wise planned production target of electric energy by
GOP through renewable energy source of wind power is
shown in the Figure-3.

Fig. 2 Photographs of some hydro-power plant equipments


IV. POTENTIAL OF WIND POWER
Harnessing wind power to produce electricity on a
commercial scale has become the fastest growing energy
technology [3]. Economic, political and technological forces are
now emerging to make wind power a viable source of energy.
Though apparently Pakistan has tremendous wind potential,
but at present the facilities for generating electricity from
wind are virtually nonexistent in the country. Pakistan has
around 1046 km long coastline in south, which could be utilized
for the installation of wind farms, as found in most European
countries.

Fig. 3 Year-wise planned production target of electric energy.

There is a single project is started in Gharo who's capacity is


50MW and unfortunately it generates only 2MW

106

V. POTENTIAL OF SOLAR ENERGY


Pakistan being in the sunny belt is ideally located to take
advantage of the solar energy technologies. This energy
source is widely distributed and abundantly available in the
country. During last twenty years Pakistan has shown quite
encouraging developments in photovoltaic (PV). Currently,
solar technology is being used in Pakistan for stand alone rural
telephone exchanges, repeater stations, highway emergency
telephones, cathodic protection, refrigeration for vaccine and
medicines in the hospitals etc.
The Public Health Department has installed many solar water
pumps for drinking purposes in different parts of the country.
Both the private and public sectors are playing their roles
in the popularization and up grading of photovoltaic
activities in the country. A number of companies are not only
involved in trading photovoltaic products and appliances but
also manufacturing different components of PV systems. They
are selling PV modules, batteries, regulators, invertors, as
well as practical low power gadgets for load shedding such as
photovoltaic lamps, battery chargers, garden lights etc
V.1 RESOURCES OF SOLAR ENERGY IN PAKISTAN
Pakistan has a very good overall solar-energy potential. The
average daily insulation rate amounts to approximately 5.3
kWh/m2. South-western province of Baluchistan offers excellent
conditions for harnessing solar energy. Sun shines between 8
and 8.5 hours daily, or approximately 3,000 hours per annum.
Practically Solar Power Potential is approx: 10,000 MW
throughout the country.

2) Renewable Energy Decentralized


i. Reduction of losses in transmission / distribution
ii. Regional employment
iii. Less concentrated target for illegal action
VIII.

CONSTRAINTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF RENEWABLE


ENERGY IN PAKISTAN

1) Limited financial resources for project studies and


implementation.
2) Remote location of promising potential sites and dilapidated
infrastructure.
3) Lack of trained and skilled manpower.
4) Non availability of local manufacturing facility for electromechanical equipments.
5) Lack of experienced local construction companies for
medium to large size Hydro Power Projects.
6) Less response from private investors in implementing
hydropower projects.
7) Security situation.
Recent initiatives taken by Government of Pakistan for
development of local capability to manufacture Power Plants
in the country.
Government of Pakistan has in principal decided to upgrade
Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC) facilities for manufacturing
of complete power plant machinery in the country. Accordingly
two PC-I have been submitted to the Planning Commission.
REFERENCES
[7]

VI. ECONOMICAL METHODS TO REDUCE ENERGY CRISIS


Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its energy
resources, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on
imports to satisfy hardly its needs. Moreover a very large part of
the rural areas does not have the electrification facilities because
they are either too remote and or too expensive to connect to the
national grid.
To reduce present energy crisis of Pakistan & to produce
economical electricity, it is the urgent need of time to utilize
non-conventional & renewable energy resources.
VII. BENEFITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES

World Energy Assessment: Energy and the Challenge of


Sustainability, 2000, UNDP (United Nations Development Program),
New York O.
[8] Power and Alternative Energy Asia, www.powerasia.com.pk
[9] FBS, 1998, 50-Years of Pakistan in statistics: Federal Bureau of
Statistics(FBS), Government of Pakistan, Vol. I, p.124-137.
[10] Renewable-Energy Technologies and Sustainable Development,
Proceedings February 2005.
[11] Renewable Energy Technologies - An Energy Solution for Long-Term
Sustainable Development; Science, Technology and Development; 20
(4)2001, pp 25-35.
[12] Renewable Energy in South Asia, Status and Prospects, 2000, World
Energy Council, London.

[13] Power System Statistics, 32nd Issue, Planning (Power)


Department (NTDC), WAPDA - Jan, 2008.
[14] Pakistan Thrust Areas in Renewable Energy for Rural Development in
Proc: Inter. Conf. On Renewable Energy Technology for
Rural Development, 2003, Khatmandu, Nepal.
[15] Wind energy potential of coastal areas of Sindh & Balochistan: First
National Workshop on PREGA, Islamabad, March 5-6, 2002.

1) Renewable Energy Benefits


i. Domestic fossil fuel savings
ii. Saving of foreign currency on imported energy
iii. Environmental emissions reduction
iv. Employment generation
v. Stimulation of local manufacturing industries

107

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Net Metering: Zero Electricity Bill


Aijaz Mangi*, Zahid Khan** and Inam Shah***
*aijaz.mangi@pnra.org,**zahid.khan@pnra.org,***inam.shah@pnra.org
* Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Islamabad, Pakistan
Abstract Worldwide move towards renewable
energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net
metering an attractive option for power generation at
small scale.
This paper discusses the net metering, economical
issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical
aspects, installation suitability according to varying
terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of
legislation for net metering making it economically
attractive.
Keywords: Net metering, renewable energy sources,
bi-directional energy meter, solar panels, and wind
turbine.

Table 1.

Gross
Generation
(KWh)
Gross
Consumption
(KWh)
Net
consumption
(KWh)
Bill

Hour
one
2

Hour
Two
2

Hour
Three
2

Total
6

+1

-1

Rs.
+4.20

Rs.
-4.20

Rs.0

INTRODUCTION

CALCULATION EXAMPLE

As shown in Table 1, during the first hour, the bidirectional meter spins neither forward nor backward.
During the second hour, the meter spins forward,
registering the consumption of 1 kWh. During the third
hour, however, the same meter spins backward,
effectively "netting out" the 1 kWh consumed. so the net
consumption at the meter is zero, hence zero amount will
be charged from the consumer.

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES


Major source of energy since industrial revolution (1850)
is fossil fuels, and it is expected that by 2850 fossil fuel
age will be ended, world is contemplating seriously for
the renewable energy sources on the large scale basis, as
Nevarra in Spain is meeting 70% of energy needs from
wind and solar energy. As up to 2009 energy production
from the wind energy in the world is 157,899 MW, where
Europe Union is producing 74,767 MW, USA is
producing 35,159 MWe and India is producing,
80,000 74,767

EU

70,000

USA

60,000
MWe

Price of energy is increasing in Pakistan at galloping


pace; renewable energy sources will best serve as an
important alternative to fossil fuels in future and will play
crucial role in coping with the energy crunch and abating
the energy cost.
Net metering is legal agreement aimed at facilitating and
encouraging the use of renewable energy sources.
Net metering allows the customer to compensate the
electricity generation over an entire billing time. This
technique uses bi-directional energy meter, it spins
backwards when the consumer is exporting power to grid
and spins forward when power is being imported. The
consumer will be charged for the energy consumed. If
energy consumption and generation equals at the energy
meter, zero amounts will be charged and in case of extra
generation, consumer will be paid accordingly.Net
metering program encourages private investment in
renewable energy sources, stimulate local economic
growth, diversify energy resources and improve the
environment.

CHINA

50,000

INDIA

35,159

40,000

25000

30,000
20,000

8000

10,000
0
EU

USA
CHINA
COUNTRY

INDIA

Fig. 1 Electrical Energy Production from Renewable


Energy resources in different countries

108

8000MW of electricity using wind energy. China has


identified wind power as a key growth component of the
country's economy. China is the second largest producer
of wind power, after the States. it is producing 25000
MW, Researchers from Harvard and Tsinghua University
have found that China could meet all of their electricity
demands from wind power through 2030[20].
As far as solar energy is concerned Germany has installed
234 MW capacity of the Solar power plants, ,China and
Canada are receiving 80 MW from and Spain 60
MWe.Installed capacity in india for the solar power is
2.12 MW so far, but some projects have been proposed,
and a 35,000 km area of the Thar Desert has been set
aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700
to 2,100 gigawatts. In July 2009, India unveiled a US$19
billion plan, to produce 20 GW of solar power by 2020[20]

250

234

MWe

200
GERMANY
CANDA
CHINA
SPAIN
INDIA

150
100

80

80
60

50
2.12
0

COUNTRY
Figure 2.Solar Energy production in different countries of the world

Renewable energy can be particularly suitable for


Pakistan. In rural areas, producing electricity from
renewable sources (wind turbines can be more viable
option) at large scale can offer a effective alternative for
the local consumption and surroundings and extra
generated energy can be exported to other parts by
selecting feasible point of connection.
Pakistan has high wind speeds near major centres. Near
Islamabad e.g.Kalar Kahar the wind speed is anywhere
from 6.2 to 7.4 meter per second (between 13.8 and 16.5
miles per hour). In coastal areas of the sindh e.g.Badin,
Thatta the range is between 6.2 and 6.9 meter per second
(between 13.8 and 15.4 miles per hour).
Given this surplus potential, Pakistan can offer much
cheaper power to neighboring countries if wind energy is
exploited properly.
Pakistan has abundance of renewable energy sources;
According to study conducted by the Pakistan
metrological department gross wind power potential in
coastal areas of the sindh is 43000 MW and potential
areas cover 9700 Sq.KM.

Feasibility study for the installation of 18 MW Model


wind power project was prepared, Estimated Total cost is
about Rs. 850 million and the payback period is 7-8
years. The levelised cost of power generation is estimated
as Rs. 2.9/Kwh.
Solar energy can be utilized for the generation of the
electricity. If 25% of Baluchistan is covered with solar
panels with an efficiency of 20%, enough electricity
would be generated to cover all of Pakistans demand.
Though initial cost of the solar panels is not that much
cheaper, as according to one of the private company in
Pakistan working on solar panels, installation cost of the
one watt is Rs. 60/- per Watt, per Hour basis.
Therefore cost of the One KW of solar energy would be
Rs. 60/ per Watt x 1000W = Rs. 60,000 x 4 Hours
Backup = Rs. 240,000/=,but this cost can be made
affordable to everyone if local resources are properly
utilized, as for the manufacturing of the solar cells Quartz
and silica are used. Quartz is available in abundance in
the northern areas of our country. People of the northern
areas are raising walls of their houses utilising this raw
material in place of bricks and other material silica is
available in rivers and many other places.
Pakistan generates about 19,500 MW of electricity;
Wapda provides about 11,363 MW, or 58 per cent of this.
The remaining power is supplied by the KESC, PAEC
(nuclear) and IPPs. Electricity demand is expected to
grow by eight per cent a year during the period 2005
2015, requiring an annual installation capacity of about
2000 MW for the next 10 years.
Net metering is an effective tool to abridge the hiatus
between consumption and generation by enticing the
general public for active participation. Laws facilitating
the domestic consumer will play pivotal role to invest in
the renewable energy sources.
NET METERING PRACTICES
Texas was one of the first states in the USA to recognize
the right of electricity customers to connect small
generation to the electric distribution system to receive
compensation for the electricity for exporting energy to
grid. [18]
Table 2 quotes examples of the different states of the
USA where net metering is in practices. [19]
Table 2.
State

Eligible customers

Texas
Washington
Arkansas

All customer
All customer classes
Residential
Commercial
All customer classes
All customer classes
Residential

California
Colorado
Georgia

Limit on the
system
size(Kw)
50
25
25
100
1000
10
10
109

Indiana
New Hampshire
New jersey
New Mexico
New York
Virginia

commercial
All customer
All customer
Residential and
small commercial
All customer classes
Residential only
Residential
Commercial

100
1000/month
25
100
10
10
10
25

REGULATIONS
Currently there are no laws about net metering in
Pakistan and they are needed to be developed. Some
suggestions are here, to be incorporated in the legislature
to enhance the diversification of energy sources, and
stimulate economic growth. As there may be approved
standard interconnection tariff for net metering, it maybe
uniform and affordable for all consumers; net metering
maybe encouraged for the solar and wind sources as
Pakistan exhibits great potential for them. All utility
customer classes (residential, commercial, agricultural,
and industrial) shall be eligible to net meter, but domestic
consumers specially in rural areas may be encouraged by
offering him/her special leverages. Electric energy to be
netted monthly and Renewable energy producer receive
the same tariff for selling the energy on which he is
buying from the utility and credit amount does not expire
even the lapse of the month, i.e. Customers to receive
monetary credit for all excess kWh generation. Utilities
may not charge a net-metered customer additional fees.
Utility shall ensure that all consumer complaints are
properly registered and accurately recorded.

TECHNICAL ASPECTS
General arrangement for connecting with the network is
given in figure 1.The Point of Interconnection (POI) or
lockable disconnect (LD) is defined as the terminals of
the network Isolating Switch on the Customer's facility
side. The technical specifications and location of the
POI/LD should be defined by the utility. Protection and
operations schemes suggested by the utility should
address the both scenarios i.e. during importing and
exporting power.
Disconnecting device according to voltage and current
requirements are used to disconnect if abnormal
fluctuations are experienced. Automatic synchronizing
check devices are used as well as manual devices are also
available. However for the protection, national electrical
safety codes are needed to be developed to accentuate the
safety measures and delineate the design criteria for the
net metering arrangement.
In the absence of the national codes, international codes
and standards can be used.

Utility shall be made bound to implement suitable,


necessary, and appropriate rules, regulations and working
practices, as outlined(or be asked to formulate) in its
Codes or applicable documents, to ensure the safety of its
staff and members of the public. This shall also include
suitable courses for familiarity and understanding of the
rules, regulations, practices, and training to use any
special equipment that may be required for such purposes
including basic first aid training.
Government of Pakistan may consider to formulate
flexible and investment attractive laws to encourage the
establishment of consortium between the renewable
energy system manufacturers and investors. The
consortiums design, install, monitor, and maintain the
project. Financing arrangement between the consortium
and consumer may be decided with mutual consensus e.g.
40:60 ratio or 50:50 ratio etc. This will result in the easy
installations of the systems as both will be in win-win
situation as less burden will be borne by either and profit
will be received to both . Law may describes the terms
and conditions for the payback schedule for the amount.
Such consortium maybe exempted from the tax for
specified period. This kind of law will be helpful for the
energy mix.

Figure 3 Interconnection arrangements between consumer and


network

IEEE -1547 provides requirements and criteria for


interconnection of distributed resources with electric
power systems. This standard focuses on the technical
specifications and testing of the interconnection.
It provides requirements relevant to the performance,
operation, testing, safety considerations, and maintenance
of the interconnection. Usage of this standard will ensure
safety and reliability at the large extent.

110

CONCLUSION
Net metering programs are effective tool for encouraging
direct public investment in small-scale renewable energy
sources for abridging the gap between the generation and
consumption. Government, utilities and investors should
consider broader implementation of net metering as a
mechanism for promoting the commercialization of clean,
renewable and sustainable energy technologies.
The programs enhance economic incentives to the
owners of small renewable energy systems and encourage
private investment in renewable energy technologies
without requiring public funding. They are easy to
implement and require no constant regulatory interaction
or supervision after they are in place.
The attractiveness of net metering is high electricity
selling rate; this may provide a boost for investment in
the renewable energy.

[16] www.energy.ca.gov California public utility code


section 2827.
[17] www.iesco.com.pk official website of the Islamabad
electric supply corporation
[18] Steven M.Wiese, CSGServices, Inc., John
E.Hoffner, PE, CSGServices, Inc Erin Scott,
CSGServices, Inc, Interconnection and Net Metering of
small Renewable Energy in Texas.
[19] Thomas J.Starrs, Kelso Starrs & Associates, LLC,
Summary of state Net metering Program
[20] www.wikipedia.org

REFERENCES
[1] T.Forsyth, P.Tu, and J.Gilbert: Economics of Grid
connected small wind turbines in the domestic market.

[2] Yi-hue Wan, H-James Green: Current Experience


with net metering.
[3] Yi-hue Wan: Net metering programs
[4] Peter Dondi, Deia Bayoumi, Christoph
Haederli,Danny Julian, Marco Suter:Network integration
of distributed Power generation
[5] Thomas J. Starrs: Net metering-New opportunities for
home power.
[6] Laghari Javaid Dr.: Power vision for Pakistan
[7] B H khan: Non-Conventional Energy Resources
[8] www.pakmet.com.pk: Official website of Pakistan
metrological Department
[9] www.opfblog.com Overseas Pakistani Friends
[10] www.nepra.org.pk Official website of National
Electric Power Regulatory Authority.
[11] www.aedb.org official website of alternative Energy
development board Pakistan.
[12] IEEE std 1547: Standard for interconnectig
distributed resources with electric power system.
[13] www.wyoenergy.com: Energy Education, Recycle,
Conservation, Appliances Website
[14] www.ropingthewind.org: Small wind guide
[15] www.eere.energy.gov:Official Website of U.S.
Department of Energy
111

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Novel hydrogen Production by Laser Induced electrical Signals During


Plasma Electrolysis of NaOH Mixed Water.
Muhammad Shahid, Noraih Bidin, Yacoob Mat Daud and Muhammad Inayat Ullah
1-3

.Department of Physics
Universiti Technologi Malaysia
Johor Bahru Malaysia
4.
Department of Computer science
University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar
Pakistan
Email.bluefiber08@gmail.com
Corresponding author:Noriah Bidin

Abstract

Utilization of hydrogen energy has


many attractive features, including
energy renewability, flexibility, and
zero green house gas emissions. In this
current research the production and the
enhancement of hydrogen from the
NaOH mixed water have been
investigated under the action of diode
pumped solid state laser with second
harmonic of wavelength 532nm. The
efficiency of the hydrogen and oxygen
yields was found to be greater than the
normal Faradic efficiency. The
parametric dependence of the yields as
a function of laser irradiation time,
Laser focusing effect and other
parameters
of
the
electrolysis
fundamentals were carefully studied.
Key words: Photo catalysis; Electrolysis of
water; Hydrogen; Laser interaction; Electrical
signals; Oxygen.

1. Introduction
Hydrogen gas can be easily
obtained by the electrolysis. However,
direct decomposition of water is very
difficult in normal condition. The
pyrolysis reaction occurs at high
temperatures above 3700Co [1].

Anomalous
hydrogen
generation
during plasma electrolysis was already
reported [2-5].
Water in the liquid state has the
extremely high absorption coefficient
at a wavelength of 2.9 m [5]. The
effect of generation of an electric
signal, when IR-laser radiation having
the power density below the plasma
formation threshold interacts with a
water surface, was discovered by
[6].The electrical signals induced by
lasers were already reported by [7,8].
A lot of research has been done on
photo catalytic hydrogen production.
The photo catalytic splitting of water
using semiconductors has been widely
studied. Many scientists produce
hydrogen from water by using different
photo catalysts in water and reported
hydrogen by the interaction of lasers
[9-13]. In addition to this photolysis of
water has been studied using UV light
[14].Solar energy has been used to
obtained Hydrogen from water by
photo catalytic process [15].But these
methods are not economical and the
yields of hydrogen is not to an extent.
Among of many researchers used
different product analysis techniques

112

such as SEM (Scanning electron


micrograph), EDX (Energy dispersive
X-Ray), XRD (X-Ray diffraction),
AES (Auger electron Spectroscopy),
XPS and TOF-SIMS etc and reported
hydrogen in reaction product analysis
[16-19].But the above all methods are
in research stage .
Our work on lasers has revealed
the important parameters which played
a critical role in the enhancement of
hydrogen from water by laser. Most of
the research work basis on photo
catalysis has carried out by flash
lamps. A very little work is done by
lasers [20]. Since laser light has special
properties
like
monochromatic,
coherent, intense and polarize, so it
was of great interest to use the laser
beams as an excitation source in water.
The second parameter is that the most
of the work has done on light water,
distilled water and heavy water; we
have used drinking water for
production of hydrogen. We have used
NaOH electrolyte. The diode pumped
solid state laser having a green light of
wave length 532 nm was used as an
irradiation source. We investigated the
different parameters of the laser by
monitoring the rate of evolved gases
i.e. hydrogen and oxygen. We
inspected the dependence of hydrogen
and oxygen yields as a laser exposure
time, the effect of laser beam power
and the laser focusing effect.

2. Experimental Setup
A schematic diagram of the
hydrogen reactor is shown in Figure
2.The reactor contained a glass made
hydrogen fuel cell having dimension
10 inch X 10 inch. Fuel cell contained
a window for irradiation of laser, an
inlet for water and electrolyte, two
outlets for hydrogen and oxygen
gasses, an inlet for temperature probe
and a D.C power supply model ED-

345B.Two electrodes steel and


Aluminum were adjusted in the fuel
cell. A CCD camera and a computer
triggered with fuel cell for grabbing, a
multimeter and gas flow meter are
arranged with the fuel cell. The diode
pumped solid state laser with second
harmonics DPSS LYDPG-1 model
DPG-2000 having green light of
wavelength 532 nm was placed near
the fuel cell for irradiation during
electrolysis of water. Tipical DPSS
laser spectrum is shown in figure 1.The
drinking water 40 ml mixed with
10mL NaOH. In order to start the
electrolysis current was applied by D.C
source through steal and aluminum
electrodes. The laser beam from diode
pumped laser is incident on water
through window of the fuel cell. The
hydrogen and oxygen produced were
measured by gas flow meter. The laser
beam power was measured by a power
meter model Nova Z01500.The
temperature of the water was measured
by a Temperature probe i.e.
thermocouple
thermometer
and
mercury thermometer. The current was
measured with the help of multimeter.
The entire experimental run time was
90 minutes. The data was recorded
after every minute of the run.

Figure1: DPSS laser spectrum

113

H
2

O
2
PC

C
o

DPSS Laser

CCD
Camera

A
Power
Supply

Power
meter
DC

Figure2: Schematic diagram of hydrogen reactor

Figure 3. Oscillograms of electrical signal Peaks [7]

(ii)
(iii)

Effect of Temperature
Laser focusing effect

2. 1 Reaction Mechanism
1

e H 2 + O2
H 2 O + h electrolyt
2
The energy deposited to the water

----------- (1)

E = VIt + h
--------------- (2)
The criteria for splitting water is
E Ed
And
E = Ed + K H + K O

------------- (3)

3.1 Effect of laser exposure time


The Figure 4 represents the relationship between
the laser exposure time and the efficiency of
hydrogen and oxygen yields. It was observed that
the efficiency of yields increased rapidly after one
minute of the run and reached at 95%.After that
efficiency slightly decreased 90% and maintained
this value throughout the run of experiment. This
efficiency found to be greater than normal faradic
efficiency.

Where E is the total energy deposited to the water,


h is the laser energy, V is the applied D.C voltage,
I is the D.C current, t is the current rising time ,Ed is
the bond dissociation energy of water, KH is the
kinetic energy of hydrogen and KO is the kinetic
energy of oxygen.

100

E ffic ie n c y o f y ie ld s ( % )

90

3. Result and discussion

80
70
60
50
40
30
20

In order to investigate the role of electrolyte as a


photo catalyst for water splitting under the influence
of laser, various experiments were performed. It has
been observed that various important factors
affected the yield of hydrogen and oxygen.
(i)
Effect of laser exposure time

10
0
0

10

12

time(min)

Figure 4. A graph of laser exposure time versus efficiency of


yields

114

less. The non linear behavior of the curve in the


figure 5 shows the moment of the focus point due to
stirring of the water.

The other important factor which affected the


product yields was Laser power. It has been
detected that hydrogen and oxygen yields increased
with increase in laser input power.
Initially when the laser power was less than 1 watt
the yields increased linearly. When the laser power
reached at 1 watt a sudden increase was seen in the
yields. It was due to the big electrical signal
generated by the laser. This electrical signal peak
had enough energy to overcome the bond
dissociation energy of water.

0.000497
0.000496
0.000495
0.000494
0.000493
0.000492
0.000491
0

4
hydrogen and Oxygen yields(cc)

0.000498

H y d r o g e n y ie ld ( c c )

3.2 Effect of Laser power

3.5

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

distance from focus(cm)

3
2.5

Figure 5. Hydrogen yield versus distance from the laser focus.


Hydrogen

Oxygen

1.5
1

Conclusions

0.5
0
0

0.5

1.5

Laser power(watt)

Figure 4. A graph of laser power versus hydrogen and oxygen yields

3.4 Laser focusing effect


It was revealed that the laser focusing effect also
affected the yields. The experimental facts showed
that when the hydrogen reactor was near the focus
of the laser beam, the yield of hydrogen was found
to be large. As long as the distance from the focus
was increased the production observed to be less.
Figure 6 represents this effect. The maximum yield
was observed at 10 cm distance from the focus
where as minimum yield was observed at 60 cm
from the focal point. It was due to the fact that
when reactor was near the focus the intensity of
beam was large, so at that point powers per unit
area became large, so yield of hydrogen also
became large. Similarly when the distance form the
focus was increased power per unit area also
decreased, so hydrogen yield also observed to be

The experimental results revealed that, The


diode pumped solid state laser with second
harmonics having a green light of wave length
532nm was highly efficient in photo splitting of
water into hydrogen and oxygen during electrolysis
of drinking water. The laser focusing effect has
enhanced the hydrogen production during plasma
electrolysis of water. The relevant data and results
of the experiment exhibited that the production of
hydrogen can be increased by using the electrolyte
as a photo catalyst during plasma electrolysis of
water. The effect of laser focusing on the geometry
and the surface corrosion of electrodes was also an
important .This effect is our next future goal.

115

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[1] T. Mizuno, T. Ohmori and A. Akimoto Generation of
Heat and Products during
Plasma Electrolysis,
ICCF-10, (2003).
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Evolution, New Elements
Production, and
Electromagnetic Wave and/or Neutron Emission in the
Light Water Electrolysis with a Tungsten Cathode, Proc.
ICCF-7, Vancouver, Canada, 279, (2000).
[3] Tadahiko Mizuno, Tadayoshi Ohmori, Tadashi Akimoto,
Akito Takahashi, Production of heat during Plasma
Electrolysis in Liquid",J. Appl. Phys., Vol.39, No.10
(2000).
[4] N.N. Il'ichev, L.A. Kulevsky, P.P. Pashinin Photovoltaic
effect in water induced by a 2.92-m Cr3+: Yb3+: Ho3+:
YSGG laser Quantum Electronics 35(10) 959-961
(2005).
[5] R. Mills, M. Nansteel and P. Ray Water bath
calorimetric study of excess heat generation in resonant
transfer plasmas Plasma Physics, 69, 131 (2003).
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(2005) Quantum Electron, 35 (10), 959 (2005).
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Pashinin, K.N. Firsov, Temporal structure of an electric
signal produced upon interaction of radiation from a HF
laser
with the bottom surface of a water column Quantum
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Perturbations of Conduction in Liquids by Pulsed LaserGenerated PlasmaIEEE Journal of Quantum electronics,
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enhanced by laser ablation in water-methanol mixture
containg titanium(IV) oxide and graphite silica",catalysis
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Methanol/water photo-splitting in TiO2 including Pd
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water splitting using laser induced photo-catalysis over
Fe2O3."Applied catalysis A; genral 286(2004) 159-167.
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water, J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. B 8, pp. 337345, (1991).
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Bari, Italy (2007).
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Larsen,a Michael Sarahan,a Nigel D. Browningb and
Frank E. Osterloh;First demonstration of CdSe as a
photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution from water under
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Juodkazis1,6,
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JuodkazytPhotoelectrolysis of water:Solar hydrogen

achievements and perspectives Optical Society of


America(2010).
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matter 44(2001)1709-1712.
[17] T. Hanawa, Z-ray Spectrometric Analysis of Carbon Arc
products in Water, Proc. ICCF-8, Italy, 147, (2000).
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T. Nyui and T.
Ushirozawa, Analysis By Time-OfFlight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy For Nuclear
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(2009).

116

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Optimization and Application of Hybrid Sustainable


Energy Systems
M. Nagrial, K. Mitchell, J. Rizk
Power Conversion and Intelligent Motion Control Research Group
University of Western Sydney
Locked Bag 1797, Penrith South DC
AUSTRALIA
Email: m.nagrial@uws.edu.au
Abstract- This paper shows that to achieve grid level of
reliability with wind solar and storage units alone is
impossibly expensive so practical designs have always
incorporated standby generation of some sort or other.
This paper describes a simulation technique that
enables a cost minimal, balanced hybrid system design.
Index Terms- Hybrid Energy Systems, Sustainable
Energy Systems, Renewable Energy

I. INTRODUCTION
Renewable energy systems are still much more expensive
than traditional grid connected power, except in remote
areas. Thus it is important that designs be optimised to
achieve the least delivered energy cost over a lifetime of
20 years or so. Many researchers
have discussed
optimisation of renewable energy systems involving wind,
solar, storage and standby engine components [1-12]. The
optimisation process is achieved by developing probability
density functions (pdfs) for the load, solar and wind
outputs. Whilst mathematically correct, the drawback in
these earlier works was the requirement to have precise
hourly records of wind and solar outputs at a site near
where the system was to be installed. Such records rarely
exist at many sites, although more general records, based
on daily data are available. In this work, a different
approach involving simulation has been adopted to solve
these difficulties.
A renewable energy system (RES) model has been set up
that uses actual wind, solar and load data available over a
3-year period. The advantage of the modelling approach is
that the impact of varying the main design parameters such
as wind, solar and storage capacity on system availability
can be readily determined and for a given performance
outcome, the mix of wind, solar and storage capacities that
gives the optimum cost can also be determined
experimentally. A further advantage is that the inherent
relationships between system loading and wind and solar
outputs are not compromised.
The main disadvantage of the simulation approach is that
ideally, many simulation runs should be performed to

ensure that the top 1% of the tails of the distributions


would be adequately covered, as it is these tails that
determine system reliability.

II. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM MODEL


The RES model used contained wind, solar, energy
storage, AC-DC conversion, and local (AC) load
components. The wind energy conversion system and the
solar panels provided the renewable energy inputs and
batteries the energy storage. The modelling covered standalone conditions, with and without back up generation.
The model, named Renewable System Simulator, is set
up on an Excel spreadsheet with embedded Visual Basic
macros. The model takes load, wind and solar data, and
hourly load patterns. The model is set up to do three
separate 28-day simulation runs in each system study, this
being geared to available data. However, there is nothing
inherent in the software that would prevent multiple runs
of arbitrary length being analysed.
In this study, three simulation runs were chosen as this
allows the main seasonal variations to be modelled in the
system in a single study in Sydney, as the regions annual
wind/solar patterns seem to best fit a three-season, rather
than the traditional four-season year. Readily available
meteorological data is used. Wind or especially solar
insolation data is rarely available in hourly levels, so
pseudo-hourly data has had to be constructed for the
analysis.
A.Wind Data
Weather data was obtained from the Australian Bureau of
Meteorology in a standard format, which included total
bright sunshine hours, and eight sets of 3-hourly average
wind speeds and directions. In the model, the 3-hour wind
data was approximated to one-hour data by assuming it
remained constant for the full 3 hours. Average 3-hourly
wind speeds for the western Sydney area for the study
period are shown in figure 1.
From the wind speed data, wind turbine output is
calculated from the turbine speed-power characteristic, i.e.

117

Vw < Vcutin: Pwr = 0


Vcutin Vw < Vrated : Pwr =

C. Equations
The empirical formula used to generate the pseudo-hourly
solar distributions from the BSS Hours data is listed
below.
It is a reasonable assumption to take the beam or direct
radiation as a proxy for bright sunshine.

P _ rated[(Vw Vcutin) /(Vrated Vcutin)].

Vrated Vw < Vshut down : Pwr = P _ rated


Vw Vshut down : Pwr = 0
(1)
where
Power = the power output of the wind turbine,
Vw = the wind speed, assumed constant for the
hour,
P_rated = the nominal rated power of the turbine,
V cutin = the cut-in speed of the turbine,
V rated = the rated speed of the turbine,
V shut-down = the shut-down speed of the turbine.

hours * 1.1* Noon_panel_radiation

Oct

Diff_daily_energy = Month_peak_equivalent
hours * 0.2* Noon_radiation
Panel_factor = Panel peak output at 1,000 W/m2
(in kW)

20.00

Jan

15.00

0.00
3-6 6-9 9-12 1215

1518

1821

2124

<1

Hours

45

5.00

July

Oct

35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
23

10.00

April

12
-1
3

25.00

10
-1
1

30.00

0-3

Month_peak_equivalent

89

July

67

April

Beam_daily_energy

Percentiles

Avg 3-Hr Speed, km/hr

Jan

= Panel_factor * [BSS_hours *
Total_energy j
Beam_daily_energy/Total_day_hours
+
Diff_hours
*
Diff_daily_energy
/
Total_day_hours]
Energy i,j = Average i * (Total_energy j / Average total)

(2).
Where,

"Bright" Sun Hours

Figure 1: Average 3-Hourly Wind Speeds

B. Solar Data
Detailed hourly solar data for the period of
interest was not available. The most common
form of data is the so-called bright sunshine
hours, the daily total of hours each day during
which the sun is strong enough to burn a trace on
a standard Campbell-Stokes recorder.
While this sort of data can give a good idea of total daily
energy, it is of less direct help to model hourly variations.
However, average beam and diffuse solar radiation levels
by month for a horizontal plane was available for Sydney
in one location. This data was used to develop a
correlation between Daily BSS Hours and hourly
distributions and an empirical relationship was developed,
to create average hourly distributions from the BSS data.
Distributions of total daily bright sunshine hours (BSS)
by season, for the western Sydney area over the study
period are shown in figure 2.

Figure 2: Distribution of Daily Bright Sunshine


Hours
D. Load Data
The load of course varies considerably from user to user.
However, given that the objective is to model typical user
load, data averaged from zone substations in the area
was used. The latter supply typically 10,000-15,000
residential customers (or equivalent) each. A pseudo
single customer daily load cycle can be obtained from this
whole substation, by a pro-rata reduction of total
substation hourly load to the average daily per customer
energy consumption in NSW. Thus, the average load
cycle per customer multiplied by total customers was
equated to the total substation load. Two standard daily
load cycles were adopted: one for summer and the second,
for winter/spring. These were again based on average data
for the zone substations. The substation chosen for the
simulations was in the Glenmore Park area, near Penrith in
western Sydney, where an automatic weather station with
publicly available wind and bright sunshine hours data is
nearby. To derive hourly loading on a day-by-day basis,
118

total zone substation hourly energy was pro-rated based on


the standard load cycles and average daily energy,
according to eqn. 3:
Load i,j = Average i * (Total j / Average total)

(3),
where = the energy (hourly load) for
Load i,j
hour i on day j
= the average load cycle load at
Average i
hour i for that season
= the actual total energy for
Total j
day j
Average total
= the average daily total energy
for that season.

III. SIMULATION
A. No Standby Plant
The first study assumed full renewable energy autonomy,
with no standby at all. Main system parameters (wind,
solar and battery storage capacity) were varied to
determine impact on system availability. The model did
not calculate availability directly, but instead calculates the
minimum BSOC in any 28-day simulation run, this being
an effective proxy. A minimum permissible BSOC of
30% was set.

Battery Min SOC

The worst season will depend on the net effect of wind


and solar inputs and load, and of course, will be very
location specific. In the Sydney area, load is highest in
winter and summer and lowest in spring and autumn; solar
outputs are least in winter and highest in spring/early
summer, as are wind outputs. Thus spring is the season
with greatest excesses of renewable inputs over load,
whilst winter has the least inputs compared to load and is
thus the worst season. In winter, the minimum BSOC
was reached after several days without standby plant. This
was an event wherein a sequence of several days of low
sun and wind output occurs, followed by days of higher
outputs.
Wind, solar and load data was obtained for the period
1997-2000 in the Penrith area of Western Sydney.
B a t t e ry = 2 4

B a t t e ry = 4 8

B a t t e ry = 7 2

B a t t e ry = 9 6

battery storage capacities are summaries in figure 3. The


curves are based on the simulation for spring data, under
full autonomy (i.e. no standby).
The rapidly diminishing benefit of increased wind/solar
module ratings and storage capacity is evident, with a
natural limit of about 90% minimum BSOC displayed
by the kneeing of the curves in figure 4. This relates to
solar and wind capacities of 2kW (or approximately 2 x
peak load) and a storage capacity of 50kWh, or
approximately 2.5 average daily energy. This point
however gives system reliability (strictly speaking,
availability) well below grid reliability standards. Thus
any practical RES must have standby plant to be at all cost
optimal. As a comment on seasonality, with the same
model, for simulation runs on summer and spring data
resulted in the minimum BSOC is about 85%.
It is also interesting to note that (at least in the Sydney
region), the energy input from a solar panel with the same
nominal peak rating as a wind turbine will produce about
50% more energy. The results for optimum sizing are
shown in table 1, for the simulation run for spring in the
Full Autonomy study.
Table 1: Optimum Sizing Spring (no Backup Plant)
Wind (W)
2000
2000
2000
Solar (W)
1500
2000
2500
Battery (kWh)
120
48
48
Min BSOC %
66.56
66.72
76.03
Cost ($)
38,630
35,612
40,235
In the case of the system modelled, with average daily
energy usage of 17 kWh and average daily peak of 1.5
kW, the optimum costs for a satisfactory (minimum BSOC
> 60%) performance for spring was with peak ratings of
1500 W and 2000 W in the solar and wind modules,
respectively and an energy storage of 72 kWh (about 4
days). To be completely autonomous through winter
required peak ratings of 3000 W in both the solar and wind
modules, respectively and energy storage of 192 kWh.
System cost was $76,000 at an average energy cost of
$0.70 per kWh over 20 years. The increase is quite
remarkable and highlights the cost issue of attempting to
design fully autonomous systems.

B. With Standby Plant

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

1000

2000

3000

4000

S o l a r C a p a c i ty - W

Figure 3: Minimum BSOC for Various Combinations of


Wind, Solar and Storage Capacities
The results of the modelling under varying wind, solar and

The second study was a repeat of the first but this time it
was assumed standby plant was available. Standby avoids
system unavailability (aside from component failures), but
can result in wastage of the renewable energy resource, if
the standby plant is switched in to recharge batteries only
to be immediately followed by excess wind or solar inputs
(see spilt energy, sect 3.3).
With stand-by plant, energy input occurs when BSOC falls
below a permissible minimum. The immediate design
impact is to allow smaller wind/solar capacities and energy
storage. The stand-by engine in these studies was rated at
2000W. The same simulation as before was used, thus the
119

same weather load data applied; the only difference


between the two simulations being the presence of the
standby plant. With the same system, the minimum BSOC
for simulation runs in summer and spring data was about
85%. The results are identical whether with standby or no
standby, the reason being that there is so much available
renewable energy in spring and summer that standby plant
is never required in those seasons.
Including the cost of the standby plant and fuel, the
optimum cost is obtained when allowing some standby
operation at most times during winter. The optimum
sizing, using a fuel cost of $0.30 per kWh was with
capacities of 500 W, 1000 W and 24 kWh for the wind,
solar and energy storage modules. This is considerably
smaller than with no standby plant allowing for an overall
cost reduction. The effect is shown in table 2, where the
lowest system cost was $40,000 at an average energy cost
of $0.39 per kWh over 20 years.
Table 2: Optimum Sizing with Back-up Plant
Wind (W)
1000
500
500
Solar (W)
1000
1000
500
Battery (kWh)
24
24
24
Min BSOC %
30
30
30
Cost ($)
40,000
39,400
41,700
This reinforces the fact that for a practical system, some
standby power must be included to meet needs of a realsized house in all seasons in a mid latitude climate.

C. Standby Plant with a Predictive Controller


The model allows the use of both standard set point and
predictive controllers as regards switching of stand-by
plant. This is related to the phenomenon of spilt energy.
Stand-by engines are best run continuously at full throttle
once switched on, for engine life and fuel efficiency
maximisation. With a set-point controller under this
regime, the battery would be allowed to charge up to 100%
state of charge (or some other predetermined value). If a
day with high solar/wind inputs should follow a stand-by
charging run, the renewable energy input is wasted, as the
batteries are already at 100% BSOC, and is spilt. This of
course represents wasted money and excess expensive
imported standby energy. The mechanism is shown in
figure 4.
Load, BSOC

For high load days, or low solar/wind input days, the


battery will not receive enough energy and will
progressively discharge over days. In these cases the
stand-by plant will come in on-line (SB), which shows
the case where a day of low inputs is followed by a day of
high inputs. The plant will normally be run at full power
until the battery reaches full BSOC and the stand-by plant
will cut out. If a day of relatively high renewable energy
input should follow, this free energy will be wasted, as
the battery storage is already full. The cross-hatching
shows the resulting spilt energy.
It was found that reduction of the cut out point from 100%
to about 85% BSOC reduced spilt and standby energy, as
more energy buffer is available. Reducing the cut-out
point below this figure does not assist any further however,
and in the case of a much lower cut-out point (e.g. < 70%),
stand-by energy begins to increase, as more switching of
the standby plant is required. One method to further
reduce the standby and spilt energy is to replace a simple
set-point controller with an intelligent one that attempts
to predict incoming wind and solar energy.
A number of papers have been written on this subject, e.g.
Wichert et al [3] wherein solar input was predicted, based
on clear sunny conditions, and various short-term windforecasting algorithms have been developed. The latter
require considerable computing power whereas what is
desired for small standalone systems is a simple, cheap
controller. The predictive controller modelled in this
study uses seasonal average daily load, solar and wind
energy flows to pre-determine what amount of renewable
energy could be expected at any hour of the day for
average conditions. This energy is subtracted from 100%
to determine a recommended cut out BSOC point below
100%.
The method of determining the expected renewable inputs
at any time of day is shown in figure 5. The maximum
amount of input energy to allow for is the maximum
positive net energy that will occur at any hour ahead
during the next 24 hours.
Load
B

Spilt Energy
BSOC

SB
L
W
MN

Noon
Low inputs

MN

S
Noon MN
High inputs

Figure 4: Daily Energy Flows Low Net Inputs

MN

A
Noon

L
NE
W
Hour
MN

Figure 5: Determination of Expected Inputs


This can be net input, e.g. shaded area A on the net
energy curve NE when looking head from hour i (B-B),
120

or a net load, when at other times. When at hour i, the


maximum expected over the next few hours is positive, so
the battery charging cut-out BSOC will be discounted from
100% by this amount of energy (A), to avoid spilling.

REFERENCES
[1].

The algorithm is, at hour i:


(3.6)
(Expected input) i = Max {24 1i (Net load) i}
(Cut-out SOC %) i = 100 Factor * (Expected input) i
(3.7)
The variable Factor allows for high input days where
energy will exceed averages. Such variation will be driven
by the net energy probability distribution, which is the
convolution of the load, wind and solar energy
distributions. The optimum value of Factor has been
found to be 25% by experiment rather than by theoretical
means. The predictive routine is compared to a set-point
controller for the same load, wind and solar data. Savings
of up to 15% can be observed, depending on days of
storage, as shown in table 3. Savings decrease as storage
capacity increases, owing to the larger buffer and
disappears after about 3 days storage.

[2].

[3].
[4].
[5].

[6].

[7].

Table 3 System Imported Energy, kW (28 days)


Storage
Set-point
100%
Predictive
% Savings

1 day 1.5 days


249
223

2 days
199

3 days
187

206
17

188
5.5

186
0.5

197
12

[8].

[9].

IV. CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions can be drawn from the present
study. The system minimum BSOC and hence availability
generally increases with increasing wind/solar capacity
and energy storage. A certain minimum wind/solar output
are needed to satisfy long-term average load, regardless of
storage. A certain minimum storage is needed to satisfy
short-term output deficiencies, regardless of capacities,
because near-zero output days (windless, cloudy) do occur,
usually as a sequence. The system behaviour is related to
wind/solar/load probability distributions and is very
location specific. Increasing energy storage or wind/solar
device outputs above the natural levels does little to
improve system availability, suggesting that there are
natural limits to system availability. The long tails of the
PDFs mean that very high levels of availability are
uneconomic and therefore stand-by plant will always be
imperative in a sensible design. A Predictive controller
in RESs can reduce the amount of split energy and
hence standby power drawn by about 15%.

[10].
[11].

[12].

Borowy S. B. and Z M Salameh, Methodology for


Optimally Sizing the Combination of a Battery Bank and
PV Array in a Hybrid Wind/PV System, IEEE
Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol 11, No 2, (June
1996)
Abouzahr and R. Ramakumar Loss of Power Supply
Probability of Stand-alone Wind Electric Conversion
Systems, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol
5, No 3, (Sep 1990)
Wichert B. ; W. Lawrance and T. Friese First
Experiences with a Novel Predictive Control Strategy for
PV-Diesel Hybrid Energy Systems, Solar99 (1999)
Mitchell K. Optimisation of the applications of
Sustainable Energy Systems Ph.D. Thesis,
UWS
2005
Mitchell K., Nagrial M, Rizk J, 2005, Simulation and
optimisation of renewable energy systems, International
Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol 27, pp
177-188,
Bialasiewicz J.T. and E. Muljadi; Analysis of
Renewable-Energy Systems Using RPM-SIM Simulator
IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, Volume 53, No.
4, pp.:1137 1143, June 2006
Deshmukh, M.K. and S.S. Deshmukh Modeling of
Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems Renewable and
Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 12, Issue 1,
January 2008, pp. 235-249
Li-qun Liu, Zhi-xin Wang The development and
application practice of wind-solar energy hybrid
generation systems in China Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews, Volume 13, Issues 6-7, AugustSeptember 2009, Pages 1504-1512
Jos
L.
Bernal-Agustn,
Rodolfo
Dufo-Lpez
Simulation and optimization of stand-alone hybrid
renewable energy systems Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews, Volume 13, Issue 8, October 2009,
Pages 2111-2118
Nain H. Afgan, Maria G. Carvalho Sustainability
assessment of a hybrid energy system Energy Policy,
Volume 36, Issue 8, August 2008, Pages 2903-2910
Pragya Nema, R.K. Nema, Saroj Rangnekar A current
and future state of art development of hybrid energy
system using wind and PV-solar: A review Renewable
and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 13, Issue 8,
October 2009, Pages 2096-2103
Jose
L.
Bernal-Agustin,
Rodolfo
Dufo-Lopez
Simulation and optimization of stand-alone hybrid
renewable energy systems Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews, Volume 13, Issue 8, October 2009,
Pages 2111-2118

121

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Performance of HTV SiR as Outdoor Insulation at


High Altitudes
Muhammad Amin and Nazir Muhammad,
Department of Electrical Engineering
Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt Pakistan
prof_amin01@yahoo.com
Abstract The Polymeric Insulators are
becoming popular in Electrical power systems as
outdoor insulation because of many advantages
over old ceramic insulators, but being partially
organic in nature are degraded by environmental
effects, so their age has to be estimated in any
environment before use. In order to see their
application in Pakistan the effect of UV
Radiations and pressure on HTV-SIR used as
outdoor insulation was studied by performing an
experiments by applying UV radiations and
pressure in a cubical box 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm
and a transparent vacuum chamber of 18 cm
diameter and 20 cm length. The degraded samples
were analyzed using sophisticated material testing
techniques like Visual observations, ATR_FTIR,
SEM and Hydrophobicity.. At lower pressure the
degradation of the samples increases. The
material tested was HTV-SIR containing silica
and ATH in the form of plate only and HTV
SiR Rod without ATH and without filler surface
treatment. The material HTV-SiR containing
silica and ATH was found to be superior at low
pressures and in polluted environment.
Keywords Degradation, Polymeric Insulators,

UV- radiation, FTIR, Hydrophobicity


XVI.

INTRODUCTION
The research in this paper particularly focuses on
performance prediction of polymeric insulators in the
mountainous areas. This is a pioneering work and first of
its kind ever conducted to relate aging of polymeric
insulator at high- altitude low-pressure conditions. The
typical combination of stress present in such areas is
strong UV light and low pressure [1]. The colder
environment at a higher altitude makes the effect of heat
on aging as irrelevant. Accordingly, in this study lowpressure and low temperature was maintained along with
a combination of UV light intensities representing day

and night conditions. The material investigated was


HTV-SiR with Silica & ATH. In this way a study was
carried out to investigate the effect of atmosphere on
insulators installed on transmission lines at high-altitude
in mountainous regions.
Variation of atmospheric pressure in Pakistan is from
55.3 cm of Hg at an altitude of 2590 m to 74.6 cm of Hg
at an altitude of 152 m [2, 3].
The intensity of UV Radiation increases 4% for every
1000 feet increase in height [4, 5].
From this we conclude that UV radiation intensity at
height of 2590 meter will be 30.8 % more than its
intensity on the earth in a region. In Pakistan the average
UV intensity in winter is 1.175 mW/cm2 & 1.875
mW/cm2 in summer [6, 7]. So the UV intensity at height
of 2590 meter will be 1.53 mW/cm2 in winter and 2.45
2

mW/cm2 in summer. An intensity of 4.9 mW/cm was


used, twice than actual for simulating a worst condition.
Temperature decreases 5.5oC for every 1000 meters and
pressure falls to 75% at height of 2500 meter to its value
near the surface of earth. [8]. The average winter
temperature in Pakistan is 20oC and 40oC in summer so
these values will be 15.5oC for winter and 35.6oC for
summer at height of 2590 meter. The average
temperature at 2590 m of 25.6oC was used
XVII.

EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENT

The study was conducted using a transparent glass


vacuum chamber of 18 cm diameter 20 cm height and a
cubical box of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm. The UV
radiations were applied by fitting UV lamps on three
sides of cubical box. The Experimental setup is shown in
Fig. 1(a) & (b).

122

Degradation of a Sample as a Function of


Electric Stress

% Change in Absorption

Fig. 1(a) Experimental setup.

0
-2

30

35

40

45

50

55

-4
-6
-8
-10
-12
Electric Stress(mm/kV)

Fig. 2 Degradation of sample as a function of electric stress.


It is clear from Fig.2 that the samples have shown large
degradation at stresses of 35 mm / kV and 50 mm / kV, while
at 40 mm / kV and 45 mm / kV, almost no degradation
occurred. This indicates that there might be an optimum value
of electric stress for a specific material under specific
environmental conditions. For the material under investigation
it is between 40 - 45 mm / kV. It seems that electric stress and
UV radiation has negative degradation while low pressure has
positive
degradation.
Similar
moisture-temperature
equivalence exists on physical aging of polymers [14].
The FTIR results of fifth sample are shown in Table 2

Fig. 1(b) Experimental Set up


(Effect of
varying electric stress, UV radiation and clear
sunshine at a pressure of 50 cm of Hg.)

The first four samples (plates) were placed in a vacuum


chamber which was placed inside the cubical box. The fifth
sample was placed in another vacuum chamber which was
placed in a clear sunshine as shown in Table 3.
Table 1 . (Effect of varying electric stress, UV radiations and
clear sunshine at a pressure of 50 cm of Hg)
No.
of
sa
mp
les

Size
of
sam
ple
(cm2
)

Elec
tric
stre
ss
(m
m/k
V)

4x4

35

4x4

40

4x4

45

4x4

50

4x4

Dur
atio
n
(day
s)

Press
ure
(cm
of
Hg)

Tempera
ture
inside
vacuum
chamber
(oC)

UV
radiat
ion
intensi
ty
(mW/
cm2)

50

25.5

3.75

60
125

Some of the FTIR results are shown in Fig. 2.

Sunshin
e

Table 2 Degradation of 5th Sample at a pressure of 50 cm Hg.


Sample exposure
(days)

Absorption
ratio

Change in absorption
ratio
(%)

Original (0)

0.92

70

0.92

95

0.92

-0.58

125

0.92

It is clear from Table 2 that the samples have shown no


degradation which implies that the low pressure of 50 cm of
Hg has no effect on material degradation. The four samples
under energized conditions have shown some degradation
which seems to be due to electric stress.
The results of hydrophobicity of the samples were measured
after 60 days. These were kept in vacuum chamber at a
pressure of 50 cm of Hg, temperature of 26C and UV
radiation of 3.75 mW/cm2. The hydrophobicity was found by
liquid drop method and the results are shown in Fig. 3

123

degradation occurred at 40 mm/kV and 45 mm/kV, the contact


angles are found in accordance with the FTIR results.
The hydrophobicity of sample 5 is shown in Fig. 4. The STRI
hydrophobicity classification was used to determine the
surface hydrophobicity of samples [11, 15].
The sample has shown no degradation and is obviously in
class HC1.
Angle 60.670

Angle 59.160

Original (Contact Angle 120.085 0 )

Angle 64.650
Angle 67.830
(a) 35 mm/kV (Contact Angle 113.760 )

Fig. 4 Hydrophobicity of sample 5 after 125 day.


The results of FTIR and hydrophobicity classification match
with each other.
SEM used was a high vaccum SEM (SEM JSM 6460
Resolution 3Nm, Magnification 300,000 times, JEOL Japan).

Angle 60.790
Angle 60.750
(b) 40 mm/kV (Contact Angle 119.23)

Angle 65.750

Angle 60.660

(c) 45 mm/kV (Contact Angle 116.795 0)

SEM micrographs of samples at different magnifications,


200x (1cm =100 m), 500x
(1 cm = 50 m) and 800x
(1cm = 20 m) are shown in Fig. 5 for samples at 35 mm /
kV, 40 mm / kV and 45 mm / kV. It is clear that the surface
has become rough but no crack was observed. However, the
surface morphology (shape, size and the arrangement of the
particles on surface of the sample) appears to change with
stress. It was also noted that surface becomes rough and the
filler dispersion more non-homogeneous with the increase in
stress. The surface integration is increasing with more lumped
particles with the increase in stress. Although the surface
roughness as compared to virgin is increased, but this increase
is not so much as to adversely affect the hydrophobicity.

Angle 61.310
Angle 67.890
(d) 50 mm/kV (Contact Angle 115.40
Fig. 3 Contact Angles of samples
As shown by the FTIR results, the maximum degradation
occurred at 35 mm/kV and 50 mm/kV and almost no

124

supported by the corresponding changes in either leakage


current or FTIR- peak heights. In another study by Raji
Sundararajan et al in which higher leakage current activity
was supporting the SEM results while FTIR study results and
STRI hydrophobicity classification were on the contrary[19].
Co-relation of simple slab with actual Insulators

200x

500x
(a) original

800x

For all the experiments conducted in this work, simple plates


were used because of the size of the vacuum chamber. The
author has conducted large number of experiments in the field
and laboratory in which plate, rod and actual insulators were
used. In all the experiments conducted, it was found that
maximum degradation occurs in plate, then the rod and finally
insulator degrades minimum [20]. So we conclude that under
the simulated conditions, the performance of insulator will be
better than the plate.

CONCLUSIONS
200x

200x

500x
(b) 35 mm/kV

500x
(c) 40 mm/kV

800x
The effect of UV radiation at low atmospheric pressure of 50
cm of Hg is a bit more than at 72.2 cm of Hg. However, from
the results it may be concluded that low pressure of 50 cm of
Hg has no appreciable effect on the degradation of HTV SiR
with Silica and ATH. It appears therefore, that from aging
perspective, this material may be quite suitable for highaltitude applications.

800x

Effect of low pressure on degradation of HTV without


silicone and without filler surface treatment is quite
pronounced. The maximum degradation of a plate (-15.4 % )
occurred in a week. The effect of low pressure in the presence
of electric stress is slightly higher
(-15.7 %).

REFERENCES

200x

500x
(d) 45 mm/kV

800x

Fig. 5 SEM photos


As compared to the original, as the stress increases from 35
mm/kV to 45 mm/kV, the roughness increase which does not
match with the results of FTIR, leading thereby to the
conclusion that roughness may increase without actual
degradation. Such types of apparently contradicting results
have been reported by other researchers studying silicone
rubber [18, 19] where significant morphology changes were
observed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) but the same was not

[1] T. Kawamura, M. Ishii, M. Akbar and K. Nagai, Pressure


dependence of DC breakdown of contaminated
insulator, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation,
Vol. EI-17, No.1, February 1982.
[2]
Pakistan
Meteorological
Department
http://www.met.gov.pk/
[3]
M.A.R Manjula Fernando Performance of nonceramic insulators in tropical environments Thesis
Ph.D, Department of Electrical Power Engineering,
Chalmers University of Technology, Gotenborg,
Sweden 1999.
[4] Ohio State University fact sheet on food, agriculture and
bio engineering
http://ohioline.osu.edu/cd-fact/0199.html
[5] UV index forecast bulletin. Hong Kong Observatory.
www.hko.gov.hk/wxinfo/uvfcst/uvfcst.htm
[6]

http://www.csgnetwork.com/uvindexcalc.html

125

[7] http://www.epa.gov/sunwise/uvindex.html
[8]

Introduction to Mountain Regions, online report


presented by: Dr Kristie L Ebi, Mr B Mukhopaday,
India Metrological Department, on behalf of the World
Meteorological Organization.

Burnham, Jeff, Guideline for visual identification of


damaged
polymer
insulators,
Transmission
department, Juno Beach, November 1998.
[10] Guideline for visual identification of deterioration and
damages on suspension composite insulators, STRI
Guide 5, 2003.
[11] J.W. Chang and R.S. Gorur, The role of backbone chain
rotation in the hydrophobicity recovery of polymeric
materials for outdoor insulation, Proc. IEEE Int.
conference on conduction and breakdown in solid
dielectric, pp. 270-275, 1992.
[12] Muhammad Amin and Muhammad Akbar, Affect of
UV-radiations on heavily polluted / unpolluted
polymeric insulators Proceedings of 2nd IEEE
International Conference on Emerging Technologies,
(ICET), Peshawar, Pakistan, November 13-14, 2006.
[13] Bernstorf, R. Allen; Niedermier, Randall k.; Winkler,
David S.: Polymer Compounds Used in high voltage
insulators, EU 1407-HR1, Hubbell Power Systems,
Ohio Brass Company, pp. 8-10.
[14] Huiwen Hu and C. T.Sun, Moisture- Temperature
Equivalence in Physical Aging of polymeric

[15]
[16]

[9]

[17]

[18]

[19]

[20]

composites 42nd AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC


structures , structural dynamics , and materials
conference and exhibit ( Seattle, A 16-19 April 2001).
pp 1-7.
Hydrophobicity Classification, STRI Guide 92/1.
E. Sherif and C. Andreasson , Results from long term
tests with long rod composite insulators exposed to
natural pollution.(Publisher: - NordIS 84, paper No.
10, 1984.)
Matsuoka R; Naito, K.; Irie, T.; Kondo, K.; In:
Evaluation methods of polymer insulators under
contaminated conditions
Transmission and
Distribution Conference and Exhibition 2002: Asia
Pacific. IEEE/PES, Volume 3, 6-10 Oct. 2002
Page(s):2197 2202.
H. M. Schnieder, W. W. Guidi, J.T Burrnham, R. S.
Gorur and J. F. Hall, Accelerated aging and flashover
tests on 138 kV non-ceramic line post insulator IEEE
Trans, Power Del, Vol, 8, pp. 325-336, 1993.
Raji Sundararajan , Esaki Soundarajan , Areef
Muhammad and Jason Graves,Multi stress accelerated
aging of polymeric housed surge arresters under
simulated coastal Florida conditions,
IEEE
Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation,
Vol . 13, No. 1, pp. 211-226, February 2006.
Muhammad Amin, Aging Investigation of Polymeric
Insulators PhD thesis, UET, Taxila Pakistan May
2007.

126

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Production of Biodiesel from Melia Azedarach Seed Oil: A NonEdible Feedstock for Biodiesel
Taslim Akhtar, Muhammad Ilyas Tariq and Shahid Iqbal Ranaa
Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha
E-mail: taslim_chemist@yahoo.com
E-mail: tariqmi2000@yahoo.com
E-mail: ranashahid313@gmail.com

Abstract
Biodiesel (BD) is a first-generation biofuel that has emerged as a renewable alternative diesel fuel, obtained by the
transesterification of vegetable oils and animals fats, using a short-chain alcohol and a catalyst that may be an acid, a base or an
enzyme. BD can be used in the existing compression-ignition engines without any further modification. Presently, most of the
BD production is being carried out using edible vegetable oil which has put a strain on the food supply and, hence, has led it
into a competition with the food industry. It has also resulted in a rise in the prices of such feed stocks. Hence, search for the
newer and non-edible feed stocks is becoming increasingly important. The objective of the present work is to explore the utility
of Melia azedarach seed oil, a non-edible feedstock, for the preparation of BD. The oil was extracted by using n-hexane as a
solvent and a oil content of 32% was obtained. As a result of transesterification using sodium hydroxide and methanol, 80%
conversion of the oil into BD was obtained. Fatty acid profile of the oil and the BD were found to be almost the same. Different
fuel properties of the BD prepared were studied including viscosity, iodine number, acid number, cold point and cetane number,
and the values obtained are 4.7, 112, 0.45mg KOH/g, < -10oC and 45, respectively. Although the oxidation stability is less than
the required standard value by EN 14214, but it can be enhanced by introducing some additives into the final product. Other
properties were found to be in agreement with the required specifications for BD by EN 14214, hence Melia azedarach seed oil
is a suitable non-edible feedstock for the production of BD.

Key words: Biodiesel, Transesterification, Melia azedarach, Vegetable oil


I.

INTRODUCTION

Biodiesel (BD) is a first-generation biofuel that has emerged as a renewable alternative diesel fuel, obtained from vegetable
oils and animal fats. Chemically, BD is obtained by the transesterification of oils and fats by using a short-chain alcohol and a
catalyst that may be an acid, a base or an enzyme, as shown in fig. 1 [1].
BD has been found to be a simple and suitable alternative of the conventional diesel fuel in the light the research
carried out in last three decades that can be used in the existing compression-ignition engines without any further modification
[2]. BD is an environment-friendly fuel that bears a number of advantages over the fossil-based diesel fuel. Firstly, it is a
renewable fuel as it is produced from renewable source. Secondly, it possesses a higher oxygen content and lower sulphur
content than that of petroleum diesel, as a result of which it shows reduced emission of different pollutants like particulate
matter, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide etc. In addition to this, it is non-toxic as well as biodegradable [3]. Fuel properties of
BD, on the other hand are similar and in some cases better than those of petroleum diesel, e.g., density, viscosity, cetane
number, flash point etc. A rapid increase in the production of BD has been seen in last few years due to the concerns like overriding use of the diesel fuel, followed by its depletion [4] and a corresponding increase in the prices of petroleum products.
Various kinds of feed stocks have been utilized for the synthesis of BD so far like vegetable oils (for example soybean,
canola/rapeseed, sunflower, corn, jatropha, palm etc.), animal fats (for example lard, fish oil etc.) and yellow grease. According
to an estimate, the cost of BD production gets its major share from the cost of its feedstock, with the rest of it being dependent
on the synthesis and refining procedures adopted [3].

127

Fig.1. Transesterification of vegetable oil into mono- alkyl esters


(biodiesel)
The cost of the feedstock, on the other hand, depends upon its abundance and availability.
At present, most of the BD production is being carried out using edible vegetable oil which has put a strain on the food
supply/economy and, hence, has led it into a competition with the food industry. An obvious result of this situation is a rise in
the prices of such feed stocks/oil sources [5,6].
Keeping this situation in mind as well as the demand for the rapid and excessive BD production in order to confront the
increasing energy crisis, search for the newer and non-edible feed stocks is becoming increasingly important [4]. Finding such
feed stocks would help to overcome the production cost of BD as well as to lessen the strain on the food-value oilseed-crops
especially for the oil-importing countries like Pakistan, where the domestic oil production is already far less than that of the
required level.
Various studies have been carried out in this regard for evaluating the use of different non-edible oils for the
production of biodiesel like castor oil, jatropha oil, linseed oil, neem oil, pongamia oil, rice bran oil and many others [1].
Melia azedarach L., commonly known as chinaberry, bakain or umbrella tree, is an ornamental tree that belongs to
meliaceae family [7-10]. It is seen commonly growing on the roadsides, near dwellings, open areas, marginal lands etc. both on
dry as well as alkaline soil and is able to grow easily in the disturbed areas [11]. Although it grows wild and abundant in the
sub-himalayan tract but is also cultivated for both medicinal and ornamental purpose in Pakistan as well as India [9,12]. Like
those of neem tree, various parts of the chinaberry tree, like leaves, flowers, fruits and bark, are reputed to have therapeutic
value [9], as they are used for curing different skin disorders that include ulcerative wounds, syphilitic ulcers, leprosy, eczema,
scrofula etc. [10,12]. Although neem, that is also a member of the same family, has often been studied as a feedstock for
producing biodiesel [1], Melia azedarach has not been given attention in this regard.
The objective of the present work is to explore the utility of Melia azedarach oil, a non-edible feedstock, for the
preparation of BD, and to determine important fuel properties of Melia azedarach methyl esters.
II.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

A. Materials and Reagents


M. azedarach seeds were collected from the lawns of the University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan. n-hexane and
methanol were purchased from LAB-SCAN Analytical sciences (Dublin, Ireland), sodium and potassium hydroxides, sodium
thiosulphate and anhydrous magnesium sulphate were procured from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany) while glyceryl tripalmitate,
glyceryl tristearate, glyceryl trioleate and glyceryl trilaurate (all 99%) were purchased from Fluka (Steinheim, Germany). The
solvents that were of analytical grade were used without further purification.
B. Extraction of the oil
The M. azedarach seeds were cleaned, dried and crushed manually to separate the seed kernals. Oil was extracted using a
soxhlet apparatus by employing n-hexane as a solvent (10hr). The hexane extract was then filtered and solvent was evaporated
using a rotary evaporator. The M. azedarach seed oil was then degummed by using deionized water. This oil was then used for
further processing.
C. Biodiesel production
Freshly obtained oil was heated up to 60oC in a round bottom flask and specific amount of methanol and sodium hydroxide
was added in it and it was refluxed for 1hr, along with stirring at 600rpm. After this the resulting mixture was allowed to stand
for a few minutes in a separating funnel in order to separate two layers. The upper layer was that of BD and lower of glycerin.
BD was separated from the lower layer and washed thrice with deionized water in order to purify it from the residual
components and was then dried over magnesium sulphate and then in oven. This was then used for further characterization.
D. Determination of the general properties
Different properties of the BD including density, kinematic viscosity, acid number, cloud point, flash point and cetane
number were determined by using the standard ASTM methods D445, D664, D2500, D93 and D130, respectively.

128

E. Fatty acid profile of oil and BD


The fatty acid profile of the M. azedarach oil and the BD sample was established by the help of a Shimadzu gas
chromatograph, model 17-A, fitted with a flame ionization detector (FID) and a polar capillary column SP-2330 (Supelco, Inc.,
Bellefonte, PA, USA.). The temperature of column was ramped from 180oC-220 oC, at a uniform rate of 5 oC/min., while the
temperature of the injector and detector were maintained at 230 oC and 240 oC, respectively. Sample volume was kept 1.0L that
was injected in a split mode. All the quantitative measurements were made by Chromatography Station for Windows (CSW32)
software. The fatty acid composition was given as a relative percentage of the total peak area.
III.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The oil content of the M. azedarach seeds was found to be about 32%, extracted using n-hexane as solvent, which is in
accordance with that of Shahina et al [ 9]. About 80% conversion of the oil into
TABLE 1
PROPERTIES OF THE BIODIESEL PRODUCED

Property

Biodiesel

Density, 15oC (g/cm3)

EN 14214 limits
0.88

0.860-0.900

Viscosity, 40 oC(cSt)

4.7

3.5-5.0

Acid Value (mg KOH/g)


Iodine Number

0.45

<0.5

112
Oxidation Stability, 110oC(h)

<120

4.8

>6
< -10oC

Cloud Point (oC)

45

Cetane Number

>51

methyl esters was obtained as a result of tranesterification with sodium hydroxide and methanol which shows that nearly
80g of the oil is converted into methyl esters that is BD. Different properties were determined for the characterization of M.
azedarach methyl esters (MAME), and their comparison was made with EN 14214, that establishes the requirements of
biodiesel quality, for its usage in the diesel engines [13].
Cetane number is concerned with the ignition of the BD such that a low value of cetane number shows that the
combustion of the fuel is incomplete. For MAME, the value of cetane number was found to be 52 that is well agreed with its
standard value according to ASTM and EU specifications.
Iodine number determines the level of unsaturation in the fuel that indicate its oxidation stability as well. For MAME,
the iodine number was evaluated to be 104, that is within the upper limit by EN 14214. Similarly, the value of acid number is in
agreement with its required value according to EN14214. T his shows that the BD produced has a low free fatty acid content.
Fatty acid profile of the M. azedarach seed oil as well as the BD produced with it was found to be nearly the same, as
shown in table 2. This indicates that transesterification does not affect the composition of the M. azedarach seed oil and hence
no hydrogenation or isomerization is resulted from it. As shown in the table, the content of mono-unsaturated fatty acid is more
than 69% that shown it to be susceptible to oxidation, but at the same time
TABLE 2
FATTY ACID COMPOSITION (%) OF M. Azedarach SEED OIL
AND ITS BD (MAME)

Fatty acid

M. Azedarach seed oil

MAME

Palmitic acid (C 16:0)

9.54

9.5

Stearic acid (C 18:0)

4.35

4.32

Oliec acid (C18:1)


Linoliec acid (C 18:2)

69.55

69.52

16.53

16.11

129

gives it a suitable value of viscosity as well as required low temperature properties.


IV.

Conclusions

The oil content of M. azedarach seeds makes it a suitable source of BD feedstock, that is also confirmed by the
properties of BD produced from it. Although, higher level of unsaturation makes it susceptible to oxidation, but the problem
can be overcome by mixing some additives into the BD obtained from it [14]. M. azedarach is an oil producing tree whose fruit
goes waste, as it has no other use, being unsuitable for human consumption [10]. Production of BD will help to its disposal in an
economical way.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authers are grateful to PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Lahore, for completion of the characterization studies and
HEC for providing financial support for this project.

REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]

S. P. Singh and D. Singh, Biodiesel production through the use of different sources and characterization of oils and
their esters as the substitute of diesel: a review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 14, pp.200-216,
2010.
D. Ayhan, Biodiesel: a realistic fuel alternative for diesel engine, London: Springer; 2008.
P. T. Vasudevan, B. Fu, Environmentally sustainable biofuels: Advances in biodiesel production, Waste Biomass
Valorization, vol.1, 2010, pp.4763
A. A. Refaat, Different techniques for the production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil, Int. J. Environ. Sci.
Tech., vol. 7 (1), 2010, pp.183-213
D. Pimentel, et al, Food versus biofuels: Environmental and economic costs,
Hum. Eco., vol. 37 (1), 2009, pp. 1-12.
S. Srinivasan, The food v fuel debate: a nuanced view of incentive structures, Renew. Energ., vol. 34 (4), 2009, pp.
950-954.
Indian Medicinal plants, (An illustrated Dictionary), Springer-Verlog, 2007
Z. Rehman, S. Ahmd, S. Qureshi, Y. Rehman, Pakistan J. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 4(2), 1991, pp.153-158
S. Zaka, N. Shakir, Pakistan J. Sci. Ind. Res, vol. 23(1-2), 1980, pp.75-76
Chopra I. C., Indigenous Drugs of India,U. N. Dhar and Sons (Pvt) Ltd, 1958, pp.363
Fact sheet ST-406, A series of Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extention Service,
Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, University of Florida. Publication date: Oct. 1994
S. R. Baquer, Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Pakistan, Printas, Karachi, Pkistan, 1989, pp. 279-80.
UNE-EN 14214, Automotive fuels, fatty acid methyl esters for diesel engines, 2003, Requirements and test
methods.
E. Sendzikiene, V. Makareviciene, P. Janulis,
Oxidation Stability of Biodiesel Fuel Produced from Fatty Wastes, Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol. 14,
3, 2005, pp.335-339

130

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Production of Electricity using Methane Generated from Landfill Site


at Mehmood Booti, Lahore, Pakistan
Adeela Mahjabeen
Environmental Science Department, Kinnaird College for Women
Lahore, Pakistan.
adeelamahjabeen@gmail.com
Abstract The present study was conducted to find out the
potential of municipal solid waste of Lahore to generate
electricity from the methane gas produced during anaerobic
decomposition of rapidly decomposable organic waste fraction
separated from the MSW i.e., food and yard waste. The
objectives of the study were to determine the composition of
waste in order to find out the emission of methane from its
decomposition and to calculate the amount of electricity that can
be generated using this methane. The study was conducted with a
multi-method approach, including direct field observation,
questionnaire-based surveys, and document surveys. The
findings of the study highlight that municipal solid waste of
Lahore, is composed of 28.3% recycleable waste (paper,
tetrapack, textiles, wood and straw, plastic and polythene, glass
and metal, rubber and leather), 32.7% inert material (bricks,
stones and miscellaneous wastes) and 39.4% rapidly
decomposeable organic matter named as compostables (food and
yard wastes). Gas produced during the anaerobic decomposition
of food and yard waste comprises of 51.54% methane and
48.46% carbon dioxide gas. Further calculations reveal that 24
MW electricity could be produced from methane emitted from
Mehmood Booti landfill site. More extensive research and
application of the research work can be very useful to humans as
well as to the environment.
Keywords Electricity, Landfill, Methane, Municipal Solid
Waste, Semi Anaerobic Decomposition.

XVIII. INTRODUCTION
The rapid urbanization and industrialization has brought
about many changes in the quantity and quality of the
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated. As a result, the
management of the MSW needs to be done up, to
accommodate the changes in the quantity and quality to
ensure the longevity of the environment. Inhabitants of the
city need to realize the importance of recycling and reuse,
whereas the city management should rethink the management
style from solely dumping to the recovery of energy from the
waste by incinerating [1].
Municipal solid waste contains significant portions of
organic materials that produce a variety of gaseous products
collectively known as landfill gas. Out of which methane is
the major gas, when dumped, compacted, and covered in
landfills. Anaerobic bacteria thrive in the oxygen-free
environment, resulting in the decomposition of the organic
materials such as cellulose and proteins, and produce
primarily methane and carbon dioxide gases [2]. Carbon
dioxide is likely to leach out of the landfill because it is
soluble in water. Methane, on the other hand, which is less

soluble in water and lighter than air, is likely to migrate out of


the landfill [3].
Landfill gas largely methane is a by-product of
decomposition of municipal solid wastes in landfills [4]. It is
produced when organic materials such as yard waste,
household waste, food waste, and wastes from fruits and
vegetables markets are decomposed by bacteria under semianaerobic conditions (i.e., in the presence of limited supply of
oxygen) [5]. The following table shows the typical
constituents of landfill gas.
TABLE I|
TYPICAL CONSTITUENTS AND COMPOUNDS IN LANDFILL GAS

COMPONENT

PERCENT (DRY VOLUME


BASIS)*

METHANE
CARBON DIOXIDE
NITROGEN
OXYGEN
AMMONIA
SULFIDES, DISULFIDES,
MERCAPTANS,ETC.
HYDROGEN
CARBON MONOXIDE
TRACE CONSTITUENTS

40-60%
40-60%
2-5%
0.1-1.0%
0.1-1.0%
0-0.2%
0-0.2%
0-0.2%
0.01-0.6%

Exact percentage distribution will vary with the age of the landfill.

Landfills provide ideal conditions for methanogenesis, with


lots of organic material present in anaerobic conditions. The
colossal amounts of wastes that are buried in landfill sites can
mean that methane is produced for years even after the site is
closed, due to the waste slowly decaying under the ground [6].
The decomposition is a complex process and requires
certain conditions. Environmental factors that affect the
decomposition include moisture content of the waste, nutrient
concentration,
the
presence
and
distribution
of
microorganisms, the particle size of the waste, water flux, pH,
and temperature. Because of the complex set of conditions
that must occur before landfill gas is generated, waste may be
in place for a year or more before anaerobic decomposition
begins and landfill gas is generated. Refuse in a landfill may
produce landfill gas for 20 to 30 years, with an average of 25
years. On the other hand, aerobic decomposition results in
CO2 and water. Uncontrolled dumps, where waste is exposed
to air, may be subject to aerobic decomposition [2].

131

Methane
M
produuction varies ggreatly from landfill
l
to lanndfill
depending on sitee-specific chaaracteristics such
s
as waste in
placee, waste com
mposition, moiisture contentt, landfill dessign,
operaating practicees, and climaate. Unless caaptured by a gas
recov
very system, methane
m
geneerated by the landfill
l
is emiitted
when
n it migratess through thee landfill co
over. During this
proceess, the soil oxidizes apprroximately teen percent off the
meth
hane generatedd, and the rem
maining 90 percent
p
is emiitted
[5].

FIG. 1 LANDFILL GASS PRODUCTION PA


ATTERN

A shown in Fig. 1, duringg the first phase organic wastes


As
w
deccompose in thhe presence off oxygen. Puttrescible (vegeetable
andd food wastes)) materials deegrade most reeadily, follow
wed by
papper, wood, natural textiles, and rubbeers. This phaase is
chaaracterized byy rising carbon dioxide concentrations
c
s and
risinng waste tempperatures. Thiis phase lasts only a few daays or
weeeks in well-rrun proper landfills.
l
Lanndfills where only
aeroobic decomp
mposition takkes place create
c
a wholly
w
unaacceptable im
mpact on the environment and are the most
unaacceptable typpe of landfill operation.
o
I most landfiills, oxygen iss rapidly depleted during seecond
In
phaase. Anaerobicc bacterial sysstems take over. This phasee may
lastt up to several months at well-run
w
sites. During this period
p
carbbon dioxide concentrations rise to over 70%
7
by volum
me and
carbboxylic acid concentrations
c
s also continuee to increase.
A oxygen deepletion continnues during the
As
t third phasse and
the redox potenttial (Eh) of innterstitial wateers drops to below
b
connditions become suitablee for
appproximately -200mV,
metthanogenic acctivity to devvelop. Over thhe period of a few
weeeks methane concentrationns begin to riise and carbooxylic
acidds decline. Thhis is due to the acetic accid in the leacchates
beinng utilized byy the methanoggens to producce methane, carbon
dioxxide, and watter. In additioon, landfill tem
mperatures ussually
beccome stabilizeed in the mesoophilic range (i.e., up to 40C).
4
Thee methane geenerated must be properly managed to avoid
off--site migrationn.
T fourth phhase representts the most sttable period in
The
i the
deccomposition off waste in conntrolled landfills. It is believved to
persist for at least 15 to 20 yeears in tempeerate climatic areas
m
andd carbon diioxide
andd is charactterized by methane
conncentrations of
o around 65 and 35% reespectively. Lower
L
carbboxylic acid concentrations
c
s in leachates are also obserrved.
W
Waste
decompposition to coompletion in a landfill is noot yet
studdied till the very
v
end. Hoowever, evidennce from verry old
sitees suggests thaat once the avvailable cellullose is used up
u the
metthanogenic microbial
m
activiity, methane and
a carbon diioxide
conncentrations grradually declinne [7].
L
Landfill
emissions are colllected througgh either actiive or
passive collectioon systems. Disposal or treatment of
o the
mplished by the combustion or
colllected gases can be accom
purrification of thhe landfill gas [2].

FIG. 2 LANDFILL GAS CAPTURE, PR


ROCESSING, TREA
ATMENT AND USE
OVERV
VIEW

By
y using emisssions of metthane (a pow
werful greenhoouse
gas) as fuel throuugh the development of laandfill gas eneergy
projeects, (as show
wn in Fig. 2) businesses, states, eneergy
proviiders, and com
mmunities cann protect the environment and
build
d a sustainablle future on oone hand and
d produce elecctric
poweer so much neeeded throughoout the world on the other hand
h
[3]. The recoveryy and use off methane frrom landfills can
signiificantly reduuce the overrall emissionss of greenhoouse
gasess.
Laandfills are thhe largest anthhropogenic so
ource of methhane
in th
he U.S. Therre are a varieety of ways that utilities can
reducce overall em
missions of meethane from landfills.
l
Lanndfill
meth
hane can be coollected by devveloping gas recovery
r
systeems.
Colleected methanee can be used for on-site power generatioon or
pipellined to a nearrby existing ggenerating stattion to be useed as
a fueel for nearby industrial purrposes, or enrriched and solld to
gas pipelines.
p
Cappture and use of landfill meethane as fuell for
electricity generattion are donee through thee developmennt of
ms at the landffill [5].
well fields and colllection system
he World Connservation Unnion (IUCN), in
i a recent repport,
Th
quoteed the Worlld Banks asssessments on
o environmeental
degraadation and pointed out that waste managementt in
Pakisstan is extrem
mely weak. Domestic waste
w
is generrally
dump
ped in open areas,
a
creating numerous problems
p
suchh as
drain
n blockages annd deadly consumption by domestic
d
anim
mals.
Glob
bally, the report said althouggh Pakistans total contribuution
to gllobal greenhouse emissionss is less than
n one percent,, the
impaact of climatee change on the countrys population and

132

economy is much more. The adverse impacts of climate


change are already apparent in the form of increased glacial
melt, prolonged droughts, unusual temperature fluctuations
and precipitation variability. The effects of these phenomena
on food production, water supply, biodiversity, natural
ecosystem and human health threaten the integrity of the
countrys primarily natural resource-based economy [8].
Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a key issue for all
local governments of major cities of Pakistan. As per the
figures collected from SWM sources, around 6,000 tons solid
waste is generated daily in Lahore. Out of it, 35 per cent waste
remains on the roads due to various reasons, including a poor
lifting capacity of the SWM, lack of proper training of the
staff for lifting garbage and absenteeism. Besides, SWM
workers are not properly trained to lift solid waste and
garbage from the city and one can also see the garbage being
burned in and out of skips. Scavengers, beggars and addicts
also search and spread the garbage. [9]
Lahore loses over Rs 500 million rupees every year to
Afghan scavengers picking up garbage from streets and
garbage dumps. About 15,000 Afghan scavengers lift
recyclable waste worth Rs 1.5 million every day. These
scavengers roam around on bicycles mostly in affluent
localities that generate more recyclable materials and throw
these materials alongwith their garbage. [10]
In Lahore the major portion of municipal solid waste,
almost about 1500 tons per day, is dumped at Mehmood Booti
dumping site. The site is located at Mehmood Booti at Bund
road, in Shalimar town, in Lahore district. It occupies an area
of approximately 633 kanals (source: CDGL, official data),
out of which approximately half i.e. 300 kanals is given on
lease of twenty five years since 31st March 2006 to a private
organization called Saif Group to install and operate a wind
row composting facility for 25 year lease. Other half is owned
by CDGL to receive and dump major portion of MSW of
Lahore.
The Punjab Environmental Protection Department (EPD)
conducted a survey in the areas adjacent to the landfill site of
Mehmood Booti, which showed that almost every third person
in a family was suffering from respiratory, abdominal,
stomach or other diseases [9].
The landfill methane generation projects provide an
attractive option for industry and business to locate adjacent to
the landfill and utilize on-site electrical generation and
directly use methane for heating and gas processes rather than
making it a source of air pollution. These opportunities can
help reduce operating costs and reduce overall demand for
utility generated electricity much deficient in our country [1].
Also, methane is a much cleaner resource to use for
electrical generation than coal and other fossil fuels. In
addition, the added electricity being placed into the countrys
power supply reduces the amount of energy that must be
generated from fossil fuel sources to meet electrical demands.
The result is a positive environmental impact on multiple
levels that also helps to diversify the energy supply on
recurring basis for years to come [11].

XIX.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In the present study a multimethod approach including
direct field observation, questionnaire based surveys,
interviews and document survey was used.
Background information about the problem was collected
through document surveys to assess the situation worldwide
and especially in Pakistan. Study area was selected due to its
usage for solid waste disposal from many years and
representative of the composition of MSW produced in
Lahore district. Reconnaissance survey was carried out to
assess its suitability for the current research. Field visits and
Interviews with technical personnel at the site were conducted
throughout the year during the months of Dec 2007 and Nov
2008 at the site. Physical sampling data about the landfill was
collected from the management of Mehmood Booti Landfill
and Lahore Compost Pvt. Ltd. with the help of interviews and
questionnaire based surveys. Moreover, mass balance and
engineering calculations were done for emission estimation. In
the light of the data, statistical calculations and analysis were
done for methane emissions based on solid waste dumped at
the site and possible electricity generation from methane.
Some basic techniques of GIS were also used to create
maps of study area using arc map version 9.0.
XX.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of the study are classified into two categories,
i.e. qualitative and quantitative results.
A. Qualitative Results
The following information was highlighted during
qualitative analysis:
The current scenario of municipal solid waste dumping
practices were described in short.
Flow charts of proposed process by the researcher was
given.
Maps were developed by the researcher to highlight the
location of study area and its characteristics.
3) Operations currently occurring at Mehmood Booti
dumping site as observed by the reseactherg: As the truck
enters into the site, firstly it is weighed to determine the
amount of MSW in the truck. Trucks coming from identified
areas having high organic content in their wastes such as
Wahga, Aziz Bhati, Shalimar, Data Ganj Baksh and Gulberg
towns, are sent to Lahore compost facility and others to the
dumping site owned by CDGL adjacent to it. After receiving
at compost facility, solid waste passes through the composting
process to be converted into compost called Zameen Dost
Khaad. The rest of the solid waste is just dropped at any place
within the premises of CDGL owned Mehmood Booti
dumping site without any placement plan. It is neither
properly shredded nor compacted as for a proper landfill site it
should be. The site has no liner installed beneath it and there
is no mechanism to collect and dispose off leachate coming
out of waste. The leachate either just seeps into the sand
beneath it or oozes out of the heaps of MSW and collects in
the form of small ponds all around the heaps. The site is ugly

133

to see and there are strong odours coming out of constantly


decomposing solid waste, leachate and gases being produced
due to the decomposition. Scavengers, usually small kids or
old age persons just roam about here and there in the site to
collect PET bottles, glass, metal, rubber and other recyclable
materials. They handle the waste just bare handedly and
without any sort of masks or coverings which lead to their
direct contact with toxic compounds and lethal germs. Dogs,
rats and other rodents and insects are also found there in
abundance feeding on MSW, which are another source of
carrying disease causing germs and chemicals and transferring
them to other animals and humans, thus polluting the whole
food chain.

4) Proposed scenario at Mehmood Booti dumping site as


described by the reseactherg: The proposed procedure in this
research work entails anaerobic treatment of MSW (food and
yard waste) to produce organic manure through anaerobic
composting and electricity through methane collection and
combustion in gas turbine. This will result in;
Effective utilization of waste materials for producing
both electricity and organic manure.
The project can bring an overall reduction in
anthropogenic green house gases and can contribute
significantly to reduce the impact of global warming
and thus contribute towards sustainable development.
MSW
Mehmood Booti Dumping Site
Truck Weighing

Waste
Separation

Inert materials

Landfilled at
site

Recyclables

Compostables
(yard and food wastes)
Decomposition in
anaerobic digestor
wells
Landfill gas

CO2

Stripping

Sold to
Market

Compost
(Biodegraded
material)

Packing
facility

CH4
Compressor
Gas turbine

FIG. 3 LOCATION OF STUDY AREA IN LAHORE

Dumping of MSW at this site started in around early 1990s


and since then this site is in use. Now due to ever-increasing
population of Lahore and consequently increasing amounts of
solid wastes coming at this site, it can serve only for some
years to come. CDGL officials have planned its closing year
to be 2015. It is the high time to develop an engineered proper
sanitary landfill site to avoid irreversible damage to our
environment in future. Similarly, side by side this site should
be managed and controlled at least to avoid leachate and
methane gas generation problems to increase to an irrepairable
extent of damage.

Market

Generator
Electricity
Grid station
FIG. 4 FLOW CHART OF PROPOSED SCENARIO

B. Quantitative Results
1) Physical Composition of MSW coming to Mehmood Booti,
Lahore: The physical composition of MSW received at

134

Mehmood Booti dumping site is concisely shown in the


following table.
TABLE II
PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT OF MSW COMING TO MEHMOOD BOOTI DUMPING
SITE (DEC 07 NOV 08)

Combined
Paremeters

Recycleable/
Reuseable
(kg)

Compostable
(kg)
Inert
Material (kg)

Parameters

Paper kg
Tetra Pack kg
Textiles kg
Wood & Straw kg
Plastic & Polythene kg
Glass & Metal kg
Rubber & Leather kg
Yard Waste kg
Food Waste kg
Bricks & Stones kg
Misc. kg

% age
by
Weight
0.2
0.3
5.4
0.6
21.5
0.1
0.2
15.8
23.6
4.8
27.9

% age by
Weight of
Combined
Parameters

28.3

39.4
32.7

The above table shows the percentage of each component of


municipal solid waste in percentage by weight. Compostables
that are 39.4 percent of the waste are proposed to be
anaerobically decomposed in the especially developed
landfills to produce methane gas.
Samples for this study were obtained from the MSW coming
to Mehmood Booti landfill. Sampling was carried out
throughout the year, The selection of the source of MSW was
predetermined randomly to accommodate for all type of
sources (i.e. high, medium and low residential households).
Identified truckloads were weighed at the incoming
weighbridge and directed to a pre cleaned flat surface where
segregation of the waste to its components was carried out.
The municipal workers carried out the sorting of the MSW
while with the help of the management of Lahore Compost
Pvt. Ltd. the researcher supervised them. The sampling and
sorting protocol adopted by this study is the spot sampling
method, which is recommended by Corbit. [12] The method
requires for the samples to be taken from a few trucks (about
4-8 trucks from the same source) where an amount of waste
(about 3050 kg) is to be taken and the total amount collected
will form a sample size of about 200 kg, which is then sorted.
Segregated waste components were weighed and data
compiled.
Chemical composition of MSW coming to Mehmood Booti
Lahore: The chemical composition of food and yard wastes
(compostables) are estimated in this research work, These
wastes are suggested to be anaerobically decomposed to
produce stabilized organic humus (compost) and gases, i. e.,
methane and carbondioxide. The are repidly decomposeable
and secondly, they are high in organic content and can
produce greater amount of methane during anaerobic
decomposition.

Lacking the ultimate analysis of MSW of Lahore with respect


to percent Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulphur and
ash, the values are taken from ref [13].
TABLE III
THE PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR ELEMENTS COMPOSING THE FOOD
AND YARD WASTES OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE OF LAHORE.

Com
pone
nt
Food
Wast
es
Yard
Wast
es
Total

Wet
wei
ght,
lb
9.0

Dry
wei
ght,
lb
2.7

1.30

0.17

1.02

0.07

0.01

0.14

11.1

4.4

2.10

0.26

1.67

0.15

0.01

0.20

20.1

7.1

3.40

0.43

2.69

0.22

0.02

0.34

Composition, lb
O
N
S

Ash

TABLE IV
THE MOLAR COMPOSITION OF ELEMENTS NEGLECTING THE ASH

C
H
O
N
S
12.01
1.01
16.00
14.01
32.06
Lb/mole
Total moles = total mass of components in lb/ molecular mass
0.283
0.425
0.168
0.015
0.000
Rapidly
0
7
1
7
6
Decomposeabl
e
TABLE V
THE MOLE RATIOS OF ELEMENTS NEGLECTING SULPHUR

Component
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen

Molar Ratio (Nitrogen = 1 )


18.025 taken as 18
27.114 taken as 27
10.707 taken as 11
1.0

*Molar Ratio = Total moles of the components/ Total moles of Nitrogen


The Chemical formula of food and yard waste developed
without Sulphur is C18H27O11N
A specified chemical formula is developed for this
particular study. Estimation of the amount of gas that can be
derived from these constituents of MSW with the help of
balanced chemical equation developed here;
4C18H27O11N + 26H2O
1733.84 +468.52

37CH4 + 35CO2 + 4NH3


593.85 + 1540.35 + 68.16

Volume of Methane gas produced is 54.281 ft3 and that of


carbon dioxide gas is 51.074 ft3 at STP.
The resulting gas mixture will contain 51.54% methane and
48.46 % carbon dioxide gas.
Total theoretical amount of gas generated per unit dry
weight of organic matter destroyed is 14.85 ft3/lb, having 7.65
ft3/lb methane and 7.2 ft3/lb carbon dioxide gas.
The landfill gas generation values computed here represent
the maximum amount of gas that could be produced under
optimum conditions from the degradation of biodegradable
volatile solids BVS in the organic fraction of MSW. The
actual quantities of gas generated will be lesser because not all

135

of the biodegradable organic matter is available for


decomposition.
3). Calculated production of Electricity: According to
CDGL official source, incoming MSW to Mehmood Booti
dumping site is 468,000,000 kg/yr. 40% of it comprises of
food and yard waste which primarily is to be used for
anaerobic composting and methane gas generation. So, 40%
of total incoming waste will be 187,200,000 kg/yr or
4118,400,000 lb/yr
According to the calculations done, 7.65 ft3 of methane gas
can be generated by 1 lb of waste. So, 4118,400,000 lbs will
generate 3150,576,000 ft3 methane in 1 year. As the landfill
gas collected and purified will still contain some impurities,
almost 95% of it will be methane gas after purification and
carbon dioxide separation. Now, it can be said that
2993,047,200 ft3 methane gas (95% of 3150,576,000) can be
produced in 1 year. So, 8200129.315 ft3 methane gas, can be
produced in 1 day.
2993,047,200 ft3 x .028 = 838,053,216 m3 As the density of
methane is 0.717 kg/m3 , thus 838,053,216 x 0.717 =
60,088,415.59 kg methane can be generated each year through
anaerobic landfilling of food and yard waste.
The energy density of methane, i.e. its heating value, is
approximately 55.50 megajoules per kilogram. Since one
kilowatt-hour is 3.6 MJ, so the energy density of methane is
15.416 kWh/kg. The typical thermodynamic efficiency of
methane gas turbine power plants taken in this research is
about 20%, so of the 15.416 kWh of energy per kilogram of
methane, 20% of that, 3.0832 kWh/kg can successfully be
turned into electricity; the rest is waste heat. So the power
plants obtain approximately 3.0832 kWh per kilogram of
burned methane gas
If 1 kg of methane gas can produce 3.0832 kWh of energy,
then 60,088,415.59 kg of methane gas will produce,
approximately, 185,264,602.9 kWh or 185,264.6029 MWh
in 1 year.
There are 330 working days in a year. (the rest out of 365
are excluded as for repair and maintenance). So, 561.4078
MW-h electricity can be produced per day. Which is
equivalent to 24 MW.
XXI.
CONCLUSIONS
The study has been successful in highlighting the average
composition and calculated production of electricity from the
MSW which is being dumped into the Mehnood Booti
dumping site. The current study although focused only on data
collected from the dumpling site of Mehmood Booti in
Lahore, can be applied to other dumping sites of various cities
of the country as well and can prove to be very beneficial for
the basic calculations of methane emissions and electricity
production from organic wastes.

At present almost 60% of municipal solid waste of Lahore


is dumped at Mehmood Booti dumping site. The huge
quantity of waste disposed unscientifically should be dumped
in scientifically developed sanitary landfill sites to avoid
environmental degradation and human health damages. The
leachate produced from it and the gases emiting from it are a
source of constant pollution and deterioration of the soil,
water and air of Lahore.
Anaerobic decomposition of this waste can bring out
firstly, full baked, properly decomposed and scientific
compost and secondly landfill gas. Landfill gas
comprises of two major gases i, e,, Carbon dioxide and
Methane gas. Their percentage composition at
Mehmood Booti dumping site is 48.46% and 51.54%
respectively. This 51.54% methane can be proceesed to
be used as energy source, which will eventually produce
electricity, much needed in our country at present.
39.4% of the total waste generated can be anaerobically
composted, 28.3% recycled and reused and 32.7%
landfilled, thus reducing the burden of waste to be
landfilled.
One pound of waste according to engineering
calculations can generate, 7.65 ft3 of methane gas.
According to CDGL official source, incoming MSW to
Mehmood Booti dumping site is 4.68 tons/yr.
More specifically, 1.872 tons/yr of compostable waste
is produced which can be anaerobically decomposed to
produce both compost and landfill gas.
0.06 kg methane can be generated in 1 year. It will
produce, approximately, 185,264.6029 MWh in 1 year.
Thus 24 MW of electricity can be produced from the
Mehmood Booti dumping site with anaerobic
decomposition of organic part of 4.68 tons of municipal
solid waste of Lahore.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The author offers sincere gratitude to her advisor Dr.
Muhammad Hanif for his continuous encouragement
and expert guidance.
The author wish to pay her best regards to her mother
for her supportive and caring attitude. She also like to
thank her brothers Qamar and Badar for providing
technical support and guidance whenever needed.
The author offers sincere thanks to Dr. Atta, Mr.
Sheharyar and Mr. Jalil Ahmed of Lahore Compost
Pvt. Ltd. for adjusting their schedules to incorporate her
frequent visits. In addition Mr. Maqsood Butt at
Mehmood Booti dumping site facilitated the author to
survey the dumping site. A note of thanks is also due to
Mr. Asif Iqbal for his help in providing data from City
District Government Lahore.

136

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http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2005%5C11%5C19%5Cstory_19-11-2005_pg7_16
(2006) Landfill Methane Gas Powering the future, NC Green Power, Spring Newsletter, North Carolina. [Online]. Available:
http://www.ncgreenpower.org/media/newsletters/2006/newsletter_spring2006_page2.html
R. A. Corbit, Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1998.

G. Tchobanoglous, H. Theisen, S. Vigil, Integrated Solid Waste Management: Engineering, principles and
management issues, International student ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Singapore, 1993

137

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Protection Performance and Operational Statistical Analysis for


Karachi Grid
Junaid A.Qureshi, Andaleeb Gufran
NED University of Engg. and Technology
Karachi, Pakistan
jaqned@ieee.org, andaleebg@neduet.edu.pk
AbstractPower system protection is of extreme
importance for the reliability and safety of any power
system. Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC) is the
sole power supply utility of Karachi, which is the largest
industrial and most densely populated city of Pakistan.
In this paper, we propose to give an overview of the
transmission network of KESC. This would include a review
of the network and voltage levels being used for
transmission. The geographical area covered, major causes
of power loss, fault conditions, respective applied protection
schemes being used by KESC for primary and back up
protection and the relays installed are discussed. The main
factors considered for the selection of breakers and relays
under local network conditions are also listed. A comparison
of KESC protection philosophy with the applied protection
in Quetta Electric Supply Company (QESCO) for the
similar zones and faults is presented at the end.

INTRODUCTION
Karachi Electric Supply Company (KESC) is the sole
vertically integrated power company of Karachi. It is the
only utility in Pakistan that covers generation,
transmission and distribution under its wings. It covers an
area of around 6000 square km and supplies power to all
sectors including residential, industrial, commercial and
agriculture [1]. On the other hand Quetta Electric Supply
Company (QESCO) deals with transmission and
distribution only. Karachi is one of the main industrial
cities of Pakistan so power system reliability has a direct
impact on the economy of Pakistan. In turn, system
reliability of every system is dependent on the protection
scheme and components being used [2] [3]. Existing
systems are reviewed for the improvement in the
performance of system, so KESC power system is to be
reviewed before introducing any modifications in the
existing system [4]. For this purpose, the overview of
KESC network has been described and major causes of
power losses have also been discussed in Section II.
Protection involves many components for the
protection of transmission network but relays play the
key role to identify the fault and respond immediately.
There are various parameters considered before selection
of appropriate relays. Voltage level of the transmission
and sub-transmission scale is one of the important factors.
In this paper, KESC is being analyzed based on various
transmission voltage levels thus, Maripur, Baldia and
Vinder grid stations are discussed in this section as
examples along with specifications and tripping records.

Waqar A. Qureshi
University of Auckland,
Auckland, New Zealand
w.qureshi@auckland.ac.nz

and

Protection schemes used by KESC and QESCO have


been compared for different fault conditions. Protections
Schemes, relay types have also been presented in Section
III. Trips and faults data indicates the system reliability
and has been briefly discussed based on monthly
frequency in Section IV.
In this paper, an overview of KESC network along
with its protection philosophies and practices have also
been presented in Section V. Some tripping data has also
been analyzed. This paper provides the understanding of
the network and protection of Karachi city and creates
basis towards improvements and modifications for
enhanced reliability and security of supply for KESC.
OVERVIEW OF KESC NETWORK
KESC network is ring type network that interconnects
all generating station to a bus bar. The grid is interconnected with the NTDC grid system through two
double circuit 220 KV transmission lines. KESC network
comprises of three voltage levels in transmission i.e. 220
kV (extra high voltage), 132KV (high voltage) and 66KV
at some levels. At distribution level, KESC voltage levels
are 11KV (medium voltage) for industries and large users
of electricity and 220/380 V AC for low voltage
residential or commercial customers. The total demand of
electricity is about 2462 MW, while KESC has the
installed capacity of 1955MW in 2009[5].
The major causes of power loss in KESC is the use of
Aluminum wires instead of copper at some places, cable
insulation failure due to over loads and long usages of
cables, joints in line which cause increase in resistance
and theft [6]. Some specifications of the KESC network
are shown in Table-I.
KESC has total 60 grid stations. These gird stations
have been divided into four regions i.e. North, East, West
and South. Each region comprise of almost 15 grid
stations in it.
TABLE II. KESC NETWORK SPECIFICATIONS
Trans. Lines

220
KV

132 KV
Overhead

132 KV
Underground

66 KV
Overhead

No. of
Circuits
Length in km

18

65

22

321

602

113

149

138

PROTECTION PHILOSPHIES
Protection is employed on all levels of voltage but
method and relays used differ on the basis of voltage
levels and the cost and importance of the equipment to be
protected. KESC has a complete hierarchy of protection
from generation to distribution. Network protection is
achieved with the help of control panels at grid stations.
Protection components and protection schemes are
different at all grid stations. In order to explain the
protection at different levels of voltage, 220kV (Maripur
& Baldia), 132 kV (Maripur & Baldia) and 66 kV
(Vinder) voltages are being considered here. Protection
coordination is designed in similar fashion across all grid
stations. Maripur and Vinder grid station are treated as
model grid stations. In these grid stations, relays are used
to continuously check for any abnormal condition that
might arise within the system [7].
Relay configurations are revised to prevent both;
unnecessary tripping and missed trips, because if a
required trip is missed it is forwarded upstream and could
cause cascaded tripping and blackouts. KESC is in the
middle of upgrading protection equipment in order to
improve system reliability. Electromechanical and static
relays are now being replaced by numerical relays. The
main protection of transmission line is carried out by
distance relays [8]
a) 220kV Grid Protection
Two distance relays i.e. Main I and Main II are used
for the protection of 220 kV circuits. Main II is used as a
backup in this scheme. Maripur and Baldia town Grid
stations have been selected to explain protection
philosophies at 220KV transmission level.
I. Maripur Grid Station
Specification of components at Maripur grid station
has been shown in Table II.
TABLE III.

PROTECTION COMPONENTS SPECIFICATIONS


OF

Maripur-Baldia I

shown in Table III.


Trip record of six months (Jan 2010-June 2010) for the
Baldia 220KV circuits is shown in Table IV. There have
been some trips on the Baldia 220KV line during the
same period. Faults were not timely cleared at lower
levels and propagated to higher stream of 220 kV.
b) 132 kV Grid Protection
Only one distance relay i.e. Main I is used for the
protection of 220KV circuits. Maripur and Baldia town
grid stations have been selected for demonstration of
protection on 132KV transmission level.
I. Maripur Grid Station
At Maripur town grid station, there are 2 transmission
lines Maripur-Haroonabad I & II. They all have same
protection schemes and relays. Specification of
component at Maripur grid station for 132 kV voltage
level is shown in Table-5. Trip record of six months (Jan
2010-June 2010) for the Maripur 132 kV grid is shown in
TABLE III. PROTECTION COMPONENTS SPECIFICATIONS OF
220 KV BALDIA GRID
Name Of Line
C.T Ratio
(P.C)
C.T Ratio
(M.C)
P.T Ratio
Panel
Main I
Main II

220 KV MARIPUR GRID


Name Of Line

performance have been satisfactory during mentioned


period thus, none of the fault could reach to 220 kV grid
level.
II. Baldia Grid Station
Specification of component at Baldia grid station is

C.T Ratio (P.C)


C.T Ratio (M.C)
P.T Ratio
Panel
Main I
Main II

1250/1
1250/1
220KV/100
Siemens
Siemens 7SA522
Siemens 7SA612

Maripur-Baldia II,
Maripur- Lalazar I &II
1250/1
1250/1
220KV/100
Siemens
Siemens 7SA522
Siemens 7SA612

Fault Locator
Line Diff.
Over Current
Breaker Fail.
Sync Check
Auto Reclosers

NIL
NIL
Siemens 7SJ6021
Siemens 7VK61
NIL
Siemens 7VK61

NIL
NIL
Siemens 7SJ6021
Siemens 7VK61
NIL
Siemens 7VK61

Line Diff.

Baldia To
Maripur I &II
2500/1

Baldia-NKI &
Baldia-KDA
2500/1

2500/1

2500/1

220kv/100
SIEMENS
Siemens 7SA522

220kv/100
ASEA
ASEA RAZFE RK613

Siemens 7SA612

ASEA
RAZOA
RK614
NIL
ASEA
RXIDF2HRK651
ASEA RAICA XR330
ASEA RASC RK862

NIL
7SJ6021

Over Current

7VK61
7VK61

Breaker Fail.
Sync Check
Auto
Reclosers

7VK61

ASEA
RK851

RAAAM

Table-6.

II. Baldia Grid Station


At Baldia town grid station, there are 8 transmission lines and

There are no trips at 220 kV Maripur grid station


during January 2010 to June 2010. All faults have been
cleared downstream. Protection coordination and

TABLE IV. TRIP RECORD OF BALDIA 220 KV GRID


Month

BaldiaMaripur-I

Jan 10
Feb 10
Mar 10
Apr 10
May 10
Jun 10

5
3
1
1
3
1

BaldiaMaripurII
0
1
1
1
1
1

BaldiaNKI

BaldiaKDA

0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

Total
trips
5
4
139
3
2
4
2

TABLE VI. TRIP RECORD OF 132KV MARIPUR GRID


TABLE V. PROTECTION COMPONENTS SPECIFICATIONS OF
MARIPUR 132 KV GRID
NAME OF LINE

Maripur-Haroonabad I &
Maripur-Haroonabad II

Jan 10

Haroonabad
Circuit 1
1

Haroonabad
Circuit 2
0

Total Trips

Feb 10

C.T Ratio (P.C)

1600/1

Mar 10

C.T Ratio (M.C)


P.T Ratio
Panel
Main I
Fault Locator
Line Diff.

1600/1
132KV/100
SEIMENS
SEIMENS 7SA52
NIL
NIL

Apr 10

May 10

Jun 10

Over Current

SEIMENS 7SJ6021

all have same protection sche mes and relays. Lines are from
Baldia, Valika, Tapa l, Orange, Hub, SGT I & II and KANUPP I
& II. Specification of component at Maripur 132 kV grid station
is shown in Table VII and Trip
record of six months (Jan 2010June 2010) for the Baldia 132KV lin
es is shown in Table-VIII.
c)

Month

66 kV GridProtection

KANUPP I

KANUPP II

Total trips

Description

SGT II

Protection Scheme or Relay

SGT I

PROTECTION COMPONENTS SPECIFICATIONS


OF 132 KV BALDIA GRID

Hun choki

Protection configuration is carried out considering


power system as a whole and not in isolation. Protections
settings are achieved in a manner to affect minimum due
to any fault.
TABLEVII.

Orangi

Distance protection is zone based protection. There are


three levels of zones from Zone-1 to Zone-3. Zone-1 is
80% of length, Zone-2 is 120% of length and Zone-3 is
225% of length. Relays are configured to operate on
standard time settings on the basis of voltage levels and
zones. Tripping time for Zone -1 targeted as minimum as
possible or close to zero, tripping time for Zone-2 is
300ms while tripping time for Zone-3 is 700ms for KESC
network [9].

Tapal

Protection of transmission lines is carried out by the


combination of various relays but distance relays are used
as main protection. KESC utilizes relays from multiple
vendors depending on cost, performance, functions and
the availability of technical personnel. Distance relays
used by KESC are shown in Table-XI. At 220 kV two
distance relays are used while
at 132 kV and 66 kV only
one main distance protection is used with its auxiliary
relays and components. Over current protections is also
used as backup for these voltage levels. At 11kV only
over current protection is used for both primary and back
up protection.

Valika

T RANSMISION PROTECTION RELAYS

TABLE VIII. TRIP RECORD OF SIX MONTHS FOR THE 132 KV BALDIA
GRID
Monthly
trips

66 kV transmissions are available with some grid


stations. Vinder grid station has been taken to
demonstrate the protection component specifications on
66 kV level. Specification of component at Vinder 66 kV
grid station is shown in Ta
ble-IX. Trip record of six
months (Jan 2010-June 2010) for the 66KV Vinder to
Uthal line is shown in Table-X.

800/1
800/1
132KV/100
ASEA
ASEA RAZOA RK614
ASEA RANZA RK881
NIL
ASEA RXIDF-2H RK651
ASEA RAICA XR330
ASEA RASC RK862
ASEA RAAAE RK614

C.T Ratio (P.C)


C.T Ratio (M.C)
P.T Ratio
Panel
Main I
Fault Locator
Line Diff.
Over Current
Breaker Fail.
Sync Check
Auto Reclosers

Jan
2010
Feb
2010
Mar
2010
Apr
2010
May
2010
June
2010

TABLE IX. PROTECTION COMPONENTS SPECIFICATIONS OF 66 KV


VINDER GRID
Protection Scheme/
Description
Relay
400/5
C.T Ratio (P.C)
400/5
C.T Ratio (M.C)
P.T Ratio
66KV/100
Panel
ELECTRON BREDA
Main I
GE D-60
Line Diff.
NIL
Over Current
ALSTOM MICCOM P122
TABLE X. Trip Record of 66 kV Vinder Grid
Month

Vinder - Uthal 66 kV Line Trips

Jan 2010

Feb 2010

Mar 2010

Apr 2010

May 2010

Jun 2010

Table XI. Distance Relays Used In KESC


Vendor
Relay No
Siemens
BBC
ASEA
GEC
GE

7SA522, 7SA612, 7SA52


LZ3, L3WYS
RAZFE RK613, RAZOA RK614
PYTC, SHPM101 QUADRAMHO,
OPTIMHO
D-60

140

Areva

MCOM P443

ABB(BBC+ASEA)

REL 670, RED 670

FAULT HISTORY AT KESC

Protection level and coordination can easily be


examined after analyzing the faults and trip records
during the year. Comparison of trips record for six month,
from January to June for 2009 and 2010, shows the
improvement in system performance. Trips on lines,
transformer and total trips are shown in Tables-12. The
total no. of trips is also presented in Figure-1. This would
help to predict the reliability of the system [10].
In 2009, there was an average of 49 transformer faults
and 37 line trippings per month. On the other hand, there
were average of 45 transformer faults and 40 line
trippings per month in 2010. Looking at the overall faults
and analysing, we can easily say that there is an average
decrease of 1.7 faults per month within
a year.
Considering the amount of investment made on installing
new relays and equipment, the decrease in number of
trips is not that prominent. This means that a further study
of load characteristics is required in order to set proper
fault settings.
COMPARISON OF

KESC AND QESCO

Reliability of system is mainly dependent upon faults


and abnormal conditions [2]. From organizational
structure point of view KESC and QESCO are different
as KESC also owns generation while QESCO is
responsible for transmission and distribution only. For
most of the fault conditions, almost same protection is
applied in both systems. Protection schemes are the same
throughout the system but due to location and economical
reasons, equipment and components differ from one
system to other. Same fault scenarios and its applied
protections are shown in Table-XIII. Practical data and
techniques in KESC and QESCO have been shown in
Table- XIV, for some abnormal conditions in the system.

.
Table XII. KESC Tripping Record
Months

Total Transformer
Tripped
22
24
27
34
45
35
44
50
60
73
74
80

Jan-10
Jan-09
Feb-10
Feb-09
Mar-10
Mar-09
Apr-10
Apr-09
May-10
May-09
Jun-10
Jun-09

Total Line
Tripped
30
34
30
24
48
25
37
31
45
49
54
64

Total
Tripped
52
58
57
58
93
60
81
81
105
122
128
146

Table XIII. Protection Solutions at KESC


S.No
1

Fault
The D.C supply to the
Tripping circuit fails.

The current or voltage


supply to the relay
fails.
The tripping
mechanism of circuit
breaker fails
The circuit breaker
fails to operate

5
The primary protective
relay fails

Solution
In case of DC supply failure,
11kV incomer trips
automatically. Also DC fail
alarms are also employed.
PT fail signal is employed.
No protection for CT.
Trip circuit supervision
relays are employed
Breaker failure relay
Backup protection is
employed. For most of the
cases over current is
employed as back up
protection.

Table XIV. Protection Comparison OF KESC and QESCO


Abnormal
Operating
Conditions
Over Loads

Under &
Over
Voltage

Under
Frequency
Voltage
Swings
Current
Swings

KESC

QESCO

For transmission side


over current relays are
used for overload.

For transmission line


over current is used
for overload protection

7RW600
(Siemens),
7SJ80 (Siemens) and
relays
of
other
companies such as ABB
are also used.

7SJ6011 (Siemens)

ABB FCN950, AREVA


P922, ABB FCX103,
Siemens 7SJ80 etc
Protection is blocked on
power swings.
Protection is blocked on
power swings.

SPAJ (ABB)
VAA (GEC) relay is
used.
Over current relays are
installed.

EXPANSION OF KESC NETWORK AND ITS PROTECTION


SCENARIO

Figure 1. Monthly Total Tripping Comparison

In 2009, KESC expanded its network and established


11 new grid stations. These Grid stations include Jail
Road, Azizabad, PRL, Memon Goth, Airport 2, Hospital
141

Grid, Korangi South and Maymar, FTC, DHA-I and


Creek City. These grid stations solve the problem of
faults to a large extent through distribution of loads on
these grids.
Jail road, Azizabad, PRL, Memon Goth, Airport 2,
Hospital Grid, Korangi South and Maymar, FTC grid
stations are manufactured and commissioned by ABB
Company. Advance protection schemes have been
applied to all these grids. Line protection is achieved
using line distance and differential relays at various
voltage levels.
Defense grid at Creek City was manufactured and
commissioned by Areva. While DHA-I grid station was
manufactured and commissioned by Siemens.
These grids have increased the reliability and
protection level of transmission lines there. Advance
protection schemes have been employed at these grid
stations.

further modifications and improved protection


coordination to reduce number of faults per circuit per
month. This number would directly dictate the reliability
of the KESC transmission network. Comparison of KESC
protection scheme with that of protection scheme of
QESCO indicates that protection equipment and vendors
are different for the same protection solution. This
information may also help to compare available schemes
and equipment with other countries and benchmark
globally the protection practices of KESC.
Power demand of Karachi has increased exponentially
in the last few decades. In order to meet local demand;
the electrical grid has been expanded and advanced
protection relays and schemes were introduced. Thus,
coordination of transmission protection with existing
generation protection is another future area of research
and a detailed analysis for fault records at KESC and
investigating major fault causes and clearance times is
also planned as another future possibility.

CONCLUSION & FUTURE DIRECTIONS


Technical and brief overview of KESC network is
presented here. Focus in this publication is limited to
transmission protection. The specification of some of the
220 kV, 132 kV and 66 kV grids are shown along with
the existing protection schemes in practice for
transmission grids. Transmission fault records have also
been presented for the period of Jan-Jun for Year 2009
and 2010.
From analysis of available records, fault clearance and
protection efficiency has improved and has further room
for improvement. These network protections require

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Authors would like to thank Muhammad Zulqarnain,
Assistant
Engineer
in
QESCO
Protection
Instrumentation, for providing protection scenario of
QESCO and Mr. Siraj-ud-Deen Ahmed Khan, GM
Protection in KESC, for making it possible for us to visit
different Grid stations and for giving useful information
concerning transmission protection scenario in KESC.
Authors would also like to take opportunity to thank Dr.
Nirmal Nair from University of Auckland, New Zealand
for his support and guidance.

REFRENCES
[41]
[42]
[43]
[44]

[45]
[46]
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[48]

[49]
[50]

Available at http://www.kesc.com.pk [ Cited on 25th June 2010]


Kjolle, G.H., et al. Protection system faults 1999 &# x2013; 2003 and the influence on the reliability of supply. in
Power Tech, 2005 IEEE Russia. 2005.
Sykes, J., et al. Reliability of protection systems (what are the real concerns). in 63rd Annual Conference for
Protective Relay Engineers, 2010.
Daochun, H., R. Jiangjun, and Y. Shifeng. Overview of the recent developments of ultra high voltage AC
transmission in China. in Power and Energy Society General Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical
Energy in the 21st Century, 2008 IEEE. 2008.
KESC Annual Report 2009.
Available at http://www.infopakistan.pk/2010/02/kesc-goes-online-against-theft-of-electricity/. [Cited on 12th
February 2010]
Henville, C.F., Digital relay reports verify power system models. Computer Applications in Power, IEEE, 2000.
13(1): p. 26-32.
Tholomier, D., S. Richards, and A. Apostolov. Advanced distance protection applications for dynamic loading and
out-of step condition. in Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control - VII. Revitalizing Operational Reliability, 2007
iREP Symposium. 2007.
Elahi, M., Zone base Protection. 2010: Karachi.
Hussain, B., et al., Transmission system protection: a reliability study. Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on,
1997. 12(2): p. 675-680.

142

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Reactor Kinetics Revisited:


A Coefficient Based Model (CBM)
Wajdi M.Ratemi
Nuclear Engineering Department
Alfateh University, P.OBox 91821,
Tripoli, Libya
wm_ratemi@hotmail.com

Abstract

In this paper, a nuclear reactor kinetics model


based on Guelph expansion coefficients calculation ( Coefficients
Based Model, CBM), for n groups of delayed neutrons is developed.
The accompanying characteristic equation is a polynomial form of
the Inhour equation with the same coefficients of the CBM- kinetics
model. Those coefficients depend on Universal abc- values which
are dependent on the type of the fuel fueling a nuclear reactor.
Furthermore, such coefficients are linearly dependent on the inserted
reactivity
,i.e; A m = a m + b m + c m . In this paper, the
Universal abc- values have been presented symbolically, for the first
time, as well as with their numerical values for U-235 fueled
reactors for one, two, three, and six groups of delayed neutrons.
Simulation studies for constant, and variable reactivity insertions are
made for the CBM kinetics model, and a comparison of results, with
numerical solutions of classical kinetics models for one, two, three,
and six groups of delayed neutrons are presented. The results show
good agreements, especially for single step insertion of reactivity,
with the advantage of the CBM- solution of not encountering the
stiffness problem accompanying the numerical solutions of the
classical kinetics model.
Keywords- universal abc-values; point reactor kinetics; guelph
expansion; polynomial expansion; simulation; CBM-reactor kinetics
model; Inhour equation.

INTRODUCTION
Nuclear reactors can be modeled by the classical six groups
point reactor kinetics model [1,2,and 3], which is presented by
seven coupled first order differential equations. Such kinetics
model has an accompanying transcendental equation called
the Inhour equation [2]. A polynomial form of the Inhour
equation has been introduced [4,5]. Such polynomial has
coefficients which have linear dependence on inserted
reactivity and depend on universal abc-values specific to the
fuel fueling the nuclear reactor in concern [5]. The polynomial
form of the inhour equation has been derived based on special
polynomial expansion which has been named later as The
Guelph expansion [6]. Such Inhour polynomial equation
represents the characteristic equation of an (n+1)th order
differential equation representing the nuclear reactor with n
groups of delayed neutrons with its coefficients as those of
the inhour polynomial equation, hence, the name Coefficients
Based Model (CBM) for the point reactor kinetics [7] . Those
coefficients and the corresponding abc- values have been used

for simulating nuclear reactors with only delayed neutrons[8],


and with accompanying beryllium photo-neutrons [9] for
constant step reactivity insertions. In this paper, the author
extends the application of the CBM kinetics model to
solutions involving single step insertion of reactivities, as well
as, for multiple step insertions of reactivities for one, two,
three, and six groups of delayed neutrons . The CBM
solutions requires the calculation of the coefficients at the
inserted reactivity, then solving for the roots of the inhour
polynomial either by the roots command used in the matlab
package, or by the R-transform method [10] derived also from
the Guelph expansion , and then plug in the analytical solution
of the CBM kinetics model. The results were compared to the
numerical solutions of the respected models. Good
agreements have been achieved especially for single step
insertions of reactivities. Further results were presented for
one group model for ramp, and sinusoidal insertions of
reactivities, and when compared to numerical solutions, good
agreements have been established at the beginning of the
simulation, however, as the simulation proceeds with time, a
deviation from the numerical solution has been noticed. The
CBM- solutions have been found, besides its good agreements
especially at the single step insertions of reactivities, to be
stable whereas the numerical solutions fail at larger time steps
because of the numerical stiffness of the problem.
MATHEMATICAL MODELS
THE UNIVERSAL ABC-VALUES

AND

Nuclear Reactor Kinetics Model


When a neutron balance is made by equating the rate of
change of neutrons, R, to the rate of neutron production, P,
minus the rate of neutron loss , L, a point reactor kinetics
model can be obtained for n-groups of delayed neutrons. In
this paper, two mathematical kinetics models for a nuclear
reactor are presented. The first is called the classical model
which is widely used in literature, whereas, the other one is
developed by the author and is called the Coefficients Based
Model (CBM).

143

Classical reactor kinetics model

A nuclear reactor can be modeled using six groups of delayed


neutrons by a set of seven coupled first order differential
equations given by (1), and ( 2) [1,2,and 3]:
dp
(1)
=
p + i C i

dt
i
dC i i
(2)
=
p i C i
; i = 1,2,...,6 ,
dt

where, p is the reactor power, is the reactivity ( related to the


motion of control rods in and out of the reactor), Ci is the ith
delayed neutron precursor,
represents neutron generation
time, i represents the ith precursors decay constant, i is the
ith delayed neutron fractions. The corresponding characterstic
equation for the above mentioned system of seven coupled
differential equations is well known in literature[1] as the
Inhour equation and is given by:

= +
i

i
+ i

Am = ( .. k .. ) + i
i =1

T = n
k

i =1

i 1

i2

.. ) i

(..

k 1

.. )

T = n
k 1

Where m = n + 1 0, k = 0 n + 1 with one to one


correspondence.
Equivalently , equation (7) can be
represented in terms of the Universal abc- values as:

Am = a m + bm + cm

(8)

Where, am's, bm's, and cm's can be read directly from equation
(7).
Equation (6) is then can be viewed as the characteristic
equation for a nuclear reactor which can be modeled as:
n +1

dmp

m=0

dt m

Am

= 0,

(9)

where the coefficients Am's are given by (7). Because of these


newly generated coefficients, (9) is named a Coefficient Based
Model (CBM) for a nuclear reactor [7] .

Expanding (3) ,one gets (4):


n

k 1

(7)

(3)

Coeffecients based model for nuclear reactors

( ..

T = n 1
k 1

( ) ( + i ) + 1 ( + i ) + 2 ( + i ) + ...
n

(4)

+ n ( + i ) = 0

The Universal abc-values for U-235 fueled nuclear reactors

in

Where n represents the number of the delayed neutron groups.


References [4,5, and 6] presented a new polynomial expansion
form which is called the Guelph expansion and is given by :
n

i =1

k =0

( + i ) =

Where

nk

( ... k ... ) .
T = n
k

(5)

Tables I, II, III, and IV represent the Universal abc- values for
U-235 fueled reactors both symbollically and with their
corresponding numerical values , for one, two , three , and six
groups of delayed neutrons, respectively . The values for the
constants i's, and i's of the U-235 fuel are taken from
Hetrick [1] for the different delayed neutron groups.

k
... ... term in the Guelph expansion is defined

T = n
k

UNIVERSAL ABC-VALUES FOR ONE GROUP MODEL

TABLE I.

as: ' of the set 1 n, multiply k- components for each


possible combinations and add them up'. The number of such
combinations is called the binomial coefficient T which is
given by n!/k!(n-k)! . The k value ranges from 0 to n. For
k=0, the summation value equals to one , while its value is
zero for k outside the assigned range.
When (5) is substitued in (4), then (4) can be rewritten in the
following form:
n +1

F ( ) = Am m = 0,
m =0

where Am's are given by:

(6)

a0

a1

a2

b0

b1

.0065

b2

c0

-.0767

c1

-1

-1

c2

144

a0

a1

a2

a3

2+

Numerical and analytic solutions of the respected models

.00028918

The system of equations ( n+1 coupled first order differential


equations) for the classical representation of the point reactor
kinetics given by (1), and (2) can be solved numerically using
Matlab package with the initial conditions p(0)=p0 , and
C(0)= i p0/(
i) for the number of delayed neutron groups
i=1,2,3,6. The CBM kinetics model ( a single n+1 order
differential equation) given by (9), and (8) can be solved
numerically using Matlab package with initial conditions given
by:

0.0316

0.6813

a4

b0

b1

b2

2+

b3

1
3

1+

1
3+

.000024474

2)

0.0018
0.0065

b4

c0

-a1

-.00028918

c1

-a2

-0.0316

c2

-a3

-0.6813

c3

-a4

-1

c4

TABLE II.

a0

0
1

a2

.5912

a3

b0

b1

b2

.0012078144
.0065

b3

c0

-a1

c1

-a2

-.5912

c2

-a3

-1

c3

0
IVERSAL ABC-VALUES FOR THREE GROUPS MODEL

(10)

Where the Bj's [8] are given by (11) as:

Bj =

p0

; j =1,2,.....n .

n
i i
j +

2
i=1 (j + i )

(11)

The analytic solution of the CBM kinetics model , and


according to (9) is given by:

UNIVERSAL ABC-VALUES FOR TWO GROUPS MODEL

a1

TABLE III.

n+1
dp
(0) = Bjj ; = 0,1.....,n

dt
j=1

n+1

jt

p(t) = Bje
j=1

(12)

Where the Bj's are given ,as well , by (11).


It is then, one only needs to determine the roots j's from the
new form of the polynomial inhour equation given above by
(6) in order to find the analytic solution of the CBM-kinetics
model. The roots of the Inhour polynomial can be easily
found using the roots command in the matlab package .
Further more, The Guelph expansion expression given by (5)
can directly relate the roots of any polynomial to the
polynomial coefficients through the following formula which is
named as the R-transforms [10] method :

a r k = ...k ... ; k = 0,1, 2,..r

(13)

T = r
k

With r as the degree of the polynomial, and the summation


term is as described before. Note by substituting for 's the
values of the negative roots, one can determine the respected
coefficients an-k of the polynomial expansion. Conversely,
knowing the coefficients of the polynomials, one solves the
system of the nonlinear equation numerically by using (solve)
command in matlab package. The R-transform can find the
roots for five roots, but for higher number of roots , due to the

145

nonlinearity of the system, the matlab fails for its numerical


solution, a point is worth researching.
TABLE IV.

UNIVERSAL ABC-VALUES FOR SIX GROUPS MODEL

0
4.3359e-005
0.0055
0.1832
1.7761
5.3707
4.6049
1.0
0
3.6736e-006
3.3387e-004

0.0058

0.0265

0.0273
0.0065
0

146

Figure 1 presents the six groups inhour polynomial behavior


for inserted positive reactivity of .1$ , segmented about the
roots ( -58.9575, -2.8804, -1.0127, -.1883, -.0623, -.0138,
+.0101), whereas, Figure 2 presents a qualitative overall
behavior for the mentioned inhour polynomial. For negative
insertion of reactivity, one can obtain similar behavior, except
that all intersections will be in the negative side.

study has been made for constant, as well as, for variable
insertions of step reactivities.
Constant step insertion of reactivity for one, two, three, and
six groups cases
The following figures presents the simulation results for
positive insertion of 0.1$ reactivity for 1g, 2g, 3g, and 6g
CBM-models with comparisons with numerical solutions.
In figure 3 , the results are shown for one group case with
CBM- analytic solution using either the roots- command of
matlab , or R-transform method for roots findings of the
inhour polynomial equation. Also numerical solution for two
coupled equations or a single 2nd order differential equation
representing the reactor kinetics are presented for comparison.
As it is clear from the figure, an excellent agreement has been
achieved.

Figure 7.

Quantitative behavior for the Inhour polynomial equation


( =.1$)

f()

Figure 9.

Figure 8.

Power response for positive step insertion (1g-case)

Figure 4 presents results for CBM- analytic solution, and the


numerical solution CBM-3rd order differential equation, as well
as, for the 3coupled 1st order model. Excellent agreement has
been achieved between the CBM-analytic solution and the
numerical 3-coupled 1st order solution. However, a deviation
has been presented by the 3rd order model after .3 seconds from
the start of the simulation.

Qualitative Inhour polynomial behavior (+ )

In this study, the roots are easily found by the roots command
of Matlab package applied to the evaluated Am's coefficients
developed for the CBM kinetics model given by (8), or more
closely by the calculated universal abc values given in Tables I,
II, III, and IV for one , two, three, and six groups of delayed
neutrons respectively.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


In this section, a verification of the CBM- reactor models is
made by comparing its results with the classical models for
one , two, three, and six groups of delayed neutrons. The

Figure 10.

Power response for positive step insertion (2g-case)

Figure 5 introduces the results of three groups models for


CBM-analytic solution, and the numerical solution of 4-

147

coupled differential equations. As it is seen from the figure,


good agreement has been achieved.

Figure 13.
Figure 11.

Power response for positive step insertion (3g-case)

Figure 6 presents the solutions for the six groups models for the
analytic CBM, as well as, the numerical solution of seven
coupled 1st order equations. Again, good agreement has been
demonstrated.

Figure 12.

Variable reactivity insertion (1g), Classical and


CBM

Figure 8 presents the power response for the same reactivity


insertion scenario for 2g case, with CBM-analytic substituted
for time steps of .1 sec. and .01 sec. Both solutions are
compared with the numerical solution of 3-coupled 1st order
reactor model . Again, excellent agreement for the CBManalytic solutions at .01, and .1 sec. with the numerical solution
at the first step insertion of the reactivity, but a noticeable
deviation at the next step insertion of the reactivity is
presented.
However, the numerical solution presents a
numerical instability at time step of 0.1 sec. (a disadvantage for
the numerical solution, see Figure 9 demonstrating such
instability in using time step of 0.1 sec.).

Power response for positive step insertion (6g-case)

Variable steps insertion of reactivity for one, two, three, and


six groups cases
In this subsection, The CBM- analytical solutions are
demonstrated for variable steps insertions of reactivities for
one , two, three and six groups and are compared with the
corresponding numerical solutions of the respected models.

Figure 14. Variable reactivity insertion (2g), Classical and CBM

Figure 7 presents the power response for 1g model and for


variable two steps insertions of reactivities at t=0sec with
=0.1$, then at t=1sec. with = 0.05$ . The results for CBManalytic with roots finding using root-command of matlab, and
CBM-analytic solution with roots finding using R-transform
method, as well as, the numerical solution for two coupled 1st
order kinetics model. Coinciding agreement is noticed among
the CBM-analytic solutions as expected, which both fit closely
with the numerical solution at the first step insertion, but
reasonably, at the 2nd step insertion of the reactivity.

148

Figure 16. Variable reactivity insertion (3g), Classical and CBM


Figure 15.

Instabilty of numerical solution for dt=.1sec (2g)

In figure 10 , results for 3 groups models are presented for two


reactivity steps, e.g; at t=0 , =.1$ and at t=1 sec. , =-1$.
Again, the figure presents the solution of CBM-analytic at time
steps of 0.1 sec. and 0.01 sec., whereas, the numerical solution
of 4 - coupled 1st order model is solved at time steps of 0.01
sec. which presents numerical instability at t= 1 sec. when the
next reactivity step is introduced. Such instability is resolved
when the numerical time step is reduced to 0.001 sec. for this
simulation. Excellent agreement is always achieved at the first
step of reactivity insertion.
order model. While, the excellent agreement between the
CBM-solutions is achieved , a deviation of results is noticed in
comparison with the numerical solution for the next step
insertion of reactivity.

Figure 17.

Variable reactivity insertion (3g), Classical and CBM

Figure 11 presents the power response for two consecutive


positive insertions of reactivities applied to 6groups models,
the first is applied at t=0 sec. with amount of 0.1$, and at t= 1
sec. the reactivity of the system is 0.2$ .

The excellent agreement is achieved for the first step insertion


among the CBM-analytic with time steps of 0.1 sec, and
0.01sec. as well as, the numerical solution of seven coupled 1st

equations. The figures show excellent agreements among all


at the first 2.5 sec. of the 5 sec. simulation time. However,
while agreements are sustained between the CBM-analytic
solutions, a deviation from the numerical solution is noticed
afterwards.

Figure 18. Power response for ramp insertion of reactivity

Figures 12, 13 present the simulations for different reactivity


insertions for one group model , i.e. ramp and sinusoidal
insertions. A comparison of results are made among the
solutions of CBM-analytic with the two different methods of
finding the roots of the inhour polynomial equation, and the
numerical solution using two coupled 1st order differential

149

Figure 19.

Power response for sinusoidal insertion of reactivity

CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, The Nuclear Reactor Kinetics have been
revisited. A new polynomial form of the inhour equation is
presented with Universal abc-values which depend on the

specific type of the fuel which fuels the reactor. Such abcvalues are presented symbolically and with their numerical
values for U-235 fuel. A segmented quantitative and a full
qualtitive graph for the Inhour polynomial is presented. The
coefficients of the inhour polynomial are the same as the
(n+1)th order differential equation representing the kinetics of a
nuclear reactor, hence the origin of the naming of the
Coefficient Based Model (CBM). A simulation studies are
made for single constant step insertion of reactivity, as well as
for multiple steps insertions of constant reactivities for one,
two, three, and six groups of delayed neutrons. Comparisons
are made with numerical solutions, and good agreements were
noticed at the first step insertions, while some deviations are
seen at the next step insertion. Other reactivity insertions such
as ramp, and sinusoidal insertions have been explored with one
group model , and compared with numerical solutions. Good
agreements are achieved at almost half of the time of
simulation, then deviations are noticed afterwards. The
numerical solutions present instability at larger time steps due
to numerical stiffness, however, such problem does not exist
in the analytic CBM-solutions.

References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

[8]
[9]
[10]

D. Hetrick, " Dynamics of Nuclear Reactor ", Chicago, pp.6-8, 1971.


R.Rydin, Nuclear Reactor Theory and Design",Publications, pp.207-208, 1977.
G.Bell and S.Glasstone, Nuclear Reactor Dynamics", Krieger, New York, p478, 1979 .
W.M.Ratemi, Unpublished work, 1996.
Ratemi, W. M., Eshabo, A. E. , New form of the Inhour equation and its universal ABC-values for different reactor types,
Ann. Nucl. Energy. 1998; 25(.6): 377-386.
Ratemi, W. M., Abdulla, H. The Guelph expansion: a mathematical expansion for polynomial expansion. Abstract International Conference on Mathematical Sciences, Istanbul. 2009; p.381.
W.M.Ratemi , " Coefficient Based Model(CBM) of a Nuclear Reactor
with Reactimeter and RTC-Control", Abstract -International Conference on Mathematical Applications in Engineering
(ICMAE10), 3-5 August 2010, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
W.M.Ratemi,and A.Eshaboo, "New form of the point reactor kinetics", The 4th Arab Conference for peaceful uses of the
Atomic Energy, Cairo, E gypt ,Dec.1998.
Aboanber A.E. ( 2003), An efficient analytical form for the period-reactivity relation of beryllium and heavy-water
moderated reactors, Nuclear Engineering and Design 224, 279-292.
Ratemi W. M. R-transforms for polynomial expansion and root extraction. Abstract - International Conference on Analysis
and Applications (ICAA2010), Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. 2010; p.52.

150

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Role of Iron oxide Catalysts in Selective


Catalytic Reduction of NOx and Soot from
Vehicular Emission
S. Anjuman*, S.Tahira** and K. Hizbullah*
*

DES. IIUI, Islamabad, UOP, Pakistan, *

Abstract- This study deals with Iron containing catalysts i-e


Iron oxide Fe2O3) Iron potassium oxide Fe1.9K0.1O3, copper
iron oxide Cu0.9K0.1, Fe2O3, nickel iron oxide Ni Fe2O4, and
Nickel potassium iron oxide Ni0.95K0.05 Fe2O4 catalyst were
synthesized by using
PVA technique. By X-ray
Diffraction technique these catalysts were characterized to
ensure the formation of crystalline structure. Energy
Dispersive X-rays analysis (EDX) was used for the
confirmation of presence of different metals and Scanning
Electron Microscopy (SEM) for Surface Morphology.
Then the catalytic investigations of the prepared catalyst
were carried out for their activity measurement toward
simultaneous conversion of NOx and Soot from an engine
exhaust. Some Iron containing oxide catalysts were
partially modified by alkali metal potassium and were
used for NOx -Soot reaction in a model exhaust gas.
Fe1.9K0.1O3 show high catalytic performance for N2
formation in the prepared catalyst. Further studies have
shown that Fe1.9K0.1O3 was deactivated in a substantial
way after about 20 Temperature.
Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR) experiments
due to agglomeration of the promoter potassium.
Experiments carried out over the aged Fe1.9K0.1O3 catalyst
have shown that NOx-soot reaction was suppressed at
higher oxygen concentration, since O2-soot conversion was
kindly favored. More over nitrite species formed at the
catalyst surface might play an important role in NOx-soot
conversion.
Key words: Soot combustion, NOx, Simultaneous, EDX &
SEM.

I. INTRODUCTION:
Diesel engine represent an important source for the
emission of air pollutants, like colorless and odorless
nitric oxide (NO), Pungent Reddish Brown nitrogen
dioxide (NO2), the quite killer CO, Powerful irritant
SO2, unburned Hydrocarbon and Particulate matter.
So far two main procedures have been examined in
detail for elimination of NOx from diesel exhaust, the
classical Selective Catalytic reduction (SCR) procedure
and HC-SCR procedure respectively. In case of SCR
Nitrogen oxides are selectively reduced by ammonia
into nitrogen over TiO2 supported by V2O5 /WO3
Catalyst (1, 2). The required reducing agent ammonia
can be produced on board by the thermal
decomposition of urea, which must be carried out in an
additional tank. (3) Contrary to that in the HC-SCR
procedure nitrogen oxides are reduced by the
hydrocarbons over platinum catalysts [4]. In this
process hydrocarbons can be generated by the fuel, and
therefore no additional tank is required for its storage.
However the NOx reduction takes place with smaller

conversions and lower nitrogen selectivity that occurs


by the NH3-SCR procedure. Huge quantities of the
unwanted greenhouse gas N2O are also formed.
A possible way for the removal of nitrogen oxides and
soot from diesel exhaust gas is the simultaneous
catalytic conversion of both components. In this
reaction NOx is reduced by soot forming N2 and CO2
according to the overall equation (I) and (II), where by
soot is considered to be pure Carbon for simplicity. (2)
C + 2NO CO2 + N2
(I)
(II)
C + NO2 CO2 + 0.5 N2
The main objective of this work is to: a). Control
different air pollutants, emitting from fossil fuel
combustion sources through catalysis. b).To meet the
future NOx and Soot regulation it is necessary to
develop such exhaust system with the help of which an
efficient and simultaneous removal of NOx and soot is
possible. c). Preparation of Iron oxide catalysts for an
efficient and simultaneous conversion of NOx and soot
to yield nitrogen and carbon dioxide. In future such
catalysts could be an essential component of exhaust
after treatment systems which would work easily in an
oxidizing atmosphere.
II. EXPERIMENTAL: Chemicals
The chemical used are Iron nitrate, Potassium nitrate,
copper nitrate, Nickel nitrate, PVA and KBr. The entire
chemicals used were of high grade purity. Similarly the
model exhaust is a blend of oxygen and other pure
gases.

A. Synthesis:
Simple metal oxides such as Fe2O3, V2O5, CeO2 and
CuO, Spinals (AB2O4) with A=Cu and B=Fe, La) as
well as perovskites ABO3 with A=Y, La and B=Mn, Fe,
Cu, Co) were synthesized as catalysts. In order to
increase the activity of these catalysts more metal
cations were partially replaced by potassium, i-e
Fe1.9K0.1O3, Cu0.9K0.1Fe2O4, Ni0.95K0.05 Fe2O4, etc. The
synthesis of catalyst was carried out by the PVA
technique. In all the cases an aqueous solution with
10% Poly Vinyl Alcohol was mixed with an appropriate
amount of metal nitrate solution where the molar ratio
of metal cation to PVA monomer was 2:1. The PVA
was added to water too slowly to avoid chunk
formation with constant stirring over a magnetic stirrer.
The solution was slowly heated and evaporated leaving
a fluffy mass which was dried at 250 C and

151

subsequently ground to powder. The powder material


was then calcinated at 750 C in air for 5 hours. After
calcinations these material were analyzed by XRD to
ensure the formation of the desired crystalline structure
(6).
B. Characterization of catalysts: X-Ray Diffraction
(XRD):
The catalysts were analyzed by XRD (D501, Siemens)
to ensure the formation of the desired crystalline
structure. The XRD patterns of the catalysts that were
modified by potassium were to be similar to that of pure
sample e.g. Fe2O3 and Fe1.9K0.1O3. So it is assumed that
the potassium is not incorporated into the crystal lattice
but at least is present in the form of a solid solution at
dispersed spots. However there is also the possibility
for the agglomeration of potassium on the crystalline
surface. (5)
C. Energy Dispersive X-rays analysis (EDX):
The EDX (Energy Dispersive X-rays analysis clearly
indicates the presence of different metals after the
formation of a catalyst. The pattern of the presence of
different metal in the prepared catalyst was observed in
the prepared graphs. The EDX was performed using
JEOL-JSM-5910 electron microscope operated at
20KV with a tungsten filament.
D. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM):
Scanning Electron Microscopy is employed for the
surface morphology of the catalyst. SEM permits
qualitative characterization of the catalyst surface and
help to interpret the phenomena occurring during
calcinations and pre-treatment. The most important
advantage of electron microscopy is the effectiveness of
preparation method and directly be observed by looking
to the metal particles. From SEM the particle size
distribution can be obtained. This technique also reveals
whether the particles are evenly distributed or packed
up in large aggregates. If the particle are sufficiently
large, their shape can be distinguished and their crystal
structure is then determined.
SEM was performed using JEOL JSM-5910 electron
microscope operated at 20 KV with a
tungsten
filament at the electron source. (1)
E. Surface Area Measurement
The BET surface area of the prepared catalyst was
measured by multi-Point Sorptomatic 1990 (Porotec)
using nitrogen as adsorbents.
F. DRIFTS examinations
DRIFTS studies were carried out in order to
characterize soot surface. The Spectra was recorded on
ATI Mattson Galaxy 5020 FTIR Spectrometer equipped
with a MCT Detector and a Selector from Graceby
Specac. For these measurements the soot was diluted
with KBr, Where by a mixture of 0.15 wt. % soot was
used. Pure KBr was used as a reference.

For catalytic investigation, catalysts blended with


carbon black (Printex L, Degussa) were used. The
molar ratio of catalysts/soot was 2:1. The mixtures were
pressed to pellets employing a hydrolytic press of
40MPa. The pellets were then granulated and sieved in
a mesh size of 250-500m. Pellets formation is
necessary to avoid a discharge of soot or catalyst mass
during the activity measurements. Preliminary
investigations have shown that these catalyst-soot
pellets exhibit the same catalytic results like a
powdered mixture only prepared in a mortar with a
pestle. Pellets that were pressed at higher pressure show
lower activity due to limitation of mass transfer in the
particle core. Catalytic studies were carried out in a
quartz glass reactor (i.d. 22mm) using temperature
programmed reaction (TPR). For each study an
appropriate amount of catalyst-soot mixture, 15 m mole
catalyst and 7.5 m mole soot, was taken. The standard
model exhaust gas consisted of 500 ppm NO and 6vol
% O2 in argon was used. The TPR was also performed
without catalyst in order to investigate the activity of
pure soot.
To evaluate the best catalyst, concentration of O2 (0-14
Vol %) and H2O (0-10 Vol %) as well as molar
catalyst/soot ratio (1-10) were varied. More over NO2
was dosed to the feed instead of NO in order to
examine the effect of nitrogen dioxide on the NOx -soot
conversion. The analysis of NOx was conducted by
mean of CLD (El-ht, Eco Physics), while nitrogen was
detected by GC/TCD (RGC 202 with packed columns
Haye Sep Q 60 and mol sieve 5 , siemens). N2O, CO
and CO2 were quantified by NDIR spectroscopy (Uras
10 E, Hartman and Braun). Oxygen was analyzed by
means of magnetomechanics (Magnos 6 G, Hartman
and Braun). Total flow of reactant gases was kept at
700ml min-1. The temperature was linearly increased
from 150 to 500 C at the rate of 2.3 K min-1. (6)
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Figure 1.1 shows the result of TPR measurement of
Fe2O3 catalyst. The conversion of NOx and soot to N2
and CO2 occur in the temperature range of 350-500 C.
Where as the ignition temperature of soot is lowered
due to presence of catalysts. The non-catalytic soot
oxidation begins at about 570C.In the presence of
every catalyst the soot was completely oxidized during
the TPR experiments. The main product of NOx was
always nitrogen while N2O was formed in low
concentration, as a by product. The concentration of
NOx exhibits a broad minimum of 268ppm at 415 C
with a NOx conversion of 46%, whereas nitrogen
oxides are mainly reduced to N2, the formation of
unwanted by product N2O is negligibly small at a
maximum concentration of only 10 ppm.

III.

CATALYTICAL INVESTIGATION:
152

Concentration / ppm

Concentration / ppm

500
500

400

NOx

NOx

300

400

N2

200

N2
300

100

N2O

N2O
200

150

200

250

300
350
400
Temperature / C

450

500
100

Concentration of NOx, N2 and N2O during TPR


0

experiment. Catalyst: Fe2O3.

150

Figure 1.2 reflects information about the formation of CO


and CO2, during the NOx /soot reaction, over Fe2O3 catalyst.
It is evident that the main product of soot is CO2. The
conversion of CO to CO2 starts at 310C. The maximum
was observed at 22 ppm, while
concentration of CO
maximum concentration of CO2 was found at 1.5 vol%.
Concentration / Vol.-%

Concentration / ppm

40

1.5

30

CO2

200

250

300

350

20

CO

450

500

Concentration of NO, N2 and N2O during TPR experiment.


Catalyst: Fe 1.9 K0.1O3.

Fig 1.4 depicts the concentration of CO and CO2 during


TPR experiment over Fe1.9K0.1O3 catalyst. The conversion
of CO to CO2 starts at 270 C. The maximum concentration
of CO was observed over Fe1.9K0.1O3, catalyst, which
amounts to 40 ppm. The maximum concentration of CO2
was found at 1.4 vol %.

Concentration /
1

400

Temperature / C

Concentration / ppm

40

1.5

30

20

0.5

10

CO2

10

0.5

CO

0
150

200

250

300
350
Temperature / C

400

450

500

Concentration of CO and CO2 during TPR experiment.


Catalyst: Fe2O3.

0
150

200

250

Temperature / C
300
350

400

450

500

Figure 1.3 shows the effect of potassium as a Figure 1.5 shows TPR measurement over Cu0.9K0.1Fe2O4.
promoter in the modified catalyst Fe1.9K0.1O3. The
The NOx concentration decreases to 250ppm at 385 C,
result proves that in the presence of potassium, the
corresponding to 50% conversion of NOx. The
catalytic activity is significantly increased. It is clear
concentration of N2O in this experiement amounts to
from fig.4.3 that over the Fe1.9K0.1O3 catalyst the NOx
25ppm. Among the catalyst under the investigation ,
is reduced to 210 ppm at 355C, corresponding to a
Cu.9K0.1Fe2O4 shows the highest amount of N2O formation .
conversion of 58%. A second NOx concentration
minimum of 355 ppm can also be observed in the
same figure which could be related to the trace of
Fe2O3 present in the catalyst. An advantage is that the
ignition temperature of soot is decreased to 250 C
using the Fe1.9K0.1O3 catalyst. On the contrary, the
amount of N2 formed and the molar ratio of N2: N2O
is lowered than observed with the pure Fe2O3 catalyst,
although the NOx /soot reaction occurs at lower
temperature.

153

Concentration/ ppm
500
NOx

400

N2

Fig 1.8 depicts the concentration of CO and CO2 during


TPR experiment on Ni0.95K0.05Fe2O4 catalyst. CO2
conversion starts at 225C, reaching at a maximum
concentration of 1.27 Vol%, while the maximum
concentration of CO was obsereved is 6 ppm.
Concentration / Vol.-%

Concentration / ppm

40

N2O

300

1.5

30

CO2

20

CO

0.5

10

200
100
0
150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Temperature/ C
0

0
150

Fig. 1.6 reflects the conversion of CO to CO2 over


Cu0.9K0.1Fe2O4 catalyst. CO2 conversion starts at 310 C .
The maximum concentration of CO was obsereved at 14 ppm
while maximum concentration of CO2 is 0.6 Vol%.
Concentration / ppm

Concentration / Vol.-%

40

1.5

CO2

30

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Temperature / C

Concentration of CO and CO2 during TPR


experiment on

Ni0.95K0.05Fe2O4

Fig 1.9 shows the effect of NiFe2O4 catalyst. The NOx


concentration decreases to 350 ppm at 380 C,
corresponding to 30% conversion of NOx. While N2O
formed in low concentration is 9ppm as a byproduct.
Concentration/ ppm
500

20

CO

NOx

400
0.5

N2

10

N2O

300

200

0
150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

100

Temperature / C

Fig. 1.7 shows the result of TPR measurement over


Cu0.9K0.1Fe2O4 catalyst. The Nox concentration decreases to
310ppm at 390C , corresponding to 38 % conversion of
NOx. The formation of N2O amounts to 20ppm.
Concentration / ppm

0
150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Temperature/ C

Concentration of NOx, N2 and N2O during TPR experiment.


NiFe2O4

500
NOx

400

N2
N2O

300
200

Fig 1.10 represents the concentration of CO and CO2


during TPR experiment on NiFe2O catalyst. The conversion
of CO2 starts at 235 C. The maximum concentration of CO
was found to be 9 ppm. While maximum concentration of
CO2 is 1.1 Vol%.

100
0
150

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

Temperature / C

Concentration of NOx, N2 and N2O during TPR experiment on


Ni0.95K0.05Fe2O4

154

Formation of N2 (), N2O (), CO () and CO2 (z)

Concentration / ppm

Concentration / Vol.-%

40

during TPR experiment over Fe1.9K0.1O3 catalyst.

Figure 1.12 displays the result after 20 TPR runs, for


1.5

30

which only new soot mixture was prepared,

CO2

Fe1.9K0.1O3 catalyst is significantly de activated. At


1

20

this deactivation stage the activity of Fe1.9K0.1O3

CO

remains constant. Only one N2


0.5

concentration

maximum of 50ppm is then observed at relatively

10

high temperature, while N2O is not detected however


ignition temperature of soot is raised by catalyst
0

0
150

200

250

300

350

400

450

deactivation and is found to be 310 C and CO

500

Temperature / C

formation is further suppressed over the aged


Concentration of CO and CO2 during TPR experiment

catalyst. The BET surface area doesnt change, the de

on NiFe2O4

activation of Fe1.9K0.1O3 is supposed to be associated

From above results and discussion i-e by studying the


catalytic activity of the prepared catalyst it is evident
that Fe1.9 K0.1O3 shows high catalytic activity towards
the simultaneous conversion of NOx and Soot from
diesel engine exhaust. For this reason Fe1.9 K0.1O3
catalyst is selected for further investigation.
Fig 1.11 depicts the result of TPR measurement in

with agglomeration of the promoter potassium on the


catalyst surface. This supposition is confirmed by
TPR data of deactivated Fe1.9K0.1O3 and pure Fe2O3,
both catalyst show similar activity and high molar
ratio of N2 and N2O formation.

which fresh Fe1.9K0.1O3 was used. The main products


nitrous oxide and carbon monoxides are formed as a

/
) / vol.%
1.5
2O), 2c(CO)
60 c(N2), c(Nc(CO
ppm
50

by-product. Further it was found that fresh catalyst

40

exhibits two region of activity corresponding to

30

different active sites. Maximum rates of N2, N2O and

20

detected are nitrogen and carbon dioxide, while

CO2 formation were observed between 355- 400 C.

due to the presence of potassium i-e an interaction of

show similar activity in this

c(COO2 )) // v o l.%
1 2 5 c(N 2 ), c(N 2 O ),c(C
1 .5
ppm
100
1
75

aged

Fe1.9K0.1O3 catalyst.

soot has been carried out by using the deactivated


Fe1.9K0.1O3 catalyst.
Conclusion:

0 .5

This work is considered to be an

interesting alternative of the presently known


techniques. The result of TPR shows that Iron in
Particular

act

simultaneous

as

an

active

species

for

the

NOx/Soot removal. Iron containing

catalyst especially Fe1.9K0.1O3 causes relatively high

25
0

Formation of N2 (), N2O (), CO () and CO2 (z) over

The study of the effect of O2, NO2, H2O and catalyst

temperature range (fig.1.11)

50

0
1502 00250300350400
450500
Temperature / C

cationic iron and potassium surface species, while the


since pure Fe2O3

0.5

10

We assume that the activity of the first maximum is

second one is attributed to iron component alone,

yield of N2 and CO2.

0
1 5 02 0 02 5 03 0 03 5 04 0 04 5 05 0 0
Tem p er a tu re / C
155

24. L. Khalfallah Boudali, A. Ghorbel, P. Grange and F.


Figueras, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental
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156

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

SIMPLE ENERGY AUDITING OF MALE AND FEMALE CAMPUS INTERNATIONAL


ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD
S.Anam, S.Irum, S. Tahira and S.Anjuman.
DES. IIUI, Islamabad, UOP, Pakistan

Abstract- Natural resources are an important


source of national wealth around the world play
an important role in the development of a nation.
Due to limited amount of nonrenewable energy
sources it is important to conserve natural
resources so that they will be available for future
generations. Energy audit is a tool to conserve
energy. A simple energy audit was conducted at
male and female campus of International Islamic
university Islamabad. The data has been collected
through walk through survey. Total electricity
consumption was determined by calculating the
watts of existing electrical appliances in the
campuses and than calculate saving potential by
replacing three parameters computers, large tube
lights and air conditions by energy efficient
appliances. The results shows that by replacing
current electrical appliances installed in the
buildings about 26.5 % of energy would be saved
.The university is still under construction it is
suggested that in new buildings energy efficient
appliance should be installed.
Key words: energy audit, energy conservation,
energy management, energy efficient technology.
I. INTRODUCTION:
Energy which is also an important natural resource
and everything we do is connected to energy in one
form or another. Energy has a number of different
forms. All forms of energy fall under two categories
i.e. kinetic energy (Radiant energy, Thermal energy,
motion, sound, Electrical energy). Potential energy
(Chemical energy, Nuclear energy, stored mechanical
energy, Gravitational energy). Electrical energy is
most widely used form and a secondary source of
energy, which is obtained through the conversion of
primary forms of energy i.e. coal, nuclear energy,
natural gas, or oil etc. . Electricity is largely produced
by power stations burning fossil fuels. In Pakistan
electricity is the most important source of energy. It
has become a necessity in the present in commercial
sector. The major domestic users of electricity in
Pakistan along with their respective shares of
consumption are house hold with 45.6%, commercial
sector 7.4%, industrial sector 28.4%, agriculture sector
11.8%, street lights 0.6% and other government
sectors with 6.2% share in total energy consumption.
The residential consumption of electricity has the

highest share. (Source: Pakistan Economic Survey,


2007-08)
Pakistan with limited resources of fossil fuels and rain
dependent hydroelectric generation witnessing long
hour of power shut downs, reflects very well on
prevailing energy crises. The situation is alarming and
frustrating power availability position in the country.
This is high time to think of alternative such as
savings, need to identify and put them to practice.
Energy wastage in the building sector is one of the
large possibilities where saving opportunities can be
definitely sought.
Educational institutes and
universities buildings are organizations which are
functioning for building the nation and consume
energy in different forms and ways at large scale.
Uninterrupted power supply is the fore most need in
education sector. The area of study was International
Islamic University, H-10 sector Islamabad. It occupies
704 acres (2.85 km2) of land. Mainly the male and the
female campus have the most work load and hence
most energy consuming areas occupying departments,
class rooms, laboratories, auditorium, stationary and
photo state shops etc. Both campuses have three floors
and total 210 rooms each. The area of each campus is
280,000 feet.
THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY ARE:
1. To carry out the energy audit of male and
female campus of International Islamic
university Islamabad
2. To suggest the improvements in energy
system of International Islamic university
Islamabad making it more energy efficient to
conserve the energy.
3. To help the university administration in
saving energy bills.
II. METHODOLOGY:
Energy audit has been used as tool to assess the
energy consumption. It is
commonly used to
describe a broad spectrum of energy studies ranging
from quick walk though of a facility to identify major
problem areas to a comprehensive analysis of the
implications of alternative energy efficiency measures
sufficient to satisfy the financial criteria. A checklist
was developed to note detailed buildings information
as number of windows and ventilators in each room,
detail information of electrical appliance such as fans ,
exhaust fans , tube lights , bulbs , air conditioners ,
computers , multimedia, printers ,photo copiers,

157

k
electricall cooler , friddge , ovens annd electrical kettles
etc. A waalk through suurvey methodd was developed for
the inspeection of buiilding and too observe buuilding
structure, electrical aand room lighhtning assesssment.
The dataa analysis hass been done through Miccrosoft
excel. All
A the data of
o building, electrical andd gas
appliancees has enteredd in the excel sheet and anaalyzed
the data and
a then graphhs has been deeveloped.

potential of saving 44% off Current power usage by thhe


PCs.
100000
0
reduced
powerbyPC

III. RESULTS
S and DISC
CUSSIONS:
Energy conservationn can be achieved thhrough
increasedd efficient ennergy use, inn conjunctionn with
decreasedd
energy
consumptioon
or
reduced
consumpption from conventional energy sources.
Energy consumption can be reduuced by chaanging
behavior, by implemeenting energyy save policiees and
by installling less enerrgy consuminng appliances. This
energy audit
a
is a sim
mple audit. Inn this study power
p
consumed by the elecctrical appliannces is determ
mined
by colleccting the detaiiled informatiion about elecctrical
appliancees i.e. fans, exhaust fanns, air condiitions,
computerrs, bulbs, tuube lights, multimedia,
m
o
ovens,
refrigerattor, electric keettles, printer and electric cooler.
c
Total pow
wer consumed by these apppliances in female
f
and malee campus is 10, 14,426 watts
w
and 9,222,645
watts resspectively. Moost of These appliances
a
woork for
10 to 12 hours and thhe study is baased on the saving
s
potential of these threee parameters
1. The type off computers used in labss and
departments
2. Type of bulbbs and tube lights used in
i the
campus
i appropriate to the
3. The AC wattaage (either it is
area where it is operating or
o not)
A. Computers
a two typess of computerrs used in thee labs
There are
and for the departmeent work on thhe basis of thee type
of moniitor.
1. LCD monitorr
2.

CRT monitorr

D monitor coonsumes 1000 watts and CRT


An LCD
consumes 180 watts off electricity annd by replacinng one
CRT by LCD 80 wattts of the electtrical power can
c be
saved (A
ABA Alaskan Dictionary). Data shows that
t
in
the femalle and male caampus most of
o the computeers are
CRT. Total number of CRT computers in both
campusess is 343 and 2201, and consume total pow
wer of
84,600 watts
w
and 38,1160watts, if thhese computeers are
replaced by LCDs pow
wer consumptiion will be reduced
wer is
to 37,600 watts and116, 960. Totaal saved pow
w
and 21,2200watts resppectively. There is
47000 watts

currentpower
medby
consum
PC
C

r
by com
mputer after replaacement in femaale
Fig 1.1 power reduced
campus

20000
0
reduced
power
powerbysm
mall currentp
dbyTL
consume
TL

Fig 1.2 power red


duced by computer after replacementt in male campus

B. Tubee lights
In female annd male camppus mostly sm
mall tube lighhts
are working for
f the enlighhtenment. But at some placees
large tube ligghts are also innstalled. Poweer consumptioon
by small tubee lights is 30 w
watts and by laarge tube lighhts
is 50 watts (A
ABA Alaskann Dictionary). If a large tubbe
of poweer
light is replaaced by a smaaller one 20 watts
w
can be savedd. Data showss that total laarge tube lighhts
are 258 and 272 which consume 12,900 watts annd
13,600 wattss. By replacinng them with
h smaller tubbe
lights power consumptionn is reduced to 7,740 wattts
and 8,160wattts respectivelly. 40% of thee current poweer
usage
by
tube
ligghts
can
be
savedd.
20000
0
reduced
power
mall currentp
powerbysm
consume
dbyTL
TL

Fig 1.3 poower reduceed by tubee lights afteer


replacementt in female caampus

1588

200000
0
100000
0
0

20000
0
0
Reduced
powerbysmall
TL

powerr
reducedaafter
replacement

Currrentpower
consumedby
laargeTL

Fig 1.4 power reducced by smalll tube light after


replacem
ment in male campus
C. Air Conditionns
For enerrgy saving air conditioning,, it is necessarry that
the air conditions
c
d be in accorrdance
sellected should
with the area of room
m. to air condiition a room that
t
is
15 feet wide
w
and 20 feeet long, you would
w
calculaate: 15
x 20 x 20
0(Btu) = 6,0000. Thus, an airr conditioner with
w a
6,000 Bttu capacity would
w
be requ
uired that is of
o 0.5
ton. Requ
uired AC can be determineed by the follo
owing
formula
AC requ
uired (tons) = Area
A of room 20( btu)
12000
((EcoMallTM 1994-2010)

Daata
shows th
hat in female and
a male cam
mpus if the AC
Cs are
installed according to the area calcculated by fo
ormula
power co
onsumption iss reduced to 49,214.26
4
wattts and
51,495.26
6697 Watts while currentt usage is 1,18,667
watts and
d 1, 37,126 w
watts respectiv
vely.58.5 % can
c be
saved of the current poower usage.
20
00000
0
reeduced
pow
werbyAC:

Currentpower
C
consumedbyy
AC

p
reduced
d by ACs insstalled accordiing to
Fig 1.5 power
area in feemale campuss

ntpower
Curren
consu
umedby
AC

Fig 1.6 poweer reduced byy ACs installeed according to


t
area in male campus
c
D. Totaal power savedd in both camppuses
Calculations of data showss that by replaacing large tub
be
lights by sm
mall tube lightts, CRT monitors by LCD
Ds
and by installling air condiition calculateed according to
t
area about 26.5% of thee total powerr consumed by
b
campus can be
b saved.

%agepow
wersavedin
bothcaampusess
2
74%
curren
nt
use

1
26%
saved

1.7 percentag
ge of power saaved in both caampuses
IV. CONC
CLUSION:
Energy has everlastinglyy been an esssential resourcce
is on
in the progreess of any nattion. Energy shortfall
s
ne
of the hot issu
ues facing by the world tod
day particularlly
in developing
g countries i.ee. Pakistan. Itt is the need of
o
time to conserve energy bby using diffeerent strategiees
like energy managemennt; energy auditing an
nd
behavioral ch
hanges etc. T
This study is a step toward
ds
energy conservation at educational institutions
i
b
by
conducting a simple energgy audit of feemale and malle
campus of In
nternational Isslamic University Islamabad
d.
It is conclud
ded that a lot of energy caan be saved by
b
replacing thee current apppliances by en
nergy efficien
nt
appliances.
V. SUGG
GESTIONS:
ng recommenddations are heereby made on
o
The followin
the basis of th
he study:
1. CRT monitors should bee replaced by LCD monitorrs
LCD monito
or has more iinitial/ purchaasing cost thaan
CRT howeveer, LCDs havve longer life span and low
w
power consum
mption so thesse are cheaperr in long run.
2. Air condittion should bbe installed acccording to th
he
area calculateed by the form
mula

159
9

3. Campaign and seminars should be arranged for the


awareness about importance of energy
and to
motivate people to show positive behavior towards
energy conservation.
4. Make sure the maximum utilization of sunlight.
VI. REFRENCES:
1. Manczyk, H., (2000) Energy Accounting Audit
for Commercial Office Building
2. Janssen, R.,( 2004) Towards Energy Efficient
Buildings in Europe Euroace: the European Alliance
of Companies for Energy Efficiency in Buildings.
3. Nouri, J., Karbasi, A., R, Borgheipour and Taheri,
A (2006) Energy Management System Audit and
Implementation in Educational Buildings American
Journal of Applied Sciences
4. Martiskainen,M.,( 2007) Affecting Consumer
Behavior on Energy Demand Sussex Energy
Group SPRU - Science and Technology Policy
Research;
5. Thomas E. Curry., David M. Reiner., Mark A. de
Figueiredo & Howard J. Herzog; (2005)
A Survey of Public Attitudes towards Energy &
Environment Great Britain Laboratory for energy
and the ernvironment.

c.,
Thirumoorthy,n
and
Damodaran,
6.
Parthasarathy,P Energy audit in sugar industry
Engineering and consultants pvt. ltd.
7. Mata, J.,( 2003).Energy auditing as a first step for
efficient energy managementA focus on Buildings.
8. Ecogeneration.,( 2009) Australian Clean Energy
Directory Great Southern Press, Melbourne.
9. US Department of Energy.,(2009) Economics of
Energy Effective Lighting for Offices Energy
Efficiency and Renewable Energy.
10. New Jersey Department of Environmental
Protection. (2006) How to Conduct an Energy
Audit A Short Guide for Local Governments and
Communities.
11. Magasanik, M (2008) Defininga National
Energy Efficiency StrategyThe Climate Institute,
Sydney.
12. Ecogeneration(2009-10) Australian Clean
Energy Directory Great Southern Press Melbourne.
13. US Environmental Protection Agency,(2007)
Report to Congress on Data Center Energy Efficiency
Public Law USEPA, Washington DC.
14. CitySwitch Green Office Program,(2009) Office
Energy Efficiency. City of sydney

160

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

SURVEY, DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT, AND


INSTALLATION OF MICRO-HYDEL POWER
GENERATION
M.AJAZ

1. Abstract: This paper presents the survey, design,


development and installation Of micro-hydel power
generation using low head Kaplan water turbine.
Electricity production from hydro power has been and
still is today, the first renewable source used to generate
electricity. The development of
energy from renewable is very important step in
reduction of carbon emissions(C02).

2. INTRODUCTION
In new and renewable energy sources, micro-hydel
power(MHP) is mature technology. Long long ago,
human being learnt how to make use of water for power
and even at present in some countries primitive hydraulic
devices could be found. Nowadays MHP has been well
developed, with the application of new technology and
design to shorten its construction period and the first cost
being reduced by full use of local people and materials as
well as a series of preferential policies from the
government.

3. SELF POLICY
The 3-self policy, namely self-construction, selfmanagement, self-consumption, which means that the
people who invested and constructed MHP stations have
the right to manage the plant, to use the output of MHP
and to get benefits from the station.
Further developing MHP with benefits from existing
stations, which means that the benefit of MHP should be
reinvested to further develop MHP or local grids. Local
grids can have their own supply area and unified
management system of generation, distribution and
power supply, and be connected and mutually aided with
large(WAPDA)grids.
The government gives preferential loans and exemption
to MHP developers.
In Pakistan MHP construction was subsidized by ATDO
under the ministry of science and technology.

HYDRO ENERGY IS KNOWN AS TRADITIONAL RENEWABLE


ENERGY SOURCES, IT BASES ON NATURAL CIRCULATING
WATER FLOW AND ITS DROP FROM HIGHER TO LOWER
LAND SURFACE THAT CONSTITUTES THE POTENTIAL. IN
ORDER TO CONVERT THIS POTENTIAL TO APPLICABLE
ELECTRIC ENERGY, WATER FLOW SHOULD BE LED TO AND
DRIVE A TURBINE, TRANSFORMING HYDRO ENERGY INTO
MECHANICAL ENERGY, THE LATTER AGAIN DRIVES A
CONNECTED
GENERATOR,
TRANSFORMING
THE
MECHANICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRIC ENERGY. IN
NATURAL CIRCUMSTANCES, WHEN WATER FLOWS DOWN
THE COURSE BY GRAVITATION, THE HYDRO ENERGY IS
LOST IN OVERCOMING THE RESISTANCE AND SCOURING OF
RIVER BED. A HYDROPOWER SCHEME REQUIRES BOTH
WATER FLOW AND A DROP IN HEIGHT (HEAD) TO PRODUCE
USEFUL POWER. IT IS A POWER CONVERSION SYSTEM,
ABSORBING POWER IN THE FORM OF HEAD AND FLOW,
AND DELIVERING POWER IN THE FORM OF ELECTRICITY OR
MECHANICAL SHAFT POWER. NO POWER CONVERSION
SYSTEM CAN DELIVER AS MUCH USEFUL POWER AS IT
ABSORBS. SOME POWER IS LOST BY THE SYSTEM ITSELF IN
THE FORM OF FRICTION, HEATING, NOISE ETC.
THE CONVERSION EQUATION IS
POWER (INPUT)=POWER OUTPUT+LOSS
OR
POWER (OUTPUT) = POWER

INPUT*

CONVERSION

EFFICIENCY

FOR

EXAMPLE, IF THE SCHEME ABSORBS


DELIVERS 120KW,THEN THE LOSS IS
EFFICIENCY IS 60%

200KW AND
80KW.THE

THE EQUATION ABOVE IS USUALLY EXPRESSED SLIGHTLY


DIFFERENTLY. THE POWER INPUT, OR TOTAL POWER
ABSORBED BY THE HYDRO SCHEME, IS THE GROSS POWER,
PGROSS. THE POWER USEFULLY DELIVERED IS THE NET
POWER, PNET.
THE OVERALL EFFICIENCY OF THE SCHEME IS TERMED EO.
(FIG 1)

In Latin America, MHP development special priority. In


Canada and Czech & Slovakia provide favorable policy
in tariff and ten years of exemption to the MHP
company.
Considering the positive effect of MHP on environment,
some underdeveloped countries give preference to MHP
developers in licensing of the project.

ELECTRICAL POWER FROM WATER

Fig-1

161

PNET = PGROSS*EO

KW

THE

GROSS POWER IS GROSS HEAD (HG) MULTIPLIED BY


FLOW (Q) AND MULTIPLIED BY A FACTOR OF 10,SO THE
FUNDAMENTAL EQUATION OF HYDRO POWER IS

PNET=HG*Q*10*EO
METERS,FLOW IS IN

KW WHERE HEAD IS IN
CUBIC METER/SEC(CUSIC).THIS
SIMPLE EQUATION IS HEART OF ALL HYDRO POWER
DESIGN WORK.

BLADE DOES NOT CHANGE. ALTHOUGH TRADITIONALLY THE


PROPELLER IS PROFILED TO OPTIMIZE THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE
LIFT FORCES ACTING ON IT, DESIGN HAVE BEEN PRODUCED WITH
FLAT SECTION BLADES WHICH OFFER LESS EFFICIENCY BUT ARE
MORE EASILY FABRICATED. THIS KIND OF DESIGN CAN BE
CONSIDERED FOR MHP WHERE LOW COST AND EASE OF
FABRICATION ARE PRIORITIES. IT IS ALSO POSSIBLE TO USE
CASTING THE PROPELLER CASING IN CONCRETE, SUCH AS CHINESE
DESIGN THE SKETCH OF KAPLAN TURBINE IS SHOWN IN FIG2.

DESIGNING A MHP SCHEME


THE

RECOMMENDED APPROACH TO DESIGNING A SCHEME HAS


FOLLOWING STAGES;

1.CAPABILITY AND DEMAND SURVEY


IT IS ESSENTIAL TO ESTABLISH ACCURATELY HOW MUCH ENERGY
IS WANTED FOR WHAT PURPOSES, WHEN IT IS WANTED, AND
WHERE IT IS WANTED. CAN PROSPECTIVE CONSUMERS OF THE
ENERGY AFFORD A NEW ENERGY SOURCE, AND HOW MUCH ARE
THEY WILLING TO PAY FOR IT?.
IT IS ESSENTIAL TO ASSESS THE ORGANIZATIONAL CAPABILITY OF
THE USERS OF THE SCHEME. MICRO-HYDEL POWER IS OFTEN
PLANNED FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES WHERE MOST PEOPLE DO NOT
USE COMPLEX MACHINES. THE SCHEME WILL TEND TO INVOLVE
LARGE AMOUNTS OF CAPITAL AND SOME CONTRIBUTIONS IN
LABOR FROM LOCAL PEOPLE, WHO WILL HAVE HIGH
EXPECTATIONS OF THE BENEFITS THE NEW TECHNOLOGY WILL
BRING TO THEM. TO AVOID DISAPPOINTMENT DUE TO IRREGULAR
MAINTENANCE AND CASH FLOW DIFFICULTIES, IT IS BEST TO
ENSURE A SOUND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BEFORE STARTING THE
PROJECT.
2. HYDROLOGY STUDY AND SITE SURVEY
THIS ESTABLISHES THE HYDRO POWER POTENTIAL OF THE SITE. IT
SHOWS HOW THE WATER FLOW VARIES THROUGH THE YEAR, AND
WHERE WATER MUST BE TAKEN FOR THE CHEAPEST AND MOST
EFFECTIVE SCHEME. IT SHOWS HOW MUCH POWER WILL BE
AVAILABLE, AND WHEN IT WILL BE AVAILABLE. THE STUDY
TAKES INTO ACCOUNT THE VARIOUS USES OF WATER, FOR
INSTANCE IRRIGATION FOR AGRICULTURE, WHICH WILL TAKE
PRECEDENCE OVER HYDRO POWER. FOR THIS PURPOSE THE
SURVEY OF NALLAHA NEAR I.I.U IS CARRIED OUT. THE PLAN OF
NALLAHA IS SHOWN IN FIG 6. A SMALL EARTH FILL DAM IS
PROPOSED AT POINT A IN FIG 6.

KAPLAN TURBINE
THE BASIC KAPLAN TURBINE IS LOW HEAD WATER TURBINE USED
IN MHP. IT CONSISTS OF PROPELLER, SIMILAR TO A SHIP,S
PROPELLER, FITTED INSIDE A CONTINUATION OF PENSTOCK TUBE,
ITS SHAFT TAKEN OUT WHERE THE TUBE CHANGES DIRECTION.
USUALLY THREE TO SIX BLADES ARE USED, THREE IN THE CASE OF
VERY LOW HEAD UNITS. WATER FLOW IS REGULATED BY THE USE
OF SWIVELING GATES (WICKET GATES) JUST UPSTREAM OF
PROPELLER. THE PART FLOW EFFICIENCY CHARACTERISTIC TENDS
TO BE POOR. THIS KIND OF TURBINE IS ALSO CALLED FIXEDBLADE AXIAL FLOW TURBINE, SINCE THE GEOMETRY OF THE

FIG 2.

DRAUGHT TUBES
THE KAPLAN TURBINE USE AN ENCLOSURE BELOW THE RUNNER
KNOWN AS THE DRAUGHT TUBE. ONE PURPOSE OF THE ENCLOSURE
IS TO MAINTAIN A COLUMN OF WATER BETWEEN THE TURBINE
OUTLET AND THE DOWNSTREAM WATER LEVEL. THE SECOND
PURPOSE IS THE RECOVERY OF VELOCITY ENERGY OR KINETIC
ENERGY IN THE WATER LEAVING THE RUNNER. SINCE WATER HAS
TO LEAVE THE TURBINE RUNNER AT A RELATIVELY HIGH
VELOCITY IN ORDER TO EXIT FROM THE TURBINE STILL POSSESSES
SUBSTANTIAL PROPORTION OF THE AVAILABLE KINETIC ENERGY.
TO RECOVER THIS ENERGY EFFICIENTLY, THE WATER VELOCITY
MUST BE REDUCED GRADUALLY WHILE FRICTION LOSSES ARE
MINIMIZED. IF THE VELOCITY IS NOT REDUCED, WATER WOULD JET
OUT OF THE TURBINE OUTLET INTO THE TAILRACE AND ENERGY
WOULD BE LOST AS TURBULENCE IN THE TAILRACE. THIS
RECOVERY OF VELOCITY HEAD CAN BE OBTAINED BY GRADUAL
INCREASE IN THE CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF THE DRAUGHT TUBE,
RESULTING IN A GRADUAL REDUCTION OF THE VELOCITY. IN
GENERAL THE DIAMETER OF TUBE OUTLET IS ABOUT TWICE THAT
OF ITS INLET, AND THE ANGLE BETWEEN OPPOSITE WALLS OF AN
EXPANDING DRAUGHT TUBE SHOULD BE BETWEEN 7 AND 20 TO
GIVE OPTIMUM ENERGY RECOVERY.
There are two types of A.C generators suitable for use in MHD
electricity supply scheme. These are synchronous and
Asynchronous generators. Asynchronous generators are also
called induction generators. Induction generators are being
used increasingly in small micro-hydel schemes also. Their
advantages are that they are easily, simply constructed and
repaired, reliable, rugged, require little maintenance and can
withstand 100% over speed. Induction generators are easily

162

used as geneerators when connected


c
to an existing suupply
system (grid) and have been in this way forr many years. When
W
used in a stanndalone applicaation such as issolated micro-hhydel
scheme they require
r
fitting with excitationn capacitors, thhis is
shown in fig
. They can thhen be used to power single fixed
resistive load for
f instance a complete
c
set of village lights, either
e
all switched on, or all switchhed off. If fittedd additionally with
w a
voltage regulaation system (controller) they can be used ass allpurpose as suppply generators.
The stator andd rotor of Asyncchronous generrator is shown in
i fig
3
The water turbine driven
d
Asynchrronous generato
or can in fact bee
d to operate muultiple fixed reesistive loads, such
s
as villagee
used
lights, with only the
t addition off capacitors, iff some voltagee
variation and de-exxcitation probleems are tolerated for the sakee
of very
v
low cost. The
T developmennt, in recent yeaars, of a simplee
voltage and speed controller, the induction generator controllerr
(IGC
C), which hass overcome theese problems and made thee
stan
nd-alone inducction generatorr an increasin
ngly attractivee
prop
position for miccro-hydel schem
mes.
1) Fig-3
A
g
generator
is squuirrel cage typee and
The rotor of Asynchronous
rotor speed N=
=120*f/p(1-S)rppm
S=slip of gennerator and it iss negative in case
c
of a generrator.
Slip=Ns-N/Nss where Ns is thhe synchronous speed of generrator,
for three phasee winding Ns=1120*f/p rpm.

Stand-alone Asynchronou
A
s generator
The lagging reactive magnnetizing currennt of an induuction
machine can be
b supplied byy capacitors andd in the case of
o an
induction mottor this means that the capaccitors, if of coorrect
value, correct the power factoor to unity. Ideally, the same value
v
minals of the same
of capacitors connected accross the term
induction macchine will causee it to generate at the same vooltage
as that supplieed to it as a mottor if it is driveen at the same speed
s
in stand-alone conditions. In practice it wouuld have to be drriven
faster in orderr to produce thee same frequenccy as the slip is now
negative. Mooreover, the voltage
v
producced will be less,
especially wheen supplying cuurrent, as the voltage
v
drops innside
the machine are in the oppposite direction to those when
w
motoring. In fact one of the drawbackss of the induuction
generator is itts poor voltage regulation. Eveen whens drivven at
constant speedd, its output volltage drops rapiidly with increaasing
load as shownn in Fig4

Seleection of an induction
i
mottor for use ass an inductionn
gen
nerator
Man
nufacturers do not
n make inducction machines specifically ass
geneerators in the small
s
sizes likeely to be requiired for micro-hydeel schemes. To choose a motoor to act as a generator, simplyy
divide the generatoor rating that yoou require by a derating factorr
of 0.8.In
0
other woords if you wissh to supply 10k.w choose a
motor of 10/0.8=122.5k.w rating.
Fulll feasibility studdies
For full feasibility study three diffferent feasibilitiies are studied.
1: The
T nallaha nearr international IIslamic universiity Islamabad
is seelected for micrro-hydel power generation. Forr this purpose
the civil
c
survey of this
t site is carriied out. The vellocity of water
is measured
m
with thhe help of curreent meter and it is
0.66
6cusecft/sec andd volume of waater is 3.3cusecfft/sec.So it is
estim
mated that it is sufficient amouunt of water flow for 1k.w
pow
wer generation. The
T flow of waater is measured
d in three
diffeerent places in the
t nallaha. Thee head of waterr is also
suffficient for Kaplaan turbine operaation for powerr generation.
The water head is 10feet.The
1
highhest water level is 1664 and
hrough
loweest water level is 1653.So wateer is flowing th
grav
vitation. As shoown a small dam
m is proposed att point A in
Fig6
6

Fig-4

2)
3)
On the other hand,
h
the voltagge is much morre dependent onn the
speed with whhich it is drivenn than the synchhronous generattor as
shown in Fig55.

4)

Fig-6

and a micro-hydel power house iis proposed at point B. Thee


estim
mated cost off project is 22.4million rup
pees. The fulll
feassibility study is hand over to Project Directorate
D
forr
implementation.
he nallaha nearr Alshifa internnational hospitaal Islamabad iss
2:Th
stud
died for MHD.T
The plan of nallaha is shown in
n Fig7.

1633

Fig-7
The civil survey of nallaha is carried out. The flow of water is
measured with the help of current meter at three different
places in the nallaha. The water flow is 21.87cusec and
estimated out put power is 8k.w.A small dam is proposed at
point A in Fig7 and a small power house is proposed at point

B in the Fig7. The project cost is 13.4million Rupees. The full


feasibility study is hand over to project Directorate of Alshifa
international hospital for implementation.
3:A small water reservoir is used for rain water storage in
Tamer-e-Millat institute of technology Ratwal Teh Fateh Jang.
This storage water is pumped with the help of two pumps and
stored in masonry water tank of 30000gallons capacity. This
stored water is used for irrigation purpose with the help of
2.5inch dia p.v.c pipe. The Kaplan turbine is installed here with
special arrangement. The Kaplan turbine is installed below 10
feet this water tank. So the water head is 10 feet and turbine
gives 250r.p.m,and gives no power. Because the required speed
of turbine is 1000r.p.m.So the 6inch dia of p.v.c pipe is
proposed with 6inch gate valve for getting out put power from
turbine. But the experiment is carried out with 2.5inch dia of
p.v.c pipe.

References.
1.Surveying and leveling by TP Kanatkar
2.Surveying and leveling by S.K Hussain
3.Suerveying by David Clarks.
4.Advanced Surveying by P.Son Chost
5.A text book of Hydraulics, fluid mechanics & Hydraulic Machines by R.S Khurmi

164

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

The Role of Photovoltaics in Energy


Requirements in Pakistan
I. A. Shah, N. Ul-Haq and H. Nasir
Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME),
National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan
AbstractIn this review article global energy issue is
discussed with specific reference to Pakistan. The energy
consumption and supply from different sources like oil, gas,
electricity, nuclear power, bio gas and especially from
renewables is taken into account. Also discussed some
suggestions for the energy requirements. Focus is given to
the production of renewable energy sources like technology
of photovoltaics in which solar power is converted into
electricity. Solar cell is discussed including its two basic
types inorganic solar cell and organic solar cell, its way of
functioning, process of fabrication etc is also discussed.
Organic or polymeric solar cell is discussed in detail.
keeping in view the financial condition and requirement of
energy for our country suggestions are given for low cost
and simple processing of organic solar cells. It is also
suggested that availability of all the materials required for
the development of organic solar cells should be guaranteed.
Interest should be developed at the university and other
research organization level of Pakistan to do work on
polymeric solar cells for increasing their efficiencies so that
they can be practically utilized.

INTRODUCTION
Global energy issues
All over the world nations are faced with serious
problem of how to secure the resources needed to
generate electricity and meet the increasing demand
associated with economic growth [1]. Electricity
companies must take into account factors such as the
differing conditions specific to each country, the
economic viability of each option, the stability of the fuel
supply and the environmental impact issues.
Uranium provides high energy production per unit weight
of fuel and is relatively easy to ship and store. According
to the IEA Red Book, world uranium resources at an
acceptable cost are enough to supply the present level of
nuclear power for decades to come.
Natural gas is an environmentally friendly fossil fuel
since it does not contain sulfur that causes acid rain, and
its low carbon content compared with other fossil fuels
means that it has little inclusive warming effect.
The reality that there are still broad reserves of coal
in deposits spotted all around the world makes coal a very
economical and secure energy source. Also through the
improvement of efficiency of supercritical technologies
and through the use of cutting-edge "clean coal"
technologies such as Integrated Coal Gasification
Combined Cycle (IGCC), high power producing
efficiencies can be achieved, reducing CO2 emissions so

that power can be generated economically while still


protecting the environment.
Oil allows for flexibility in procurement while it
offers relatively few years of viable remaining deposits
compared with other fossil fuels, and the majorities are
distributed in the Middle East. Some power companies
use oil to cope with fluctuations in demand, using lowsulfur crude oil to minimize the environmental impact.
Hydropower uses natural energy and generates no
CO2 in power generation. Reservoir power stations with
stored energy facilities and pumped-storage power
stations are important power sources during peak periods.
Renewables are natural forms of energy, such as
solar, wind and geothermal, and have minimal
environmental impact. They can contribute to reduce the
use of limited fossil fuels.
By emerging technologies that use energy efficiently,
including energy-efficient appliances such as heat pumps
and energy-saving household appliances, and by
providing consumers with information on better ways to
use electricity and raise their awareness of energy
conservation issues, we can make energy efficiency better
on the demand side and effectively reduce greenhouse
gas emissions.
There is no one global formula for the finest mix of
energy supply options. Each country must work towards a
best possible solution that reflects all of its particular
regional circumstances, including the locally available
energy resources. Attention should also be paid to the
contribution of transmission networks to optimize the mix
and use of financial resources. By sharing their advanced
technologies, expertise and experience in formulating
best-mix energy supply solutions with developing
nations.
Energy Issues of Pakistan
Our country Pakistan is an energy-deficient country
and energy issue is the main thing to be discussed and
find suitable solutions for energy problems, here we will
discuss the energy distribution and supply in Pakistan.
Figure 1 shows the sectored distribution of energy in
Pakistan. The biggest sector is industry at 58 percent
followed by transport at 22 percent, household at 15
percent, agriculture and commercial 2 percent each and
other/govt. 1 percent. However, it should be noted that
the consumption mix of energy the industrial and services
sector changed over time electricity consumption
decreased, gas consumption increased. In addition, both

165

these sectors also increase their consumption of oil as


well.

Figure 1. Sectoral Distribution of Energy in Pakistan [2]

Supply of energy from different sources: For


Pakistan the main sources which supply energy is oil,
coal, gas and electricity, a large amount of increase in
supply was brought about by the increased availability of
natural gas [3]. Table 1 shows the energy distribution by
fuel type (in percentage) for the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s,
for various sectors of the economy.
As shown in Figure 2 energy consumption in Pakistan
in the last decade 1995-96 to 2004-05 has significantly
increased due to higher levels of economic growth; 5.1
percent 2002-03, 6.4 percent in 2003-04 and 8.4 percent
in 2004-05 to maintain this growth momentum the
Pakistani economy would require cheap and abundant
energy supplies in the coming years.
For this purpose an Alternative Energy Development
Board (AEDB) was established as an autonomous body
attached to the Cabinet Division vide Notification
No.F.1/7/2003/Admn II, dated 12th May 2003 [4]. The
Board was established to act as a central agency for
development, promotion and facilitation of renewable
energy technologies, formulation of plans, policies and
development of technological base for manufacturing of
renewable energy equipment in Pakistan. In Feb 2006,
the administrative control of the Board was shifted from
Cabinet Division to the Ministry of Water & Power. The
President of Islamic Republic of Pakistan, on 30th April
2005, promulgated an Ordinance for the establishment of
Alternative Energy Development Board. The National
Assembly of Pakistan passed the bill for establishment of
Alternative Energy Development Board on 28 February
2007, simply Pakistan want to maintain this board and
make it more and more beneficial for the country.
Solar Energy
Solar energy means radiant energy that is coming from
the sun, this energy has been harnessed by humans since
earlier times using a range of ever-evolving technologies.
Solar energy along with secondary solar-powered
resources such as wind, wave power, hydroelectricity and

biomass, account for most of the available renewable


energy on earth, only a small fraction of the available
solar energy is used [5].
Light energy powered electrical generation relies on
heat engines and photovoltaics. Solar energy's uses are
limited only by human ingenuity. Solar applications
include space heating and cooling through solar
architecture, potable water via distillation and
disinfection, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking,
and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.
To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to
use solar cells in the form of solar panels.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized into two as
either passive or active solar depending on the way they
capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar
techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels. Passive
solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun,
selecting materials with favorable light dispersing
properties, and designing spaces.
About half the incoming solar energy reaches the
Earth's surface. The Earth receives 174PW (peta watt) of
incoming solar radiation at the upper atmosphere. [6].
About 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is
absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectra
of solar light at the Earths surface are mostly spread
across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small
part in the near-ultraviolet.
Earth's land surface, rivers and atmosphere absorb
solar radiation, and this raises their temperature. Warm
air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises,
resulting atmospheric circulations [7].When the air
reaches a height, where the temperature is low, water
vapors condense into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's

Figure 2. Energy Demand and Supply Projection [2]

surface, completing the water cycle. The heat of water


condensation
amplifies
convection,
producing
atmospheric phenomena such as wind, cyclones and anticyclones. Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land
masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of
14 degree centigrade.
SOLAR CELL
A solar cell is a device that converts the radiant energy of
sun straight into electric current by the famous
phenomena known as photovoltaic effect [8]. Sometimes
166

the term solar cell is reserved for devices intended


specifically to capture energy from sunlight such as solar
panels and solar cells, while the term photovoltaic is used
when the light source is unspecified. Combinations of
many solar cells in different ways form solar panels, solar
modules or photovoltaic arrays. Photovoltaics is the field
of technology and research related to the application of
solar cells in producing electricity for practical
utilization. The energy generated this way is an example
of solar energy.
Photovoltaic Solar Cells or Inorganic Solar Cells
The photovoltaic effect, i.e. light induced voltage, was
exposed in 1839 by E. Becquerel when he shed light onto
an AgCl electrode in an electrolyte solution [10]. C. Fritts
demonstrated the first solid-state solar cell in 1883 by
depositing a thin layer of Au on Se semiconductor [9,10].
The semiconductor served as the light absorber to convert
photons into electron-hole pairs, and the internal electric
field in the Au/ Se Schottky junction separated the photoexcited charge carriers. The two basic processes, that is
light absorption and charge separation, are still the basis
in all inorganic solar cells today. Modern solar cells were
patented in 1946 and established in 1954 by Chapin,
Fuller, and Pearson at Bell Laboratories. Their cell
employed a single-crystal Si (sc-Si) wafer for light
absorption and a p-n junction for charge separation, with
an efficiency of ~5%. Figure 3 illustrates the principle of
this cell. Photon absorption is throughout the wafer and
extends outside the depletion region. Therefore, charge
separation involves diffusion of photo-excited charge
carriers toward the depletion region. This makes the
quality of the whole wafer critical in terms of minority
carrier lifetime and carrier mobility for high efficiency. In
comparison, it is the quality of the surface region which
matters most in CMOS (complementary metal oxide
semiconductor) devices, since CMOS operation takes
place within a thin layer (<100 nm) of the wafer surface.
Although the efficiency of solar cells has been improving
gradually since 1954, the best part of todays commercial
solar cells still resemble the Bell Laboratories cell, i.e.,
they utilize a Si wafer in either single-crystal or
polycrystalline form for light absorption and a p-n
junction for charge separation.
Schematically the cross section and fabrication process of
a common structure for sc-Si cells is shown in Figure 4 .
It starts with a p-type Si(100) wafer with resistivity of ~1
-cm. The wafer is first etched in either NaOH or KOH
to form micro scale pyramids with (111) facets on the
surface. The textured surface reduces light reflection,
since reflected light from a pyramid often strikes another

Figure 3. Principle of wafer Silicon solar cells photon absorption is


throughout the wafer and charge separation often involves diffusion
of photo exited charge carriers [11, 12].

pyramid, thus a second chance of incidence. A p-n


junction is formed by diffusing an n-type dopant, often P,
into the front side of the wafer for a typical depth of ~0.5
m. The backside electrical contact is formed by reacting
a screen-printed Al film with the wafer to form an AlSi
compound. The front finger contact is also screen printed
with an Ag paste. The typical width of the contact fingers
is ~200 m and the separation between two fingers is ~3
mm, for a balance between minimum resistance and
minimum light shadowing. Finally a transparent material,
often SiNx, is deposited on the wafer as an antireflection
coating by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

Figure 4. Cross section (d) and fabrication process of single crystal


Si solar cells (a) surface texturing (b) n-emitter diffusion (c)
metallization and (d) antireflection coating [13].

(PECVD) [14].
Photochemical Solar Cells or Organic Solar Cells
There are other ways of generating electricity straight
from the sun. We saw how photovoltaic solar cells rely
on the photovoltaic effect that occurs at semiconductor
junctions, and how the semiconductor performs the two
jobs of absorbing the light and separating electrons
[15,16]. One of the problems with this approach is that,
because of the sensitive nature of the cells, they must be
manufactured in dust free conditions in order to be clean
and free from defects which might slow down their
operation. This works effectively however, it is
expensive. The thing about photochemical solar cells is
that they use cheap technology. Titanium dioxide is not
some rare chemical that requires expensive processing, it
is already produced in large quantities and used
commonly furthermore, you dont need an awful lot of it
only around 10 g per square meter is sufficient. The
photochemical solar cell has full-grown out of an
expanding branch of technology, looking at how we can
take off natural processes to make more advanced
technologies. Rather than having a single thing to do all
of the jobs, as in a conventional photovoltaic cell,
photochemical solar cells take off processes that occur in
nature. Electron transfer is the base for all life in cells it
occurs in the mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells
which convert nutrients into energy. Titanium dioxide,
while not straight away springing to mind as a household
name, is included in a lot of the products that we use
every day. In paints, as a pigment, it is recognized by its
name titanium white. It is also used in products such as
toothpaste and sunscreen. Titanium dioxide is great at
absorbing ultraviolet light.
167

How do photochemical solar cells work?


In the Figure 5 we can observe that energy transfer taking
place, light striking the photochemical solar cell,
generating energy and turning the shaft of the electric
motor, which is connected to cell [17]. The radiated
energy from the sun in the form of light is being
transformed through a chemical process into electrical
energy, which travels through the circuit to the motor,
where electromagnets turn the electrical energy into
movement (kinetic energy). We require looking at the cell
in a little more depth to understand the chemical
processes that are taking place in it in order to generate
the electricity. The dye when it is excited by light injects
an electron into titanium dioxide with which the plates
are coated and semi conducts [18].
I. Suggestions
1. Industrialized countries need large investment to
maintain electricity infrastructure and face the pressures
of demand growth. Huge investments are required and a
stable and expected regulatory framework will facilitate
private investment.
2. Cooperation among electricity companies from the
countries to achieve significant improvements in
electricity technology is essential to meet the challenges
of energy security and climate change.
3. Communication networks need to be further integrated
and modernized to create regional efficiency and
optimize the use of resources.
4. The Flexible Mechanisms negotiated under the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
should recognize the contribution of all forms of

electricity generation including large hydro, nuclear and


best available clean coal technologies as well as sinks
such as carbon capture and geological sequestration in
managing global emissions of greenhouse gases.
5. International financial institutions should prioritize
energy issues and develop suitable financial mechanisms
to attract private investment in and transfer technology to
developing countries.
TABLE VI.

ENERGY DISTRIBUTION BY FUEL TYPE IN PAKISTAN

Oil

1980s
Gas

Household

35.5

Agriculture
Industry

[3]

Electricity

Coal

25.5

38.4

0.5

29.9
12.9

0.0
53.6

70.1
19.9

0.0
13.6

Services

86.2

5.7

8.1

0.0

Transport
Commerce

100.0
3.0

0.0
40.2

0.0
56.9

0.0
0.0

Others/Govt.

66.1

0.0

33.3

0.6

1990s
Oil

Gas

Electricity

Coal

Household

39.3

39.1

21.6

0.0

Agriculture
Industry

38.8
30.5

0.0
54.0

61.2
6.2

0.0
9.3

Services

92.5

4.9

2.6

0.0

Transport
Commerce

99.9
7.8

0.0
61.0

0.0
31.2

0.0
0.0

Others/Govt.

65.2

0.0

34.8

0.0

Oil

Gas

Electricity

Coal

Household

5.8

62.4

31.8

0.0

Agriculture
Industry

32.9
28.8

0.0
56.2

67.1
5.4

0.0
0.0

Services

88.2

9.2

2.6

0.0

Transport
Commerce

96.8
0.0

3.2
71.3

0.0
28.7

0.0
0.0

Others/Govt.

51.9

0.0

48.1

0.0

2000s

Figure 5. Function of photochemical solar cell or Polymeric solar


cell [17].

168

6. The mandates of present international institutions


responsible for energy issues should represent and
reconcile the interests of both producer and consumer
countries.

15 May 2009, p. 891.


[9] U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Research Needs for
Solar Energy
Utilization (2005).

J. Summary
Now we have question in mind that at what degree
polymer solar cells can commercially compete with solar
cells which are totally silicon based. The silicon solar cell
industry has the important industrial advantage of being
able to cover the infrastructure developed for the
computer industry. Besides, the present efficiency of
polymer solar cells lies near 10 percent, much below the
value for silicon cells. Polymer solar cells also suffer
from environmental degradation. Good protective covers
or sheets are still to be developed.
Still, organic photovoltaic devices show great promise for
decreasing the cost of solar energy to the point where
it may become widespread in the decades ahead. While
great progress has been made in the last ten years with
respect to understanding the chemistry, physics and
materials science of organic photovoltaics, work remains
to be done to further improve their performance.

[10] U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information


Administration
(http:// www.eia.doe.gov/).
[11] E. Becquerel, Comptes Rendus vol 9 p. 46.
[12] R. Ohl, U.S. Patent 2,402,662 (1946).
[13] D. C. Fuller, and G. Pearson, J. Appl. Phys., vol 25,
p.676
(1954).
[14] D. S. R. Einhaus, Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells,
vol 72, p27
(2002).
[15] B. R. M. Grtzel, Nature vol 353 p.737 (1991).

References

[16] M.K. Nazeeruddin, A. Kay, I. Rodicio, R. H. Backer,


E. Mueller,

[1] B. Mert article New energy order and Fast


Principles 2010.

P. Liska, N. Viachopoulos, M.Grtzel, J. Am. Chem.


Soc. 115

(1)

[2] M.A. Mahmood Report of Energy issues in Pakistan


(2006).
[3] State Bank of Pakistan Second Quarterly report for
Fiscal Year 2006.
[4] Workshop of A.E.D.B held in Islamabad 12 Oct,
2010.

(1993).
[17] M. Grtzel, AIP Conf. vol 404 p.119 (1997).
[18] M. Grtzel, K. Kalyanasundaram, Curr. Sci vol 66,
p.706
(1994)

[5] J. Perlin, From space to earth: The story of solar


Electricity, Harvard University Press, 1999.
[6] A. Vecchia, W. Formisano, V. Rosselli, D. Ruggi,
"Possibilities for the Application of Solar Energy in
the European
Community Agriculture". Solar energy, vol. 26,
1981.
[7] M.Z. Jacobson Review of solutions to global warming
(2009).
[8] R. M. Swanson. Photovoltaics Power Up, Science,
Vol. 324,
169

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

U.S. NRC Training for


Research and Training Reactor Inspectors
Gary M. Sandquist and Jay F. Kunze, Fellows, ASME and ANS
Abstract- Currently, a large number of license
activities (Early Site Permits, Combined Operating
License, reactor certifications, etc.), are pending for
review before the United States Nuclear Regulatory
Commission (US NRC). Much of the senior staff at the
NRC is now committed to these review and licensing
actions. To address this additional workload, the NRC
has recruited a large number of new Regulatory Staff
for dealing with these and other regulatory actions such
as the US Fleet of Research and Test Reactors (RTRs).
These reactors pose unusual demands on Regulatory
Staff since the US Fleet of RTRs, although few (32
Licensed RTRs as of 2010), they represent a broad
range of reactor types, operations, and research and
training aspects that nuclear reactor power plants (such
as the 104 LWRs) do not pose. The US NRC must
inspect and regulate all these entities. This paper
addresses selected training topics and regulatory
activities provided US NRC Inspectors for US RTRs.
Index Terms Regulations, Research & Test Reactors, US
NRC, Training.

I - INTRODUCTION
The safety and security of the nuclear reactor operations in any
part of the world or in any application is of concern not only to
the nation hosting the reactors, but also the entire world
nuclear community. It has been justifiably said that a reactor
accident or major incident anywhere is of concern and action
everywhere. The accidents at TMI II in the US in March 1979
and Chernobyl in April 1985 are evidence of this great
concern. The safety and security, or lack of these, have
technical, political, and economic consequences for all nations
and ubiquitous consequences throughout the world. The
principal role of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(NRC) is securing the safety of the public while licensing and
regulating the design, construction and operation of nuclear
reactors in the United States.
II. INSTRUCTION TOPICS
A summary of the training topics presented for NRC
Inspectors. [1]
1.0 Facilities and Operations at Research and Training
Reactors (RTRs)
1.1 Administration and Staffing
1.2 Radiation Protection

ALARA Program
Sources of Radiation
Personnel Radiation Monitoring
Radiation Surveys
Experiments
Radioactive Waste Management
1.3 Instrumentation and Control Systems (ICS)
Radiation Detection Systems
Neutron Detection Systems
Reactor Control Systems
1.4 Material Aging Management
Aging Mechanisms in Nuclear Reactors
In-Service Inspections (ISI) for RTRs

2- Reactor Physics
Nuclear Reactions
Neutron Balance
Nuclear Cross Section
Slowing Down of Neutrons
2.1 Multiplication Factor
Reactivity
Reactivity Temperature Coefficients
2.2 Control Rods
2.3 Fission Product Poisons
2.4 Reactor Kinetics
Effect of Delayed Neutrons on Generation Time
Delayed and Prompt Critical
Prompt Jump and Prompt Drop
Excess Reactivity and Shutdown Reactivity
Reactivity of Experiments
Control Rod Reactivity Worth
Transient Rods and Inherent Feedback
2.5 Power Distribution
Reflector Effects
Control Rod Effects
Void, Flux Trap, and Experiment Effects
2.6 Critical Loading and Reactor Startup
2.7 Fuel Storage
2.8 RTR Fueling Options
Low-Enriched, Low-Concentration U
High-Enriched, Low Concentration U
Low-Enriched. High-Concentration U
Physics of High-Enriched U Systems
Physics of Mixed Cores
2.9 Physics of Reactor Pulsing - TRIGA
2.10 Physics of Heavy Water Moderated RTRs

170

III US RESEARCH AND TEST REACTORS (RTRs)


The operating organization and staffing level for Research and
Training Reactors (RTRs) differ significantly from commercial
nuclear power reactors (NPRs). At RTR facilities (especially at
universities) regulated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission
(NRC) there are significant staffing differences between
administration, facilities, and operations depending on mission,
financial support and level of utilization of the particular RTR.
NPRs have a single focus, namely the safe, economical, and
efficient generation of electricity for distribution and sale. The
NPR site is organized and given the technical, financial, and
personnel resources required to maintain high plant availability.
The NPR is staffed for continuous shift operation and expeditious
on-line and corrective maintenance. All plant work is done with
careful attention to regulatory requirements and oversight by the
onsite NRC Inspector(s) and adequate radiation protection staff to
maintain personnel radiation exposure as low as reasonably
achievable (ALARA). These NPR personnel along with the support
of engineering, procurement, clerical, quality assurance, and other
specialist groups form an organization composed of hundreds of
personnel with a mission of producing a single product, electrical
power for distribution and sale.
In contrast, RTRs are usually a small component within a larger
organization with a mission broader and more diverse than
sustained reactor operation and production of electrical power.
Thus, the mission and activities of the RTR staff differs greatly
from that of the NPR. The staff size and expertise together with the
mission of a small RTR are inter-related. The mission of the RTR
may be limited by its small staff size and the expertise of its
personnel. The same facility could have a significantly expanded
mission if the staff and resources were available to manage and
promote the RTRs use. In contrast to NPRs, sustained operations at
RTRs is not usually essential and a forced RTR outage lasting a
few days or longer is not the concern it would be for NPRs. A
comparison of the major differences between power and RTRs is
provided in Table 1.
Currently there are 32 NRC-licensed RTRs that fall into one of
three categories:

3 RTRs in Private industry: Dow Chemical Company,


Aerotest Operations, Inc., and General Electric Company
Nuclear Test Reactor

3 RTRs at US Federal facilities: US National Institute of


Standards & Technology,
Armed Forces Radiobiology
Research Institute, US Geological Survey, US Department of
Interior

Academia. (26 RTRs)


The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI)
studies the biological effects of radiation. The National Institute of
Science and Technology (NIST) RTR provides specialized neutron
beams for its world class Center for Neutron Research where basic
science research and materials studies are performed. The mission
of the US Geological Survey (USGS) RTR is primarily to
characterize geological specimens to fulfill the USGS overall
mission.

Table 1: Major Differences between NPRs and RTRs


Nuclear Power Plants
(NPRs)

Research and Test Reactors


(RTRs)

Operated as heat source for


power production

Operated as intense neutron


sources

Operated continually at full


power during entire fuel cycle

Small RTRs: Frequent power


cycling. Large RTRs:
Continuous Operation

Slow, methodical, infrequent


power changes
Core power shaped for
maximum fuel cycle burnup
Access restricted to small
operating staff
Productivity measured by
electrical energy generated at
a high capacity factor
Secondary plant facilities
affect reactor safety
Fission product inventory
decay heat to damage fuel
Fuel enriched to 3 to 10%

Frequent start-ups and rapid


power changes
Power within limits for
experimental needs.
Intended for supporting many
students and researchers
Productivity measured by
number of students trained and
researchers supported
Reactor operator aware of
activities by users
Only large RTRs exhibit decay
heat limits
LEU fuel (3% to 20%). HEU
fuel (>20%) replaced by LEU
Neutron beams extracted for
irradiations and experiments
RTR range core size, design,
experimental facilities
RTR power range from 5 W to
20 MW- range of 4 million

Shielding integral to design to


avoid neutron escape
Standardization of NPRs to
produce electrical power
NPR power range from ~1500
to 4000 MW(th)- 2.67 range

The 26 US University RTRs have operating organizations ranging


from a one or two member operating staff to several dozen full and
part time staff. The usual reason for a small staff at an RTR,
insufficient to provide significant research services, is that the RTR
is also a significant pedagogical tool requiring minimal investment
and operating expense.
At the higher end of the academic spectrum of utilization are the
university RTRs engaged in basic nuclear research that provide
academic and outside users with neutron activation and irradiation
analysis, neutron radiography, radionuclide supplies, neutron
irradiation services, medical applications, material studies, and
basic science research supported by nuclear reactor facilities.
The current NRC Licensed RTRs as of 2010 are shown in Table 2.
The table provides the Docket and License Number, Reactor Type,
Facility, and Licensed power level in kW. The 26 US University
RTRs have operating organizations ranging are the university
RTRs engaged in basic nuclear research that provide academic and
outside users with neutron activation analysis, neutron radiography,
radionuclide supplies, neutron irradiation services, medical
applications, material studies, and basic science research supported
by nuclear reactor facilities.

171

IV RADIATION PROTECTION

Table 2: NRC Licensed RTRs at US Universities


Docket

License

Reactor
Type

50-184

TR-5

Tank/Plate

50-186

R-103

Tank

50-20

R-37

Tank

50-607

R-130

TRIGA

50-193

R-95

Pool/Plate

50-602

R-129

TRIGA

50-5

R-2

TRIGA

50-243

R-160

TRIGA

50-170

R-84

TRIGA

10

50-274

R-113

TRIGA

11

50-27

R-76

TRIGA

12

50-156

R-74

TRIGA

National Institute
of Standards &
Technology
U of Missouri
Columbia
MIT
UC, Davis
McClellan
Nuclear Research
Center
Rhode Island
AEC
U of TX
Pennsylvania
State U
Oregon State U
Armed Forces
Radiobiology
Research
Institute
US Geological
Survey (USGS)
Washington State
U
U of WN

13

50-128

R-83

TRIGA

Texas A&M U

1,000

14

50-297

R-120

PULSTAR

1,000

15

50-223

R-125

Pool/Plate

NC State U
U of
Massachusetts
Lowell

16

50-150

R-75

Ohio State U

500

17

50-264

R-108

Pool/Plate
(MTR)
TRIGA

300

18

50-326

R-116

TRIGA

19

50-288

R-112

TRIGA

20

50-228

R-98

TRIGA

21

50-188

R-88

TRIGA

Dow Chemical
U of CaliforniaIrvine
Reed College
Aerotest
Operations, Inc.
Kansas State U

22

50-166

R-70

TRIGA

23

50-123

R-79

POOL

24

50-113

R-52

TRIGA

25

50-407

R-126

TRIGA

26

50-73

R-33

NTR

27

50-83

R-56

28

50-182

R-87

Argonaut
Pool/Plate
(MTR)

Facility
U - University

Power
Level
(kW)

U of MD
U of Missouri Rolla
U of AZ

20,000
10,000
5,000
2,300
2,000
1,100
1,100
1,100
1,100
1,000
1,000
1,000

1,000

250
250
250
250
250
200
110

U of UT
GE Nuclear Test
Reactor
U of FL

100

Purdue U

100
100

30

50-59

R-23

AGN-201

Rensselaer
Polytechnic
Institute
Texas A&M U

31

50-284

R-110

AGN-201

Idaho State U

0.005

32

50-252

R-102

AGN-201

U of NM

0.005

29

50-225

CX-22

Critical
Assembly

Operations at RTRs inherently carry the potential for personnel


exposures to elevated levels of ionizing radiation in excess of
national background levels. The US National Council on Radiation
Protection and Measurements (NCRP) in Report 160 reported in
2006 that the average radiation exposure of US residents is now 6.3
mSv. Significantly, 48% of this US average exposure is now
associated with medical applications of radiation and less that 0.1%
is associated with all industrial uses including all nuclear reactors.

0.1
0.005

ALARA, which is a result of this conservative regulatory


philosophy, is defined as the policy of making reasonable efforts to
maintain exposures to ionizing radiation as far below regulatory
dose limits as is practical. The standard operation of ionizing
radiation facilities and activities at near regulatory limits is an
unacceptable practice. ALARA is thus a philosophy of practice
associated with applications associated with ionizing radiation. It is
not a numerically defined regulatory limit nor is it a mandated
series of procedures that must be implemented without exception.
ALARA is also a practical policy in that it recognizes that radiation
and radioactive materials provide beneficial products and services
for humans including medicine, science, energy, industry and other
benefits. The basis of ALARA also assumes that any level of
exposure to radiation must be assumed to have some associated
level of risk to human health. This implies that for any activity
resulting in human exposures to radiation, it is necessary to ensure
that:

Benefit of activity greater than potential harm from radiation


Risk level from occupational exposures doesnt exceed risks
acceptable in other occupations with high safety standards
Public risk less than or equal to other normal risks accepted by
society.

ALARA applied to RTRs


ALARA programs at RTRs are established and documented in
accordance with Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations,
Part 20.1101 (10CFR20.1101) [2]. The typical goal for most RTR
facilities is to limit radiation levels in unrestricted areas to about
10% of 10CFR20.1301(a)(1) [3] using training, shielding and
operational procedures with periodic review of these activities.
Records documenting ALARA activities, personnel exposures, and
reviews are standard items for NRC inspections.
a) Sources of Radiation
Of course the original source of most of the radiation sources found
at a RTR are those associated with the nuclear fission process and
the succeeding radiation and radioactive materials produced as a
result of the fission process in the RTR core. This cascading
process of nuclear and radioactive reactions is depicted in Figure 1.
Observe that the end result of the complex chain of reactions is a
broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation (EM) spanning the
energy spectrum from visible (Cherenkov) UV to MeV gamma rays
Besides the radiation emanating from the RTR during operation
and even during shutdown, there are many other potential sources
of radiation at RTRs such as fixed point sources, airborne, liquid,
and solid sources. In general, radiation sources found at typical
research and test reactors can be classified into the following
general classes:

Calibration and check sources

172

Startup, and other sources used for instrumentation and


nuclear support functions
Airborne, liquid, and solid radiation sources from operations
Radiation sources produced within experimental facilities
Fission products as applicable

documented to satisfy license and NRC requirements. Documented


inventories of all SNM are required on a prescribed basis.
A typical irradiated TRIGA fuel element in a 1 MW TRIGA
Reactor has a radiation field greater than 1 Gy/hr in air at 1 meter
when the element is removed from the reactor tank. Radiation dose
rates from handling these elements are the primary concern for
radiation protection of personnel. Thus, spent fuel element transfers
involving irradiated fuel are performed by reviewed and written
procedures and with adequate shielding to meet appropriate
radiation limits. Typically, such fuel management operations
produce a High Radiation Area and a fuel element transfer cask is
employed to reduce personnel exposures.
An important, potential source of radiation and radioactivity in
sources at RTRs, other than irradiated fuel, is the release of fission
products from the irradiated reactor fuel. Those detected
radionuclides through chemical analyses and detectors used in
helium sweep systems of the primary coolant system include
radioactive gases of xenon, krypton, and Cs-138 (a daughter
product of Xe-138. Radioactive isotopes of iodine (e.g., I-131) are
of particular concern. However, using the typical makeup rate for
the helium system at NIST, for example, less than 3.7 GBq of these
radionuclides are released annually. These release concentrations
are low (less than 0.01Bq/liter) and thus represent a negligible
contribution to the total gaseous emissions.

Figure 1: Radiation Cascade from Nuclear Fission


Liquid radioactive material is not routinely produced or used in
normal operations of RTRs, with the exception of neutron
activation of impurities in the primary coolant. A filter(s) and
demineralizer resins remove the majority of these impurities. Other
radioactive waste can be generated from decontamination,
maintenance, or laboratory activities. Radionuclides and their
concentrations in the environment of the RTR depend on reactor
power, reactor operating time and time since reactor shutdown.
Typical sources of these radiation sources are shown in Table 3
Table 3: Typical RTR Sources of Radioactivity at RTRs
Major Radiation Sources Associated with RTR Operations
Liquid
Solid
Airborne
Ar41, N16,
H3 , Ag110m, Cu64,
Co60, Fe55, Fe59,
H3, C14
Cu66
Zn65, Na24
(soluble irradiated
(irradiation
assemblies)
nuclides)
Reactor Fuel
Unirradiated fuel at RTRs poses very low external radiation
exposure to workers. The principal issues regarding new fuel are
criticality issues and safe and secure storage. The fuel classified as
Special Nuclear Material (SNM) is controlled under the operating
license of the RTR and must be handled, stored, and properly

(b) Experimental Radiation Sources


Neutron Beams
The majority of research at a research and test reactor use neutrons
of various energies to study material constituents, processes, and
structures. These neutrons are often extracted from the reactor core
via neutron beam tubes (i.e., channels along which neutrons can
travel to the experiment). Neutron beams at an RTR typically range
from a few square mm to 200 square cm. Beams with an in-beam
dose rate in excess of 1 mSv/hr and are accessible (have an open
path in excess of 30 cm) are designated as High Radiation Areas. A
characteristic of well-designed neutron beam tubes is that the
radiation field outside of the beam is usually low, less than 0.05
mSv/hr. However, experimental samples and equipment at the
beam stop can result in Radiation Area or even High Radiation
Area conditions. These areas must be controlled as required by
10CFR20 Sections 1601 and 1902 [4]. Non-beam related and
short-term experiments are also shielded and controlled to keep
personnel exposures ALARA.
Pneumatic Systems and In-Core Exposure Facilities
Experiments and their configurations utilizing pneumatic and incore facilities are highly variable, frequently producing multi-curie
activity sources. All elements of the activity, facility usage,
experiment management, disposal, and potential personnel
exposures are addressed by technical review and administrative
authorization processes. Typically, holding the irradiated
experiments in a shielded configuration to allow sufficient decay
prior to direct manipulation, processing, or analysis is a primary
ALARA policy used in these situations.
Both Ar-41 and N-16 are produced in the section of the pneumatic
transfer system that is located in the reactor core. During operation
of the pneumatic transfer system, air containing very small amounts
of these two radioisotopes is exhausted from the system through a
HEPA filter to the facility stack. Experience at RTRs has shown
that even after repetitive operations of this system, there have been

173

no detectable increases in the release of these two radioisotopes.


Therefore, the Ar-41 and N-16 from the pneumatic transfer system
is not generally considered to be a measurable contributor to the
radioisotopes released or exposure rates associated with reactor
operations. However, operating records must demonstrate that this
is true.

c) Radiation Surveys
The main purpose of the radiation survey program is to assure
radiological surveillance over selected reactor facility work areas in
order to provide information and trending characteristics and
assessment of the existing ALARA program. Data of this type is
used to confirm that safe radiation working conditions exist within
the various operational areas under surveillance and to reduce
personnel exposures where possible.
The first objective of the radiation survey program is to assure that
the monitoring program is organized such that routine radiation
level and contamination level surveys of specific designated areas
and activities within the facility are performed. Also special
radiation surveys are performed as necessary to support nonroutine facility operations.
A second objective of the program is to make frequent on-the-spot
personal observations (including recorded data) of radiation work
areas. These observations may provide advance warning of needed
corrections in order to ensure safe use and handling of radiation
sources and other radioactive materials.
A third objective is to use the information that has been gathered
through completion of the first two objectives in order to ensure
(and document) that all phases of the operational and radiation
protection programs are consistent with the goal of keeping
radiation doses to personnel and releases of radioactivity to the
environment ALARA.

i.
d)
Operations Radiation Levels
Depending on the class/research workload, a typical RTR operates
for only one shift per day or less (40 hours per week). Facilities
such as the University of Missouri RTR and NIST will typically
operate a 24-hour shift schedule. An occupationally exposed
individual only spends a fraction of the time in areas where there is
a potential for measurable radiation levels. Radiation surveys of a
reactor facility are usually performed within the restricted area
during full-power operations to ascertain an exposure rates for
personnel working in the vicinity. Typical values of radiation levels
at various locations at a typical 1 MW TRIGA are provided in
Table 4. Taking into consideration the limited occupancy times,
the relatively low dose rates observed, and typical personnel doses
received by the reactor staff, it is common that occupational doses
can be maintained below the regulatory limits given in 10 CFR 20.
i)
(1)
Authorization and Conditions for Experiments
Administrative requirements exist at RTRs to assure that all
experiments are performed in a manner that will ensure the
protection of the public. Experiment review meets the requirements
of Regulatory Guide 2.2 [5}, and Standard ANSI N401-1974
(ANS-15.6) [6] as modified by Regulatory Guide 2.4 [7]. The two
Regulatory Guides identifies the considerations that should be
addressed to define limits and other requirements are included in
the technical specifications for the RTR.

Table 4 Typical RTR Radiation Levels RTRs at 1 MW

Facility Location
Reactor Pool
Surface
Reactor Bay Floor
Demineralizer
Tank
Primary Water
Pipes
Primary Water
Filter

Typical Dose Rate


Equivalent on
Contact (mSv/hr)
1 (typically N-16)
1
25

Typical Dose Rate


Equivalent @ 30 cm
(mSv/hr)
0.65 (typically N16)
1
1

10

<1

Considerations and safety analyses for experiments should address:


(1) Interaction of an experiment with the reactor system that has
the potential for breaching any primary barrier for fission
product release from fuel, interaction of an experiment with
the reactor system that has the potential for breaching any
primary barrier for fission product release from fuel
(2) Interaction of an experiment with the reactor system that has
the potential for breaching any primary barrier for fission
product release from fuel, interaction of an experiment with
the reactor system that has the potential for breaching any
primary barrier for fission product release from fuel
(3) Any interaction of an experiment with the reactor system that
could adversely affect any engineered safety features or
control system features designed to protect the public from a
fission product release
(4) Any inherent feature of an experiment that could create
beams, radiation fields, or unconfined radioactive materials
(5) Potentially adverse interaction with concurrent experimental
and operational activities.
(6) Reactor Control Circuits
e)
RTR Control Rods
Control rods are used to adjust flux within the core. Often, it is
desirable to adjust the height of the individual control rods. Most
RTRs contain have a rod position indication device connected
(most often chain driven) to the rod drive motor. The rod position
indication device generates a signal proportional to the distance
traveled by the control rod.
Most RTRs have two classes of reactor control rods (i.e., thermal
neutron absorption rods), safety rods and regulating rods. Safety
rods provide safe shutdown capability for the reactor and generally
have a large negative reactivity capacity (several $). Safety rods are
connected to the rod positioning equipment via an electromagnet.
Upon receipt of a scram signal, a current amplifier supplying
current to the electromagnet, de-energizes (i.e., fails safe), causing
the safety rod(s) to drop into the core and shutting down the
reactor.
Regulating rods (usually with significantly lower reactivity worth)
are used to accurately adjust and control reactor power. A third
class of control rods (referred to as a transient rod) is associated
with those TRIGA reactors licensed for pulsing operations. The
transient rod is designed to move very rapidly (fires), exiting the
core and producing a large positive reactivity increase within the
reactor core (reactivity > 1$).

174

For pulsing operations, often the regulating rod is directly


connected to the positioning motor to prevent the regulating rod
from scramming. Safety rods on the other hand are required to
scram if an unsafe condition develops during the pulsing operation.
The transient rods also retain their scram capability.
In the late 1980s instrumentation designers introduced reactor
control systems that convert the analog information from radiation
detectors into digital signals that can be readily processed by digital
controllers and computers. Many RTRs have installed such digital
based systems to replace aging analog systems. In general, digital
based systems are more accurate, reliable and exhibit improved
output for operational control of the reactor. The important physical
and nuclear properties and signals to be measured and controlled in
a RTR include the following as shown in Table 4
Table 4 Measurement Parameters in RTRs
Neutrons (e.g., counts and counts/s)
Neutron flux (e.g., nts/cm2-s)
Gammas (e.g., counts/s, mSv/hr, Gy)
Charged particles (alphas, betas, fission fragments in counts/s)
Fission events (e.g., kW(thermal)/cc)
Temperature (e.g., oC, oF)
Pressures (e.g., psi, kPa, atmospheres)
Fluid flow of air and water (e.g., cfm, gpm)
Component movement and position (e.g., control rods, etc.)
Reactor startup and operating ranges for the range of power levels
for RTRs are shown in Figure 2. The figure displays those typical
meters and the monitoring range corresponding to a typical RTR
power level (e.g., 1 MW). Observe that a fission chamber is used
for reactor startup when the neutron signal is very low and the large
amplification produced in the fission chamber.
In Region A of the figure a wide range log power channel provides
the necessary indication of power as the reactor is brought from
startup within the operating level of RTRs operating in the MW
power range. A multirange linear power channel is also used in this
range with stepping of the power within each decade range of
power. As the reactor power approaches a few percent of the
licensed power level, ion chambers provide measurements of the
power level as shown in Regions C and D. The ranges of these
various channels, e.g., wide range log power channel, multirange
linear power channel, and % power channel are indicated in the
figure and their operating ranges are displayed.

IV RTR FUELING OPTIONS


In contrast with Light Water Reactors (LWR), there is wide
variation in the physics and engineering principles underlying the
designs and operating characteristics of research reactors. The
reason is that different RTR designs and uses emphasize different
reactor operational objectives. Among the objectives, some RTRs
maximize in-core thermal neutron fluxes and external neutron
beam physics, while others are concerned with building a foolproof safe training facility. In the latter category, an organization
concerned with building one unit for its own use probably
emphasizes high-neutron economy and versatility. A group
primarily concerned with becoming a training reactor supplier and
vendor would emphasize safety features, competitive costs,
standardization, and unique patentable design features.

Figure 2: Neutron Channel Measurement Ranges for an RTR.


a) Low-Enriched, Low-Concentration Uranium
Most university research and training reactors (RTRs) can be
classified as low enriched (less than 20% U-235) and low
concentration uranium The majority of these RTRs are hydrogen
moderated, usually water, however the AGN reactors are
moderated by polystyrene, CH2 (or H2C), very similar to H2O in
hydrogen density. These reactors are essentially undermoderated
so that reduction in moderator from temperature increase or boiling
will provide a negative temperature and void coefficient.
A prime example of a RTR supplier is the TRIGA Reactor line
designed and marketed worldwide by Gulf General Atomic (GA) in
San Diego, CA. The most notable and unique feature of this reactor
is the special reactor fuel used in TRIGAs. In 1956, a team of
distinguished physicists at General Atomics, including Frederic de
Hoffmann, Freeman Dyson, and Ted Taylor, developed a novel
reactor fuel that exhibited such a large, prompt negative reactivity
temperature coefficient, that the TRIGA fuel could experience a
prompt critical condition without fuel failure. The following
description will not trace the long historical basis for developing
and testing this new fuel (see GA-471, Technical Foundations of
TRIGA, August 1958), but describes briefly the nucleonics and
thermal-hydraulics of the U-ZrHx-fueled reactors. As shown
below, TRIGA fuel rods incorporate a high concentration of
chemically combined hydrogen and zirconium, so these rods are
actually fuel-moderator rods.
The traditional standard TRIGA fuel element contains uranium
enriched to 20% U-235 with about 8.5% weight as uranium
uniformly mixed in the zirconium hydride matrix. There is nearly
the same density of hydrogen in the ZrH1.6 as in the H2O, so for
most of the neutron slowing down energies the fission neutrons are
moderated essentially as if the moderator were pure water (the

175

order of 70% to 80% volume fraction. However, as the neutron


energies approach the binding energy of the hydrogen in the
zirconium lattice (about 1 eV), the apparent hydrogen mass is
similar to that of zirconium, so any further thermalization must
occur primarily in the water surrounding the TRIGA fuel element.
The bound hydrogen atoms in the ZrH vibrate in place and can
even transfer some kinetic energy to a colliding neutron. When this
occurs, the average neutron energy in the fuel rod is increased
above the average neutron energy in the surrounding water, and
these faster neutrons have a greater chance of leaking out of the
fuel rod without causing fission. When the total fission rate
increases and raises the fuel temperature, there is increased
vibration of the bound hydrogen and a larger fraction of the
thermalized neutrons will gain energy through collisions. The
energy of the average neutron in the fuel rod will thus be higher,
with a higher probability of not causing fission (because the fission
cross section is inversely proportional to velocity) and thus having
higher probability of leaking into the surrounding water. The net
effect of this rather complex process is a decrease in the thermal
utilization f as the temperature rises in the uranium-zirconium
hydride. Because the uranium is intimately mixed with the ZrH,
the heat transfer from the uranium and temperature rise of the ZrH
is instantaneous, so the result is a highly useful, prompt negative
temperature coefficient of reactivity that dominates the other
temperature dependent reactivity terms, as discussed below.
Because there is a high ratio of U-238 to U-235 in the standard
TRIGA fuel (about 4 U-238 atoms per U-235 atom), the Doppler
broadening of U-238 resonance absorption (that directly affects the
resonance escape probability p) also produces a prompt negative
temperature coefficient of reactivity that acts for epithermal
neutrons independently of the thermal utilization effect described
previously. These two negative reactivity mechanisms (f and p) are
additive and together contribute about 80% of the total negative
temperature coefficient of low-enriched TRIGA fuels. The
remainder of the reactivity temperature coefficient is due to
increased neutron leakage from the core at higher moderator
temperatures.
This prompt temperature coefficient is inherent in the TRIGA fuel
and highly stabilizes reactor operation around the steady-state
mode of operation. This coefficient has such a large negative
reactivity effect upon some RTRs that it is the basis for allowing
TRIGA reactors to safely and routinely operate in the pulse mode
routinely with reactivity insertions greater than one dollar. Of
course power reactors (e.g., LWRs) do not have such TRIGA fuel
properties, viz., the resultant large, prompt, negative temperature
coefficient, and should never operate in a pulsed mode.
Finally, in summary, there are three components of the prompt
negative temperature coefficient for TRIGA fuel that all lead to
reduction in the effective multiplication factor in the reactor core.

As the temperature of the Zr-H in the fuel increases (this


change is immediate with the fuel temperature) neutrons in the
fuel leave the fuel and enter the surrounding water with higher
energy.

As the fuel temperature increases, absorption resonances


(principally in U-238) Doppler broaden and the resonance
escape probability decreases, decreasing the effective
multiplication factor.

The increase in the coolant moderator (water) increases the


mean free path for neutrons increasing core leakage.

b) High-Enriched, Low Concentration Uranium


Gulf General Atomic (GA) has also developed a TRIGA fuel using
high-enriched uranium (HEU) (70% U-235) but still containing
about 8.5 wt% total uranium in the zirconium hydride. This was
designated as Fuel Lifetime Improvement Program (FLIP) fuel.
The objective was to increase the U-235 loading, thereby
increasing the fuel lifetime and neutron flux intensity and reducing
core size. To maintain an approximately constant reactivity over
the extended life, a burnable poison, erbium, was added to the fuel.
Erbium was chosen because of its strong absorption resonance for
neutrons of about 0.5 eV to maintain a large prompt negative
temperature coefficient of reactivity. With a resonance this close to
thermal neutron energies, some of the neutrons that have been
slowed down in the water to below the resonance energy are
scattered back up at high fuel temperature. This results in another
chance for neutron absorption by erbium.
The net effect is that the thermal utilization of slow neutrons
decreases as the fuel temperature increases. Because these neutron
processes all occur within the fuel rods, there is again a large
prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. As before,
the higher the fuel temperature, the larger the fraction of neutrons
scattered back up to higher energy within the fuel rod. As the
erbium is depleted however, the magnitude of this temperature
coefficient decreases. In the FLIP fuel, there is much less U-238 to
contribute to the Doppler-effect component of the temperature
coefficient because of the high-uranium enrichment. Careful design
has produced a FLIP uranium-zirconium hydride fuel with a
prompt negative temperature coefficient whose magnitude is near
that for the standard TRIGA fuel but is based partly on a different
mechanism that changes slowly with fuel burn up.
c)
Low-Enriched, High-Concentration Uranium
Because of Reactor Safeguard concerns over the use of highly
enriched HEU fuel in research reactors, GA has recently developed
an additional modification of the FLIP concept. This design returns
to the 20% U-235 enrichment. But to obtain the desired lifetime
longer than the original TRIGA fuel, the loading of uranium is
increased from 8.5% to 20 or 30 wt% uranium. As with the FLIP
fuel, the reactivity is initially suppressed and maintained
approximately constant during fuel use by incorporating the same
burnable poison, erbium. The loading of uranium and erbium are
chosen so that the temperature coefficient of reactivity is still large,
negative, and prompt, with about 20% to 25% of the reactivity
effect due to the Doppler absorption broadening in the U-238
resonances. This newer fuel may become a TRIGA fuel standard in
the future and has essentially the same inherent safety features as
the original TRIGA fuel, but now satisfies Reactor Safeguard
considerations.
For both the high-enriched uranium (HEU) FLIP fuel and the highloaded low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, as the burnable poison
depletes and the magnitude of the temperature coefficient
decreases, the magnitude of reactivity change that can be safely
compensated tends to decrease. This is a slow process, but the
licensee must be aware of this change and adjust operating
procedures accordingly. One licensing consequence is that
Technical Specifications that authorize pulsing operation in a
TRIGA reactor must limit fuel temperature or energy excursion per
pulse, rather than excess reactivity for the new LEU fuel.

176

d) Physics of High-Enriched Uranium Systems


A principal objective of research reactors is to obtain high neutron
fluxes with the least impact from dissipating the high heat
generated. It is apparent that the lower the concentration of U-235,
the higher the neutron flux must be for the same power density. But
a critical mass of U-235 must be maintained to make the reactor
operable. It can be shown that the minimum critical mass is
obtained when the thermal utilization is at a maximum for the
system and occurs for minimum non fission absorptions of thermal
neutrons. This implies minimizing the nonproductive neutron
absorbers that inherently accompany the U-235. Because the U-238
is a major neutron absorber, this further implies using the highest
enrichment of U-235 possible. When research reactors were first
designed in the 1940s and early 1950s, designers favored the use of
HEU. Safeguard concerns were not as evident then as they are
today. HEU was generally available from the former Atomic
Energy Commission (AEC) and was preferred by most designers of
research reactors.
The development of HEU reactor cores follow closely with the
general concepts of criticality considered earlier. However, because
a reduced fraction of uranium fuel is U-238 in HEU, there is
reduced absorption of neutrons in resonances and the negative
reactivity (Doppler absorption) effect on heating of the fuel is
reduced. The first research reactor designed to use enriched
uranium was a liquid homogeneous reactor designed and operated
at Los Alamos. The first licensed nongovernment-owned research
reactor in the US was designed and built at North-Carolina State
University based on the design of this Los Alamos reactor.
Another major design criterion was to build research reactors to
operate at the highest power densities feasible. This led to the thinplate design of HEU metal dispersed in an aluminum complex. This
type of fuel was developed for the Materials Test Reactor (MTR)
reactor in Idaho and later adapted for submarine nuclear power
reactors for the US Navy. After the MTR had operated successfully
for about a year, adoption of this fuel for general purpose research
reactors also became the choice for future RTRs. However, the
thin-plate HEU fuel had no significant prompt negative temperature
coefficient of reactivity to counteract rapid increases in reactivity,
so an experimental program was initiated at Idaho to investigate
excursion-limiting and possible shutdown mechanisms. This
program, first called Borax and then SPERT, both located at Idaho,
confirmed the absence of any significant prompt inherent
mechanism for HEU plate fuel and showed that expansion and
expulsion of coolant/moderator that was relatively slow was the
principal reactor shutdown mechanism. These experiments became
the bases of safety considerations for HEU plate-type research
reactors.
e)
Physics of Mixed Cores
The fuel and poison loadings of TRIGA fuel rods have been chosen
so that they all have about the same net effect on reactivity. This
means that the new highly loaded 20% enriched uranium rods can
replace either 20% enriched lightly loaded or the 70% enriched
lightly loaded rods without a significant change in reactivity
conditions.
However, since the power density in a fuel rod is related to the U235 concentration, a single high-fueled rod located within an array
of low-fueled rods could cause higher power densities and much

higher temperatures in that rod than in its low-fueled neighbors.


Because of this concern, careful analyses must precede and
accompany any plan to make rod-by-rod changes from one fixed
uranium loading to a different one. If the entire core is changed
from one uranium enriched loading to a significantly different one,
the problem does not arise because the power density distribution
will now be approximately uniform over the core. Significantly,
from a safety standpoint, this problem is not unique to TRIGA fuel
but could occur for any fuel type for which a wide range of
uranium enrichment loadings is available for core insertion.

IV RTR PULSING OPERATIONS


In addition to TRIGA uranium-zirconium hydride fuel, another
reactor fuel has been developed for research reactors that also have
a large prompt, negative temperature coefficient. This reactor fuel,
very similar to light-water power reactor fuel, is composed of
sintered uranium oxide pellets enclosed in a sealed cladding tube.
This fuel has been named PULSTAR because its intended use was
in a dual-purpose steady-state and pulsing research reactor. Like
the TRIGA fuel, the PULSTAR fuel has a large negative
temperature coefficient that is contained within the fuel itself and
so acts promptly and independently of the moderator. Such a
mechanism acts to decrease reactivity if the fuel temperature rises
and reduces the rate of fission activity. If the magnitude of the
coefficient is large enough, the reactivity effect can compensate for
an excess reactivity that is larger than one dollar, so the reactor
might be operated in the pulsing mode without fuel damage.
For the PULSTAR reactor, the only significant temperaturedependent neutron absorption mechanism is Doppler broadening of
the U-238 resonances. To attain a sufficiently large negative
temperature coefficient, it is necessary to increase the ratio of U238 to U-235 by a factor of about three or four above that for the
20% enriched TRIGA fuel. Thus, PULSTAR fuels that are
currently in use consist of U-235 enrichments of only 4% and 6%,
respectively.
These fuels provide a prompt negative temperature coefficient of
reactivity comparable to TRIGA fuels. Not only are the PULSTAR
reactors very stable in steady-state operation, but they also are
designed for safe pulsing. Both of the NRC Licensed PULSTAR
reactors have operated safely and successfully in the pulsed mode,
but it has not been found to be an important feature to retain, so this
provision has been deleted from PULSTAR reactor licenses.
The process for pulsing a reactor requires a neutron absorbing
control rod that can be ejected rapidly, inserting a step increase of
reactivity in the reactor greater than one dollar ($ > $1). This puts
the reactor on a prompt period (i.e., operating on prompt neutrons
alone), and the power level increases exponentially with time with
a reactor period associated with prompt neutrons (i.e., several
milliseconds) only. As the power level rapidly increases, the fuel
temperature also increases until at some elevated fuel temperature
the prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity reverses
the excess reactivity and terminates the reactor pulse.

This inherent event returns the reactor back to critical state, but at a
high-power level. The continuing generation of power raises the
temperature of the fuel higher and the reactor becomes subcritical
and power level decreases to final equilibrium level. If the rate of

177

heat transfer from the fuel is adequate and fuel does not fail,
the power pulse produces approximately the same temperature
change in the fuel during the power decrease as during the
prompt power increase.

to $5.0, resulting in power peaks up to 7140 MW, integrated


energy production of 46 MW-sec (MJ) per pulse, and peak
temperatures up to about 1150 oC.

Both the TRIGA fuels and the PULSTAR fuels are designed
with these characteristics. These fuels can be used safely in the
pulsed mode of operation and are essentially invulnerable to
damage from inadvertent or accidental insertions of reasonable
values of excess reactivity. GA has demonstrated non
damaging pulses in TRIGA fuel with reactivity insertions up

The authors wish to express appreciation to the US Nuclear


Regulatory Commission for the opportunity to develop and
present this course material to the Research and Test Reactor
Regulatory Staff.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES
[16] Research and Test Reactor Technology Course, HRDT Course R-106B, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, dated 2010, Washington
D.C.
[17] Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20.1101 (10CFR20.1101).
[18] Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20.1301(a)(1) (10CFR20.1301(a)(1).
[19] Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20.1601 and 1902 (10CFR20 Sections 1601 and 1902).
[20] US Nuclear Regulatory Guide 2.2. (See reference 7)
[21] Standard ANSI N401-1974 (ANS-15.6) (See reference 7).
[22] US Nuclear Regulatory Guide 2.4

178

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Underground Coal Gasification (UCG): Clean


Coal Technology (CCT)
N. Islam*, N. Ul-Haq*, H. Nasir* and S. Tahir*
*

School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, NUST, Islamabad, Pakistan

Abstract In this era of technology, when every nation is


striving hard to maintain their energy strategic channels
intact and find the way to explore new frontier of renewable
& sustainable energy resources, underground coal
gasification (UCG ) provides unique opportunity to meet the
future energy need. Although this UCG tech is still under
sanitization stage but still a number of countries adopting
this technology. Specially country like Pakistan, where man
created energy crisis exist, a large reserve of thar coal is
blessing in disguise and UCG is way forward to utilize this
for bright future of the country. This paper explores the
UCG basic aspect ranging from prologue to global cohort in
this field. The energy, economic and environmental
demands of the 21st century appear to support a renewed
and expanded role for commercial UCG development.

INTRODUCTION
Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a gasification
process applied to non-mined coal seams, using injection
and production wells drilled from the surface, which
enables the coal to be converted in situ into product gas.
In other words underground coal gasification (UCG)
converts coal in place (underground) into a gaseous
product, commonly known as synthesis gas or syngas.
The process has produced commercial quantities of gas
for both chemical processes and power generation.
During the UCG process, much as in conventional
gasification methods, an oxidant reacts with coal of the
underground coal seams, and part of released sensible
heat is used in coal drying, pyrolysis and the endothermic
reactions that reduce the combustion products. The
resulting mixture is UCG gas. The gas composition
depends on the coal geology as well as the process
parameters. It can be produced using a variety of
oxidants, including air and oxygen-rich gaseous blends.
Based on application of 1978 technology, world-wide
coal reserves corresponded to about 3.04 x 1012 bbl of oil
equivalent, with the US share of 28% of the total
exceeding that of Europe (20%), the USSR (17%), China
(16%), and other countries [1].
Scope of Underground Coal Gasification?
Pakistan is increasingly looking to its coal reserves as
a solution to its dependence on imports to fuel its
economy. Pakistan has huge Thar coal reserve which can
provide a secure domestic energy supply for electricity
production. While petroleum imports may be vulnerable
due to geopolitical uncertainties, domestic coal extraction
and usage are limited primarily by environmental
concerns. Utilizing coal in place of oil, therefore, poses

Figure1: Cartoon of UCG reactor cavity with paired vertical wells.


Reactor is below water table, preventing uncontrolled fires. Air or
O2 enters the injection well and syngas exits the production well.
Water enters from the coal and surrounding rocks. Courtesy of
ErgoExergy, Inc.

numerous challenges, including reducing the impact of


coal mining and combustion on the environment and
human health, and the need to improve technologies to
cleanly convert coal to liquid fuels or gas. The phrase
"Clean Coal" itself seems to be contradiction in terms.
When we speak of Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) we
mean advanced coal based utilization systems that offer
Significant benefits when used for power production,
pollution control or the conversion of coal into other
alternate energy products.
UCG has numerous advantages over conventional
underground or strip mining and surface gasification,
including:
Conventional coal mining is eliminated with UCG,
reducing operating costs, surface damage and
eliminating mine safety issues such as mine collapse
and asphyxiation;
Coals that are un mineable (too deep, low grade, thin
seams) are exploitable by UCG, thereby greatly
increasing domestic resource availability;
No surface gasification systems are needed, hence,
capital costs are substantially reduced;
No coal is transported at the surface, reducing cost,
emissions, and local footprint associated with coal
shipping and stockpiling
Most of the ash in the coal stays underground, thereby
avoiding the need for excessive gas clean-up, and the
environmental issues associated with fly ash waste
stored at the surface;
There is no production of some criteria pollutants
(e.g., SOx, NOx) and many other pollutants (mercury,

179

particulates, sulfur species) are greatly reduced in


volume and easier to handle.
UCG eliminates much of the energy waste associated
with moving waste as well as usable product from the
ground to the surface;
UCG, compared to conventional mining combined
with surface combustion, produces less greenhouse gas
and has advantages for geologic carbon storage. The
well infrastructure for UCG can be used subsequently
for geologic CO2 sequestration operations. It may be
possible to store CO2 in the reactor zone underground as
well in adjacent layer.

the reaction that produces the syngas comprising H2 and


CO. However, as shown this reaction is endothermic,
and needs external heat input to proceed to any
significant extent. This heat is provided by the two
oxidation reaction, (Reactions 5 and 6). A part of the coal
is combusted by these two reactions to sustain Reaction
1. In addition, a number of side reactions also take place,
such as methane formation (Reactions 3 and 4) and the
Boudouard reaction (Reaction 7). Additional hydrogen
can be made from the syngas by Reaction 2, wherein the
available steam reacts with the CO in the syngas to
generate more H2 and CO2 begins [6].

While UCG is a proven technology, albeit only in the


initial stages of commercialization, the technologies
needed for the analogous concept of down-hole refining
in the oil industry have not yet been developed. Downhole refining, like UCG, has great potential to improve the
environmental and economic picture for fossil fuel
extraction and is a strategic long-term goal of many major
oil companies. Approaches developed and lessons learned
from UCG may help to shorten the timeline for down-hole
processing of liquid fuels [2].

(1) Heterogeneous water-gas shift reaction H = +118.5


kJ mol-1

FUNDAMENTALS OF COAL GASIFICATION


All coal gasification processes, including underground
coal gasification, involve the following basic chemical
reaction:
Coal + Heat
Char + Tar + Water + Gases

(I)

This pyrolysis reaction proceeds rapidly, requiring


relatively modest amounts of heat. The gases produced
include hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane (desired
species) and carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide
(undesired species). Solid particles often are entrained in
the product gases and brought to the surface where they
must be filtered out. Char, the principal carbonaceous
product of coal pyrolysis, is a hydrocarbon with a
hydrogen-carbon atomic ratio of 0.1 to 0.4, depending on
the temperature and which the pyrolysis takes place. The
char is formed by the heat generated from the burning of
the coal with injected oxygen. In the more detailed
reactions shown below, we have substituted carbon for the
char to show simple stoichiometric and exact heats of
reaction, even though char (not carbon) is the actual
reactant. There are two oxidation reactions involved, both
of which are fast and liberate considerable energy:
C + O2
CO 2 + 393.5 kj / mol
C + 1 O2
CO + 110.5 kj / mol
2

(II)
(III)

The overall chemistry underlying coal gasification


processes is well understood from reaction 1 to 7 &
summarizes the important overall reactions participating
in the coal gasification process. The most important
reaction is the gasification reaction (Reaction 1). This is

C + H 2O
H 2 + CO

(2) Shift conversion H = -42.3 kJ mol-1


CO + H 2 O
H 2 + CO 2

(3) Methanation H = -206.0 kJ mol-1


CO + 3H 2
CH 4 + H 2 O

(4) Hydrogenating gasification H = -87.5 kJ mol-1


C + 2H 2
CH 4

(5) Partial oxidation H = -123.1 kJ mol-1


C + 1 O2
CO
2
(6) Oxidation H = -406.0 kJ mol-1
C + O2
CO 2

(7) Boudouard reaction H = +159.9 kJ mol-1


C + CO 2
2CO [2]

UCG Process
Gasification is a chemical process for converting a
solid or liquid fuel into a combustible gas that
subsequently can be used to produce heat, generate power
or as a feedstock for chemical products such as hydrogen,
methanol or synthetic natural gas. Hundreds of surface
gasification plants have been constructed. More than 160
coal gasification plants worldwide are in operation,
producing the equivalent of 50,000 MW (thermal) of
syngas. UCG may safely operate under many different
conditions and ranks of coal. However, in
the near term, environmental concerns prompt
consideration of site characteristics well before burn
initiation:
Potential sites must meet minimal requirements
(Table1)
Stratigraphic and structural characterization is
needed to satisfy information requirements for rapid
qualitative risk protocols;
Preferred consideration should be given for sites
deeper than 200 m;
Preferred consideration should be given for sites with
strong or rigid overlying strata;
Downgraded consideration should be given to sites
where the coal seams or surrounding strata act as

180

aquifers that may be Underground source(s) of


drinking water (USDWs);
Downgraded consideration should be given to heavily
deformed structures or steeply dipping seams.
In particular, the first two points are most critical to
determining the likely commercial,technical, and
operational success of operations. Several of the other
concerns could be rapidly tested and altered in
characterization (e.g., steeply dipping seams). However,
these sites would also be sites of higher initial risk, and
some mitigating factor should be investigated to offset
that initial increase in risk. As of today, there are several
different approaches to initiating UCG (e.g., UCG, CRIP
(Controlled Retraction Injection Point)), open mine
initiation). Given the literature as it stands, it is not clear
which technologies are best suited to initiation of burns or
UCG management. Because burn initiation is critically
dependent on establishing atmospheric connection
between injection and production wells, choice of
technology will depend greatly on the permeability and
transmissivity of the coals themselves. Again, this places
a premium on site characterization before project testing .
UGC Technology World Wide
1. Russian technology base on Vertical wells
coupled generally with air pressurization to open up an
internal pathway .It is suitable for young coal only.
2 Chinese technology base on Man-built galleries in
the coal seam as the gasification channels and.
Boreholes are constructed to communicate with the
surface
3. European technology base on Create dedicated
inseam boreholes, using drilling and completion
technology, adapted from oil and gas Production. It
uses CRIP and O2.
The UCG is a clean coal technology
The UCG is a fossil fuel technology, and as such must
address concerns over global warming. It does so in the
TABLE 1:
MINIMAL REQUIREMENTS FOR UCG
Type

Requirements

Coal Ranks

Bituminous or lower
ranks

Coal seam
thickness

>0.5m thick

Seam depth
Site access
Water table
Water
composition

12 m
Must have broad
drilling and
monitoring access
Must be lower than
water table
Should not be source
of local drinking
water

Recommended
May have
difficulties with
high ranked
bituminous coals
Best performance
above 1.5 m
thickness
Deeper than 150 m
----Best if not potable
water i.e. TDS >
1,000 ppm

following ways:
The raw UCG gas contains CO2 in concentrations that
vary depending on process conditions and the choice of
oxidant. The gas is produced under pressure and at a
moderate temperature, and easily lends itself to CO2
removal by a range of standard methods, with low energy
penalty and at a relatively low cost.
So captured and removed, CO2 can be permanently
stored (or sequestered) in the underground storage zones
created by coal extraction in the UCG (Ergo-Exergy
UCG) operations. The energy penalty and relative cost of
CO2 re-compression and sequestering are comparatively
low. Along with that, CO2 can be injected into deep
saline aquifers and deeper coal seams as well as used for
enhanced recovery of oil, natural gas and CBM (Coal
Bed Methane).
As in conventional IGCC (Integrated Gasification
combined cycle), UCG gas can be used to generate
electricity with a power island efficiency as high as 55%,
and with the overall efficiency of UCG-IGCC process
reaching 43%. These efficiencies translate into very low
rates of greenhouse emissions per unit of net power
generated.
In chemical manufacturing processes such as FischerTropsch syntheses and production of synthetic methane
or fertilizers, CO2 removal is a routine unit operation.
Permanent storage of CO2 in the UCG-created permeable
zones and the other sinks will significantly greenhouse
emissions of the overall process, from the initial coal
conversion right through to the end product.
The UCG process is designed and tested to prevent or
minimize the other, more traditional environmental
impacts on air, soil and water (including surface streams
and groundwater). The process is conducted in such a
way that gasification pressure in the gasifier is always
slightly less than the hydrostatic pressure of fluid in the
coal seam and surrounding strata. This creates a pressure
gradient directed towards the gasifier. As a result, no flow
from the gasifier into the surroundings is allowed, thereby
preventing both the loss of valuable product and
contamination of the underground environment. The
thorough characterization of existing aquifers in the
vicinity of the underground gasifier and careful
monitoring of the hydrostatic pressure in the aquifers
during operations, form an integral part of the UCG
groundwater protection strategy.
The UCG is an environmentally-friendly and energyefficient technology for producing competitively-priced
gaseous fuel for power generation and chemical
processing. The non-conventional environmentally safe
technologies of coal bed tapping and coal burning include
first of all the underground coal gasification (UCG).
Under the UCG method coal in situ is transformed into
gaseous combustible energy, it is achieved by supplying
(via system of injection wells) an oxidizer to the red hot
coal surface and discharging produced gas (via other well
systems). The UCG is the only coal gasification
technology which is both completely clean and costcompetitive with oil, gas, and conventional coal. The
process has produced commercial quantities of gas for
181

chemical processes and power generation. The gas has


been used for co-firing with pulverized coal in coal-fired
boilers, and can be used in modern gas turbines with
minimal modifications to the combustion system.
Chemical processing of the UCG product gas can
result in its catalytic conversion to methane, distillate
liquid fuels and hydrogen - the fuels of choice for
existing and emerging power generation technologies.
The low capital and operating costs of underground coal
gasification lead to low-cost fuels for power generation,
transportation and other applications. These fuels can be
produced at locations where other sources of energy are
not available or viable, since UCG can extract coal
energy in conditions which render conventional mining
unfeasible, be it for technical, environmental, or
economic reasons [3 5].
Key Advantages of UCG
The specific benefits of operating a large UCG
underground gasifier include the following:
A practically unlimited supply of coal will be
available for gasification; no external coal and water
supply is required to sustain the reaction.
The UCG process creates an immense
underground gas and heat storage capacity, making the
gas supply very stable and robust.
An underground gasifier comprises a number of
underground reactors with largely independent outputs.
The gas streams from different reactors can be mixed
as required, to ensure consistency of overall gas
quality. The outputs of reactors can also be varied, in
order to optimize coal extraction and overall gas output
from the gasifier.
No ash or slag removal and handling are
necessary, since inert material predominantly remains
in the underground cavities.
Ground water influx into the gasifier creates an
effective "steam jacket" around the reactor, making the
heat loss in situ tolerably small.
Optimal pressure in the underground gasifier
promotes groundwater flow into the cavity, thus
confining the chemical process to the boundaries of the
gasifier and preventing contamination of the
underground environment.
A 300% to 400% increase in recoverable coal
reserves is possible by using coals that are unmineable
(too deep, low grade, thin seams);
No conventional gasification facilities are needed;
hence, capital costs are substantially reduced;
UCG with CCS appears cost-competitive with
other coal-based technologies (e.g. super critical
combustion, IGCC) without CCS;
Conventional coal mining is not a part of UCG
facilities, reducing operating costs and surface impacts,
as well as eliminating mine safety issues;
No coal is transported at the surface, reducing cost,
emissions, freight congestion, and facility footprint
associated with coal storage and shipping;

Most of the ash in the coal stays underground,


thereby avoiding the need for additional syngas cleanup, and the environmental issues associated with ash
storage;
There is no production of some criteria pollutants
(e.g., SO2, NOx) ,and many other pollutants (mercury,
particulates, sulfur species) are greatly reduced in
volume and easier to handle; and
Commercial UCG applications use substantially
less water than conventional gasification technologies
UCG is coal gasification without Gasifiers [7].

Limitations/Concerns of UCG
Even though UCG has a number of advantages, the
technology has several limitations and potential
concerns:
Siting and operation of UCG have environmental
consequences, including groundwater impacts and
ground subsidence. Current knowledge and practice
can eliminate or reduce these environmental risks.
While UCG may be technically feasible for many
coal resources, a number of deep seams may be limited
by geologic and hydrologic hazards.
UCG operations cannot be controlled to the same
extent as conventional gasifiers. Many important
process variables, such as the rate of water influx, the
distribution of reactants in the gasification zone, and
the growth rate of the cavity, can only be estimated
from measurements of temperatures and product
quality and quantity.
While UCG economics appear promising,
uncertainties in capital and operating costs are likely to
persist until such time as a reasonable number of UCGbased power plants are built and operated.
UCG is not a steady-state process, and both the
flow rate and the heating value of the syngas will vary
over time.
Multiple gasifiers may be required to supply fuel to an
industrial consumer; the exact number will depend on the
size of the fuel supply required and the precise geology of
the coal deposit targeted.The UCG process is not only a
method of coal conversion; it is a method of extracting
coal from the underground beds - for all intents and
purposes, a mining technique. There are many similarities
between UCG and underground mining: for example,
UCG is concerned with typical mining issues such as
coal extraction efficiency, roof stability and groundwater
influx. As a coal recovery method, UCG supplements
traditional mining often utilizing coal seams that are
impossible or uneconomical to mine using conventional
methods. There are UCG equivalents of conventional
underground mining methods including long-wall, shortwall, and bord-and-pillar methods. A successful UCG
operation factors in roof collapse and overburden
deformation as necessary technology attributes [7].

182

Conclusions
There are many ways that carbon containing compounds may be gasified, coal gasification occurs best in
entrained flow reactors such as the Texaco gasifier. The coal will not heat up as much and will not create methane
and tar. The requirement for fine particles into the gasifier prevents agglomeration
Underground coal gasification technology is present and used today but with certain challenges, water
contamination, impact on environment and land, Potential benefits are many. Syngas used in combined cycle energy
production
Hydrogen fuel cell use for energy production and transportation purposes. Methane and hydrogen have
applications in the chemical industry where they can be used.
Gasification is first step in coal liquefaction process. Coal gasification could reduce dependence on foreign oil
CO2 sequestration

References
[11] S.S. Penner, Coal Gasification: Direct Applications and Syntheses of Chemicals and Fuels Center for Energy and Combustion Research and
Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Sciences University of California, San Diego LaJolla, CA 92093 Report # UCRL DOWER0326 Dist. Category UC-109, 49 p.
[12] Burton E, SJ Friedmann, RA Upadhye, in press, Best Practices in Underground Coal Gasification, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Report # UCRL-TR-225331-DRAFT, 119 p.
[13] C. Lowell Miller, Ph.D.The Clean Coal Initiative: An Appropriate Response to Complex Environmental Issues Office of Clean Coal
Technology Office of Fossil Energy U.S. Department of Energy. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Biennial Low-Rank Fuels Symposium
[14] M.G. Berengarten and A.G. Evstifeev Management of environment-friendly coal technologies Experience of developing clean coal
technologies. Drawn from materials of international summer schools Moscow, 1998. 170 pages.
[15] Creedy DP, K Garner, 2004, Clean Energy from Underground Coal Gasification in China, DTI Cleaner Coal Technology Transfer Programme,
Report No. COAL R250 DTI/Pub URN 03/1611, February 2004
[16] Large-Block Experiments in Underground Coal Gasification Energy and Technology Review Lawrena; Livormoru National Laboratory
November 1982 Report # UCRL 52000-82-11 DES3 003802
[17] The national coal council, inc U.S. energy Deptt. Report # 2000-82-11 DES3 0038.

183

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

Unified Force and its Relation with Global Warming Crave for
Hydrogen Energy and Promote Fuel Cell Technology
Kannan Jegathala Krishnan and Akhtar Kalam
School of Engineering and Science
Faculty of Health, Engineering and Science
Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
{kannan.jegathalakrishnan@live.vu.edu.au, akhtar.kalam@vu.edu.au}

Abstract:

Global warming is presently a tremendous


public interest and has become a threat to every individual.
Huge quantities of CO2 are emitted to the atmosphere by
burning of fossil fuels to produce electricity in power
plants and burning of gasoline in aeroplanes and vehicles.
Enormous amount of greenhouse gasses are sent into the
air when garbage is burnt in landfills. Cutting down of trees
and other plants which collect CO2 a greenhouse gas which
is inhaled and which gives back oxygen which is exhaled
makes global warming worse. Self-Compressive
Surrounding Pressure Force which is also known as
Unified Force is also related with global warming which is
proportional to increase of H2O level in sea and causes
floods, storms, droughts and severe impacts to the
environment and society. In order to better understand
global warming and its relation with Unified Force, this
paper discusses the cause and effect system on the amount
of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere from the
burning of fossil fuels and also the other green house gases
like CH4, water vapour, NOX etc. and emphasis its
importance to focus on crave for Hydrogen Energy and to
promote Fuel Cell technology to keep the earth green and
safer from the impacts of global warming. The benefit of
switching from fossil fuels to Hydrogen Energy and Fuel
Cell technology reduces the impact of global warming,
elimination of pollution caused by fossil fuels and
greenhouse gases, economic dependence and distributed
production.
Key words: Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure Force
or Unified Force, global warming, greenhouse effect,
hydrogen, fossil fuels, Fuel Cell.

II. GREEN HOUSE EFFECT AND GLOBALWARMING


Earths atmosphere consists of primary greenhouse gases
like water vapour, CO2, CH4, NOX and other minor gases
that absorb and emit infrared radiations. These radiations
keep earths climate warm and habitable and act like a

I.

INTRODUCTION

A topic on many peoples mind now is global


warming right from school students, advanced researchers,
business leaders to politicians. It is now the right time to
remember great personalities and their concepts to know
more about global warming and its impacts [1].
Newtons concepts of space, time, matter, and
energy the four independent qualities described his great
success in discovery of the gravitational force and the
limitations of his model in the absence of gravitational
repulsive force puzzled Newton and this was clearly seen
when he said I am like a child playing on the shore with
pebbles and shells while the ocean lies before me [1].
The limitations of Newtons model made Einstein
to replace that space, time, matter and energy are no longer
independent quantities and Einstein says gravitational
force arises out of the interaction between two masses and
the surrounding space which was different from Newtons
visualization that the gravitational force arises between
any two material particles by virtue of their masses. Even
Einstein was not having sufficient basis to support
gravitational repulsive force in his model and he says, In
my field equation the left hand side is of fine marble but
the right hand side is of perishable wood [1].
In this present century, in Vethathiris model
Space is provided with great importance which is holding
the whole Universe and he called the Space as Unified
Force or Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure
Force[1]. In this paper, Space so called Unified Force
or Self-Compressive Surrounding Pressure Force and its
relation with the global warming and its impact, crave for
Hydrogen Energy and to promote Fuel Cell Technology
and also the benefits of switching from fossil fuels to
Hydrogen Energy is explained in detail [1].
blanket to the earth which is known as natural
greenhouse effect [4]. However, since industrial
revolution more greenhouse gas is being emitted into the
atmosphere by burning of fossil fuels and other different
sources known as man-made greenhouse effect which is
shown in Table 1 [4]. These greenhouse gases which are

184

emiitted from fosssil fuels andd other differeent sources trrap


morre heat insidee the atmosphhere causing the
t blanket of
gases around thee earth to becoome thicker and
a thicker. Thhis
u slowly byy increasing its
cauuses the earthh to warm up
aveerage temperatture near surfface-areas andd ocean whichh is
knoown as global warming. [5] Global warming
w
makkes
the sea level to
t rise causiing several impacts to the
t
a
envvironment. Deeforestation likke cutting down of trees and
other plants whicch collects CO
O2 and releasses O2 as show
wn
F
1 and buurning of garbbage in landfillls makes globbal
in Fig.
warrming worse. The greenhouuse emission of deforestatiion
andd its percentagge is shown below
b
in Tablle 1. Since huuge
quaantities of CO
O2 are emittedd from the buurning of fosssil
fuells, it is impoortant to know
w how much are being ussed
withh respect to gllobal warmingg.

Fig. 2 shows that w


world-wide usees around 80%
% of
en
nergy from foossil fuels. A
According to the predictionn of
en
nergy consum
mption worldw
wide from both
b
International
En
nergy Agencyy (IEA) and American En
nergy Informaation
Administration the energy consumption will continue to
ncrease 2% per year whicch means eneergy consumpption
in
will be doubleed every 35 yyears [3]. Do
oubling of eneergy
co
onsumption leeads to enorm
mous amount of
o CO2 emisssions
to
o the atmospheere as shown in Fig. 3, by burning of foossil
fu
uels to produce electricity bby power plan
nts and burninng of
gaasoline in aeeroplanes andd vehicles. As a result the
grreenhouse gases trap morre heat and make
m
the earrths
temperature to increase
i
furthher.

TABL
LE 1: TEN SOUR
RCES OF GREE
EN HOUSE GASE
ES [2]

S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Sourcee
Pow
wer Plants
Cem
ment Productioon
Roaad Transport
Ironn & Steel Mannufacture
Defforestation
Oil & Gas Producction
Garrbage
Liveestock
Ferttilizers
Aviiation

Green House
H
Gas
Carbon dioxidde
C
C
Carbon
dioxidde
C
Carbon
dioxidde
C
Carbon
dioxidde
C
Carbon
dioxidde, Methane
C
Carbon
dioxidde, Methane
C
Carbon
dioxidde, Methane
M
Methane
N
Nitrous
Oxidee
C
Carbon
dioxidde, Water Vap
pour, Nitrous oxide,
o
Aerosools

Fig. 1 Plantss collects CO2 andd gives O2 [9]

When the
t temperatuure increases the
t level of the
t
sea H2O also inccreases and coontinued globbal warming can
c
mellt polar ice annd snow resuulting in a furrther increase of
watter level cauusing several environmenttal impacts [6].
[
Uniified Force orr Self-Comprressive Surrouunding Pressuure
Forrce is proporrtional to the increase of H2O level in sea
s
whiich is explaiined in Sectiion 4 which causes floods,
storrms and severral impacts. The
T relation beetween the SeelfCom
mpressive Suurrounding Preessure Force with the globbal
warrming impactts emphasise its importancce and crave to

Globall Green Housse


Emission
E
25%
4%
13%
3.2%
20 %
6.3%
3%
5.1%
6%
3.5%

Fig. 2 Fosssils fuels in % of total energy conssumed [3]

ocus on Hydrrogen Energyy as an alterrnative sourcee of


fo
en
nergy and to promote
p
Fuel C
Cell technolog
gy.
MPACTS OF G
GLOBAL WA
ARMING
III. IM
will have seriious impacts like
Globall warming w
ex
xtreme weatheer events, riskk of climate change
c
and major
m
irrreversible eveents, ecosystem
ms, H2O and food as show
wn in
Fiig. 5 [10]. Gloobal warmingg will also afffect human heealth
lik
ke increased breathing
b
prooblems in sum
mmer and mallaria

185

mosquito in the regions wheree it is currenttly cold [11]. To


mpacts the em
mission of CO
C 2
reduuce the globaal warming im
from
m fossil fuels must be reduuced from bothh developed and
a
devveloping counntries. The deeveloped couuntries of North
Am
merica and Euurope have prroduced lions share of CO
C 2
andd they have too take more measures
m
towarrds switchingg to
Hyddrogen Energyy and promotte Fuel Cell teechnology. Eaarly
actiions of switcching to Hydrrogen Energyy and Fuel Cell
C

technology favvours employm


ment growth, lower electriicity
prrice, econom
mic impact w
will be modeest, reductionn in
grreenhouse gass emissions can be achieveed. Delay acttions
will lead to disrruptive shockk [10] like busshfire in Austrralia
in
n summer 20009 as shown iin Fig. 4 [8]. Unified forcce or
Seelf-Compressiive Surroundding Pressuree Force andd its
reelation with global warminng and its imp
pacts is explained
th
he subsequent section.

Fig. 5 Global Warminng Impacts [10]

Fig. 4 Bush Fire in Australia [8]

IV. UNIFIED
D FORCE OR
R SELF-COM
MPRESSIVE
SURROUND
DING PRESS
SURE FORCE
E AND ITS
RELATIION WITH GLOBAL
G
WAR
RMING
Milllions of planeets are existingg in the univerrse as shown in
i
Figg. 6 and movinng in the rhythhmic and preciise manner. On
O
the space all the planets
p
are flooating and weight of each
plannet may be off incalculable in
i tons. Thereefore it is veryy
cleaar that space is supporting the
t whole univverse [12]. Thhe
masss of the planeet earth is appproximately eqqual to (6E+244)
kiloograms whichh are
[7]
derived from gravitattional attractioon that the eaarth
has for objects near
n
it [13]. About
A
71% off earth surfacee is
covvered with sallt water oceanns and remainning consists of
conntinents and isslands [14]. Itt is also simplle to understaand
thatt H2O, islandss and continennts which consstitutes the eaarth
together is floating in spaace which means
m
a Seelfi
startinng from coasstal
increasee in global impacts
flooods, ocean currrents etc.
N ENERGY (CRAVE
(
FOR
R HYDROGEN
N
V. HYDROGEN
ENER
RGY)

Co
ompressive Surrounding
S
P
Pressure Forcee is holding H2O,
isllands and coontinents in thhe space; thiis force is caalled
Unified Force or Self-Com
mpressive Surrrounding Presssure
orce. Due to
t emission of greenhou
use gases in the
Fo
attmosphere likke CO2 from the burning of fossil fuells in
po
ower plants, burning off gasoline in
i vehicles and
aeeroplanes and other greenhoouse gases wh
hich traps the suns
s
heeat and light and
a rises the teemperature off the earth [15]].
As a result
r
of contiinued global warming
w
the H2O
level in the seaa increases, annd can potenttially melt thee ice
nd snow, caussing again a rrise of H20 lev
vel in the sea [6].
an
When
W
the levell of the H2O increases the Unified Forcce or
Seelf-Compressiive Surroundinng Pressure Force which exxerts
fo
orce equally arround 360 deggrees on the earth tends to push
p
th
he H2O towarrds the islannd and contin
nent, resultingg in
co
oastal floodinng and H2O intrusion which
w
can caause
ch
hanges in wind
w
and occean currentts, reducing the
av
vailability of irrigation H2O and otheer environmeental
im
mpacts. This way the U
Unified Forcce or the SelfS
Co
ompressive Surrounding
S
P
Pressure Forcee is related too the
gllobal warmingg and is propoortional to the rise of H2O level
l
in
n the sea whiich means inncrease in H2O level tendds to
There is a crave forr Hydrogen En
nergy since foossil
uels contributee large amouunt of greenho
ouse gases which
fu
reesults in globaal warming annd cause environmental imppacts
in
n relation witth the Unifieed Force or Self-Compres
S
ssive
Su
urrounding Prressure Forcee and the red
duced reliancee on
dw
windling reserrves of oil andd gas. H2 as shown
s
in Fig. 7 is

186

the simplest, ulttimate clean energy carrieer and plentiful


ment in the unniverse that has
h the highestt energy conteent
elem
per unit of weighht of any fuel.. When Fuel Cell
C systems are
a
t
fuelled by pure H2 and O2/airr to create eleectric power the
by-product is heat and H2O and no carbon bassed
i
the atmossphere [18].
greenhouse gasess are emitted into
H2 can be
b produced from
fr
diverse array
a
of potenttial
t most com
mmon and besst H2 productiion
feedd stock and the
pathhways are described
d
in Table 2. Otther productiion
pathhways under research couuld be comm
mercially viabble
lateer which includes phhoto electroolysis, therm
mal
deccomposition of
o water, photto biological production and
a
plassmatron [19]. Researchers at Massachussetts Institute of
Tecchnology (MIIT) are usingg solar energgy and a virrus

Fig. 6 The Univverse [16]

naamed M13 too split H2O innto H2 and O2 which couldd be


ussed to fuel carrs. Artificial pphotosynthesiss splitting of H2O
ussing algae, baacteria or harrmless virusess is an imporrtant
em
merging field right now andd its a matterr of time factoor to
prroduce large scale to becoome commerccially viable [20].
[
Hydrogen econnomy represennts a vision sttrategy; howeever,
wo barriers must
m
to overcome to mak
ke the hydroogen
tw
ecconomy a reality.
r
The infrastructure that provvides
seeamless transiitions from pproduction, sttorage, utilisaation
an
nd distributionn must be connected whiich make up the
hy
ydrogen econnomy is the first barrier and the seccond
baarrier is the deemonstration in the markett place that thee H2
ass an energy carrier is ecconomically competitive
c
[
[21].
daamage of thhe entire carr whereas H2 flame vennted
veertically and did
d not damage the rest of th
he vehicle [188].
To ovvercome thee environmen
ntal impacts an
in
nnovative ressearch aimedd at makin
ng revolutionnary
ad
dvances in low
wering the coost, increasing
g the performaance
off the hydrogenn economy and its reliability
y is required [21].
[
Once H2 is madde economically viable then
n large amounnt of
mosphere willl be
grreenhouse gaases emitted to the atm
reeduced drastiically, resultting in erad
dication of the
en
nvironmental impacts
i
from global warmiing, so there is
i no
risse of the H2O level in thhe sea as a reesult the infrrared
raadiations keep the earths suurface warm, safe
s and habittable
an
nd also there is
i no negative impact from the Unified Force
orr Self-Compreessive Surrounnding Pressuree Force.
Until the hydrogenn economy beecomes econoomic
an
nd viable, the temporary sollution to reducce the greenhoouse
efffect would bee Carbon sequuestration. Carrbon sequestraation
is the process used
u
to capturre the CO2 and
d store it for long
l
me. The diffferent methodds include so
oil, plant, occean,
tim
mineral
m
and geo sequestratioon by enhanciing the storagge of
caarbon in soil,, forests, oceean, by chem
mical reaction and
un
nder the grounnds [22]. By uusing the Carrbon sequestraation
method
m
tempoorarily globaal warming impacts can be
reeduced if it is viable annd cost effective methodd to
im
mplement.

VI.
V FUEL CEL
LL TECHNOL
LOGY (TO PR
ROMOTE FU
UEL
CELL TEC
CHNOLOGY))

Figg. 7 Hydrogen atoms in methane [117]

The Unniversity of Miami


M
and BMW
B
undertoook
sevveral tests and found safety of
o the H2 fuel to be sufficieent.
Botth H2 and gasoline cars, set fire in its test by the
t
Uniiversity of Miami,
M
the gaasoline fire resulted
r
in tootal

The need
n
has arrisen to pro
omote Fuel Cell
technology beccause the prim
mary goal off the fuel cell is
po
ollution reducction and it also solves the international
prroblems like global
g
warminng and oil dep
pendency. A Fuel
F
Ceell is an ellectrochemicaal energy co
onversion deevice
prroduces electrricity in the pprocess of con
nverting chem
mical
H2 and O2 intoo H2O [24]. T
There are seveeral types of Fuel
F
Ceells mainly cllassified by thheir operating
g temperature and
th
he type of elecctrolyte they uuse namely Polymer Exchaange
Membrane
M
Fueel Cell (PEM
MFC), Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
(S
SOFC), Alkaliine Fuel Cell (AFC), Molteen Carbonate Fuel
F
Ceell (MCFC), Phosphoric-acid Fuel Celll (PAFC), Dirrectmethanol
m
Fuel Cell and few more. Some types
t
are usedd for
staationary poweer generation plants like SOFC
S
and MC
CFC
187

because they are best suited for large scale power


generations that could provide electricity for towns and
industries. The most likely candidate for transportation
applications is Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
(PEMFC) because they have high power density ratio and
low operating temperature as shown in Fig. 8 [23] and also
T-1000 1.2kW PEM Fuel Cell is shown in Fig. 9 [27]. The
electrochemical process in Fuel Cell is complete and yields
a clean exhaust but in petrol engine the oxidation of fuel is
incomplete. But in respect with mechanical means of
electrical power generation Fuel Cell promises to be more
efficient, clean in operation, reliable and freedom from
maintenance, quiet or silent operation because it is having
few, possibly no, moving parts [24]. Even though Fuel

Crude Oil
Coal
Natural Gas
Nuclear
Solar
Hydro
Wind
Wave
Geothermal
Wood

Cells might be the best answer for global warming and oil
dependency few major issues like cost, durability,
hydration, delivery, infrastructure, storage and other
considerations must be sort out. For the Fuel Cell to
become a practical alternative method of energy production
there is a lot more work to be done by scientists and
manufactures. But still, in a couple of decades the goal to
have a viable Fuel Cell technology based energy system
may be reality [25].
The Fuel Cell technology with Hydrogen Energy
will keep the earth safe and habitable and create a good
relation with Unified Force or Self-Compressive
Surrounding Pressure Force and eradicate global warming.

Reformer

Reformer

Reformer

Power Plant
Generator
Generator
Generator
Generator
Power Plant

Hydrogen
Electrolyte

Reformer

Organic Waste

Reformer

Biomass

Reformer

TABLE 2: HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PATHWAYS [19]

188

VIII. BENEFITS OF SWTCHIING FROM FOSSIL


F
FUEL
LS
TO HYDROGEN
N ENERGY
Thee Hydrogen Eneergy promises to
t eliminate thee problems creaated
by the
t fossil Fuels.. The benefits of
o switching to Hydrogen Enerrgy
are the eliminatioon of pollutioon and greenhhouse gases, the
elim
mination of econnomic dependeence and distribbuted productioons.
When the H2 comees from electrollysis of H2 andd used in Fuel Cell
C
to create
c
power thee by-product is only heat and H2O. The H2 also
a
adds no greenhouuse gases to thhe atmosphere.. As a result the
probblems caused by
b fossil fuelss like pollutionn and greenhouuse
gasees are eliminatted. If Hydroggen Energy is used for electtric
pow
wer generation in power plannts, as fuels in automobiles and
a
induustries then we dont have to depend
d
on Midddle East and its oil
reseerves, this meanns the eliminatiion of economiic dependence. H2
can also be prodduced anywherre when electrricity and H20 is
avaiilable and also in our homes with
w relatively simple
s
technoloogy
and therefore distriibuted productiion is viable in Hydrogen Enerrgy
but not in fossil fueels [26].
For instaance, if we connsider US whichh is the largest oil
impporter in the woorld which impports 13.5 milliion barrel per day
d
(mbbd) and about 20.6
2
mbd is useed in daily whicch accounts about
65%
% for oil importted in daily bassis. US importss 17 percent of oil
from
m Middle Eastt and this deppendence is sttill growing. The
T
grow
wing dependence of oil has beecome a Nationnal Security Thrreat
and government beelieves the counntry will imporrt 68 percent off oil
by 2025
2
[28]. US by
b using fossil fuels
f
it eliminattes more pollution
and greenhouse gaases which leadds to environmeental impact. And
A

d
upon M
Middle East fo
or oil; this situaation
alsso, it mainly depends
afffects the countrries economic hhealth. Presently US require more
m
creativity and gennuine effort, sw
witching toward
ds Hydrogen Ennergy
an
nd promoting Fuel Cell technology and make viable for
distributed produuction in its home [26]. This applies for moost of
the countries whhich depend on fossil fuels to produce electrricity
in power plants and use as fueel for automob
biles and industtries,
no
ow it is time too switch to Hyydrogen Energy
y and promote Fuel
Ceell technology to
t avoid the imppact of global warming.
w
VIII. CON
NCLUSION
The toppics, dealt with this paper are of great importtance
in reducing globaal warming andd its impacts which
w
is related with
the Unified Forcee. Though Carbbon Sequestratiion can solve gllobal
nergy and Fuel Cell
waarming impactss to some extennt, Hydrogen En
tecchnology will keep the earth green, safer and eradicate gllobal
waarming because it is a cleann energy carrieer. Researchers and
scientists shouldd put genuine effort, creativ
vity and focuss on
Hy
ydrogen Energgy and Fuel Ceell technology by the supporrt of
manufacturers, politicians
p
and governments to make it reeality
m be, it cannoot be
eaarlier. Howeverr a recent and ffine a theory may
the final one, and there is alwaays room for fu
urther developm
ment,
nd as Bertrannd Russell in his lecture on
n Cosmology says
an
E
Every theory is
i sense primiitive and cann
not explain alll the
ex
xperimental obsservations.

F 7 PEM Fuel Cell


Fig
C [23]

Fig. 9 T-1000 11.2kW PEM Fuel cell [27]

Fig. 10 Interrnational Petroleuum (Oil) Exports and Imports [28]]

189

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mpacts.html
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on the, vol., no., pp.1-3, 17-19 Dec. 2009
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l.htm&url=http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/hydrogen.pdf
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Mills and Boon Limited, 1972, pp. 7-9.
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[26] Reduce US Dependence on Middle Eastern Oil.
[Online] Viewed 2010 August 2. Available:
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ng-US-D[27] T-1000 1200W PEM Fuel Cell.
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http://www.relion-inc.com/products-t1000.asp
ependence-on-Middle-Eastern-Oil
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August 18. Available:
http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/globalwa
rming/index.html#

190

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS


AND RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, Nov 29 - Dec 2, 2010
INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

2D Forward Modelling of Marine CSEM Survey Geometry for


Seabed Logging
Nazabat Hussain, Muhammad Noh and Norashikin Bt Yahya
Automation and Control System Group, Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS.
Bander Seri Iskander, 31750 Tronoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan, Malaysia
Email: nazabat@hotmail.com1, nohka@petronas.com.my2, norashikin_yahya@petronas.com.my
Abstract Hydrocarbon reserve exploration in deep water is done
by geophysical surveys. Previously seismic geophysical surveys
were explicitly used but it has indistinct results for both water and
hydrocarbon saturated reservoir. Recent development for the
detection of hydrocarbon reservoir in deeper water is Marine
Controlled Source Electromagnetic (MCSEM) geophysical survey.
MCSEM is sensitive to electrical conductivity of rocks by which it
can differentiate between hydrocarbon reservoir and water saturated
reservoir. MCSEM survey geometry put vital role and may causes
for anomalies in synthetic data. Consequentially MCSEM is sensitive
to survey geometry (e.g. source dipping, rotation and speed,
receivers orientation etc) which causes anomalies. The interpretation
for delineating subsurface structure from survey data need to well
understand the effects of survey geometry anomalies. Forward
modelling is an alternative rather real time survey to study the
aforementioned anomalies. In this paper finite difference method
(FDM) is implemented for 2D forward modelling in the sense of
qualitative understanding to how induced Electromagnetic (EM)
signal changes its overall pattern while interact with physical earth
properties. A stratified earth structure is developed and modelled in
MatLabTM software to study the behaviour of EM field with physical
earth properties. Obtained results of 2D geological models are also
discussed in this paper.

KEYWORDS
Forward modelling, MCSEM, Seabed logging, EM
exploration, Skin depth
I. INTRODUCTION
Over the past few decades, hydrocarbon reservoir
exploration extended from the continents to deep sea water

because most part of the terrain is already explored.


Geophysical surveys are used to investigate about interior
spatial distribution of earth physical properties. Previously
seismic geophysical surveys are pervasively used method
for onshore and offshore hydrocarbon exploration. In deep
sea seismic surveys have ambiguous results to discriminate
between water and hydrocarbon saturated reservoir. In EM
exploration method, it is sensitive to the electrical
conductivity of earth rocks and can find hydrocarbon
saturated reservoir directly [1].
The geophysical surveys are may be classified into
active and passive. In active geophysical surveys a man
made source is used to for the earth properties investigation.
The passive surveys used to study naturally occurring fields
i.e. magneto-telluric and gravity field. MCSEM is an active
geophysical survey and it was previously used for the study
of lithosphere, oceanic basins and crust. In year 2001 a
technique sea bed logging as an application of MCSEM was
developed for delineating the hidden properties of subsea
surface. The imperative objective of seabed logging is to
find hydrocarbons reservoir. In MCSEM method a towed
Horizontal Electric Dipole (HED) with transport vessel is
moved above sea floor as EM source. The arrays of
receivers (EM recorders) are positioned on seafloor whereas
mobile source radiate EM energy both towards subsea
surface and water column. Induced EM signal will reflect
back and received by EM recorders. The complete scenario
of MCSEM is illustrated in Figure 1.
In MCSEM survey the measurements are done by using
the frequency range in the band of 0.01Hz to 10Hz for the
depth of investigation from some meters to several
kilometres. The mobile HED source height from the
seafloor is less than that of the skin depth [2]. The survey
data is conducted by several source receiver positions. In
MCSEM survey source receiver geometry is classified into
inline and broadside survey geometry. The MCSEM surveys
are prepared with both survey geometries in the term of
accuracy. In Figure 2 the inline survey geometry have can
be defined as HED have 00 with the array of receivers where
as broadside have 900.

Figure 1- Survey Geometry of MCSEM for the application if


seabed logging. The EM recorders are placed on seafloor
whereas EM source is towed with transport vessel to radiate
EM energy both into water column and subsea surface.

191


Figure 2- Geometry of source and receiver array
orientation.

In MCSEM surveys, the most critical factor is survey


geometry. Survey geometry involves transmitter receiver
exact position and orientation. In MCSEM forward
modelling is used for qualitative understanding of EM signal
with the physical properties of the earth and survey
geometry. In geophysical surveys the numerical forward
modelling is done by first constructing horizontal layers in
the term of geological structure with electrical properties of
each layer and then applied numerical formulation to create
artificial geophysical data. The process of constructing
geophysical structure from the field measurement of
MCSEM survey is called reverse modelling or inversion.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
More than 70 % part of the earth is covered with oceans
and explored hydrocarbon reserves are only from
comparatively shallow continentals shelf. The enormous
part of the earth ocean corresponds to unexplored area, so
oil and gas industry extended the area of interest for
hydrocarbon search into deep sea. EM exploration methods
are used from long time for geophysical exploration. Over
the last few decades EM method has been used in deep sea
for the application of hydrocarbon exploration. However,
EM methods have been used from long time in geophysics
for different applications i.e. uranium, metal exploration etc
[3, p715].
In 1933 used EM field, generated by electric dipole, and
receivers to detect electrical momentary reflection for
layered earth [3]. In oceanic environment, EM source can be
oriented with four different types as HED, vertical electric
dipole (VED), horizontal magnetic dipole (HMD) and
vertical magnetic dipole (VMD). The VED and VMD
induce only transverse magnetic (TM) and transverse
electric (TE) mode respectively, whereas HED and HMD
induces both TM and TE modes [4]. In MCSEM method
HED is preferred for the mapping of resistive hydrocarbon
saturated reservoir. In 1971 Cox et al. was introduced
MCSEM for the study of earth lithosphere [4]. The first
MCSEM survey for seabed logging (SBL) was conducted
by STATOIL in collaboration with the Scripps Institution of
Oceanography, USA and the South-ampton Oceanography
Centre, UK [2].

In MCSEM survey EM energy is sensitive to the seafloor


and subsea sediment conductivity. The MCSEM survey
geometry is to be based on several transmitter and receiver
position for delineating the structure of subsea resistivity.
The survey data is highly sensitive to survey geometry, so
the most crucial part of MCSEM surveys are source/receiver
position and orientation, source receiver separation and
HED height from sea floor. The orientation of seafloor
receivers can be done by aligning with radiation lobe of
HED [4]. In MCSEM survey HED is towed to either one
side of the transport vessel as shown in figure 3. End A of
HED is fixed and end B is free to move. The zenith angle
of free end B describes the dipping and azimuth angle is
rotation. Most related work on dipping and rotation is in
which authors study these effects in detail [4]. However in
this, they not consider the effects of HED speed.

Figure 3- Source dipping and rotation affects for seabed


logging

In this paper horizontally stratified geological structure


with FDM numerical solution is used to study the EM
behaviour for hydrocarbon and water saturated reservoir.
The FDM numerical solution is easy to implement specially
for boundary value problem. The survey geometry is also
discussed in this paper with respect to source placement and
speed.
The rest of the paper is organized as literature review;
research Methodology, Results and analysis. Conclusion and
future work are given in followed references.
III. APPROACH and METHODOLOGY
Varying scenario of survey geometry in marine CSEM
can be examined by real time survey and then interpretation
of synthetic data or forward modelling. There is no need of
real time survey scenario in forward modelling and easy to
understand EM field behaviour for specific geological
structure and survey geometry. In forward modelling the
field governing equations for measurable components of
diffused EM field are derived from Maxwell equations. In
oceanic environment there are two possible current sources
as in Equation (1).
(1)
(2)
Equation (2) shows how changing E-field can induce
magnetic field, where as E (V/m) and H (A/m) are the field
intensity. The value of permittivity is ignored because of
very low time varying signal and dielectric constant
permeability is same as in vacuum [6]. The curl operator

192

solves Equations (1) and (2) for electric and magnetic field
separately as Equations (3) and (4).
(3)
(4)
If we ignore external sources in Equations (3) and (4) are
known as general wave equation that governs behaviour of
all EM fields in uniform a medium [9]. The propagation
constant of induced EM field in subsea conducting medium
is in Equation (5).
(5)
The real part of propagation constant is attenuation
constant and imaginary part is phase constant . The ratio
between displacement current density and total current
density is known as loss tangent angle as.
(6)
(7)
In conducting medium when EM wave amplitude falls by
a factor 1/e of its total value known as skin depth. In
is skin depth and amplitude of
Equation (8) symbol
induced EM field is consider to be completely attenuated
after completing the distance of 5 [6]. The skin depth at
difference frequencies are depicted in Figure 3. It shows that
at low frequency signal are best suited for subsea
environment.
(8)

Figure 5- Anisotropy model according to idealized CSEM and


SBL. These are four anisotropic models as thick or thin
reservoir for water and hydrocarbon saturated.

The anisotropic and stratified geological model is


depicted in Figure 5. In model reservoir that may be water
saturated or hydrocarbon saturated. The mobile HED is
positioned at 50m above from sea floor, whereas receivers
are placed on the sea floor. Time varying signal for source is
with frequency of 0.25Hz. The depth and electrical
conductivity of sea water is 100m and 3.2S/m respectively.
Overburden sediments have thickness of 2km and 2.25km
respectively for thick and thin hydrocarbon reservoir. The
conductivity of sediment is 1.0S/m. The thickness of under
burden sediments is 0.4km with same conductivity as
overburden sediments. The dimension of reservoir is 0.5km
and 0.25km thick for thick and thin reservoir where as
length is 6.8 km. The electrical conductivity of reservoir is
0.5S//m and 5.0S/m for hydrocarbon saturated and saline
water saturated reservoir respectively.
The conversion of field governing Equation (9) into
matrix equations is done by FDM expansion at each
discretize node. In Equations (11) used to calculate the finite
approximate numerical value of E-field plane at any
.
node

(11)

Figure 4- Skin depth of induced wave at different


frequency and resistivity.

In MCSEM survey because of slow time varying EM


fields the value of displacement current is ignored in
Equations (3) and (4). The resultant equations will be Quasistatic equations [8]. The two-dimensional (2D) geological
model is characterized by considering the EM parameters
vary only in one vertical plane and field governing
Equations (9) and (10) represent TE and TM modes for EM
polarization. In MCSEM survey the inline survey geometry
is analogous to TE mode and TM for broad side geometry.
(9)
(10)

In Equation (11) the source term is zero for any node


there is no external source. The step size
and
in
Equation (11) are 200m and 50m respectively. The
formulation of impedance boundary condition at interface of
different homogeneous medium is used to determine the
amplitude of incident, reflected and refracted signal.
(12)

(13)
Equation (12) and (13) are used to determining the
reflected and refracted signal from the interface of different
and
are
homogeneous medium [8]. Whereas
showing the magnitude of incident, reflected and refracted
E-field. The angle of reflection is same as the angle of

193

incident and it can be found by using the definition of


are wave
grazing incident angle. The variable and
number of two different domains
IV. RESULT DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
The delineating of target position and dimension is possible
by the interpretation of data than is taken by with several
source receiver position. Figure 6 illustrates the magnitude
of the E-field on single receiver that is orientated 10 km far
from origin at seafloor. In Figures 6 and 7, Mod1_A and
Mod1_B represent thick and thin reservoir with
hydrocarbon respectively. The overall magnitude peak of Efield for thick hydrocarbon is less because of thick
absorbing domain. In thin hydrocarbon saturated reservoir
the E-field magnitude in large in comparison with thick
hydrocarbon. This behaviour of E-field follows the rule of
reflection and refraction as in Equation (12) and (13),
consequently there will be more reflection when signal
strike to conducting boundary. In above given geological
structure, the hydrocarbon saturated reservoir is surrounded
by more conductive sediments and it will act as absorbing
medium because of internal reflection. The magnitude of
-11
reflected signal reaches to 10 (V/m).

Figure 7- Forward modeling results for anisotropic model in


Figure 5. Figure shows the phase shift of E-field while thick and
thin reservoir is hydrocarbon saturated.

In given geological model, if the reservoir is saturated


with saline water than the overall pattern of diffused EM
field will be altered as shown in figure 8. The conductivity
of saline water saturated reservoir is 5.0S/m.
The Figure 8 as well as Figure 6 both shows only the
magnitude of the signal that reflect back from the interface
and we ignore the direct signal. In practical scenario the
received signal is the sum of direct and reflected signal. In
the case of water saturated reservoir there is less internal
reflection because reserves are surrounding by less
conductive sediments. This concept treats the situation of
galvanic effects as, due to induce field causes of current
flow which congregate around conductive medium and
deflect around less conductive medium [12].

Figure 6- Forward modeling results for anisotropic model in


Figure 5. Figure shows the magnitude of E-field while thick and
thin reservoir is hydrocarbon saturated.

Diffused EM field is attenuate rapidly in conductive


medium than that of less conductive medium. In given
stratified geological model the sediments and sea water are
more conductive in comparison to the hydrocarbon saturated
reservoir. Consequently the delineating of structure in depth
and especially large conductive stratum is possible only with
extreme low frequency.
Figure 7 shows that the phase delays of diffused E-field. It
is the cumulative sum for mobile source with static receiver
position. Figure 7 shows the phase delay of Model2_A is
more than that of Mod2_B because first one has more
conductive layers. The forward modelling
of given
geological model, with thick and thin hydrocarbon saturated
reservoir, has different results. The well designed survey
geometry is helpful for the interpretation of synthetic data
whereas poor survey design and transmitter- receiver
orientation can create anomalies. The source height from the
seafloor is not more than that of the skin depth in seawater;
if we increased source height from seafloor than most of the
signal strength will attenuate.

Figure 8- Forward modeling results for anisotropic model in


Figure 5. Figure shows the phase shift of E-field while thick and
thin reservoir is saturated with saline water.

Figure 9 shows the phase delay of given model if


reservoir is saturated with saline water. The black line in
Figure 9 represents the cumulative sum of phase delay for
thick water saturated reservoir.

194

delay at receiver end. The phase velocity can be calculated


by using Equation 15.
(15)

Figure 8- Forward modeling results for anisotropic model in Figure


5. Figure shows the phase shift of E-field while thick and thin
reservoir is saturated with saline water

The exploration for deep target and if the stratified


model is highly conductive than it will create more phase
Table 1:
Frequency
(Hz)

Conductivity (S/m)
3.33

1.00

0.25

0.250

866

m/s

1581 m/s

3162 m/s

0.500

1225 m/s

2236 m/s

4472 m/s

1.000

1732 m/s

3162 m/s

6324 m/s

2.000
5.000

2450 m/s
3874 m/s

4472 m/
7071 m/s

8944 m/s
14142 m/s

Conclusion and Future Work


The exploration and drilling operation in deep water is a
challenging and an expensive task. The prior to drilling
operation it is necessary to verify normality of buried
reservoir. The MCSEM survey is successful technique but
its need to consider the well designed survey geometry for

In Table 1 shows Phase velocity at different conductive


domain medium and causes of time delay. In marine CSEM,
mapping of specified target depth is the function of HED
and receiver position. The induced EM signal creates time
delay for deep mapping and high conductive medium. This
time delay causes anomalies for transmitter position while
signal is received at receiver for specific source receiver
separation.

inversion. The survey geometry anomalies in survey data


can be well understood by forward modeling. In 2D forward
modeling we consider near to real time scenario as receivers
are placed on seafloor and mobile source. The obtained
results conclude the hydrocarbon saturated reservoir has
maximum internal reflection and it will act as absorbing
medium for diffused EM field. Whereas water saturated
reservoir alter the overall behavior of EM field. The well
designed survey geometry is causes for accuracy reduce the
risk of false indications. The poor survey geometry can
causes for financial loss in the term of dry hole. There is a
need to improve survey modeling techniques. For complex
reservoir there is need of sophisticated modeling techniques
that will reduce the risk of incurred loss.
The future work intends to study the radiation pattern of
HED for oceanic environment and consider the effect on
main lobe of source while changing the reference axis.

References
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(October 2002), 21(10):972, 974, 976, 978, 980, 982. International Conference on Power Generation
Systems
and Renewable Technologies, Nov 29-Dec 2, 2010
International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan
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