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Process and Plant Safety

Hazard and Operability Studies


Reactors
Guide Word
Deviation
Causes Consequences
Effect Action RECOMENDA
TION
NO
No cooling
Cooling water valve malfunction Temperature increase in
reactor causes the reaction to slowdown Explosion in the reactor due to over flo
w of hot water Installed high temperature alarm (TAH).and installed fail open v
alve. To avoid over heating
REVERSE Reverse cooling flow
Failure of water source resulting in backward fl
ow
Less cooling, possible to less hot water to flow to the reactor No prope
r cooling supply
Install fail open check valve at the source of cooling w
ater supply at tank.
Reverse Reverse hot water flow Failure of water source resulting in backward fl
ow
Less heating, possible to less hot water to flow to the reactor No optim
um temperature for reaction and reduces the storage of cooling water
Install
fail open check valve at the source of hot water supply.
No
No heating
Hot water valve malfunction
Temperature drops possi
ble runaway reaction causes the reaction to slowdown No reaction happens
Installed low temperature alarm (TAL).and installed fail open valve. To avoid wa
stage of product
MORE
More cooling flow
Control valve failure, operator fails to take ac
tion on alarm Too much cooling, cause too much of hot water to flow Wastage
of water supply Instruct operators on procedures on monitoring the flow alarm at
cooling water supply.
MORE
More hot water flow
Control valve failure, operator fails to take ac
tion on alarm Too much heating, cause too much of cold water to flow Wastage
of water supply Instruct operators on procedures on monitoring the flow alarm at
cooling water supply.
AS WELL AS
Accumulation of product in the reactor or pipes.
Long ter
m reaction
Pressure in the reactor and friction head in the pipe to increa
se
High pressure drop causes decreases pump efficiency
Check maintenanc
e procedures and schedules on reactor and pipes to reduce the accumulation
OTHER THAN
Foreign substance present in water
Contamination of water s
ource Reduce the efficiency of cooling and heating (Cp varying according to pr
esence of foreign substances.) The wastage of water varying. Water supply is
replaced with other sources.

5.1.2 Distillation Columns


Guide Word
Deviation
Causes Consequences
Effects Action
No
No power
No GEB supply Distillation will not achieve Process
delayed Captive power plant provide
Less
Lower temperature
Poor heating
No distillation will take place
Process delayed
Temperature transmitter and controller are installed
More
More pressure Control valve failure High pressure in the distillati
on column
Explosion may occur due to overwhelming pressure.
Pressure

relief valve installed


High
High level
Level controller failure
collumn
Destruct the recycling of methanol
ed with the level controller.
High
High temperature
Controller
of
temperature
in column
fails High inlet
flow
temperature
to column
High
temperature in column is a
fire hazard due to the presence of the flammable
roller

Flooding in distillation
High level alarm install

Install temperature cont

5.1.3 Pumps supply


Guide Word
Deviation
Causes Consequences
Effects
Action
NO
No flow
Blocked pipe due to impurities No reactants for mixing Over heated to the pump
motor and causes failure to transfer mixture
Install filter at pipe to filter
impurities. Arrow indicators to be provided on pipeline
Less
Less flow
Control valve failure
Valve jammed.
Wrong setting of the valve
Product will transfer at lower speed, process delayed
Pumps causes blocking of mixture and causes pipe leakage
Technici
an must carry out testing for each of the valve with correct schedule if it spoi
lt, replaced it with a new valve
more
More flow
Pump Ampere more.
Valve fully open than required set value.
Finishing of reactants form the supply
Too much reactant in the mixer, reactor Instruct operators on procedures
and control valve changed
Reverse
Reverse
Flow
Blocked pipe/ Operator failure Insufficient amount of reactant Pump may
be damaged
Change or service the blocked pipe. Check maintenance procedures and sch
edules
Other than that Accumulation in the pipe
Friction head drop
Pump req
uired more energy to sent the mixture Pump my heated up and causes the disturb
ance in temperature
Change or service the blocked pipe. Check maintenance pr
ocedures and schedules

5.1.4. For mixer


Guide Word
Deviation
Causes Consequences
Action Taken
Reverse No flow Accumulation of other substance in the mixture Mixing cannot be
done or built-up of mixture can cause leakage at the reactor Change or servic
e the blocked pipe. Check maintenance procedures and schedules
Less
Less flow
In consistence of signal transfer to controller from pne
umatic valve
Insufficient amount of reactant Sent professional process engine
er to the control room to handle while changing the transmitters
No
No flow Blocked pipe due to impurities Mixing does not take place
Install filter at pipe to filter and Check maintenance procedures and schedules
regularly on filtering

5.1.5. For boilers


Guide word
Deviation
Causes Consequences
Action Taken
No
No boiling
Malfunction of control valve, steam cant flow into the b
oiler The liquid does not achieve the required temperature
Install low temp
erature transmitter and controller.
More
More boiling of liquid Failure control valve to regulate the flow of st
eam into the boiler
The liquid temperature keeps rising and might become vap
our
Install high temperature transmitter and controller
Less
Not enough boiling of liquid
malfunction of low temperature alarm
The liquid temperature is lower than required temperature
Check regularly
the maintenance procedure on temperature transmitter.
As well as
Mixture in the boiler accumulates.
Blockage at the componen
t input valve. The liquid comes out with non-specified temperature and composit
ion required. Refer to maintenance or housekeeping procedure to maintain the b
oiler efficiency.
For Condenser
Guide word
Deviation
Causes Consequences
Action Taken
No
No cooling flow Malfunction of control valve, cooling cant flow into the
condenser.
vapour will not condensed. pressure built-up in distillation col
umn.
Install low temperature transmitter and controlled valve.
More
More cooling liquid
Failure control valve to regulate the flow of st
eam into the boiler
prresure built-up in the tubes of the condenser.
Install high pressure transmitter and controller
Less
Not enough boiling of liquid
malfunction of low temperature alarm
The liquid temperature is lower than required temperature
Check regularly
the maintenance procedure on temperature transmitter.
As well as
Mixture in the condenser accumulates. Blockage at the componen
t input valve. The liquid comes out with non-specified temperature and composit
ion required. Refer to maintenance or housekeeping procedure to maintain the b
oiler efficiency.