The uniaxial compressive strength of rock material (UCS) is one of the fundamental input parameters for engineering applications to be constructed on/in rock masses such as deep slopes, tunnels and dams. However, preparation of the high quality cores for laboratory studies is generally difficult for some types of
rock such as laminated and/or fragmented rock material. To overcome this difficulty empirical prediction models were developed by considering some input parameters. Geological mixtures composed of rock blocks surrounded by weak matrix material are known as Block-In-Matrix-Rock (Bimrock) in literature. Agglomerate is a special type of Bimrock, which is composed of andesite fragments surrounded by tuff matrix and it is an example of
Volcanic Bimrock. Preparation of core samples for experimental studies from agglomerate is problematic due
to the strength contrast between andesite rock fragments and tuff matrix. To overcome these difficulties, some prediction tools have been studied by regression analyses in the literature. In this study,Artificial Neural Network (ANN) as a prediction tool was used to construct a model for prediction of overall UCS of Volcanic Bimrock. While Volumetric Block Proportion (VBP), Volumetric Block Count (VBC) and fractal dimensions (1 and 2
dimensional) were selected as input parameters, normalized overall uniaxal strength of agglomerate to uniaxal compressive strength of tuff matrix is output parameter. Fractal geometry has been used as popular method to define irregular shapes as a quantity in literature. The boundary strength between an-desite fragments and
tuff matrix is also sensitive to fragment shape and surface roughness of andesite fragments. Therefore fractal
dimensions were selected as input parameters to incorporate this effect on boundary strength. While previously developed computer code FRACRUN was used to determine average fractal dimension of andesite fragments in agglomerate cores, previously developed computer code ANNES was used for ANN based model construction. In addition, similar to Volumetric Joint Count (Jv) which is widely used in rock mass characterization, Volumetric
Block Count (VBC) was defined as another input parameter for determination of Bimrock UCS considering some of studies about performed in literature. The highest prediction performance was obtained from the model which considers Volumetric Block Proportion (VBP), Volumetric Block Count (VBC) and 1D fractal dimension as inputs.

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The uniaxial compressive strength of rock material (UCS) is one of the fundamental input parameters for engineering applications to be constructed on/in rock masses such as deep slopes, tunnels and dams. However, preparation of the high quality cores for laboratory studies is generally difficult for some types of
rock such as laminated and/or fragmented rock material. To overcome this difficulty empirical prediction models were developed by considering some input parameters. Geological mixtures composed of rock blocks surrounded by weak matrix material are known as Block-In-Matrix-Rock (Bimrock) in literature. Agglomerate is a special type of Bimrock, which is composed of andesite fragments surrounded by tuff matrix and it is an example of
Volcanic Bimrock. Preparation of core samples for experimental studies from agglomerate is problematic due
to the strength contrast between andesite rock fragments and tuff matrix. To overcome these difficulties, some prediction tools have been studied by regression analyses in the literature. In this study,Artificial Neural Network (ANN) as a prediction tool was used to construct a model for prediction of overall UCS of Volcanic Bimrock. While Volumetric Block Proportion (VBP), Volumetric Block Count (VBC) and fractal dimensions (1 and 2
dimensional) were selected as input parameters, normalized overall uniaxal strength of agglomerate to uniaxal compressive strength of tuff matrix is output parameter. Fractal geometry has been used as popular method to define irregular shapes as a quantity in literature. The boundary strength between an-desite fragments and
tuff matrix is also sensitive to fragment shape and surface roughness of andesite fragments. Therefore fractal
dimensions were selected as input parameters to incorporate this effect on boundary strength. While previously developed computer code FRACRUN was used to determine average fractal dimension of andesite fragments in agglomerate cores, previously developed computer code ANNES was used for ANN based model construction. In addition, similar to Volumetric Joint Count (Jv) which is widely used in rock mass characterization, Volumetric
Block Count (VBC) was defined as another input parameter for determination of Bimrock UCS considering some of studies about performed in literature. The highest prediction performance was obtained from the model which considers Volumetric Block Proportion (VBP), Volumetric Block Count (VBC) and 1D fractal dimension as inputs.

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of overall strength of Volcanic Bimrock

H. Sonmez, A. Coskun, M. Ercanoglu, D. Turer & K.E. Kasapoglu

Department of Geological Engineering, Applied Geology Division, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey

C. Tunusluoglu

Department of Geological Engineering, Applied Geology Division, Canakkale Onsekizmart Universitesi,

anakkale, Turkey

ABSTRACT: The uniaxial compressive strength of rock material (UCS) is one of the fundamental input

parameters for engineering applications to be constructed on/in rock masses such as deep slopes, tunnels and

dams. However, preparation of the high quality cores for laboratory studies is generally difficult for some types of

rock such as laminated and/or fragmented rock material. To overcome this difficulty empirical prediction models

were developed by considering some input parameters. Geological mixtures composed of rock blocks surrounded

by weak matrix material are known as Block-In-Matrix-Rock (Bimrock) in literature. Agglomerate is a special

type of Bimrock, which is composed of andesite fragments surrounded by tuff matrix and it is an example of

Volcanic Bimrock. Preparation of core samples for experimental studies from agglomerate is problematic due

to the strength contrast between andesite rock fragments and tuff matrix. To overcome these difficulties, some

prediction tools have been studied by regression analyses in the literature. In this study, Artificial Neural Network

(ANN) as a prediction tool was used to construct a model for prediction of overall UCS of Volcanic Bimrock.

While Volumetric Block Proportion (VBP), Volumetric Block Count (VBC) and fractal dimensions (1 and 2

dimensional) were selected as input parameters, normalized overall uniaxal strength of agglomerate to uniaxal

compressive strength of tuff matrix is output parameter. Fractal geometry has been used as popular method

to define irregular shapes as a quantity in literature. The boundary strength between an-desite fragments and

tuff matrix is also sensitive to fragment shape and surface roughness of andesite fragments. Therefore fractal

dimensions were selected as input parameters to incorporate this effect on boundary strength. While previously

developed computer code FRACRUN was used to determine average fractal dimension of andesite fragments in

agglomerate cores, previously developed computer code ANNES was used for ANN based model construction.

In addition, similar to Volumetric Joint Count (Jv) which is widely used in rock mass characterization, Volumetric

Block Count (VBC) was defined as another input parameter for determination of Bimrock UCS considering

some of studies about performed in literature. The highest prediction performance was obtained from the model

which considers Volumetric Block Proportion (VBP), Volumetric Block Count (VBC) and 1D fractal dimension

as inputs.

INSTRUCTION

difficult due the strength contrast between blocks and

weak matrix. Bimrocks are divided mainly into two

subgroups namely welded and unwelded Bimrocks

(Altinsoy 2006, Sonmez & Tunusluoglu 2010). While

the strength between matrix and blocks is almost

equal to the strength of matrix for welded Bimrocks,

the strength between matrix and blocks is less than

strength of matrix for unwelded Bimrocks. In this

study, Ankara agglomerate which is a kind of welded

Volcanic Bimrock was considered as the study rock

material (Fig. 1). While Volumetric Block Proportion (VBP), Volumetric Block Count (VBC), fractal

dimensions (1 and 2 dimensional) were selected as

input parameters, normalized overall uniaxal strength

of agglomerate to uniaxal compressive strength of tuff

crucial input parameter for engineering designs to

be constructed in/on rock masses. The uniaxial compressive strength of rock material is determined by

conventional laboratory tests employed on high quality core samples. However, for some rocks such as

laminated and fragmented rock materials, preparation of high quality cores is almost impossible. To

overcome this difficulty some empirical prediction

models for Ankara agglomerate studied in literature

(Gokceoglu 2002, Sonmez et al. 2004, Sonmez et al

2006a) Mixtures of rocks composed of geotechnically

significant strong blocks, within a bonded weak matrix

of finer texture defined as Bimrock by Medley (1994).

83

Tunuslugolu 2010).

matrix is obtained as the output parameter. The artificial neural network (ANN) was used as a prediction

tool for construction of the models. Prediction performances of the generated models were compared in

terms of fractal dimensions (1 and 2 dimensional).

2

DETERMINATION OF FRACTAL

DIMENSIONS

Tunusluoglu (2010) was considered. Establishment of

database was performed on total of 70 core specimen

having 6 cm diameter and height between 2 to 2.5. The

top and the bottom circular surfaces and rectangular

cylindrical side of the samples were scanned for image

analysis. Then unit weight () and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of each core were determined by

laboratory tests as suggested by ISRM (2007).

As it can be followed from the literature, fractal

dimension (D) is a statistical quantity that gives an

indication of how completely a fractal appears to fill

space, as one zooms down to finer and finer scales (Das

2011). In literature, fractal geometry has been used as

popular tool to define particularly irregular shapes by

the theory of fractal developed by Mandelbrot (1967)

(Hyslip & Vallejo 1997, Kruhl & Nega 1996, Bagde

et al. 2002, Gulbin & Evangulova 2003, Pardini 2003,

Kolay & Kayabali 2006, Hamdi 2008, Zorlu 2009,

Sezer 2009). In this study, square gridcell (box) count

method for 2D and segment (line) count method for

1D were followed in the algorithm of FRACRUN.

FRACRUN has the capability of determining fractal dimensions of many closed polygons on a single

image, with a click on the start button. The calculations

in 1D and 2D procedure for a single shape followed

by FRACRUN are summarized in Figure 2.

While, the relation between overall strength of

Bimrock and volumetric block proportion (VBP) has

been widely investigated in the literature, some studies

were focused on the characterization of Bimrocks such

as determination of volumetric block proportion, block

size distribution and their quantification (Lindquist

(box-count) and 1D (segment-line count) fractal dimensions

of a single block (Sonmez & Tunusoglu 2010).

this study, by considering the studies performed on

the quantification of blocks in Bimrocks, volumetric

block count (VBC) was defined as additional input

parameter together with VBP. Because the amount of

the weakest component may depends not only on VBP

but also on VBC. In counting of the number of block in

a volume, the engineering volume should be defined.

For this study, engineering volume was considered as

the volume of cores. Therefore the number of block

counted for each core was used as VBC in number of

block/cubic unit. The VBC values may include some

errors due to counting of blocks on 2D scanned images.

3 ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN)

BASED MODELS

Considering the simple regression relations between

UCS and input parameters, two multi inputs ANN

models were investigated. While VBP, VBC and 1D

were used as multi input parameters for the first model,

84

of optimum network architecture (Basheer & Hajmeer, 2000).

for the second model.

ANN has been one of the attractive prediction

tool used in geo-engineering applications due to the

high performance on the modeling of nonlinear multivariate problems (Sonmez et al. 2006b). The backpropagation artificial neural network among the other

methods has been widely considered for empirical

predication models in geo-engineering applications

(Goh et al. 1995, Shi et al. 1998, Neaupane & Achet

2004, Lee et al. 2003, Gomez & Kavzoglu 2005,

Ermini et al. 2005, Yesilnacar & Topal 2005, Sonmez

et al. 2006b).

Although the complexity of BMNN architecture

increases by addition of hidden layers, the simplest

structure having sufficient and applicable prediction

capacity is preferred to avoid overlearning. Each layer

including input(s) and output(s) layers consist of neurons (nodes), and the neurons are joined by weighted

links. The final weights and thresholds of activation

for decreasing the error between observed and computed outputs under a sufficient level defined by user

is set by training phase of ANN algorithm (Sonmez

et al. 2006b). The sigmoid transfer function is considered as an activation function in this study, because it

is commonly preferred in application of predication

purposes. The maximum number of training cycles

(epoch) for back and forward stages is limited by

10000, together with the minimum threshold for root

mean square error (RMSE) as 0.001.

Another important point of the ANN application

is avoiding of overlearning, otherwise ANN may

lose its generalization capacity (Fig. 3). While the

learning rate was used as 0.1, the momentum coefficient was set to 0.95, considering recommendation

and application used in literature. For solution of

the most problems by ANN one hidden layer may

be sufficient (Rumelhart et al. 1986, Hect-Neilsen

1987, Lippmann 1987, Basheer 2000). By considering

versus number of cycles (epochs) for two models.

hidden layer was preferred in this study.

Overlearning problem may be observed when large

number of neurons preferred in hidden layers. For this

propose some recommendation is available in literature (Hecht-Nielsen, 1987, Hush 1989, Ripley 1993,

Wang 1994, Masters 1994, Kaastra & Boyd 1996,

Kannellopoulas & Wilkinson 1997). In this study,

three neurons were used by considering number of

inputs and output (Fig. 4).

Whole data in the database were normalized

between 0 and 1. Then the database composed of 70

data set was divided into 55 data set for training (80%

of data) and 15 data set for testing (20% of data set).

After ANNES was run for both first and second models, the graph for number of training cycle versus root

mean square error for both training and testing data

sets were drawn as in Figure 5.

85

is extraordinarily difficult due the strength contrast

between blocks and weak matrix. The artificial neural

network (ANN) was used for construction of the UCS

prediction models. The main important findings of the

study can be summarized as follows.

The use of Volumetric Block Count (VBC) together

with Volumetric Block Proportion (VBP) exhibits high

importance on the prediction of overall strength of

Bimrocks.

1D (line) fractal dimension seems to be more sensitive than 2D fractal as input parameter on prediction of

overall strength of Bimrock. Because 1D (line) fractal

dimension may define roughness of andesite blocks

(grain) better than 2D fractal dimension. Similar to

the study carried by Kolay & Kayabali (2006), higher

1D fractal dimension is obtained for rougher grains.

The contact strength between matrix and blocks may

be expected to be higher with the increase of surface

roughness of the blocks as emphasized in literature.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The database used in this study was established during

TUBITAK Project (The Scientific and Technological

Research Council of Turkey, Project No: 108Y002).

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