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Wireless Charging of Mobile Phones using

Microwaves
Santosh Kumar S1, Apoorva D N2, B Abhineeth Bhat3
1

Asst. Prof., Dept. of ECE, SVCE, 2 Dept. of ECE, SVCE, 3 Dept. of ECE, SVCE, Bengaluru.

Abstract Mobile phones have become a part and parcel of


ones life. The mobile phones available nowadays have different
battery stand and talk time specified in terms of the mAH.
Portable electronic devices are very popular nowadays. As the
usage of these portable electronic devices is increasing, the
demands for longer battery life are also increasing. These
batteries need to be recharged or replaced periodically. It is a
hassle to charge or change the battery after a while, especially
when there is no power outlet around. This wireless battery
charger is expected to eliminate all the hassles with todays
battery technology. We propose the model which can be used for
recharging the mobile phone batteries using microwaves. The
microwave signal is transmitted from the transmitter along with
the message signal using a slotted waveguide antenna at a
frequency of 2.4 GHz. This can be achieved by adding a rectenna,
a sensor and a filter circuitry to the existing mobile. With this
setup, charging becomes easier that is, the more you talk the
more your mobile phone battery gets charged!

All these different kinds of electromagnetic radiation actually


differ only in a single property their wavelength as shown
in Fig.1. When electromagnetic radiation is spread out
according to its wavelength, the result is a spectrum, as seen in
Fig. The visible spectrum, as seen in a rainbow, is only a small
part of the whole electromagnetic spectrum.
The electromagnetic spectrum is divided into following
classes,
1. Gamma radiation
2. X-ray radiation
3. Ultraviolet radiation
4. Visible radiation
5. Infrared radiation
6. Microwave radiation
7. Radio waves

Keywords Magnetron; Slotted waveguide antenna; Rectenna;


Sensors; Shottky barrier diode;

1.

INTRODUCTION

The principle of wireless charging has been around for


over a century but only now are we beginning to recognize its
true potential.
We're referring, to inductive charging the ability to manipulate
an electromagnetic field in order to transfer energy a very
short distance between two objects (a transmitter and
receiver). It's limited to distances of just a few millimeters for
the moment, but even with this limitation, such a concept will
allow us to power up phones, laptops, keyboards, kitchen
appliances, and power tools from a large number of places: in
our homes, our cars, and even the mall.
There are three types of wireless charging:
1. Inductive charging
2. Radio charging
3. Resonance charging
Electromagnetic spectrum: The electromagnetic spectrum is
the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic
radiation. It extends from below the low frequencies used for
modern radio communication to gamma radiation at the shortwavelength (high-frequency) end.
Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes
the visible light that comes from a lamp in your house and
the radio waves that come from a radio station are two types
of electromagnetic radiation. The other types of EM radiation
that make up the electromagnetic spectrum are microwaves,
infrared light , ultraviolet light, X-rays and gamma rays.

Fig. 1: Wavelength of Electromagnetic wave

Microwaves: Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic


radiation with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter
to as short as one millimetre; with frequencies between
300 MHz (0.3 GHz) and 300 GHz. Microwaves are good for
transmitting information from one place to another because
microwave energy can penetrate haze, light rain and snow,
clouds, and smoke.
The frequency selection is another important aspect in
transmission. Here we are going to use the S band of the
Microwave Spectrum, which lies between 2-4GHz.We have
selected the license free 2.45 GHz ISM band for our purpose.
The Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) radio bands were
originally reserved internationally for non-commercial use of
RF electromagnetic fields for industrial, scientific and medical
purposes.

2. GENERAL BLOCK DIAGRAM

voltage positive direct current. In the centre of the anode,


called the interaction chamber, is a circular cathode.

Fig. 2: Block diagram

There are two parts. One is transmitting part and the other is
the Receiving part. At the transmitting end there is one
microwave power source which is actually producing
microwave which is attached to the Coax-Waveguide and
tuner is used to match the impedance of the transmitting
antenna and the microwave source. Directional Coupler helps
the signal to propagate in a particular direction. It spread the
Microwaves in a space and transmits to the receiver side as
shown in Fig. 2. At the receiver, the Impedance matching
circuit receives the microwave signal through Rectenna
circuit. This circuit is nothing but the combination of filter
circuit and the Schottky Diode. Which actually convert
transmitted microwave into the DC power.
3. TRANSMITTER
The transmitter section consists of two parts. They are:
1. Magnetron
2. Slotted waveguide antenna
Magnetron: The magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube,
consists of a simple diode vacuum tube with built in cavity
resonators and an extremely powerful permanent magnet that
works as self-excited microwave oscillator. Crossed electron
and magnetic fields are used in the magnetron to produce the
high-power output required in radar equipment. These multicavity devices may be used in radar transmitter as either
pulsed or continuous wave oscillators at frequencies ranging
from approximately 600 to 30,000 MHz .The relatively simple
construction has the disadvantage that the magnetron usually
can work only on constructively fixed frequency.
The typical magnet consists of a circular anode into which has
been machined with an even number of resonant cavities as
shown in the Fig. 3. The diameter of each cavity is equal to a
one-half wavelength at the desired operating frequency. The
anode is usually made of copper and is connected to a high-

Fig. 3: Structure of Magnetron

The magnetic fields of the moving electrons interact with the


strong field supplied by the magnet. The result is that the path
for the electron flow from the cathode is not directly to the
anode, but instead is curved. By properly adjusting the anode
voltage and the strength of the magnetic field, the electrons
can be made to bend that they rarely reach the anode and
cause current flow. The path becomes circular loops.
Eventually, the electrons do reach the anode and cause current
flow. By adjusting the dc anode voltage and the strength of the
magnetic field, the electron path is made circular. In making
their circular passes in the interaction chamber, electrons
excite the resonant cavities into oscillation.
Slotted waveguide antenna: The slotted waveguide is used in
an omni-directional role. It is the simplest ways to get a real
10dB gain over 360 degrees of beam width. The Slotted
waveguide antenna is a Horizontally Polarized type Antenna,
light in weight and weather proof. Three tuning screws are
placed for tweaking the SWR and can be used to adjust the
center frequency downwards from 2320MHz nominal to about
2300MHz. This antenna is available for different frequencies.
This antenna, called a slotted waveguide, is a very low loss
transmission line. It allows propagating signals to a number of
smaller antennas (slots). The signal is coupled into the
waveguide with a simple coaxial probe, and as it travels along
the guide, it traverses the slots. Each of these slots allows a
little of the energy to radiate. The slots are in a linear array
pattern. The waveguide antenna transmits almost all of its
energy at the horizon, usually exactly where we want it to go.
4. RECEIVER SECTION

A rectifying antenna rectifies received


microwaves into DC current. A rectenna comprises
Rectenna:

of a mesh of dipoles and diodes for absorbing microwave


energy from a transmitter and converting it into electric
power. A simple rectenna can be constructed from a Schottky
diode placed between antenna dipoles. The diode rectifies the
current induced in the antenna by the microwaves. Rectenna
are highly efficient at converting microwave energy to
electricity. In laboratory environments, efficiencies above
90% have been observed with regularity. In future rectennas
will be used to generate large-scale power from microwave
beams delivered from orbiting GPS satellites.
Rectennas are having following advantages fo:
1. The life time of the rectenna is almost unlimited and it does
not need replacement (unlike batteries).
2. It is "green" for the environment (unlike batteries, no
deposition to pollute the environment).
Schottky barrier diode: A Schottky barrier diode is different
from a common P-N silicon diode. The common diode is
formed by connecting a P type semiconductor with an N type
semiconductor, this is connecting between a semiconductor
and another semiconductor; however, a Schottky barrier diode
is formed by connecting a metal with a semiconductor. When
the metal contacts the semiconductor, there will be a layer of
potential barrier (Schottky barrier) formed on the contact
surface of them, which shows a characteristic of rectification.
The material of the semiconductor usually is a semiconductor
of n-type (occasionally p-type), and the material of metal
generally is chosen from different metals such as
molybdenum, chromium, platinum and tungsten. Sputtering
technique connects the metal and the semiconductor.
A Schottky barrier diode is a majority carrier device, while a
common diode is a minority carrier device. When a common
PN diode is turned from electric connecting to circuit
breakage, the redundant minority carrier on the contact surface
should be removed to result in time delay. The Schottky
barrier diode itself has no minority carrier, it can quickly turn
from electric connecting to circuit breakage, its speed is much
faster than a common P/N diode, so its reverse recovery time
Tr is very short and shorter than 10 ns. And the forward
voltage bias of the Schottky barrier diode is under 0.6V or so,
lower than that (about 1.1V) of the common PN diode. So,
The Schottky barrier diode is a comparatively ideal diode,
such as for a 1 ampere limited current PN interface.

Sensor circuitry: The sensor circuitry is a simple circuit,


which detects if the mobile phone receives any message
signal. This is required, as the phone has to be charged as long
as the user is talking. Thus a simple F to V converter would
serve our purpose. In India the operating frequency of the
mobile phone operators is generally 900MHz or 1800MHz for
the GSM system for mobile communication.
We can use LM2907 for F to V conversion. So when our
phone is receiving microwave signal it make the rectenna
circuit on and charge the battery. Using LM2907 would
greatly serve our purpose. It acts as a switch for triggering the
rectenna circuitry. The general block diagram for the LM2907
is given below. Thus on the reception of the signal the sensor
circuitry directs the rectenna circuit to ON and the mobile
phone begins to charge using the microwave power.

5. PROCESS OF RECTIFICATION
Microwave energy transmitted from space to earth apparently
has the potential to provide environmentally clean electric
power on a very large scale. The key to improve transmission
efficiency is the rectifying circuit. The aim of this study is to
make a low cost power rectifier for low and high power levels
at a frequency of 2.45GHz with good efficiency of rectifying
operation. The objective also is to increase the detection
sensitivity at low power levels.
Different configurations can be used to convert the EM waves
into DC signal. The study done shows that the use of a bridge
is better than a single diode, but the purpose of this study is to
achieve a low cost microwave rectifier with single Schottky
diode for low and high power levels that has a good
performance. The goal of this investigation is the development
of a hybrid microwave rectifier with single.
6. CONCLUSION
Thus this paper successfully demonstrates a novel method of
using the power of the microwave to charge the mobile phones
without the use of wired chargers. Thus this method provides
great advantage to the mobile phone users to carry their
phones anywhere even if the place is devoid of facilities for
charging. A novel use of the rectenna and a sensor in a mobile
phone could provide a new dimension in the revelation of
mobile phone.
7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We would like to thank our HOD, Dr. Shivashankar sir for
giving us an opportunity to present this paper, our guide, Mr.
Santosh Kumar S sir for guiding us throughout the paper.
8. REFERENCES

Fig. 4: Rectanna

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