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Abstract Design

Design is the first step in development phase for any engineering product or system.
It may be defined as the process of applying various techniques and principles for the
purpose of defining the process or a system in sufficient detail to permit its physical
Abstract design is a concept or idea that indicates the creation of something in the
mind using a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition which may exist
with a degree of independence from visual reference in the world.
The design activity begins when the requirements document for the software to be
developed is available. While the requirements specification activity is entirely in the problem
domain, design is the first step in moving from the problem domain to solution domain. The goal
of design process is to produce a model or representation of a system, which can be used later to
build that system.

1.1 Architectural Design

Design phase starts with the requirement document delivered by the requirement
phase and maps the requirements into architecture. Architecture defines the components,
their interface and behavior.
Architectural Design is a creative process where we try to establish a system
organization that will satisfy the functional and non-functional system requirements. It
contains components that are the building blocks of the system. The interface is the
architectural surface where independent components meet and communicate with each other.
Interface defines the behavior where one component responds to the stimuli of another
components action.
The product of architectural design process is an architectural design document. This
may include a number of graphical representations of the system along with associated
descriptive text.

1.2 Use Case Diagrams

Use case diagram is used to identify the primary elements and processes that form the
system. The primary elements are called as actors and the processes are called as
use cases. Use case diagram is a graph of actors, a set of use cases enclosed by
system boundary, communication association between the actors and use cases. The
use case diagrams describes how a system interacts with the outside actors, each use
case represents a piece of functionality that a system provides to its user. A use case is
known as ellipse containing the name of a use case and an actor is shown as stick
figure with the name of the actor below the figure.
In this use case diagram of Online Voting System there are 3 actors:

Administrator logins to the system, displays the candidates details and

checks voter details allow the voter to vote and filters the result, prioritizes
and displays them.
Voter selects candidate, cast vote
Server will get the query from admin and send it to admin

Functional Design
Functional design is a paradigm used to simplify the design of computer
software. Each modular part of functional design has only one responsibility
and performs it with the minimum of side effects on the other parts.
Functional design means that the products functionality is taken into
account in important ways as it is built.

Modular Design Diagram

Modular design is an approach that subdivides the system into
modules that can be independently created and then used in different
system to drive multiple functionalities. Some complex system can be broken
down into simple subsystem which works together when combined.
The modular design for ONLINE VOTING SYSTEM contains following module:

Normal Interactive mode:

Election mode :

Fingerprint scanning
Processing the scanned fingerprint
Selecting the candidate.
Vote count of candidate stored in server
Result announced immediately after


Normal Interactive

Election Mode




count is
stored in


Fig 2.1.1 Modular design for online voting system

2.2 Data Flow Diagram

Data flow diagram is a graphical representation of the flow of data
through an information system used for visualization of the data processing.
A DFD is a significant modeling technique for analyzing and constructing
information process. It explained the course of movements of information in
a process based on input and outputs. So, it is also called process model.
DFD can used to provide the end user with the physical idea of where e
the data they input is immediately effect on the structure of the whole
In online voting system any number of voter and candidates name and other
details are registered to the system, the registration details will be stored on
the database, add voter, updated the voter details, remove the voter from
the list and also candidate update process are operated and controlled by
the admin. Once voter is registered he/she can vote for the particular
candidate by touch screen monitor, vote count of candidate stored in server

Sequence diagram
Class diagram
Class diagram provides a graphic notation for modeling classes and their
relationships, therby describing the possible objects. In this class diagram
the classes are represented with the boxes which contain 3 parts:

The upper part holds the name of the class

The middle part contains the attribute of the class
The bottom part gives the methods or operations that the class can

In the design of a system, a number of classes are identified and grouped

together in a class diagram which helps to determine the statistical
relations between those objects. With the detailed modeling, the classes
of the conceptual design are often split into the number of subclasses.

Class diagram for online voting system


Flow Design

An activity diagram shows the overall workflow behavior of a system. They describe
the business and operational step by step workflows in a system. Activity diagrams
can show activities that are conditional and parallel.
Fig 1.1 shows the activity diagram for the administrator. The administrator enters
the voters and candidates details before voting into the system. The administrator
also creates /updates/delete details in case of any changes are to be done. Once the
election is done, the administrator has to generate reports and display the result.

Fig 1.2 shows the activity diagram for the voter and proposed system. Voter makes
his thumb impression into the system. The system scans for the match. If no match
found, the voter is not allowed to vote. If match found, then the candidate details
are displayed and the voter selects his/her candidate and caste vote. These details
are then stored into the database.



Fig 1.1 activity diagram for administrator


Fig.1.2 Activity diagram for voter and proposed system

Algorithm for logic implementation


Enter fingerprint proof of voter

Scan system for the match
If match found allow voter to vote
Select the candidate to vote
Conform the candidate and cast vote
Update voter data
Save candidate and his vote counts
Send data to the database
Generate report and publish results