Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3


Submitted By:
e-mail- Utkarsh_234@yahoo.com & dwijay_bane@rediffmail.com
contact no.-9251759355,9309259189


What is a Hologram?
1. A Hologram is a picture that changes when looked at from different
2. Holography is a technique that allows the light scattered from an object to
be recorded and let a reconstructed so that it appears as if the object is in
the same position relative to the recording medium as it was when

How does Hologram works?

1. Typically coherent light from an object and combined at the film with light
from a reference beam.
2. Interference pattern produced by beams is recorded.
3. The resulting light field is an apparently random pattern of varying
intensity which is hologram.

Characteristics of Hologram:
1. Photograph of light wave interference.
2. 3D in nature.
3. Lens less photography.
4. Any part of the hologram contains the whole image.

5. The images are scalable.

Types of Holograms:
Multi-image Holograms:
Several images can be seen successively by changing the view point or
illuminating light or by tilting the hologram.
Rainbow Holograms:
These are transmission holograms viewable by white light, made by
transfer wih te master hologram masked down to a narrow horizontal slit.
Focused-Image Holograms:
The optical image formed by a lens is used as object beam. This principle
can be used to form holographic images in a modified conventional
Embossed Hologram:
The final transfer hologram is made on photo resist, so that the
interference pattern is formed in ridges and can be reproduced by
mechanical hot stamping from a metal replica.
Holographic stereograms:
These represent the ultimate in multi-image transfer hologram. A series of
upto 100 images produced by a moving camera is recorded as a set of
adjacent narrow holograms 1 to 2 mm wide on a continuous length of
holographic film. The whole series is then transferred holographically to
give a single final image. This system has the advantages of not needing a
laser for its origination, and of being able to produce an image of any
required size.
Holographic (or diffractive) optical elements:
A hologram of a lens or of an optical mirror behaves exactly like the
original lens or mirror. It is thus a holographic element (HOE). The main
advantages of HOEs and DOEs is that a large number of elements can be
superimposed on a single surface, an impossibility with conventional
optical systems. The disadvantage is that they are highly dispersive and
can therefore reused affectively only with monochromatic light.
Holographic interferograms:
If a hologram is doubly exposed, and between the two exposers the object
is slightly distorted, in the resulting image he distortion is contoured by
secondary interference fringes at half wavelength intervals. This property
makes holography an important tool in the analysis of stresses and

Application of Holography:
Data Storage:
A technique that can store information at high density inside crystals and
photo polymers.
Security holograms are used widely in mini currencies, credit and bank
card as well as books, DVDs , sports equipments as they are difficult to
Some artist use holography as their main medium and many more artist
integrate holographic elements into their work.
Hobbyist Use:
Many experiments have been made by people to explore more on
holographic to find an inexpensive ways of making holograms.
Determining Cubic Dimensions:
Holographic scanners are in use post offices, larger shipping firms and
automated conveyor system to determine the 3-Dimensional size of a

How does it works?

1. More than 35 cameras used to shoot.
2. A 3D image is created.
3. 3D model rendered and textured with video signal and sent to the
4. At the destination, some special effects added to give final holographic

Future Possibilities:
1. Wartime decision makers would benefit from looking at a3-d
representation of a battle landscape.
2. Industrial designers will be able to modify a sports cars body using the tip
of a stylus, instantly establishing the changes effect on overall design.
3. Surgeons will be better able to determine the safest approach for
removing a brain tumour without ever wielding a knife.
4. Even real-time holographic imaging based video games can become a
reality if costs come down.