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# AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING

## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

I

## Review of Navier-Stokes Equations for Incompressible and

Compressible Flows

## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## Tensor notation is used extensively throughout the textbook and

this course and is therefore briefly reviewed and compared to vector
notation before moving to a discussion of the conservation
equations for turbulent flows.

## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

Expression

Vector Notation

Tensor Notation

scalars

, c

, c
(zeroth-order tensor)

operations
(+, , , /)

e.g., c,

c,

~a, ~x

vectors

ai , xi

(3D space)

(first-order tensor,
it is taken that i {1, 2, 3})

~b = ~a + ~x

vector products
inner product

~a ~x =
P

(scalar result)

bi = ai + xi = aj + xk

i ai xi = c
ai xi = a1 x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3

ai xi = c
(Einstein notation: sum implied)

## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

2.1.1 Einstein Summation Convention
Einstein summation convention: repetition of an index in any term
denotes a summation of the term with respect to that index over
the full range of the index (i.e., 1, 2, 3).
Thus, for the inner product
ai xi =

3
X

ai xi = a1 x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3

i=1

the sum is implied and need not be explicitly expressed. Note that
using matrix-vector mathematical notation, the inner product of
two 3 1 column vectors, a and x, can be experssed as

x1
aT x = [a1 a2 a3 ] x2 = a1 x1 + a2 x2 + a3 x3
x3
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

Expression

cross product

Vector Notation

~a ~x = ~r =

(vector result)

~r =

~i
a1
x1

~j
a2
x2

Tensor Notation
~k
a3
x3

ijk aj xk = ri

(a2 x3 a3 x2 )~i
(a1 x3 a3 x1 )~j
+(a1 x2 a2 x1 )~k

## (sum over j & k implied)

outer product

~a~x = ~a

~
~x = ~J

a x = J

(second-order tensor,

vector of vectors)

9 elements,
6 elements for symmetric tensor)

## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

2.1.2 Dyadic Quantity: A Vector of Vectors
~
In vector notation, a dyadic quantity, ~d is essentially a vector of
vectors as defined by the outer product:
~~
d = ~u~v
It is equivalent to the second-order tensor, dij ,
dij = ui uj
using tensor notation. In this case using matrix-vector notation,
the outer product of two 3 1 column vectors, u and v, can be

u1
u1 v1 u1 v2 u1 v3
uvT = u2 [v1 v2 v3 ] = u2 v1 u2 v2 u2 v3
u3
u3 v1 u3 v2 u3 v3
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

Expression

Vector Notation

Tensor Notation

~~
d = ~u~v

dij = ui uj

~~
A
~x = ~b

A x = b
equivalent to Ax = b

(vector result)

high-order tensors

~~
~
Q

Qijk
(third-order tensor,
27 elements, 10 symmetric)

~~
~~
R

Rijkl
(fourth-order tensor,
81 elements, 15 symmetric)
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

Expression

Vector Notation

Tensor Notation

contracted quantities

~h

hi = qijj
(contacted 3rd-order tensor,
vector)

~~
P

Pij = Rijkk
(contacted 4th-order tensor,

p = Riikk
(double contacted tensor,
scalar quantity)

## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

2.1.3 Permutation Tensor
The permuation tensor, ijk , is a third-order tensor that is
introduced for defining cross products with the following properties
for its elements:
123 = 231 = 312 = 1 , even permutations
213 = 321 = 132 = 1 , odd permutations
111 = 222 = 333 = 0 , repeated indices
112 = 113 = 221 = 223 = 331 = 322 = 0 , repeated indices

## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

2.1.4 Kronecker Delta Tensor
The Kronecker delta tensor, ij , is a second-order tensor that is
defined as follows:

1 , for i = j
ij =
0 , for i 6= j
~
The Kronecker delta tensor is equivalent ot the identity dyad, ~I
and the 3 3 indentity matrix, I, in matrix-vector mathematical
notation given by

1 0 0
I= 0 1 0
0 0 1
Note also that
ii = trace(I) = 3
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

2.1.5  Indentity
The following identity relates the permutation and Kronecker delta
tensors:
ijk ist = js kt jt ks

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

Expression

Vector Notation

Tensor Notation

~ =
~
V

divergence

~ ~a
c =

xi
ai
c=
xi

ui
xi
ak
gi = ijk
xj
Bi
Pij =
xj
2
c=
xi i
2 Ai
ai =
xj j

differential operators

~
~u
curl

~ ~a
~g =

vector derivative

~~
~
~B
P
=

Laplacian

~
~
c = 2 =
~ =
~
~
~A
~a = 2 A
12

Vi =

## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.1 Review of Tensor Notation

2.1.6 Other Notation
In the course textbook and elsewhere you will some time see the
use of the shorthand tensor notation:
~ = p = p,i
p
xi
and

~ ~u = ui = ui,i

xi

## This notation will not be used by this instructor as it can be

difficult to follow and is more prone to errors.

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## The Navier-Stokes equations describing the flow of compressible

gases are a non-linear set of partial-differential equations (PDEs)
governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy of the
gaseous motion. They consist of two scalar equations and one
vector equation for five unknowns (dependent variables) in terms
of three independent variables, the position vector, ~x or xi , and
time, t.
We will here review briefly the Navier-Stokes equations for a
polytropic (calorically perfect) gas in both tensor and vector
notation. Integral forms of the equations will also be discussed.

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.1 Continuity Equation
The continuity equation is a scaler equation reflecting the
conservation of mass for a moving fluid. Using vector notation, it
has the form
~
+ (~u ) = 0
t
where and ~u are the gas density and flow velocity, respectively.
In tensor notation, the continuity equation can be written as

+
(ui ) = 0
t
xi

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.2.1 Continuity Equation

For the control volume and control surface above, the integral
form of the continuity equation can be obtained by integrating the
original PDE over the control volume and making using of the
divergence theorem. The following integral equation is obtained:
Z
I
d
dV = ~u ~n dA
dt
V

which relates the time rate of change of the total mass within the
control volume to the mass flux through the control surface.
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.2 Momentum Equation
The momentum equation is a vector equation that represents the
application of Newtons 2nd Law of Motion to the motion of a gas.
It relates the time rate of change of the gas momentum to the
forces which act on the gas. Using vector notation, it has the form



~
~ ~u~u + p~I ~~ = ~f
(~u ) +
t
where p and ~
~ are the gas pressure and fluid stress dyad or tensor,
respectively, and ~f is the acceleration of the gas due to body forces
(i.e., gravitation, electro-magnetic forces). In tensor notation, the
momentum equation can be written as

(ui ) +
(ui uj + pij ij ) = fi
t
xj
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## For the control volume, the integral form of the momentum

equation is given by

Z
I 
Z
d
~~ ~
~u dV =
~u~u + p I ~ ~n dA + ~f dV
dt
V

## which relates the time rate of change of the total momentum

within the control volume to the surface and body forces that act
on the gas.
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## AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.3 Energy Equation
The energy equation is a scalar equation that represents the
application of 1st Law of Thermodynamics to the gaseous motion.
It describes the time rate of change of the total energy of the gas
(the sum of kinetic energy of bulk motion and internal kinetic or
thermal energy). Using vector notation, it has the form
 


p

~ ~u E +
(E ) +
~~ ~u + ~q = ~f ~u
t

## where E is the total specific energy of the gas given by

E = e + ~u ~u /2 and ~q is the heat flux vector representing the flux
of heat out of the gas. In tensor notation, it has the form





p
(E ) +
ui E +
ij uj + qi = fi ui
t
xi

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## AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.2.3 Energy Equation

For the control volume, the integral form of the energy equation is
given by


Z
I  
Z
d
p
E dV =
~u E +
~~ ~u + ~q ~n dA+ ~f ~u dV
dt

which relates the time rate of change of the total energy within the
control volume to transport of energy, heat transfer, and work
done by the gas.
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## The Navier-Stokes equations as given above are not complete

(closed). Additional information is required to relate pressure,
density, temperature, and energy, and the fluid stress tensor, ij
and heat flux vector, qi must be specified. The equation set is
completed by
thermodynamic relationships;
constitutive relations; and
expressions for transport coefficients.
When seeking solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for either
value problems, boundary conditions will also be required to
complete the mathematical description.
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.4 Thermodynamic Relationships
In this course, we will assume that the gas satisfies the ideal gas
equation of state relating , p, and T , given by
p = RT
and behaves as a calorically perfect gas (polytropic gas) with
constant specific heats, cv and cp , and specific heat ratio, , such
that
e = cv T =

p
( 1)

and h = e +

p
p
= cp T =

( 1)

## where R is the gas constant, cv is the specific heat at constant

volume, cp is the specific heat at constant pressure, and = cp /cv .
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.2.5 Mach Number and Sound Speed

For a polytropic gas, the sound speed, a, can be determined using
r
p p
a = = RT

M=

u
u
=
a
RT

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.6 Constitutive Relationships
The constitutive relations provide expressions for the fluid stress
tensor, ij , and heat flux vector, qi , in terms of the other fluid
quantities. Using the Navier-Stokes relation, the fluid stress tensor
can be related to the fluid strain rate and given by



uj
2 uk
ui
ij =
+
ij
(ii = 0, traceless)
xj
xi
3 xk
where is the dynamic viscosity of the gas. Fouriers Law can be
used to relate the heat flux to the temperature gradient as follows:
qi =

T
xi

~
or ~q = T

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.7 Transport Coefficients
In general, the transport coefficients, and , are functions of
both pressure and temperature:
= (p, T ) and = (p, T )
Expressions, such as Sutherlands Law can be used to determine
the dynamics viscosity as a function of temperature (i.e.,
= (T )). The Prandtl number can also be used to relate and
. The non-dimensional Prandtl number is defined as follows:
Pr =

cp

## and is typically 0.70-0.72 for many gases. Given , the thermal

conductivity can be related to viscosity using the preceding
expression for the Prandtl number.
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.2 Navier-Stokes Equations for a Compressible Gas

2.2.8 Boundary Conditions
At a solid wall or bounday, the following boundary conditions for
the flow velocity and temperature are appropriate:
~u = 0 ,

and
T = Twall ,

or
~ ~n = 0 ,
T

## where Twall is the wall temperature and ~n is a unit vector in the

direction normal to the wall or solid surface.
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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## 2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas

For low flow Mach numbers (i.e., low subsonic flow, M < 1/4), the
assumption that the gas behaves as an incompressible fluid is
generally a good approximation. By assuming that
the density, , is constant;
temperature variations are small and unimportant such that
the energy equation can be neglected; and
the viscosity, , is constant;
one can arrive at the Navier-Stokes equations describing the flow
of incompressible fluids.

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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## 2.3.1 Continuity Equation

Using vector notation, the continuity equation for incompressible
flow reduces to
~ ~u = 0

## In other words, the velocity vector, ~u , is a solenoidal vector field

and is divergence free. In tensor notation, the solenoidal condition
can be expressed as
ui
=0
xi

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas

2.3.2 Momentum Equation
Using vector notation, the momentum equation for an
incompressible fluid can be written as
~u
~ u + 1 p
~ = 1
~ ~~
+ ~u ~
t

## In tensor notation, the incompressible form of the momentum

equation is given by
ui
ui
1 p
1 ij
+ uj
+
=
t
xj
xi
xj

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas

2.3.3 Constitutive Relationships
For incompressible flows, the Navier-Stokes constitutive relation
relating the fluid stresses and fluid strain rate can be written as




uj
uj
ui
ui
ij =
+
=
+
= 2Sij
xj
xi
xj
xi
where = / is the kinematic viscosity and the strain rate tensor


uj
1 ui
Sij =
+
2 xj
xi
As in the compressible case, the fluid stress tensor for
incompressible flow is still traceless and ij = 0.
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.3 Navier-Stokes Equations for an Incompressible Gas

2.3.4 Vorticity Transport Equation
~ is related to the rotation of a fluid element
The vorticity vector, ,
and is defined as follows:
~ =
~ ~u

or

i = ijk

uk
xj

## For incompressible flows, the momentum equation can be used to

arrive at a transport equation for the flow vorticity given by
~

~ = 2
~
~ ~u

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.3.4 Vorticity Transport Equation

~ =
~ ~
~ the vorticity transport
~ ~u
~ u ~u
~ ,
Using
equation can be re-expressed as
~

~
~ ~
~
~
~ u = 2
+ ~u
t
Using tensor notation, this equation can be written as
i
ui
i
2 i
+ uj
j
=
t
xj
xj
xj xj

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## As discussed previously, turbulent flow is characterized by irregular,

chaotic motion. The common approach to the modelling of
turbulence is to assume that the motion is random and adopt a
statistical treatment. Reynolds (1895) introduced the idea that the
turbulent flow velocity vector, ui , can be decomposed and
represented as a fluctuation, ui0 , about a mean component, Ui , as
follows:
ui = Ui + ui0
Develop and solve conservation equations for the mean quantities
(i.e., the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations) and
incorporate the influence of the fluctuations on the mean flow via
turbulence modelling.

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.4 Reynolds Averaging

2.4.1 Forms of Reynolds Averaging
1. Time Averaging: appropriate for steady mean flows
Z
1 t+T /2
FT (~x ) = lim
f (~x , t 0 ) dt 0
T T tT /2
2. Spatial Averaging: suitable for homogeneous
turbulent flows
Z
1
f (~x , t) dV
FV (t) = lim
V V V
3. Ensemble Averaging: most general form of averaging
N
1 X
FE (~x , t) = lim
fn (~x , t)
N N
n=1
where fn (~x , t) is nth instance of flow solution with initial and
boundary data differing by random infinitessimal
perturbations.
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## For ergodic random processes, these three forms of Reynolds

averaging will yield the same averages. This would be the case for
stationary, homogeneous, turbulent flows.
In this course and indeed in most turbulence modelling approaches,
time averaging will be considered. Note that Wilcox (2002) states
that Reynolds time averaging is a brutal simplification that loses
much of the information contained in the turbulence.

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.4 Reynolds Averaging

2.4.2 Reynolds Time Averaging
In Reynolds time averaging, all instantaneous flow quantities,
(xi , t) and a(xi , t), will be represented as a sum of mean and
fluctuating components, (xi ) and 0 (xi , t) and A(xi ) and a0 (xi , t),
respectively, such that
(xi , t) = (xi ) + 0 (xi , t)

or

## For the flow velocity, we have

ui (x , t) = Ui (x ) + ui0 (x , t)

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.4.2 Reynolds Time Averaging

The time averaging procedure is defined as follows and yields the
time averaged quantities:
1
(xi , t) = (xi ) = lim
T T

1
a(xi , t) = A(xi ) = lim
T T

t+T /2

(xi , t 0 ) dt 0

tT /2
t+T /2

a(xi , t 0 ) dt 0

tT /2

## By definition, time averaging of mean quantities merely recovers

the mean quantity:
1
Ui (x ) = lim
T T

t+T /2

Ui (x ) dt 0 = Ui (x )

tT /2

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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## Similarly by definition, time averaging of time-averaged quantities

yields zero:
1
ui0 (x , t) = lim
T T

t+T /2 


ui (x , t 0 ) Ui (x ) dt 0 = 0

tT /2

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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## 2.4 Reynolds Averaging

2.4.3 Separation of Time Scales
In practice, the time period for the averaging, T , is not infinite but
very long relative to the time scales for the turbulent fluctuations,
T1 ( i.e., T  T1 ).
This definition of time averaging and T works well for stationary
validity of the Reynolds time averaging procedure requires a strong
separation to time scales with
T1  T  T2
where T2 is the time scale for the variation of the mean.
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## 2.4 Reynolds Averaging

2.4.3 Separation of Time Scales

u(x,t)

T1

T2

T1  T  T2
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## AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## Provided there exists this separation of scales, the time averaging

procedure for time-varying mean flows can be defined as follows:
1
(xi , t) = (xi , t) =
T

1
a(xi , t) = A(xi , t) =
T

t+T /2

(xi , t 0 ) dt 0

tT /2
t+T /2

a(xi , t 0 ) dt 0

tT /2

with T1  T  T2 .

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## AER1310: TURBULENCE MODELLING

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## 2.4 Reynolds Averaging

2.4.4 Properties of Reynolds Time Averaging
Multiplication by a scalar:
C
c a(xi , t) =
T

t+T /2

a(xi , t 0 ) dt 0 = cA

tT /2

Spatial differentiation:
a
1
=
xi
T

t+T /2

tT /2

a 0

dt =
xi
xi

42

1
T

t+T /2

tT /2

!
a dt 0

A
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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## 2.4.4 Properties of Reynolds Time Averaging

Temporal differentiation:
Z
ui
1 t+T /2 ui 0
=
dt
t
T tT /2 t
=

## u 0 (xi , t + T /2) ui0 (xi , t T /2)

Ui (xi , t + T /2) Ui (xi , t T /2)
+ i
T
T
Ui
t

~ and T  T2 .
The latter is obtained by assuming that |~u 0 |  |U|

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## 2.4 Reynolds Averaging

2.4.5 Single-Point Correlations
a(xi , t)b(xi , t) = (A + a0 ) (B + b 0 )
= AB + a0 B + b 0 A + a0 b 0
= AB + Ba0 + Ab 0 + a0 b 0
= AB + Ba0 + Ab 0 + a0 b 0
= AB + a0 b 0
In general, a0 and b 0 are said to be correlated if
a0 b 0 6= 0
and uncorrelated if
a0 b 0 = 0
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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C. P. T. Groth 2015

## 2.4.5 Single-Point Correlations

What about triple products? Can show that
a(xi , t)b(xi , t)c(xi , t) = ABC + a0 b 0 C + a0 c 0 B + b 0 c 0 A + a0 b 0 c 0

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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## 2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations

2.5.1 Derivation
Applying Reynolds time-averaging to the incompressible form of
the Navier-Stokes equations leads to the Reynolds Averaged
Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations describing the time variation of
mean flow quantities.
Application of time-averaging to the continuity equations yields
ui
=0
xi
or

Ui
=0
xi
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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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## 2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations

2.5.1 Derivation
For the incompressible form of the momentum equation we have
ui
ui
ui
ui
1 p
1 ij
1 p
+ uj
+ uj
+
=
+
=
t
xj
xi
t
xj
xi
xj
Considering each term in the time-average equation above we have:
Ui
ui
=
t
t
1 p
1 p
1 P
=
=
xi
xi
xi

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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## 2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations

2.5.1 Derivation
Sij
1 ij
1 ij
2 Sij
=
=
= 2
xj
xj
xj
xj
where the mean strain, Sij , is defined as


U
1
U
j
i
Sij =
+
2 xj
xi

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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2.5.1 Derivation
ui
uj
xj

=
=
=
=


uj


0
0
(ui uj ) ui
=
Ui Uj + ui uj
xj
xj
xj

 0 0
(Ui Uj ) +
ui uj
xj
xj
Uj
Ui
 0 0
Uj
+ Ui
+
ui uj
xj
xj
xj
Ui
 0 0
Uj
+
ui uj
xj
xj

Thus we have

1 P
1 
Ui
Ui
0
0
+ Uj
+
=
2Sij ui uj
t
xj
xi
xj
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## 2.5 Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations

2.5.2 Summary
In summary, the RANS describing the time-evolution of the mean
flow quantities Ui and P can be written as
Ui
=0
xi
Ui
Ui
1 P
1
+ Uj
+
=
(
ij + ij )
t
xj
xi
xj
where ij is the fluid stress tensor evaluated in terms of the mean
flow quantities and ij is the Reynolds or turbulent stress tensor
given by
ij = ui0 uj0
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## 2.6 Reynolds Turbulent Stresses and Closure Problem

2.6.1 Closure or RANS Equations
The Reynolds stresses
ij = ui0 uj0
incorporate the effects of the unresolved turbulent fluctuations
(i.e., unresolved by the mean flow equations and description) on
the mean flow. These apparent turbulent stresses significantly
enhance momentum transport in the mean flow.
The Reynolds stress tensor, ij , is a symmetric tensor incorporating
six (6) unknown or unspecified values. This leads to a closure
problem for the RANS equation set. Turbulence modelling provides
the necessary closure by allowing a means for specifying ij in
terms of mean flow solution quantities.
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## 2.6 Reynolds Turbulent Stresses and Closure Problem

2.6.2 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations
Transport equations for the Reynolds stresses, ij = ui0 uj0 can be
derived by making use of the original and time-averaged forms of
the momentum equations.
Starting with the momentum equation for incompressible flow
governing the time evolution of the instantaneous velocity vector,
ui ,
ui
ui
1 p
1 ij
+ uj
+
=
t
xj
xi
xj
and noting that


 2


uj
uj
1 ij

ui
ui

2 ui
=
+
=
+
=
xj
xj xj
xi
xj xj
xi xj
xj xj
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one can write
ui
ui
1 p
2 ui
+ uk
+

=0
t
xk
xi
xk xk

(1)

uj
2 uj
uj
1 p

+ uk
+
=0
t
xk
xj
xk xk

(2)

Similarily,


2u
u
u
1
p

i
i
i
0 = uj0
+ uk
+

t
xk
xi
xk xk


2u
u
u

1
p
j
j
j
+ui0
+ uk
+

t
xk
xj
xk xk


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## 2.6.2 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations

The various terms appearing in the preceding equation can be
expressed as follows:
ui
uj0
t

uj
ui0
t

=
=
=
=
=





0
0
0
Ui + ui + ui
Uj + uj
t
t
uj0
ui0 Uj 0
Ui 0
0
0
u + uj
+
u + ui
t j
t
t i
t
0
uj
ui0
0
0
uj
+ ui
t
t



ui0 uj0
t
1 ij

t
uj0

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uj0 p
ui0 p
+
xi
xj

=
=
=

uj0
ui0
0
(P + p ) +
(P + p 0 )
xi
xj
P 0 1 0 p 0
P 0 1 0 p 0
uj + uj
+
u + u
xi
xi
xj i i xi


0
1 0 p 0
p
uj
+ ui0

xi
xi

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## 2.6.2 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations

uj0

2 ui
2 uj
+ ui0
xk xk
xk xk

=
=
=
=
=

uj0

2
2
(Ui + ui0 ) + ui0
(Ui + ui0 )
xk xk
xk xk

2 uj0
2 ui0
2 Uj 0
2 Ui 0
0
0
+

u + uj
u + ui
xk xk j
xk xk
xk xk i
xk xk
0
2
uj
2 ui0
uj0
+ ui0
xk xk
xk xk


2
ui0 uj0

0 0

ui uj 2
xk xk
xk xk
2
ui0 uj0
ij

2
xk xk
xk xk

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uj0 uk

ui
uj
+ ui0 uk
xk
xk

=
=

## (Ui + ui0 ) + ui0 (Uk + uk0 )

Uj + uj0
uj0 (Uk + uk0 )
xk
xk


Ui
Uj

Uk
ui0 uj0 + uj0 uk0
+ ui0 uk0
xk
xk
xk

Ui 0

Uj 0
+Uk
ui0 uj0
uj + Uk
ui + uk0
xk
xk
xk
Uk ij
jk Ui
ik Uj

xk
xk
xk


u 0

+
ui0 uj0 uk0 ui0 uj0 k
xk
xk
Uk ij
jk Ui
ik Uj
 0 0 0

+
ui uj uk
xk
xk
xk
xk

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ij
Uj
ij
Ui
+ Uk
+ jk
+ ik
t
xk
xk
xk



ij

xk
xk
p 0
0
+uj
xi
+2

p 0
0
+ ui
xi
ui0 uj0

xk xk

## The preceding is a transport equation describing the time evolution

of the Reynolds stresses, ij .

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## 2.6.2 Reynolds Stress Transport Equations

While providing a description for the transport of ij , the Reynolds
stress equations introduce a number of other correlations of
fluctuating quantities:
p 0
0
uj
xi

## ui0 uj0 uk0 : symmetric third-order tensor, 10 entries

ui0 uj0
: symmetric second-order tensor, 6 entries
2
xk xk
the closure problem for the RANS equations.

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## 2.7 Turbulence Intensity and Kinetic Energy

2.7.1 Turbulent Kinetic Energy
Turbulent kinetic energy contained in the near-randomly
fluctuating velocity of the turbulent motion is important in
characterizing the turbulence.
The turbulent kinetic energy, k, can be defined as follows:

1 0 0 1  02
1 ii
1
2
2
0
0
k = ui ui =
u +v +w
=
= (xx + yy + zz )
2
2
2
2
where u 02 = xx /, v 02 = yy /, and w 02 = zz /.

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## 2.7 Turbulence Intensity and Kinetic Energy

2.7.2 Turbulence Intensity
Relative turbulence intensities can be defined as follows:
p
p
p
2
2
u0
v0
w 02
u =
,
v =
,
w
=
U
U
U
where U is a reference velocity.
For isotropic turbulence, u 02 = v 02 = w 02 , and thus
s
2 k
u = v = w
=
3 U2
For flat plate incompressible boundary layer flow, U = U ,
u > 0.10, and the turbulence is anisotropic such that
u 02 : v 02 : w 02 = 4 : 2 : 3
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## 2.7.2 Turbulence Intensity

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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## 2.8 Turbulent Kinetic Energy Transport Equation

2.8.1 Derivation
Can derive a transport equation for the turbulent kinetic energy
through contraction of the Reynolds stress transport equations
using the relation that
1 ii
1
k = ui0 ui0 =
2
2
The following equation for the transport of k can be obtained:
ij Ui
k
k
+Ui
=
+
t
xi
xj xi


ui0 ui0
k
1 0 0 1 0 0 0

p ui ui uk uk
xi

2
xj xj

## As for the Reynolds stress equations, a number of unknown

higher-order correlations appear in the equation for k requiring
closure.
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## 2.8 Turbulent Kinetic Energy Transport Equation

2.8.2 Discussion of Terms
Terms in this transport equation can be identified as follows:
k
: time evolution of k
t
Ui

k
: convection transport of k
xi

Production:
ij Ui
: production of k by mean flow
xj

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## 2.8.2 Discussion of Terms

Diffusion:

k
: molecular diffusion of k
xi
1 0 0
p u : pressure diffusion of k
i

1 0 0 0
u u u : turbulent transport of k
2 i k k

65

Dissipation:
ui0 ui0

## =  : dissipation of k at small scales

xj xj
where  is the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy.

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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## 2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

2.9.1 Definition
Further insight into the energy contained in the unresolved
turbulent motion can be gained by considering the turbulent kinetic
energy spectrum. The turbulent kinetic energy can be expressed as
Z
k=
E ()d
0

## where E () is the spectral distribution of turbulent energy,

is the wave number of the Fourier-like energy mode, and ` is the
wave length of the energy mode such that
E ()d = turbulent energy contained between and + d
and where
`=

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## 2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

Slope 2

E()

Slope -5/3

Energy-containing range

Inertial subrange

EI

Dissipation
range

DI

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## 2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

2.9.2 Range of Turbulent Scales
The large-scale turbulent motion ( 0) contains most of the
turbulent kinetic energy, while most of the vorticity resides in the
small-scale turbulent motion ( 1/), where , the Kolmogorov
scale, is the smallest scale present in the turbulence.
The dissipation of the turbulence kinetic energy occurs at the
Kolmogorov scale and it follows from Kolmogorovs universal
equilibrium theory that
dk
=  ,
dt


and =

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

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## For high Reynolds number turbulence, dimensional analysis and

experimental measurements confirm that the dissipation rate, ,
turbulent kinetic energy, k, and largest scale representing the large
scale motions (i.e., scale of the largest eddies), `0 , are related as
follows:
k 3/2

`0
When discussing features of turbulence, it was noted that it
contains a wide range of scales. This implies that
`0

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## Using the expression above for `0 , an examination of the length

scales reveals that
!1/4
!3/4
3/2
1/2
`0
`0
`0
k
k `0
3/4
= 3 1/4 3/4

Ret

`0

( /)

## where Ret is the turbulent Reynolds number. Thus `0  for high

turbulent Reynolds number flows (i.e., for Ret  1). The latter is
a key assumption entering into Kolmogorovs universal equilibrium
theory.

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## 2.9 Kinetic Energy Spectrum and Kolmogorov -5/3 Law

2.9.3 Kolmogorov -5/3 Law
Kolmogorov also hypothesize an intermediate range of turbulent
scales lying between the largest scales and smallest scales where
inertial effects dominate. He postulated that in this inertial
sub-range, E () only depends on and . Using dimensional
analysis he argued that
2/3
E () = Ck 5/3

or
E () 5/3

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## Although the Kolmogorov -5/3 Law is not of prime importance to

RANS-based turbulence models, it is of central importance to DNS
and LES calculations. Such simulations should be regarded with
skeptism if they fail to reproduce this result.

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## 2.10 Two-Point Correlations

2.10.1 Two-Point Velocity Correlations
So far we have only considered single-point or one-point
correlations of fluctuating quantities. Two-point correlations are
useful for characterizing turbulence and, in particular, the spatial
and temporal scales and non-local behaviour. They provide formal
definitions of the integral length and time scales characterizing the
large scale turbulent motions.
There are two forms of two-point correlations:
I

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## Two-Point Autocorrelation Tensor (In Time):

Rij (xi , t; t 0 ) = ui0 (xi , t)uj0 (xi , t + t 0 )
Two-Point Velocity Correlation Tensor (In Space):
Rij (xi , t; ri ) = ui0 (xi , t)uj0 (xi + ri , t)
For both correlations,
1
k(xi , t) = Rii (xi , t; 0)
2

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## 2.10.2 Integral Length and Time Scales

The integral length and time scales, and `, can be defined as
follows:
Z
3
Rii (xi , t; r )
`(xi , t) =
dr
16 0
k(xi , t)
Z
Rii (xi , t; t 0 ) 0
(xi , t) =
dt
2k(xi , t)
0

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## 2.10 Two-Point Correlations

2.10.3 Taylors Hypothesis
The two types of two-point correlations can be related by applying
Taylors hypothesis which assumes that

= Ui
t
xi
This relationship assumes that |ui0 |  |Ui | and predicts that the
turbulence essentially passes through points in space as a whole,
transported by the mean flow (i.e., assumption of frozen
turbulence).

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## 2.11 Favre Time Averaging

2.11.1 Reynolds Time Averaging for Compressible Flows
If Reynolds time averaging is applied to the compressible form of
the Navier-Stokes equations, some difficulties arise. In particular,
the original form of the equations is significantly altered. To see
this, consider Reynolds averaging applied to the continuity
equation for compressible flow. Application of time-averaging to
the continuity equations yields

+
(ui ) = 0
t
xi

i

h
0
0
0
+ +
(
+ ) Ui + ui = 0
t
xi
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## The Reynolds time averaging yields

i

h
0
0
Ui + ui = 0
(
) +
t
xi
The introduction of high-order correlations involving the density
fluctuations, such as 0 ui0 , can complicate the turbulence modelling
and closure. Some of the complications can be circumvented by
introducing an alternative time averaging procedure: Favre time
averaging, which is a mass weighted time averaging procedure.

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## 2.11 Favre Time Averaging

2.11.2 Definition
Favre time averaging can be defined as follows. The instantaneous
and
solution variable, , is decomposed into a mean quantity, ,
fluctuating component, 00 , as follows:
= + 00
The Favre time-averaging is then
1
(xi , t) =
T

t+T /2

(xi , t 0 )(xi , t 0 ) dt 0 = + 00 =

tT /2

where
i , t) 1
(x
T

t+T /2

(xi , t 0 )(xi , t 0 ) dt 0 ,

tT /2
82

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## 2. Conservation Equations for Turbulent Flows

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## 2.11 Favre Time Averaging

2.11.3 Comparison of Reynolds and Favre Averaging

Decomposition
Reynolds : = + 0 ,

Time Averaging
Reynolds : = + 0 = ,

Favre : = + 00

Favre : = ( + 00 ) =

Fluctuations
Reynolds : 0 = 0 ,

Favre : 00 = 0

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## 2.11.3 Comparison of Reynolds and Favre Averaging

Further comparisons are possible. For Reynolds averaging we have
= + 0 0
and for Favre averaging we have
=
Thus
= + 0 0
or

0 0
= +

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00 6= 0
0 0

==

00

00

0 0
0 0
0 0

=
=
=
6= 0

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## Returning to the compressible form of the continuity equation, we

can write
ui = Ui + 0 ui0 = ui
and therefore the Favre-averaged form of the continuity equation is
given by

(
) +
(
ui ) = 0
t
xi
It is quite evident that the Favre-averaging procedure has
recovered the original form of the continuity equation without

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## 2.12 Favre-Averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) Equations

Continuity Equation:

(
) +
(
ui ) = 0
t
xi
Momentum Equation:



00
00
(
ui ) +
(
ui uj + pij ) =
ij ui uj
t
xj
xj
Favre-Averaged Reynolds Stress Tensor:
= ui00 uj00
Turbulent Kinetic Energy:
1 00 00
1
ui ui = ii = k
2
2
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## 2.12 Favre-Averaged Navier-Stokes (FANS) Equations

Energy Equation:


 




u

1 00 00
1
j
e + ui ui + ui ui +
uj h + ui ui + ui00 ui00
t
2
2
xj
2
2
h

i

=
ij ui00 uj00 ui qj
xj


1

+
uj00 h00 uj00 ui00 ui00 + ui00 ij
xj
2
Turbulent Transport of Heat and Molecular Diffusion of Turbulent
Energy:
qtj = uj00 h00 , ui00 ij
Turbulent Transport of Kinetic Energy:
1 00 00 00
u u u
2 j i i
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## 2.13 Turbulence Modelling

Turbulence Modelling provides a mathematical framework for
determining the additional terms (i.e., correlations) that appear in
the FANS and RANS equations.
Turbulence models may be classified as follows:
I Eddy-Viscosity Models (based on Boussinesq approxmiation)
I
I
I

## 0-Equation or Algebraic Models

1-Equation Models
2-Equation Models

I

89