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3/12/2015

Brakefrictionmaterials

Brakes:BrakingSystems:Discbrakes&components
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Brakefrictionmaterials
Summary
Brakepadsandliningsaremadefrommaterialswhich
haveahighcoefficientoffriction.Thechoiceofmaterial
dependsonthebrakingapplication,butitneedstobe
abletoabsorbanddisperselargeamountsofheatwithout
brakingperformancebeingadverselyaffected.

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Frictionistheforcethatactstopreventtwosurfacesincontact
fromslidingagainsteachother.Whenfrictionoccurs,thekinetic
energy(motion)oftheslidingsurfacesisconvertedintothermal
energy(heat).
Somecombinationsofmaterials,suchasiceonglass,havea
verylowcoefficientoffriction.Thatmeansthatthereisverylittle
frictionbetweenthem,andthereforealmostnosliding
resistance.Rubbertiresagainstahardroadsurfacehaveahigh
coefficientoffriction,whichmeanstheytendtogripandresist
slidingagainsteachother.
Discbrakepadsanddrumbrakeliningsaremadefrom
materialswhichhaveahighcoefficientoffriction.Theyalso
needtohaveanabilitytoabsorbanddisperselargeamountsof
heatwithouttheirbrakingperformancebeingadverselyaffected.
Astheheatinbrakepadsandliningsbuildsup,thefriction
capabilityofthematerialandconsequentlyitsstoppingpower
reduces.Thisiscalledbrakefade,andminimizingor
overcomingfadeisamajorfactorinthedesignofbrakesand
thedevelopmentofbrakefrictionmaterials.
Brakefrictionmaterialswerecommonlymadefromasbestos
compounds,becauseoftheexcellentheatresistanceofthat
material,butasthathasnowbeenproventobehighlytoxic,
asbestosisgenerallybannedandnolongerused.
Brakesarenowmanufacturedfromavarietyofdifferent
materialsthatmaybe:
nonasbestosorganic
lowmetallic
semimetallic
ceramic
Thechoiceofcompounddependsontheapplication.Lighterpassengervehicles
generatelessheatinthebrakesthanheavyorhighperformancevehicles.Theoptimum
brakecompositionforanygivenvehicleorusewillthereforebeacombinationof
weightedattributeswhichinclude:
stoppingpower
heatabsorptionanddispersion
resistancetofade
recoveryspeedfromfade

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3/12/2015

Brakefrictionmaterials

wearrate
performancewhenwet
noiseinoperation
Forinstance,ownersof
smalldomestic
vehicleswillprobably
tendtovaluealonger
padliferatherthan
higherperformancein
extremeconditions.In
racingcars,however,
faderesistanceand
stoppingpowerathigh
speedswouldbe
consideredmore
importantthannoise
levelsorwearrate.

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