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INTRODUCTION TO BULK SOLID


Properties of Bulk Solid
A.

Density : Particle, p
Particle density =

total mass
Total volume

Close Pores

Hydrodynamic
envelope
bonding particle
volume, Vp

Open pores

(i) True particle density


When volume measured excludes both open
and closed pores.
The density quoted in many reference books.
(ii) Apparent particle density
When volume measured includes closed
pores or bubbles of gas within the particle.

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The density is measured by gas or liquid


displacement method like liquid or air
pyknometer.

PYCNOMETER (ULTRAPYCNOMETER -1000, QUANTA CHROME CO)

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HOSAKAWA MIKRON MODEL PT-R
B.

Density: Bulk, b
Bulk density, b =
Bulk mass
Bulk volume it occupies
Bulk volume includes the spaces
between particles and the envelope
volumes of the particles.

NB: Make sure do not confuse between bulk and


particle density.
Many people in industry measure bulk solid
density in order to get an estimate of how much
volume the powder will occupy in storage or in
handling.
(i)

Aerated bulk density, abd

The particles are separated from each other


by a film of air and are not in direct contact
with each other.
Bulk density after the powder has been
aerated.

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Some of the methods in obtaining the aerated


density:
(ii)

Poured bulk density, pbd

Powder is pored into a container


Height of fall is fixed
The powder in the container must not be
disturbed
Mass of powder is determined
Volume of powder is the volume inside the
cup.
(iii)

Tap bulk density, tbd

Bulk density of a powder, which has been


compacted by tapping or vibration following a
specific procedure.
C.

Voidage, or porosity
The volume of the voids within the bed. i.e. the
volume occupied by air divided by the total
(overall) volume of the bed.

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Void volumes includes the pores within the


particles if they are porous.
Voidage,
Where

b
p

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b = bulk density
p = particle density

Powder Flowability Determination


No flowability test is universally applicable.
Thus series of powder flow behaviour must be
tested experimentally according to the need of
industrial application such as powder streams
in industrial storage, transport and processing,
in terms of their range of applicability, cost and
difficulty of measurement.
Since the state of the powder varies for
different types of applications, the test chosen
has to reflect the state of powder in the actual
process.
Below are some of the tests commonly
required in determining flow behaviour in
selected process plant:

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Compressibility (from bulk density)


Compression tests are mainly used for quality
control, product evaluation and to measure the
tendency for caking.
One of the way to express differences
between tap density and aerated density:
Compressib ility , C

tbd b
100%
t

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Where tbd = tap density


b = bulk density
Angle of Repose

Definition: the angle of the free surface of a


pile of powder to the horizontal plane.

Whenever a heap of powder is being formed,


the angle of inclination of the free surface to
the horizontal can take any value up to a
maximum.

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Any attempt to build up a heap with steeper


sides results in its collapse.

Depending on the condition under which the


pile has been poured and how the angle is
measured, different values of angle can be
obtained for the same powder.

When a mixture of uniformly sized granular


particles consisting of components with
different angle of repose is poured on a heap,
the particles having steeper angle of repose
tend to concentrate in the center of the heap.

Hausner Ratio, HR

The ratio of tbd/abd is called the Hausner ratio,


HR (Grey and Beddow 1968/1979).

If the ratio:

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o HR >1.4 : Group C
o 1.25 < HR < 1.4 : Transition AC
o HR < 1.25 : Group A, B or D
Other available types of test such as:
o Funnel/discharge est
o Fluidization index, deaeration, permeability
o Floodibility test
o Dispersibility
o Pick up velocity
o Pseudoviscosity and suspension-flow
behaviour index etc.