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PROGRAMMING

1J!~t70~7A

CONTENTS

PROGRAMMING
.ARTICLES
Public Buildings and Design Competitions

The
Japan
Architect

19

AUTUMN

~TIJ

19953

76

The Transparent Urban Forest

ltsuko Hasegawa

Toyo Ito

114

To See and Be Seen

128

Architecture or Paradise?

34

Sumida Culture Factory

44

Nligata City Performing Arts Centre

Kengo Kuma
Hilosh: Abe

ltsuko Hasegawa Atelier


ltsuko Hasegawa ,I;ralier

48 Museum of Fruit, Yamanashi ltsuko i-'asegawa Atelier


58

The University of Shiga Prefecture, Gymnasium

64

Himi Seaside Botanical Garden

68

Cardiff Bay Opera House

ltsuko Hilsegawa A:elier

ltsuko Hasegawa Ateler

ltsuko Hasegawa Ateler

72

Yokohama International Port Terminal Design Competition

82

Yatsushiro Fire Station

92

Winning Project of the Sendai Mediatheque Design Competition

100

The Third Reality/"Japan Today '95" Exhibition

102

Higashinagaya Community Center+ Elderly Day Care Center

Publisher and Editorial Director

Yoshio Yoshida

106

Ota-ku Resort Complex

110

S House in Tateshina

118

Kirosan Observatory

122

Water/Glass

126

Venice Biennale/Space Design of Japanese Pavilion

129

X-Bridge

Yasuhiro Teramatsu
Yusaku Kamekura
SHINKENCHIKU-SHA CO., LTD.
31-2, Yushima 2-chome
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan
Established in 1925
TEL: 10313811-7101
FAX: (0313812-8187
Subscnptions to JA, advertisernem and copyright for all our
publications are exclusively handled through the following
subsidiary company:
THE JAPAN ARCHITECT CO., LTD.
Business Department
31-2, Yushima 2-chome
Bunkyo-ku. Tokyo 113, Japan
TEL: (03)381().2935
FAX: 103138162937
General Manager
Masao Nakamura
1995 Subscription Price

Outside Japan
1 year 14 issues) ..... 16.700+ 4,300 (seamail postage)
JA is published quarterly.
Single copv price (outside Japan)
19953 PROGRAMMING ..... 4,800+ 1 ,500 (seamail
postage)
The day of publication: September 1, 1995
Method of Payment

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Make payment payable to:


The Japan Architect Co., Ltd.
ISBN4-7869-ll1199
Copyright 1995 Shinkenchikusha Co., Ltd.

Printed in Japan

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

Toyo Ito & Associates. Architects

Toyo Ito &Associates. Architects

Editor
Cover Oti.;iign

ltsuko Hasegawa Atelier

Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects

Toyo Ito & Associates. Architects

Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects

Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects


Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects

Kengo Kuma &Associates


Kengo Kuma & Associates

Hitoshi Abe Atelier

131

XX-Box System/Type 000, Type 001

135

C-House

138

Composite Sports Garden of Miyagi Water Tower

Hitoshi Abe AteEer

Hitoshi At3 Atelier

141

Shirasagi Bridge

144

Sendai Mediatheque Design Competition Entry

152

Spreebogen Urban Design Project 1992

Shoichi Hariu Architect & Associates+Atelier Hitoshi Abe

Hitoshi Abe Aterer

155

Spreeinsel Urban Design Project 1993

158

-Museum Project

160

Housing Studies

Nobuaki Furuya+Hisako Sugiura

Not:uaki Full.JYll

Nobuaki Full.JYll

Nobuaki Furuya

Kazuyo Sejima & Associates

174

Gifu Kitagata Apartment Kazuyo Sej'ma & Associates

176

Pachinko Parlor Ill

178

NHK Nagano Station MIKAN

182

Sendai Mediatheque Design Competition Entry/Media Spiral MIKAN

Kazuyo Sejima & Associates

184

Nakamachidai Community Center

186

Osawano Health Care and Welfare Center

ISO

Utase Elementary School

Akiko & Hiroshi Takahashi/ Work Station


Akiko & Hiroshi Takahashi /Work Station

COELACANTH Architects

200 Mukai-shima Orchid Pavilion Mitswgu Okaga;,a/PARADISUS+ Izumi Soken Engineering


206

High-Tech Center Babelsberg

210

Quasar

214

Techno Terrain TeltowBaufeld 5

216

M Office Complex Project

Shin Takamatsu/Takamatsu+Lahyani Architects

Shin Takamatsu/Takamatsu+Lahyani Architects


Shin Takamatsu/Takamatsu+LahyaniArchitects

Waro Kishi+ Kishi Lab/Kyoto Institute of Technolcgy+ K.ASSOCIATES/ Architects

.ARATA ISOZAKJ- CURRENT WORKS IN EUROPE


8

Domus, Interactive Museum about Humans

18

Japanese Art & Tethnology Center

Arata lsozaki & Associates

Arata lsozaki &Associates

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Domus, Interactive Museum about Humans, La Comfia, Spain


The Japanese Art & Technology Center, Krakow, Poland
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Domus, Interactive Museum about Hun1ans


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Situated at the northwest extremity of Spain, the town


of La Coruiia was an important point of marine transportation in Europe. The lighthouse which was built at
the edge of its peninsula during the time of the Roman
Empire, in 2 A.D., became a landmark of this region.
Within the site that has its own distinctive characteristics of geographical, climatic, cultural and urban contexts, a large, curved wall was set facing the sea like a
sail swollen with the wind. This mask-like wall (94 by
17 meters) was composed of a series of precast concrete
panels (2.6 by 17 meters), the surface of which, waterproofed and insulated, was clad with 3-centimeter-thick
slate boards. At the rear, facing the residential district,
the exterior facade was staggered like a Japanese byobu,
a folding screen. This granite wall, with an average
height of 11 meters, was constructed directly on the
exposed bedrock and made thick enough and reinforced
to endure the strong winds from the sea. The roof with
a series of skylights covers the space between these two
contrasting facades and is supported by tension-cable
beams. Approached from the seaside trail, visitors go
up the main staircase, and then, after passing through
the pilotis area, reach the entrance. Inside, a chain of
exhibition rooms in three levels occupies a space illuminated by controlled soft daylight entering only from
above. A ramp meandering through the bedrock formations connects these levels to provide the main circulation route. This route terminates at the auditorium
equipped with projectors. The restaurant in the basement is accessed by a separate entrance with an emphasis given to the view from this restaurant, a glazed
gallery similar to those which are traditionally prevalent
in this region was created here.

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1 GREAT STAIRWAY

2 MACHINE ROOM
3
4
5
6
7
B

PICNIC TERRACE
PICNIC PORCH
RESTAURANT
PRIVATE DINING ROOM
KITCHEN
BAR

Fourth floor.

Second floor.

Basement; scale: 1//,000.

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11
12
13
14
15
16

ACCESS TO RESTAURANT
MAIN ENTRANCE
BOOKSTORE
ANTEROOM
GALLERY LOBBY
MULTIPURPOSE AUDITORIUM
GALLERY
STORAGE

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

A/C MACHINE ROOM


EMERGENCY EXIT
LOUOSPEAKER ROOM
VIDEO ROOM
PROJECTION ROOM
INTERPRETER"S ROOM
TEMPORARY GALLERY
MEETING ROOM
DIRECTOR"S OFFICE
OFFICE
LIBRARY

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(pp./0-/ I) Sotah e.rtcrlor .f(Jcad{' facin.g the ha)'. The
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(top} ficw fiom 1he north.
(ahare) Eas1 side

(.taring page) Facade facing the street side. The


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location: La Coruiia, Spain


architects: Arata lsozaki & Associates (Masato HoriJ
as.socinte architect Ce>ar Portela
structural engineers: Julio Martinez Calzon
mechanical engineers.: Euroconsul
general contractor: Cubiertas y Mzor S.A.
principal use: museum
site area: 6,940m'
building area: 2,040m'
total floor area: 4,0 19m'
structure: reinforced concrete and masonry structure; 2
basements, 4 stories
completion date: April, 1995

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12

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

(/ejr) The main .>taircase pa.t>es through tile


area and leads to llw ewrance on the .first
(below) Exhibition area seen jJom the ramp on the

second floor.
(ji1cing page; The large staircase leading ro the
entrance porch.

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JA !995-3 PROGRAMMING

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RESTAURANT
GALLERY

Section; scale: 1/1,000.

(aboPe) Exhibition room seen from the fourth floor.


(jar lejt) The gla=ed balcony in front of the
restaurant characterizes a "'glass gallery" which is a
traditionally premleul feature in this town.
(lejl) The foyer in front of the multipurpose hall
(facing page) The gemly curved precast concrete wall
(94 by 17 melers). Daylight comes into 1he exhibition
room through the skylight.

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17

Arata lsozaki & Associates

Japanese Art & Technology Center


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When Polish film dirccmr Andrzej Wujda received the


Kyoto Prize in 1987, he announced a plan to construct a
Center for Japanese Art and Technology in the city of
Krakow, using the prize as starter money for the project.
With the assistance of the governments of both
countries and donations from over I00,000 people in
Japan, the center opened in November, 1994.
Krakow is a historic city, with numerous medieval
buildings still standing. The city provided a site on the
bank of the Wisla River, which runs through the center
of the city, across from Wawel Royal Castle. Arata
lsozaki was given the job of designing the building.
Echoing the gentle meandering path of the river, the
building was composed of curvilinear shapes in both
plan and elevation. Because it is set in a triangular site,
bounded by the street and a promenade along the
riverbanks, the building takes an irregular shape in plan.
Tracing a sine curve, the ridge of the roof also responds
to the shape of the site. Brick walls fonn a gate-shaped
space down the central axis that corresponds to the
backbone of the building. Walls around the exterior of
the gate are clad in the locally manufactured pink
sandstone, with the ends linked by beams in composite
materia!. Since the peek is also curved, the roof that
links the two forms a plane bent along two axes. Above,
a wood lathe was attached with insulation over it and
the whole was covered with galvanized steel sheets.
The main portion of the center is an exhibition area,
where ukiyoe and other art pieces collected by tum-ofthe-century Japanologist Jarenski form the body of the
permanent collection. Light is introduced from above
the gate-shaped backbone section, where products of
Japanese technology are displayed. The entrance is
reached by a staircase and a ramp from the front street.
Straight toward the back from the entrance is a reading
area with references materials on Japanese art and
technology, and a cafe terrace with a vista of Wawel
Castle on the far bank. The basement houses storage
and curators' offices, but it also contains a small multifunctional hall in which all kinds of experimental
theater can be performed. The Center's future plans also
call for construction of Japanese-style gardens in the
front and back of the building.
Fund-raising, design and construction of the Center
took a full eight years. The project was slowed as it
encountered the difficult period Poland's second
revolution, followed by a recession in Japan that
threatened the success of the fund-raising effort.
However, through the efforts of countless individuals,
this project created new bonds of friendship and
cultural exchange between the two countries, and
finally saw completion on this idea! site. The building
stands as testimony to the good will of all those who
participated.
(Arata Isozaki)

Second floor.

!
2
3
4
5

7
8
9

10
II

12
13
14
15
16

GARDEN
POND
ENTRANCE HALL
SHOP & LIBRARY
CAFE
HISTORICAL ART EXHIBIT
CONTEMPORARY ART EXHIBiT
LOAOING SPACE
OFFICE
ART CONSERVATION
FOYER
MULTI-FUNCTIONAL HALL
ACOUSTIC & LIGHT CONTROL
ANNEX
STORAGE
MECHANICAL ROOM

First floor: scale: 1/800.

18

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

(p./9) General \lew across the Rirer Wisla 011 the


east side.
(abol'e) West exterior. The mai11 entra11ce is 011 the
left. Wawel Royal Castle is vi>ible beyond the
undulating roof;.
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North eiHatlon; scale: ! /800.

20

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

So111h elel'ation.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

21

- - - - SARBAI<AN CI1Y GATE

- - - - OlD TOWN
- - - - ~TS~
SUKJENNJCE

ST. MAAY"S CHURCH

- - - - JAGIEL!.ONIAN U/11\<E.RSITY

- - - - WAWELROYALCASTLE

JAPANESE ART &


TECHNOLOGY CENl"ER

Site; scale: I/ 2. 000.

Location map.

22

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location: uL Konopnickiej, Krakow, Poland


architects: Arata lsozaki & Associates
associate architects: K. lngarden-J. Ewy & JET Atelier
structural engineers: dr Jan Grabacki, EXIT Engineers
mechanical engineers: lnstai-Kiima-Projekt
general contractors: Takenaka Europe GmbH
principal use: museum and culture center
site area: 4,900m2
building area: 2,120m 2
total ftoor area: 3, 180m'
structure: brick, partly reinforced concrete and wood; I
basement and 2 stories
completion date: November, 1994

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(facing page) Main elllrance seen from the west.


(above right) Parlial view of the east side at night.

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East elevation; scale: l /800.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

23

(/acing page) Curl'ing gla:::ed wall seen from tl!e


terrace 011 tl!e east side.
(abo1e) Second floor lobbr. Tile entrance is 011 tile
left.
(below left) Lobby seen from the entrance hall.
(belou riglu) View from the enrrance hall /award Eile
exhibition room.
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- - - - - - - - ------------- ----.

Section; scale: I I 400.

26

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(top) Exhibition room on the second floor. Showcases


are placed in a staggered arrangement along the
series of freestanding walls.
(right top) The series of freestanding walls penetrates
like a spine through the building.
(abo,.e) Multi-functional hall.
(below right) Foyer in front of the first floor
multi-functional hall.

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27

PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND DESIGN CONIPETITIONS


Itsu ko !-lase gmva

In Recent years. our office lws been


more commissions
through open
I have also found myself often
sitting as a
member for one of then. both in Japan and overseas. From this
I learned the tremendous importance
of selection system and architectural programs.
The design competition is a trial for the jury as well as entrants.
and the winning entry is a collaboration by both parties. The jury
must clearly identify their standards while going through I00 to
sometimes more than 200 entries, which are simply physically
overwhelming. Like it or not. the winning entry is an expression
of the jury's value judgement. I always feel that there should be a
better way to reflect the potential of the existence of numerous
unselected interpretations in the competition.
Because all different kinds of value judgements must converge
into the final winning entry, there tends to be a great deal of friction in the process of implementing the scheme. Fortunately. most
of the time. we have had good relationships with the administrative staff of the client agencies, and our projects have gone
smoothly. They are exceptional cases however, and it is not
unusual to see projects completely changed or major program elements added during the development process.
The biggest problem of the competitions is programming. Often
after the selection, and well into the construction documentation,
the inadequacy of the basic concept of architecture or software

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Cardiff
We entered our first international design competition for the
Cardiff Bay Opera House last year. The competition program for
the home of the Welsh National Opera. a well-respected opera

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program. the ambiguity or target users. and the l:d; or experts


i1wolvemcnt bccDmcs gradually obvious. You can also hem voices or
opposition. In these situations. we have to review and revise software
while proceeding with the design or the lwrclwarc: architecture.
In some of public projects, we have been commissioned to clo
both programming and design. It is an attempt to make an architectural environment. as an entity of both son ami hardware. creative and active, and meaningful to users through discussions and
proposals about who and how to use the building. ln the case of a
project in Niigatn. on which construction is starting, our office
even organized seminars for the facility staff.
These kinds of critical revisions are not a replacement of the
original program. It is impossible to convert a classical music hall.
with a reverberation time of two seconds, into a more tlexible
multi-purpose hall. How can a good program be written? Who
should write the program'! These are serious architectural issues
along with those of politics and bureaucracy. We may even need
to have a competition for the program before the
competition, in order to incorporate many differing view points.

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company with a long history. was clearly Wl'itt~n in every detaiL


We could literally build architecture based on these
conditions, instead of first questioning the content or the programs as is
often the case in Japanese competitions. We proposed an open
landscape solution as a new urban environment instead of a traditional closed European city building. Although I expected certain
architectural conservatism as rep!'esented by Charles, the Prince of
Wales, I thought it was worth the effort to present a f!'esl1
approach to the traditional Western urban context.
As one of the finalists of the two-stage competition, I was twice
invited by the people of Wales to
lectures and presentations. I
found out that many Cardiff citizens were
interested in the
competition and had varied options about the entries. As a centrepiece of the large scale waterfront urban redevelopment project.
the Opera House attracted conflicting interests in the highly
charged atmosphere. There was strong local criticism of the selection process for choosing an architect instead of the design.
After many turns and twists, our entry ended as runner-up, as if
to reflect the sentiment of the number of local architects who
assumed that a Far-Eastern architect could not possibly comprehend opera.

Tokyo
Public buildings should be built as a result of inclusive public dia-

logucs. The responsibilities cannot be solely lel't in the realm of


bureaucrats and arcllitc:cts. A rision that makc:s
an.:hitecwre Jlossible often come from a creative
proces:; involving the diverse visions of many people. rather than from a small
numbers of experts. To maximize the benefit from this inclusive
approach however, we mu;,t find a new methodology of decision
making other than the majority rule and representation system.
We are not trying to define the meaning ol' "publicness'' nor
introduce a new principle to the concept of publicness. I might say
that wl1at we need is not a PUBLIC CONCERT in capital letters
but implementation of many practical lower case public concepts.
A community of 8,000 obviously has different needs from that of
60.000, 500,000 or !0 million. Even a pair of people face their
own basic issues of public space. If democracy means to unify all
opinions in society, we still do not have a tool to do so, and even
if it is possible, public opinion tends to be too changeable to pin
down.
In this circumstance, the most effective method for tl1e design of
public buildings is to incorporate the sense of publicness in the
actual activities to be housed in the building. We first establish a
well-thought-out concept as a basis of public discussion and adopt
as many changes as appropriate to finalize it into a very practical
built form. For this purpose, the initial concept must be exciting to
the people, as well as flexible.

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31

Under the cmrent bureaucratic systems. it is di!Ticult to employ


this mcthocL but we must understand that the essence of the public
building is in its design process. We call this process
. the
banquet. or a space of conviviality, or somctinh.'S "the opening llll
of a new architectural scene through communication''. We advocate reexamining the idea selected in the competition in the public
forum and revitalizing the creative process of architecture. The
role of architects as managers of both the physical environment
(hardware) and programs (software) is extremely important.

Edinburgh
Recently, I spend considerable time in Edinburgh as a jury member of the Scottish Architecture and Design Centre Competition.
Seventeen of the more than 200 entries were from Japan. An entry
with a high-rise ot'fice building and an all-subterranean scheme
with a tlat glass ground floor were probably Japanese.
Since this is a two-stage design competition, ! suggested that the
first stage selection should include abstract proposals, which
would introduce a new urban environment while respecting the
context of this historical city. I hoped that this is a beneficial
approach for the future of the city. The problem was that many
such potentially good entries ignored the programmatic requirement of the separate development and construction of the Design
Centre and the accompanying office building. and proposed inter-

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complex programmatic approach. I did not get much support from


the other jury members. and I expect that one or those works
which followed the given program faithfully will end up winning.
A major reasons for this conflict resulted, [ feel, from the attitude of some entrants to force their own architectural image onto
the site without understanding the client's requitcments. Moreover,
these schemes do not respond to the overall context. They are selfabsorbed monologues. Architecture does not exist only as an aesthetic issue. The competition program has its own problems. In the
case of international competitions. many entrants are not familiar
with local architectural legacy. The competition programs must
clearly explain environmental and historic contexts, and at the
same time, be flexible enough to attract wide range of solutions.
Often the coexistence of these two elements is extremely difficult.
It is the competition organizers' responsibility to define the existing urban context and positively project a vision of future environment. If there is no such frame of references presented, entries
tend to lack feasibility and focus. and generally the competition
results in disappointment.
The City of Edinburgh has an unusual urban environment in

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~

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.:: L Lf G <Sconish Architecture & Design Cemre!III;~\ :J /


1:: L
1 J:,17l.(i/EI*7PC::,

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:/1i:')!(ql[l'(o

t; 9Y:.::ll!l (:Jill L!l.;il! ~ 1:: v~) t..:f'r ,f,',j:.;& r: J: ;r:, 1:: ,: 7) t k !':: v. .f 0) J: -)
fo:fr;,'iJ',i;J:.JJ,f*lt0t.d!;'Uf~"-O)Ii'f'1.J'7p!t

l..."'CV'0.

that the clear separation of the


1\'tl\'en schemes. In facL I
two runctinns was not nccc,;sctrily a better solution from a managerial
but that wc could gain the possibility of more
open and fb;ibk facilities by
a tilrce-dimensi~mal and

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7

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~ui,

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L v-~r,rrn~u;:~

32

/.J.

<,

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

'-

1 Lt..: HIWUt: -eN!':: t, ;, 1:: <::' e: n' ld: < -c li, J.t~~t;ri f: O)j,~~~ ;:fl..H~
1~: ':!':- "' ~, :1 :;_., ~riJ.\'\l.~ ~ jl( ":) t.='lfiJiO)flh' 'b OJ r: ld: tJ 1;~t, c-J? {).
~OJ :1 ./ ~o)jj:b~lt.:: x. >:;_.,; '17!, l!;t{Jc(J)ffl;rJT OJ u:JJlftOJ?II>rliiJ'!TI.

which that the n<:wcr cities were overlaid on the historic core. f
belie\e that this kind of' urban strUC[UJ't: COiltains tremendOUS possibilities for creative new mban space. Although this is a big
opportunity to point toward lutme directions ror the city, 1 regret
that the most entries do not imaginntivdy interpret this rich urban
context into contemporary language.
Tokyo
When l use a formula of "Architecture equals Place", I do not
imngine specitk architectural forms. Rather, it means to me a
''future" with many possibilities. The "place'' i~ flexible space
which can respond to any
of circumstance. I treat architecture ns spatial functions created
many people involved instead
of some kind of a social
As I design houses as basically
empty space, I consider the concept of public architecture to be a
primordial open field. It is a
of communication which is
open to all people, flexible space which accommodates a variety
of activities, and a proactive void where people have summer festival dances and create art.
Of course architecture always takes a form and, as result, gives
meaning to space. But it must be also a
space which
consolidates the pre-architectural thoughts of people. It is an everspace of conviviality. It is cherry
rejuvenating. open and
blossom watching surrounded by soft outdoor screens. It is a place

LW/0 '/7 L, ~"J ( IJ W-<J- J: -)


::I!) :J / <"Z IJ: - rl)t,/lr/1 1!)$1[ Lv~ IJ )j ~ Jrf:Y};-<j- ;;,-}:;, 2: 7;;: -J- "; / 7. -e~-=>
U1t, ~ ll)J,t;:)J'IJ:XI/IR ~ JJH~CI) {; Cl) 1:: L'C~lJ'J.;:-r;;, 1:: v-=> t:.J\. 2: 'IJ:tl~:tEJ.
)]'/:: b ')t:.b
f)
-::>t:..

where winds blow. trees chatter. ami come. alive with a ;:udden
intrusion ol' passers-by. expanding its network of communication
beyond its physical limitations and programs. Numerous encounters open up new conHnunications.

Niigata
In the Niigata Civic Cultural Centre. we proposed to enclose three
major halls with large loose, and at the same time technologically
advanced, screens made of soft materials like a fabric curtain. In
the realm of public access and arts, we want to provide programmatically t1cxible space for various and cont1icting activities by
loosely fusing difFerent kinds of spaces under one roof instead of a
mechanical layout of three separate functions.
We expect the facility to be a magnet for people of different
backgrounds. and a place where many hybrid programs and new
arts are created and become self-supporting. I would like to spread
the new arts born here from cross-breeding of West and East, the
traditional and modern, and artists and citizens, all over the world.
I hope that it will become a stronghold of local culture while
adopting different cultures, new technology and environment,
instead of becoming a process plant of information from the larger
cities. Then, this will enrich and inspire the citizens of Niigata.
(tra11s/ated into Enr;lish by Hiroshi A sa no)

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:: i: '1:: TITfi~ i: L t.: v,. V.4 i:(:t
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il)J#Mvrtt ~~~,,L.,r:JJ,~i t.:n't? t. lfi~'IJ:;;, xftil):: 3 1 / r- ~ g, ~ ~tt.
$JrLHJ1Wt 7:7; u:; 1!)1f{tl.::l';JL -c+7N.::Ilfl1Jjt, Alf/::ll)if::il;
~;9J-=> < IJ UllqJilJ: bll)l.:1ficv < J: ~ 'IJ:j!J!,r~:-::1 < fJ '5:- Eltfilt:.v'.
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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

33

Itsuko Hasegawa Atelier

Sumida Culture Factory


~B'IIIJ!t-T-

Mt*~tii!iii))'l

-r Mc'iJI"f'~t :.--?-

Performan~e of Visual Complexity and Spontaneous


Communication
The cir~us tent like taut perforated metal panel exterior

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skin is an alternate state of being. an ~lement of enclo-

sure and opening, and sublimates a solid architectural


objc~t into a more amorphous abstra~tion. The lightly
framed interior spa~e of the circus tent is further
wrapped by multiple layers of translucent membrane
which reflects the movement of people, and invites
free-spirited and natural behavior from them. The interior space delicately retlects natural light conditions.
The layered translucent outside images and constantly changing interior light conditions produce a tluctuation of visual stimulation and new imagery. We chose
white colored finish materials because we intended to
create such a consciousness of new reality. and to contrast the building with the surrounding grayness. To
emphasize the misty whiteness of the interior space, the
custom furniture design retlects this translucency as
well as using contrasting vivid colors.
The architectural program at the time of the design
competition included many facilities besides a continuing education centre, which the Ward government felt
necessary. They were also conceived of as independent
closed facilities from a jurisdictional point. We proposed that all the facilities should be interconnected for
users' daily activities. Architecturally this was achieved
by a central plaza with eight tlying bridges for circulation and casual encounters. This will provide for more
comprehensive activities and future programmatic flexibility of various components. I hope that this swelled
tent architecture, softly encapsulating diverse functional
facilities with its lightness and simplicity, simultaneously revitalize this part of the city.
(ltsuko Hasegawa)

LOBBY

CAFE AND RESTAURANT


3
4
5
6
7
B
9
10
11

EXHIBITION HALL
PLAZA
WORKSHOP
CONFERENCE ROOM
OFFICE
VOID SPACE
FOYER
MULTI-PURPOSE HALL
INFORMATION CENTRE

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

:1 :..-

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Roof plan.

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+lll#ilt (p.37T p.40Ht: <l

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First floor; scale: 1/1,200.


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Fifth floor.

~)

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1:. mJ.i!lO).',!!.' >il'l tt'itM.: :7'1..-- ~Iii.& 1: 0) ~~~H \, -:>

BRIDGE
JAPANESE-STYLE ROOM
STUDY ROOM
MUSIC STUDIO
AUD!O.YISUAL STUDIO
AUDIO-VISUAL CORNER
PLAYROOM
MEETING ROOM
PLANETARIUM
TERRACE

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

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-) i:v}~'iJ'0:~~WfOJi'11ci)IJ:~:: i[(c ,y,:oJc['cjfil~] 0:1\W J: ')


'C'i:Lh-i&J'tc-UoiJ, 1 11M:O)Ai:J"!::O)~i}JI\1J'J.:7'J-/

(facing page) General vieJV from the east. A screen surrounds the building.
(photos on pp.35-43 by Taisnke Ogawa except for the lower
photo on p.37 and p.40.)

3543]'[Ml~ :

"fiS:u) (!~ )il1i ~~:: t: 1;. f'JiLl ~ :l=.i!_V?}'{ o) hfli~:J:7; ,:) 1<rJ-r

i>FJ[.-j- {, b OJ i

(facing page) Exterior view af the east wing from the sowh"

wesr.
(lop) Partial view of the east facade.

(right) Birds-eye view.

(lilll milll.t 'J~il~[~~rmtJil.<>.


<.t) ntllffi7 ?'r- FBW.
(tiJ "'iflkL

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

37

40

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

(p.38) UtJ\mrd rieH' of the brit(r,:ex.


(p.39) Vtew Iowan! the J1la::.a fmm the approach. The north
wing is on the right, ll'ifh the east1ring rm the lejr.
(j{u.:ing page) View of tile pas.mgeway.
( almn' 1 Upmml l'h'w r~f the lotfl't'rs.

fright) Terrace on the fijllt


(p.38) "1 ')

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(p39) 77'0--H IJ 7'7+1'1:\2..7,.

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(1:a ';!fhJism~r7 A,

1 MUL TlPURPOSE HALL

PLANETARIUM
FOYER

t. WOAKSHOP
LOBBY
6 J/~PANESESTYLE ROO!v!
7 PLAYROOM
8 PLAZA

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

41

location: Sumida, Tokyo


architt!cts: ltsuko Hasegawa Atelier
structural engineers: Umezawa Strucwral Engineers
rncchanical engineers: Scrubi Keikaku
acoustic engineers: YAM AHA Acoustic Research Laboratories
contractors: JV of Ando Construction, Tobu-Yachida
Construction, and Tokyo Hasegawa Construction
principal use: public hall (hall. library, and workshop)
site area: 3,400m'
building area: 2, 140m'
total tloor area: 8,447m'
structure: reinforced concrete, partly steel frame and rein forced
concrete, steel frame; I basement and '5 stories
completion date: September, 1994

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(jaci11g fUt,~eJ Inferior l'ielf (~{ tltc exhibilimr hall in rhe east

wing.

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(top) /1!/erior riew t?{ rhe oudilH'i.mal comer on the rflird

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le~el.

ru:

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3.400m'
ill!:~ii1111i 2.140m'

(}d'f) Uif!ff.L.:tY ~- ~ ::r /-!>- ;~<~ ~~.

l[}j;ifiil/i 8,447m'

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(ubove, !tift} Interior <:f tlte inflmnotion cellfre on the secmul


lew:/ in the east 11'hlt,:.
(abme. ti.fiht) lntaior 1h:w ofEhe lobb.v intire north wing.

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

43

ltsuko Hasegawa Atelier

Niigata City Performing Arts Centre


:&sllli*-T l!~~timiim
~Ji)lilm~x1t:fifili'

In Search ol' the Primordial Ln1dscapc of the


Shinano River
For this unique site along the Shinano River. we
attempted to bring out the gentle llexibility of old river
bank spaces and the dymunism of diversity in the new
facilities through the creation of the landscape with
green tloating islands.
The architectural concept is a curtain which wraps
diverse spaces inside and becomes the "architecturalized outside square" surrounded by gla" curtains. They
rellect activities around the halls and act as osmotic
membranes to invite people to participate in activities.
They also effectively obscure the lines between interior
and exterior. and make the foyers and the lobbies ,;emiexterior terraces. At night. activities in the three halls
and other public spaces are highlighted through surrounding trees. The glass exterior walls visually reduce
the size of the building by reflecting the landscape. and
become part of new park landscape. as well as bringing
seasonal changes into the building. All the roof spaces
are landscaped to become greenery-covered "floating
islands".
The main approach ro the centre is through a gently
curving bridge rising from Hakusan Park. Visitors walk
through the ever changing landscape of the tloating
islands. and enjoy the sequential progression of a promenade garden which raises their expectations of musical
and performing art before they reach the large glas~
main lobby. which is warm even in the middle of winter.
Our concept, for both artistic and and popular reasons,
is to loosely relate various programmatic elements
under a large enclosure instead of arranging singular
functional halls in a row independently. The cross-germination of different art forms for the creation of new
arts is very much anticipated. The main lobby and the
foyers of each hall form a circular space along the exterior walls of the building. These arc theaters for audience before and after perfonnances in the halls. Our aim
is to use the circular space to support activities on the
tloating islands and also connect it with the adjacent
civic hall and music centre in order to provide an area
of comprehensive cultural activities. The landscape
design is scheduled to be finished this December. The
architectural design has bee completed and the construction will start this summer. and completion is targeted for 1999.
(ltsuko Hasegawa)

(above) Site model J!Uide at tile preliminary desigu stage.


(jadng page) General view of the mode/made tluring the
cmrstruction document stage.

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44

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

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l!flV'l'l'i:lR 'Jib}>. -f(!)~IJ.o '\'n:();Wif#: Ulifrl: J: "-r
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1)V'J7}'Jffo:J 7 o 7,1: J: {;,f{r LvJE[I!<j~-? < IJ.

1 NIIGATA CITY PERFORMING ARTS CENTRE


2 CIVIC HALL

3 t...1USIC Cf.NTER

'Cc0v

'ifr L <.;'!

<r~;fl:;~~(/)~~~~1(*- ~~,

u~~~i _x. ft ~~fino) u

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1J. k~J~r t999iJ:Q).fJi:-c- th ;J.

THEATER
CONCERT HALL

GHrcE
ORESS!rJG ROO!'.'

MAIN LOBBY
6 FOYER

REHEARSAL ROOM

NOH-THEATER
9 OBSERVATOHY LOBBY

Second floor.

JA i995-3 PROGRAMMING

45

loca!ion: Niigata. Nii,gata Prcf(!ctur(!


architt:cts: ltsuko Haseg<tWa Atdil:r
structural engineers: Kimura StructLJr.il Engineers
m~ch;mic~ll engineers: Kankyo Engineering Inc.
;:t.coustic engineering consultant: YAMAHA Acoustic
Research Laboratories
theater mechanical engineering consullanl: Thcntcr
Engineering [nstituie
lighting consullant: Lighting Planners Associalcs
tire prt:\'l!ntion con!-.ultam: Akcno Engineering Consuhnnts Inc.
principal use: concert hulL theater. nohthcnter. and gallery
site area; 140.14Jm'
building area: 10.062m'
total lloor area: 25Jl99m'
structure: steel frame and reinforced concrete; 6 ;..wries
projected completion date: May, 1998
~vr (I:Jlk
;:J:~n

CONCERT HALL
MAiN LOBBY
NOH-THEATER
OBSERVATORY LOBBY

tJri~l~~-Nf~~l1ti .. ifrJhiLllfllrrr
H?~Hij~

r.

ill~s~iltlriJ

u1;:

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f!:_~i:f:-;v

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'l

9,iiJ(l!JITifi! 140.143m'
ill~~tflifli lll.06"m'
IJI~dfrif.'f 25,099m'
iPi!i' $1d'rfJ;fl)j:~ / 'l 'i- I i~
IJW'~ J@.t.6Pr\
.i~l>J-:;g 1093fF5Jl

lj(tcing page) View of t!te model from the north. Glass


taius H'rltJH 1he Vllrious spaces inside.
(abfwe) View toH'WYitlle nwin lobby from the nest.
(riglrt) Gruera/ >'iew of the model.

Ui'i'iJ

I~Uit ~tfiU

cur~

lj ll,Z>. 1i7 7-Jllit-'t /:iJ'JIJffi;\llH[{-(1)

~II!I~~t.
lhR~ ~llQ~IP~-iQZ,.

t./1) 11\l\~/r?lil.

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

47

ltsuko Hasegawa Atelier

Museu1n of Fruit, Ya1nanashi


NB-IIIlllli'- ~~iltil!ilim
ill~ 7 H- "J,:;

::;. - '/7' b.

A Poetic Machine as an Expression of Spiritual and


II~

Social Ecology

Historically, human beings have always revered fruit as


<!Cs<hetic objects, and sometimes. attached religious significance to them. When we started thinking about a
museum devoted to fruit, we were faced wi!h the spiri!Ual aspects such as sensuality, intelligence, and human
desires, as well as global ecological issues surrounding
our physical environment. Such thouglm about fruit
must be expressed by the architecture i!Self. The object
is to create architecture as a poetic machine which generates expressions of spiritual, social, and environmental ecologies.
The museum takes the l'orm of a group of shelters and
underground spaces set into sloped ground, each of
which accommodates specific programs. The overall
image is physical and, at the same time, poetic. It is
meant to appeal to the fantastic aspects of the human
psyche. It is also a metaphor of a group of seeds, an
expression of the fertility and vitality of fruit. Fruit
Plaza represents the grown-up final image of seeds;
large trees, which is also a beginning of the cycle. The
conservatory represents the memory of the tropical sun
where seeds generated and their budding expansion.
The underground exhibit hall represent the world of
fruit genes. The workshop is the symbol of foreign,
nature contained in the vitality of seeds in human culture.
The shelters are constructed in different sizes and
materials, either planted firmly in the ground or
anempting to reject the earth, as if they had just landed
from the air or are trying to fly away. The vitality of
fruit and the museum, as an alien visitor landing and
takingoff in the sloped orchard, fuse into one sciencefiction ecological totality.
(I!Suko Hasegawa)

(/acillg page) VieH toward tile workshop seen from the from
of the comervatory. (phow by Taisuke Ogawa)
(pp.50-51) General 'iew at night. The shelters are constructed in differeni size and materi1/s.

CtiJl[) ili?.!:ilii J: IJ Iii}'!' QZ>. (l~Hi3: !J>JII'#'IliJ


(50 5tl'1l 1Ji:Jjl:@:Jit. '/ :t.IH' -lit:W\i'MJHi\Ui-1-fi:J:"'
"(--:J ( ~it "Cl.'.

48

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

![~-!t!L~ ;y~ ;..:

(/) 1)

,,;;,Ji!!J:kiJHl\OJX:J o '/-!.: !J:, lilll'l!fi~J.(J:l!;U/U:J~i:,


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1

f1)

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Per

'i L!_:liLU:

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WHIIIj~Tl

CONSERVATORY
3 EXHIBIT .ON Rom.!

5 :t!FOfiMATtON CHITP.E
G CJECK
7 SHOP I REST A'EA
8- SUNSHADE
9 POND

10 Stv\A'....L CONSERVATORY
ll BR!JGE

11

CA~<OPY

[{acing pm;c, ahorcJ Etterior vinr of the


rtal/ Jfa';a. JJ';e phr:o

'

ConseJT(trW:\'. dcw1ion: seal<': 1/I.OOU.

.J

\'i'Y

Const'IWtfory, jirsl poor:

(j(lcing !'age. hc!mr J E-aerior rinr

Consermtoty. The cmz.H'f'\'atm~r n:prcscws

the memmy of the tropical S/11/, \\'here tire


seeds germinated and d('\eloped imo buds.
(plwro.1 on p.53 by Toisuke Ogall'a)
ifJfJ.5.J-55) lmaior view of the Fruit Plll::.a.
7lu ,tinw has a I in 10 slope.

\_______/
Second .flour.

J?oofplmL
(54.

s.sro r <:'_:' t if}JL.tJJ;J

:: I!JD01Jns~: V>.

Firs/ floor.

Second floor.

Tlrirdfloor.

Roaf pl1w.

North eleva/ion.

Exhibition room, basement floor; scale: 11/,000.

scale: J//,000.
52

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

tl the

('". \\

scale: /1/,000.

Works/top, baseme/11 floor:


scale: 111.000.

i/te

( 0\\

~~

((/tl'(',<;!',IJ[S

gr(\\ !!!ill jlntlf ima,t:.t' ,,f .leeds.

1/

:;

!k

54

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

55

I
!.,

II

!'

r
tl:i

.I

~,,

I.
1

1
i

location: Yamarmshi. Yamanashi Preft::cturc


architt!cts: Jtsuko Hasegawa Atelier
S[ructural engineers: Ove Arup & Partners Japan

mechanical engineers: Setubi Kcikaku


contracto": JV of Fujita-Ijiri-Sacgusa. JV of Ishikawa-Ueno,
JV of Nakadatc-Takizawa-Yamaoashi Denki Shokai, and JV
of Toyoko Riken-Amemiya-Motcgi
principal usc: museum, conservatory, workshop, ~md indoor~park
site area: 195.000m'
building area: 3,297m'
total floor area: 6.459m'
stntcture: steel frame. partly reinforced concrete: I basement
Is10ry. and partly 3 stories
completion date: March, I995
lfi(f.Jill lli~!~\llr~!iliiil"llli:Jiti-'11fM;!II7 !v- Ji~l1

.m:ilr

U:'frJII~i:

_\llliWTI'Hm

fffi:J1;i~i~l

t-'1 T7 "J 7 T / f-' r\- ~ J--A' :/ \'!\/


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h'tLT: 7 '/ ~ Ji'ljU:;t~ C:tli;'liX:iltl'l{f:!fif1:
T:IIIITIMr lt!!~fGilJtfilf~::fiH:
rtlf(I)Jl~\' itif~'({!:j{(. tlr~!';t',){(!f!1fiJ~Jii:li~a'if~

!- :::rl'l!fr!l iHfi:Oi /Zl*l::\UtliJ~'7iJl;


j:&'Hii'f ~~~~~ftii ilif.\ tv} 1/ n;)',tli!iffillii 195.00:lm'
ltlt!Jfii!lr 3.297m'
l!l;l-!<ifri!li M59m'

,,_7

fi!Jjlr i1d'fjif --.i1fj}'liifJ:l /7 !J- ~ j{!


!Jlll! ll!l'fl!'l\ !HiJ?r\ -iJ;JI!lL.lJ1,;
~it[

1995if3}]

(facing page, above) Partial iew of t/1e Fmil Plaza_ (p/1010 by


Toisukc Ogawa)
(facing page, below) Interior view of the Fruit Plaza.
(top) Upward view of tire Cmrserwl/ory.
(above, left and right) IIUerior of lire second floor of the Workshop.
Ibelow) !tuerior of the third floor of the Workshop.

<:li:l'Ll:J r <t.:'b(J)fl;i!.iJ ill\5H~JJi. (!Mit5: f!,JII#.flil


r(t~ '/, (J)fl:lJ 1 / r ') 7.
Cl:J iii,~ 1 /r 'J7lUlf.
('i'z!!n r u.:t(l):c/JlJ 2PH :.--rJ 7.

<li1'rn
(f"J

r(t~i,(I)DJ}J JflcH /r'! 7.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

57

Itsuko Hasegawa Atelier

The University of Shiga Prefecture, Gymnasiu1n


fi:SI!I~T-

~!iiiMi@I!J!i

~t~~~n** ~"f14fft'g

Wind-swollen Shelter
The gynma~'tum in the form of a wlnd-~wol!t:n curtain
is located at a vantage point which looks down on the
new university campus, Through the transparent gymnasium, students can sec Kojin Mountain. a city landmark, from the classroom building laid out in paralleL
Yet-to-be-completed tennis court on the west side of the
gymnasium are surrounded by sloping grass seating
areas a.' if a large plant seed is trying to jump out of the
ground. The gymnasium s front facade and the one that
faces the baseball field arc fully glazed for natural lighting and visual transparency. The gallery level contains
support functions such as locker and shower rooms.
Under the gallery and outdoor training area, there are a
martial arts hall and training room, which are connected
to the club house building on the south. One club house
is built on pilotis above the bicycle parking lot and the
other one is built into the slope around the tennis courts.
The gymnasium stands between the two club houses
and. with them, defines edges of a large grassy yard on
the south. The thin light roof assembly is supported by
tree-like columns and brackets. The orderly rows of
these columns are reflected on the glass walls and
appear to be a forest. You can almost imagine hearing
the cheerful voices of students from the woods encased
in the glass box.
(ltsuko Hasegawa)

j"!;-f 6 J.:.~'?tH~lijiiJ:J!IJJ ~ H~'tti!i'i ~- .!W

t VCo:JliiOtJil!ll':i:'"i!u:: d'"fiiU!. H!:l,'YCI&:-C'if,6

1 1: ~--::> ff.:rYP.fiO)i/i !!It, u~ J~ !- ~ f~'i'_O):i\:;<lliill n'!l;j;:

iFt.::..'l, ::1- r o:J;!;f.i tliiWiiiiiJit:J.~il2 t

IJ, ;cVliUJ'IJ >CH:f'r'filiiill~l) itll!v'C'li.\':,;i:l'C\ 1 0.

'i'i~J!il {, hn-c,

7 7o --1-fifi!:: )I[~J)J,Wi!;ZJ :!--7'/ t;:!}jfrlil:7f7 ;,~]1

lJ c t: ~) -c J4Uc c B!ittl0~i&m .rvi1Hft! L ~c v ?J. rrrrnn


\:f.J'YWi-~ ~

1-Ef~

7 '' -'b&'.t. -tvH" ': 7 ''- cl.ftf1~ r v-.::.. :.- 7'0)

T7AO)-f~.:~~1i!Ji[UbJ.

r V-.::/

I ENTRANCE LOBBY

.: EQUI?k:ENT ROm;l
5 MARTIAL ARTS Hf1LL

6 TRA'N!HG ROOM
7 C'c..lJB ROOM

(:/1Jrlitfi1J77+r- r:Yrt..
(6{1 6tt!1 ~to;l~':>(l)::\~l:t. "f:'u~stJ:;~r~J~77'r- eO:iill

L l!!j(J)7 / f7-7"Cc1?~)1H~I!1rrY.~~.:.t:t,J'"C~.Q.

'I

II

!i

.I

I.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

~lJ!I-L1:i{~lt-c,

3 LOCKER ANO DRESSING ROOivl

porem f(/cade, stmlenls can see Kojin Moumain, a city landmark.

58

"!!::U,IJ: Jl[HiJ':ft,;;, f'Ol!ffi*iK<7l!/lii!\'IJ.;1i~iLc,


H#'-= Lt tl7 7\ rm ::l~~ fJ -!l~O) J: -);,:.tilL~!~ L l v;Z, J!Rt;i:: >J: 1t
-ltc <:IL-0. jfi19J;Ij::II7 X'T-J,Olr'O)tl:;l)i,,)':t['.t~t,

:::O)JJ'i,il.: 7 1J ;-r..._rftJ:tt..:+

ljadng pa.~e) Twiliglttiew of 1he non/: facade.

Site; scale: lfl ..JOO.

to: 0zo:JJ:'HuioJ

:J: 8cf.U;J~Fl7i'K.i&:D'Gi1HHI'r2

(pp.60-6/) General view fmm the north. Through the mms-

'I

L ~c Plfrn ~ / ;y Jt.-

First floor; scale: 1/J,OOf).

(top, left) View from rhe southwest. Tile west side of tlte
g_vmnasium will be surrounded by grassy slopes,
(left) View toward the south facade seen from the clubhouse

wing.
(to!') /uterior l'ien of tire entrance lobby.
(above) View of the glass wall.
(facing page, Wp ami above) Interior of the arena.

(/r.l:l 1iii'li J: 'J hll.>. H:fff!i'i<7JflliflnJLlz01fllil<'l'!ihh7.>.


(~,:J 7 7 /"'7 7-lii!J: 1Jillll!l7 y4r- H: R.6.
(J:.Jcr-/ r7/7,. oe->:}1.?.>.

CFl1i77.tJ)tJ-7/

rliiT2/!:l 7' J -1.

62

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

'7t-J~\ClVS.

location: Hlbllll:, Shit!<l Prcf"'rlurc


:u\._hilL'>.:h: lhukll Ha:-cg:r\\:t Alv~icr
:-iru:..:tur:-.1 cngltK'L':':
Strue!mal En~l!ll;,.'l ~
m..:L"haii!Cal cngin;:l'J.:: Scu:h; Kcikab
contractor>< i\k!Juhacht (\HlStrw.:tton

pnnc1pal the: gynma;-;ium


:-itc mea: 29-L)(,7m:
building area: 3.)79m'
l~1tal fluor aH:a: J,9l7m:

strucwrc: :-t..:d f1amt:. partl;. rL'infn;. :ld


~_omp!dion d:nc. :\larch. 19'.l5

tl)fh..'fl..'h:.

2 '-tOJic~

ARENA
W.ARTIAL AllTS HALL

Section; scale: 11400.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMlNG

63

ltsuko Hasegawa Atelier

Hilni Seaside Botanical Garden


:fi:~JI ~-t

~ili'~tiilli:::it}

7J<.S! mi1lliJHi1:~W~

Seashore Space as Environment

The circular nrchitcctural form of the botanical garden


man and nature. The natural seashore is an essential
environment, not only for vegetation but abo for all
eco-system and mankind. It was hoped that visitors
would appreciate the inseparable relationship between
the natural environment and mankind. The institution
has several functions, two exhibition halls, a green
house, glass lUbe (corridor), exhibition garden, workshop and restaurant.
Furthermore, the front pan of the seashore has been
developed as the outdoor exhibition area for seashore
plants and also as a strolling space for citizens.
Due to its geographical condition, the Japanese
Archipelago is full of plant life. strongly influenced by
seawater and sea winds. The shorelines arc rich in geological varieties such as dunes with shifting sand, cliffs
standing against pounding waves, and tidal tlats at the
mouths of rivers with salt water marshes. How would
plant life survive to such severe environments"
Seashores maintain particular plant clusters, distinctive
from inland vegetation. However. due to recent artificial environmental changes. much of the natural
seashore plant habitats being lost, which also encourages inland plant expansion and results in further
destruction of unique plant life.
Despite Japan's long shoreline, precious few natural
seashore environments remain to learn about seashore
plant life is to understand how important the natural
seashore is to our lives, and leading to tlnding a clue
that every human being is protected by nature.
(ltsuko Hasegawa)

Site: scale: /15,000.

(facing page, abore) Twi/ig/11 view from the east.


(jaci11g page, below} View of the solllh facade.
(photos 011 p.66) Inferior view of tile Sky Lmmge.
l:ti~U.l ll!tnt)tpi?O):$':l;';.
(:tir\f'lfWHn]7rt- ~-g~;;.
(66l'i2.<:i.l 7.11 1 7 e; / :/i~JWl.

64

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

!mJ>lt

l-T('l)i)jjiff~Fn,

oJJ\::il;rn~!~ 1;~ !;u;;rJJ,Ii\1 '~

i'l ?\. M;"l'. ~'

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11

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2 ~>~:I',JI~{':O)

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n;~. !ili1Ti'ii,'Cflli'i:M~IIJP:t~1.1 1 ,

1/)ifl}!f:L!:~~:b~ L/.)-") t)J.S.

-~(l)M~~~~~<>:::t. Mcm~~~~t~t

H~~ !j: P~: Ji 1: i'liJ:::fJJI;: i l l t .;~ t:.;. ?Ri:* ~~iMJ.to>~i~*~t


~ Q:t

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,, ~ 1L 0 il\11!!. ;_;r:O) IJ'!:~ c :<

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f'l?!.;l:'.j:~JiL"CJ,I:ill.l"!:i,r;L'n'-0

Lt.\

0Jiii'i,~JI!!

! ENTRANCE HALL

2 EX~IBIT!ON rlALL I
3 EXHlBITION HALL 2
4 CONSERVATORY
5 GLASS 1UEE
6 COURTYARD
7 WORKSHOP

8 TERRACE
9 KITCHEN

10 SKY LOUNGE
ll FLOAllriG GARDEN

Thin/ floor.

Fourth floor.

!:tl:U

66

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

location: Hlmi. Toyama


:li,:hitcch: lhuku

Pr(:f~'cturc

H:l,~g;m

: .-\ttlkr

~tn~<.:llu,l! ~.:nginc,r"

mt:dlanicai L'nginecr": Shou


JV of Him: !kkC":l (\;q:or;ltinn :n:d Ebi-.:tka
Kaibat.;u Cnrron.nion
princip~!l lls::: botamc1d gard.:n
,Jte aa.:a: J0,1 i Ym.:
Cllll~r,~~..wr:-:.:

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(top, left) Exterior view of the Conservatory.


(above) Interior of the Conservatory.
(lop, right) lmerior of the Exhibition Hall I.
(right) Interior of the Exhibition Hail 2.
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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

67

Itsuko

Atelier

Cardiff Bay Opera House


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Opemship
The City of Cardiff lives from the sea. The planned
redevelopment of the city, therefore, is not only a matter of physical environmental improvement but also of a
spritual re~reation of the landscape of the city and the
~ea.

The site is where the city meets the sea, as well as


metaphorically where the past and future meet. The
public piazza facing the opera house will incorporate
the new Oval Basin, a recreation of the old dock, as a
centrepiece. Visitors to the Cardiff Opera House can
Participate in Marine activities in the inner harbor, or
simply enjoy the waterfront atmosphere, similar to the
way visitors to the Glyndcbourne Opera can enjoy picnics in the adjacent tield. The architecture of the opera
house should be reflective of the vibrant, open-minded,
and tolerant maritime community and user-friendly to
all citizens.

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Harbor symbolizes the long history of thriving maritime


trades and the resultant wealth of the city. The ship is a
catalyst of Cardiffs vitality and a means to import exotic new culture and encourage international communication. Our scheme assimilates the opera house as a ship
placed in the centre of the site surrounded by a quay of
auxiliary facilities. This is our attempt to throw light on
Cardiffs history, as if the opera house were a metaphor
of an archaeological dig for future generations. The
crystal-like Opera-ship will sometimes shine in the
strong coastal sun and sometimes melt into a cloudy
sky. The singular form of the Opera-ship will play hideand-seek and metamorphose as viewers move along the
harbor. In the dusk, the Opera-ship will float like crystal in~the waves of lights emanating from numerous
skylights of the surrounding quay buildings, and provide a fantastic pre-performance opera atmosphere.
(Itsuko Hasegawa)

First floor; scale: I II ,200.

(facing pageJ ModeL View from tile north.

68

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

I.

.I

70

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

location: Cardiff, Wales, U.K.


architects: ltsuko Hasegawa Atelier
structural engineers: Ove Arup & Partners Japan
mechanical engineers: Ove Arup & Partners
acoustic engineers: Arup Acoustics andY A~IAHA Acoustic
Research Laboratories
principal use: opera house
site area: 14,947m'
building area: II ,999m'
total floor area: 37 ,680m'
structure: steel frame. reinforced concrete: I basement and 5
stories

(obo"e) General view of the model. 111e "Opera-sl!ip" }/oats


like CI)'SWI.
below left) Model. Tile site is where the city
sea.
page, belmr rig/It) /Jird's-eye view of lite model.
Wew from file sortth.
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Sml//1 elevation; scale: 111.000.

JA !995-3 PROGRAMMING

71

Itsuko Hasegawa Atelier

Yokohama International Port Terminal Design Co1npetition


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Floating Landscape
A lightly-woven basket structure and ghl!\o membrane
stretches over a large area of a wharf, as if to provide a
transitional landscape of overwhelming openness from
the city to the sea. Analogous to old European railway
stations and glass con>ervatories, this open interior
space becomes a place where time passes slowly in
omnipresent reflection of water as in grand voyages.
The axially curved '"basket" space is a poetic machine
which reminds you of allegories of exotic foreign lands
and history such as a flying Kew Garden, floating
islands, a Dezima (an historic quarantined island for
foreign trade in Nagasaki during the Edo Period), and
Black Ships (American naval vessels which forced
Japan to open for trade in the mid-19th Century). It will
become a new landmark in the Port of Yokohama.
Arrival, departure, services and parking have
autonomous circulation by themselves but are effective-

ly interconnected to each other by means of open public


space and gardens. Th'ts system allows a very dear
articulation of each function and a visual relationship
between various program elements. It elevates the
dynamic energy of the space and the spiritual ambience
which is full of accidental encounters, and provides an
out-of-the-ordinary spatial experience.
Linear gardens (exterior space) intertwine with the
"basket" space and thus create free and wafting spatial
movement between the interior and exterior. The garden
enveloped in architecture takes off from the landscaped
approach road, cut across the building, pushes through
the roof, and extends into the sea. The flow of public
space from Yamashita Park to the terminal is meant to
tie elements together from an urban design nt,<nr'ttive
and promote the concept of Yokohama Garden Port as a
new kind of urban landscape,
(ltsuko Hasegawa)

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Sire: scale: 114,000.

72

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

(abow!) Bird'seye l'iew ofJhe model.


(below) Gene raJ view _lhJJn the nonlnresr.
(right) Downward 1ieH from the sollllllt'est.

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location: Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture


architects: ltsuko Hasegawa Atelier
structural engineers: Umezawa Struc!uroJ Engineers
mechanicall!ngineers: Kankyo Engineering
principal use: pon terminal
site area: 33,040m'
structure: steel frame; :2 basement and 5 stories

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Jlli F211r\ li!!J:5r11i

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

73

Section:

s~-a/1.!:

112,-!00.

LOBBY
ARRIVAL HALL
3 CRUISE DECK
BAG GAG
ARRIVAL LOBBY

MACHINE ROOM
VlSITOR HAlL
ViSITOR'S DEC(

SHOPS
10 FOYER
11 EVENT HALL
12 DECK

Mezzanine floor.

Fimjloor.

Baseme111 floor; scale: 112,400.


JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

75

THE TRANSPARENT URBAN FOREST


Toyo Ito

I have designed a space defined by seven columns for the "Japan


Today" exhibit at the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, which is
located in a Copenhagen suburb. The space has its origin in an
image I developed for the Mediatheque Project in Sendai, an
architectural project on which design has only just begun. The
columns, about four meters tall and made of expanded mesh and
translucent fabric, are lit from above. They alternately appear
and disappear as the lights brighten and dim in slow rhythmical
fashion. The indistinct reflections of the columns in the aluminum
panels covering the floor and the acrylic mirrors on both side
walls create the illusion of infinite spatial extension.
linages are continually projected by three video projectors
located behind three screens suspended at the far end of the
space. The images, which show everyday cityscapes for the most
part, are a re-edited version of images prepared for the "Visions
of Japan" exhibit held four years ago in London. Dissolved into
white noise, they are as rarefied and unreal as the shimmer
produced by heat waves.
The seven columns too are rarefied presences. Each column
has intermediate joints resembling the articulations of a bamboo

Tryis is a slightly metaphorical way of putting it, but creating


buildings has often been for me a matter of making forests
manifest I think of buildings not so much as constructs but as
natural things like gardens, woods, forests and flows of water.
That is because my aim has constantly been to create a place that,
though abstract, is continuous and limitless rather than a space in
which inside is clearly separated from outside as in architecture.
For some time now I have been preoccupied with spaces
organized around clusters of columns. Of course, though the
columns may indeed be clustered in the manner of trees, my aim
ultimately is to create architectural spaces. The columns do not

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stalk and contracts slightly between the joints. Thus the columns,
though inorganic, artificial and abstract, suggest trees somehow.
The duality-the fact that the columns are at once both
architectural elements and treelike features-determines the
quality of the space. A continuously built-up urban space and a
natural, wooded environment are at the two poles of this duality.
The interaction of urban and natural images is only made
possible by their abstraction and rarefaction.

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simply stand on their own. They always support something-at


times a vaulted roof, at other times an alien, spaceship-like object
with a metallic sheen. Then again, they might support a fiat
section devoid of beams such as a concrete slab or a steel deck
plate. In any case, these load-bearing columns, unlike
freestanding objects such as trees, must submit to certain
structural constraints. Often, the most rational arrangement of
columns is a geometrical grid of equal spans. Inevitably in an
industrialized society, transmitting an evenly distributed load to
the ground by means of evenly distributed supports is
economically the most rational solution.
Although I abide by such rules in general, the deliberate
displacement of columns from such a grid is nevertheless
appealing to me. A random arrangement of columns seems to
me a way of not simply mimicking natural environments such as
woods or forests but increasing the fluidity of space. This is
corroborated by the fact that the interaction of symmetry and
asymmetry generates the relationship between form and
movement of organisms in the natural world. Irregularity and
instability continually induce movement.

Each of us today possesses two bodies-the primitive body that a


human being has always possessed and the virtual body that has
come into being with the spread of the media. The former seeks
the beautiful light and the fresh breeze to be found in nature.
Human beings seeking sources of good water once settled on the
banks of rivers and the shores of lakes. They took water and air
from nature and then released them back into nature. Our bodies
were tubes or channels of water and air connected to the natural
world. Being fluid, our bodies were a part of nature.
I recall a boat ride I once took on a canal in Bangkok and the
impression made on me by the sight of people living on the
water's edge. The people had adapted successfully to their
watery environment. Large water jugs lined terraces framed by a
profusion of bougainvillea. The people dwelled like fish, their

Introducing fluidity into architecture serves to breathe fresh air


into a stagnant, sluggish space and to create continuity between
inside and outside. I believe continuity between inside and
outside is the most important issue in architecture today. That is
because it closely parallels the issue confronting our own bodies.

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

77

bodies steeped in water. They confirmed for me the notion that


our ancestors had only recently climbed on land. The water
flowing about those people was overwhelming, and the space that
enveloped them was extraordinarily humid. Their bodies were
liquescent.
Today, though we rely far less on nature and live in artificial
environments, our bodies still remain fluids of water and air.
However, recently, another flow has been added to these flows, a
flow that is electronic. This flow cannot be visualized since it is
not a flow of matter such as water or air, yet it clearly involves a
different kind of body. That body responds to the flow of
electrons in the guise of sounds and images. It is a body that
carries with it a Walkman and a cellular phone and sits in front of
a computer screen. Our bodies cannot help but be aware, through
such diverse terminals, of the limitless flow of electrons. The air
we breathe is as saturated with electrons as the air in Bangkok is
saturated with water. This other body formed by the electronic
environment might be called the virtual body or the body of
consciousness, as opposed to the primitive body, since it cannot
be made manifest. It might also be called a media-like body in

search of information.
Today, the functions served by the virtual body are expanding
at an extraordinary speed, and at times these include the control
of the primitive body. We are controlled by our virtual bodies
more than by our primitive bodies, even in our most basic actions
such as eating, conversing, and engaging in sports. At times we
are no longer able to integrate, and maintain a proper balance
between, these two kinds of bodies. The virtual body is being
extended further and further, and the primitive body cannot keep
pace with it. An extraordinary degree of mind control is coming
to be exercised over the body; that is, the body is becoming
bound, hand and foot.
However, such a split, if we stop to think about it, is not an
unfamiliar phenomenon. It in fact characterizes architectural and
urban spaces. The split is generated by the excessive autonomy
of architectural and urban spaces, that is, by their estrangement
from the natural environment. If connections to the outside
world are cut off, architecture and the city are able to provide any
kind of virtual space. This is the city as Disneyland. By
severing ties to the environment, we can create fantasies and

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78

JA !995-3 PROGRAMMING

:j:2

*I

spaces in which historical time and geographical place arc altered


as easily as on a stage or the television screen. This can be
readily seen in commercial architecture and houses conceived as
merchandise. Needless to say, the city, being the aggregate of
such buildings, is becoming ever more virtual in its character.
To an extent, the introduction of nonrealistic spatial images in
architectural and urban spaces is an effective way of invigorating
architecture and the city. Indeed, it is in the nature of architecture
and the city to revive and reinvigorate themselves through such
alien presences. However, the problem is how to assimilate
virtuality in reality. The integration of virtual spaces with
physical spaces is as much an issue today as the integration of
virtual bodies with primitive bodies. And if the duality of space
can be dissolved, then that conceivably might contribute to the
dissolution of the duality of the body.
We have generated sylvan or arboreal images in architectural
spaces in an attempt to dissolve this duality of space. We believe
that the natural environment can be integrated with the man-made
environment of architecture and that physical architectural spaces

:j:]

can be integrated with virtual spaces if spatial fluidity and


architectural continuity between inside and outside arc achieved
through the creation of spaces formed like clusters of trees.
The three buildings designed for Yatsushiro City, Kumamoto
Prefecture, arc indeed intended to be architecture as forest. The
first work, as its name, the Forest of the Future Museum,
suggests, is a forest for the appreciation of exhibits related to the
city's history and folkways* 1; the second is a forest where about
50 senior citizens livc* 2; and the third is a forest where firefighters
work* 3. They arc entirely different in function, but all arc spaces
with clusters of columns. They arc both architectural
environments and spaces imagined as forests. They alternate
between being man-made environments and being natural
environments. At times continuous with a garden that is a part of
the city's historic environment, they arc at other times forests
open to the city that provide connections to a quiet inland sea or
ordinary houses. They arc by no means closed forests. They arc
not the forests that stood in opposition to villages-the deep
spaces that inspired mysterious tales. These transparent forests,
located inside the city and continuous with the urban

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

79

context provided by the trees but will be of a markedly different


scale.
What makes these tubes different from the treelike columns of
the three projects in Yatsushiro is not just their scale but the fact
that they are intended to function like trees in an organic way.
Needless to say, they serve as structural supports for the seven
square plates. They are also void spaces introducing natural light
and circulating fresh air. The tubes also accommodate
transportation systems and diverse energy pipelines.
Various intellectual activities will take place on the seven
square plates supported by these tubes. On one plate, countless
partitions, their surfaces decorated with many paintings, will bend
this way and that as in a maze. People will stroll through this
mazelike space and look at the paintings. They will steep
themselves in the urban space created by the paintings in the
middle of the forest generated by the tubes.
On another plate people will steep themselves in a city of
books. There will be a multitude of walls built of piles of
books-straight walls of books that go on forever, zigzagging
walls of books, curving walls of books that form flowing spaces.

environment, are places that generate new happenings for the


people. Walking through these transparent forests, people
encounter rows of glass showcases, catch a glimpse from
between trees of an inland sea stained a golden color, and at
times marvel at circus-like performances by firefighters. The
urban forest, even as it serves everyday urban functions, forms
new urban fragments.
The Mediatheque Project in Sendai is a multilayered urban
forest. It is both a building of knowledge and a forest of
knowledge.
Square plates, each slightly less than 50 meters to a side, are
piled one on top of the other to form seven stories and two
basements, and these are penetrated by twelve, treelike tubes.
Each tube is a mesh-like cylinder woven from slender steel pipes
and covered with translucent glass. These tubes will be far
bigger than the columns conceived for the "Japan Today" exhibit
described at the outset. Moreover, this project will face one of the
best-known thoroughfares in Japan, an avenue lined with
enormous zelkova trees. The treelike tubes will respond to the

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People will construct their own studies, houses of books, gardens


of books and cities of books in the interstices between these
walls.
On yet another plate, people will face computer terminals.
Large numbers of people sitting in front of keyboards and small
screens will engage in games, while still others gather in front of
a large screen and participate in a teleconference with people in
distant areas. There will be people enjoying videos and movies
and others absorbed in the making of graphic works on screens.
There will be adults and children, businessmen and housewives.
Here, audiovisually handicapped persons will be able to enjoy
themselves, learn, and access information through the media like
everyone else. This space, in which individuals at terminals can
communicate with many people living in different places and
speaking different languages, will be a barrier-free forest.
There will be a plate with just the twelve tubes where people
can create diverse installations, unhindered by the constraints of
existing theater or hall spaces. Then there will be a
multifunctional plate, where people can access a wide variety of
information while dining or shopping. Here, seven urban

fragments of knowledge are piled one on top of the other. The


tubes run through these fragments, joining them and establishing
relationships among them. Here too the presence of the tubes
creates an open, transparent forest in the city. The tubes are an
automatic changing device-an "auto-changer" so to speak-that
dismantles spaces such as libraries, art museums and halls that
confonn to existing programs and freely rearranges them.
Whether or not a barrier-free, transparent forest can be
constructed depends on the workings of this auto-changer.
(translated into English by Hiroshi Watanabe)
*I. Yatsushiro Municipal Museum (1991)
*2. Aged People's Home in Yatsushiro (1994)
*3. Yatsushiro Fire Station (!995)

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~ii!H~A*-M\{-1;:mJ'I~ffjjif(l994)

JA 1995-3 PROORAMMING

81

Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects

Yatsushiro Fire Station


wJIHHilJJlli!~~t ~.fflpf.
i\ {-\;JZ;l<&ii'!~jj;j:!lllfi1'

This complex consists both of the district lire depanmenl, which handks fire-fighting and emergency scr
vices, and the control center for the eight local fire
departments in the Yatsushiro area.
The site lies ncar the town center, and for reasons of
convenience fronts the main road linking the highway
interchange and the port. It is located in a new office
zone within a housing area itself surrounded by fields of
rushes.
The planning of the first floor takes into considera
tion circulation in the case of emergency, and consists
of a garage, drill yard, indoor practice room, training
pool for emergencies at sea, and a parking lot arranged
in order along the main road.
The spaces for administration, living and waiting are
located on the second floor, and each has been planned
wit!~ regard to its relationship to the other rooms and in
particular to the function of the space below it. These
'packaged' spaces have been lifted six meters off the
ground, suspended over the grass-covered field upon
which training drill is held.
This floating plate is pierced by holes, which fonn
the means of communication with the first floor, accommodating the lightweight approach staircase, as well as

allowing the penetration of through breezes and narural


light. The plate is carved out in a huge arc on the drill
yard s1de, visually linking the spectators and participants in the training at ground level, with those working
at second floor level.
This unlikely layering of fire department and public
park fosters mutual interaction. The activities of the fire
department, which is a public body, can be understood,
while this accessible space, which is not confined to the
building itself, opens up to the town, and at the same
time draws in its surroundings. The architecture
becomes the catalyst which helps to extract the various
programs such as the daily drill, drill competitions and
other events, thereby stimulating the activities that constitute urban life.
Until now, public architecture has been built in an
automatic way, according to the definition of a number
of variables, and a prepared progmm designed to sim
plify verification. This new experiment attempts to
make a place in which various different networks can
come together, becoming a mechanism for creating new
programs, and creating a new landscape.
(Tatsuhiro Hori I Toyo !to Associates. Architects)

'"

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l;.l:f:lj,

(iJIJtl:M:Jtlil!ffi~~ili~:mPJf/J}.il~il!J)

(facing page) The 5-meter high open pi/otis.


(pp.84-85) The pi/otis space is intended to be open to
the public and functions as a place of relaxation for
the surrounding citizens.
(;hi() SmQJiP.j"' !~j;jl;J:!J";.tLt:!lflli'irf.JIJ- t: o T 1.
(S<~ssieJ ~:: o :T 1 S'!ltnl\lllrn~l1illt ~,_. clfflli'-<<'<
I.'!QJJl[W)mt L."Cll:J;fiEn t!Jrrrl<'<.tLtc.

I
I'

Site; scale: I I 1,500.

82

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

.n.

Jtll!J!rli

,.

'

l
(p.86, abo1'e) Viell'
tile eas1.
(p.87, ahme) l'ie11
!he SOli/h. The aluminum
panels emp!wst::e rhe hori::.ontality of the building.
(pp.8687) So!llbeasr exterior l'iew.

Wo:c!JJ li!ffiiJt'"" lt-!>.


(87NJ:) l1\l!IJr;"'dl.-!>, 7Jv~J'~ivl~]:

Sec lion; scale: I/ 1.000.

Section.

East e/eva1ion.

West

ele~afion.

1 OFFICE
2 PILOTIS
3 GARAGE

4 flEETING ROOM

5 MARSHAL ROOM
6 PARKING
7 EXEAC ISE ROOM
8 SUPPLY ROOM
9 ROOM FOR TAKING A NAP
10 DiN:NG ROOM
1\ ENTRANCE HALL
12 EXHIBITION CORNER
13 RESPONSE COMMAND CEIHER

14 DIRECTOR ROOM

15 STACK ROOM
\6 LOBBY
17 WAITING ROOM

18 STORAGE
19 DA>LL YARD
20 DRILL TOWER
21 VISITOR'S TERRACE
22 POOL
23 LINE-UP SPACE

Second floor.

First basemen/.
First floor; scale: 1/1,000.
88

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

*'JZi'J:c\:IJgiii.!JL.

(above left) Downward rie~> from 1he west.


(abo1e middle) View from rhe drill yard, swfaced
with grass.
(above right) Evening view from the drill yard.
:

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The rei/ow areas indicare areas !hat are open 10 the public.
The ~rrows indicate the emergency-response circulation

routes,
:/ll{l;,,l11!7tli-~(I)A.tJ~J,n::;.L

J 7.

~~lli:J::1ti!i!.iJiJJt'i!.

1 drill towe
2 :::i1culation route !or emergency-response veh1cles
3
fo: fire truc.:s ar1d ambulance vehicles

lO enmmce
11 response command ceme:
12 headquarters
13 supply room

10: offtce
15 common space
16 meeting space1

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tii~ll!tr.li

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13 !li'
14 ll<lli!ii

Second floor circulation diagram; scale: I I 1,500.

15 lUl

16 lAlii

location: Yatsushiro, Kumamoto Prefecture


principal use: fire station, headquarters, and secretariat
structural engineers: Kimura Structural Engineers
mechanical engineers: Ohtaki E&M Consultant and Nichiei
Planners
general contractors: JV of Dainihondoboku, Kimura and
Matsushima
site area: 8,055m'
building area: 3,22Sm1
total floor area: 4,683m'
structure: steel frame, partly reinforced concrete: l basement
and 2 stories (drill tower: 5 stories)
completion date: March, 1995

PJT{EJI!l
:l:~llliti

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'!I 19951f:3Fl

First floor circulation diagram; scale:

/I /,500

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

89

page) VieH' toH'ard Jlu: exltibflion corna from


entmnn hall
rahorc) J
roward !h: drill jle!d Fum ri:<' cur;ed corridor.
(middle h~{t) Office of the he(ldquancr5, foting J/ze
open space.
(below left) Phy.;;ica/ derelopmcnt exercise mom.
(below riglrl) VieH' /o11ard 1he en/ranee Ira//.

SoUih rlerallon: Jcale: 1: 1.000.

A'orth elerarion.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

91

Toyo Ito & Associates. Architects

Winning Project of the Sendai Mediatheque Design Competition


fj!*~MfH~~n*l))?IT

-ttM:'';/ 71 T 'T-?7'!'1 /

::J

/"'5'-1"'

/'!Jili!fi

In the latter half of the eighties. in order to shake off the


almost autistic formalism of architecture. we milizcd a
number of metaphors in order to attempt to expand the
image of architecture in the information city. However,
even though we were able to express this image to a
certain extent in the spatially limited context of installations and idea competitions, only by a very literal translation of the metaphors were we able to realize them as
architecture. This is because computer technology is
concerned with "concept", not with "form". [n other
words, in attempting to escape from formalism, one is
drawn into expressionism, and ultimately the argument
returns to the question of "form".
[n the nineties, in order to escape this Godelian contradiction, we based our architecture on homogeneous
and relative patterns such as bar-codes and layers. This
was an attempt to get rid of the shape-making mind-set,
and to address the "phenomena" which exist in these
patterns. Naturally, our interest soon expanded to
include the program, because in order to address the
problem of "phenomenon", we are required to confront
the realities of the organizations and systems of our
society. Thus the focus of our interest shifted to seeing

92

JA t995-3 PROGRAMMING

what extent we could dissolve. or mutate the conventional program.


In fact, a similar process is under way in the field of
computer technology, using computers in order to control phenomena. Thus far, computers h<lVC had a single,
pre-installed program which imposes control. But the
development of computers that can make situational
judgments, and furthermore can reason and make associations is progressing. Already they are able to read
hand-written text, compensate cameras for hand-held
shake, and are included in domestic electrical appliances as 'fuzzy' technology. These programs are modified through nucnt mathematical functions according to
the input conditions. We believe that these fluid programs can be used as a mechanism to draw out .the relative phenomena in our environment.
to

The Sendai Mediatheque faces the rich greenery of


Jozenji Avenue. [n conventional tenus the building's
four main functions are a library, a citizens' gallery, an
information service center for the visually and aurally
handicapped, and a visual media center. The composition of our design could not be simpler. The building

consi;;ts of seven steel honeycomb structural plates


arranged in layers, These pla~cs arc pcnetmled by
twelve tubular steel hyper-shell tubes. Finally, the internal lighting and air-conditioning cnvironmenl i~ controlled by a ';;kin'. In the competition, rather than rurther sub-dividing the four main functions, we located
each usc on its own plate in a very diagramatic way.
This was a strategy to clarify the function of the tubes,
which was to dissolve the self-containment of the plates
and to encourage them to permeate each other.
It is certain that our future design work will involve
us in many fields. How will architectural space be
formed at a time when the rapid creation of a mcdi~
digital network through computer technology is changing both our physical senses and ways of communication? How are we to rewrite the conventional programs
for library, gallery and information center to deal with
the super-fluidity of the media? These will be our two
themes.
Originally, libraries and art galleries were a part of
people's houses. But with the citizens' revolution they
left the domestic realm and became symbols of the
nation state, each with its own building type. Now. with
the de-centralization, and personalization of media
brought about through digital nctworkization, once
more they are returning to the house. Perhaps it would
be more accurate to say that the house itself has expanded to include them. Furthermore, it is difficult to differentiate between the audio-visual inforn1ation center of
our program, and media based shops such as videogame parlors, video remal shops and the large-scale
record stores that we find on our high streets.
Current building types are moribund. They no longer
have the strength to keep up with the realities of society,
and the huge scale of the digital network ocean is forcing a radical re-constitution of architectural programs.
The act of architectural design itself is in the process of
breaking out of its framework. The transparency and
fluidity of the relationship between things is now at
issue. [n various ways we are at a crossroads. This
mediatheque will be opened at the end of 1999.
(Makoto Yokomizo I Toyo [to Associates, Architects)

(_/~?cfng ,N(!c.'C)

th~'iu.;

/ (;picol _rloo1
~

} ll'i.'l!ing~!!!O!l!t'l/[

caJt!

(~/

The h!ifiditlg is com;:o.1!'d ot' !hr!'l' !!pes (I{


,;nd .1/.uz.

mudd in

eurrhquake.

3 .':/trucwra! axononutric diagram


I D(/(;rmation diagram r...:( ihe tube in
earlhquake,
Tut:nln~~momcnt di:tgmnt
normal condiliont

' \

'~

',

.'

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

93

I
location: Sendai, t+.'iiyagi Prl'!l:cttm.:
prinripal u~c; ivi~Jialh~quc
structu:-al enginc~rs: Sasaki Sl!'uctural
mcthanicnl cngine-:rs: ES Associates

Cons~dtalll~

lighting planning: Lighting Planners As.liodates


theater planning: Shozo Mmosugi

acoustic engineers: Nagat;J Acoustics


site area: 4,002m'
building area: 2,304m 2

total lloor area: 20.760m'


structure: steel rrnme. partly steel frame and reinforced

concrete: 2 basements and stories


projected completion date: July. 1999

4 REPOSITORY

iHJ:{r~Ji?&tfl

-.X.

5 tlECTRiU..L AQOivJ
7 PARKING

J..

s,; .J>f

~~~

~,~~-~

m~~~

~r

~~~JJMtlITm

;t.:~'tJ .:::.

Yv

8 OF'ICE
9 :f<FORMATrOrJ
10 MEE!iNG ROOM

~-~

" SHOP
i2 CAFE

!J&Jil!illiflt 4 '002ni

13 OPEN BOOK STACK

J.g~illifJi

2.304m'
l!W1llift't 20,760m'

t~~~

t~~G-i

-'Jilt!

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-ffl)~ff};\Wi ::1 ::.-;;

l<l CH!LOAEN' S BOOK STACK


15 REFERE!<CP

lJ - 1- n'1

li!U:7~,~

16 OPEN BOOK STACX

Fourth floor.

Roof

CHILDREN"$ BOOK STP.cK


\7 NEWSPAPER$flv1AGAZ!NES
18 MECIA LIBRARY
19 MEO!A SOOTH
20 STUDIO

21 EDITI.NG
22 ATELIER
23 EXHIBITION
24 SALON

25 WORKSHOP
26 ltlSTALLAT!ml
PERFORMMCCE SPACE

First basement.

Third floor.

Serent/1 floor.

Second basemem; scale: 1/1,200.

Second floor.

Sixth floor.

Site; scale: 1/2,400.

Fifth floor.
First floor.

96

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMML"'G

8
--i'!-;:tl')l',~!1'!,;

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ttJil'..::::.ht..l\71!. Rl\1:::2:1. ~
:i<lllfl.:l.:::>;:.l-/::l<T;MI~t6.

Section; scale: I I 250.

A
B
C
1
2

3
4
5
6
7
S
9
10
11
12
13
14

15
16
17

18

Automatic Sun-tracking light:ng System


Double Skin
Plate System
changeable angle
aJcis of revolution
openable shutter
11oor finish
t:ghtwelght concrete
steel honeycomb ffoor panel
air plenum
outdoor air 1'ntake {induced !low)
height-adjustable ceilit1g
linear-motor e!eva:or
plywood panel for stage, capable of lle,;ible operation
convex glass lenS tor !raMmiuing light
prism louver for diffused light
outer skin of framed glass idofpoint grazing)
marble panel
outdoor ftesh air intake fgravityf!ow)
pc board mixed with metal chips
glass block

A. The changeable prism glass situated at the top of


the tube revolves to track the sunlight automatically,
transmitcing light downward within the tube.
B. In summer, the covering at the top is opened to
let the rising air current through. In winter. the
covering is closed and the warm air is kept inside.
C The structural honeycomb latcice chamber
Junctions in support of the air conditioning, disaster
prevention, and lighting unit systems.

A r"' -71lttlllll~illtil1<" nt~ UJ~:tJ ;c .t..tr7 ::<. tJ!Il~


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JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

H:

97

98

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

South elemtion; scale:

I/ 1,200.

(facing page) The transpare/ll skin separates the


inside of the building from the outside.
(right) Structural model of one of the tubes.

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

99

Toyo Ito & Associates. ArchitecL<;

The Third Reality

"Japan Today '95" Exhibition

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The Third Reality/ JH ;./77-~iol>ifill "Japan Today '95"

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29 Japanese artists and architects were invited to participate in "Japan Today in 1995", an exhibition bclcl at
the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, about 30 kilometers north of Copenhagen. We were provided with a
space entitled "The Third Reality".
Our installation is an extension of the concept which
we had explored in our Sendai Mcdi<llheque Competition project. We were given the opportunity to simulate
both the spaces created by the mesh-like tubular voids,
which have been liberated from the solidity of columns,
and the variety of light, sound and wind that flows within them.
The top of each of the seven tubes, which are made
from expanded metal and semi-transparent cloth, contain dimmer-controlled spotlights, speakers and motor
unit to create the effect of light sound and wind. Soft,
rippled patterns are created by the light passing through
the tubes and spilling over the aluminum panels of the
floor. These patterns become synchronized both with
the sounds from the speakers and the trembling of the
tubes caused by the motor units. The walls on both
sides of the space consist of mirrored panels, which are
gradated from a milky white to plain mirror the deeper
one progresses into the space. Finally, one is confronted
by images of Tokyo which are projected onto three
giant screens. We hope that this installation induces a
sense of the physical melting into the virtual.
''Japan Today in 1995" will continue until September.
after which it will tour Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden
and Finland) for two years.
(Toyohiko Kobayashi I Toyo Ito Associates, Architects)

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14 floor: aluminum panel

Ceiling plan; scale: I I 300.

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(/J('Irnr) lnstal!ution f(" the


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location: Humlebaek, Denmark


principal use: exhibition
lighting design: LPA I Lighting Planners Associates
general contractors: Inoue Industry + Kikukawa
total floor area: 125m'
exhibition period: June, 1995- September, 1995

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

101

Toyo [to & Associates, Architects

Higashinagaya Community Center

+ Elderly Day Care Center

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This project for a district center and regional care-plaza


is part of a plan for the 21st Century bci ng promoted by
the city of Yokohama, The city is aiming to build one
such facility in each L5km square area, The project
consists of a community center, including a gymnasium,
and a day-care center for the elderly,
Rather than attempting to draw in the exterior space,
we have spent most of our efforts in trying to create an
iqeal external environment in the interior of the building. On the first floor, the floor of the gymnasium
extends through the entrance and forecourt, and into the
care-plaza. The second ftoor consists of a virtually
boundary-free glass case within which the lobby, library
and other functions seem to Hoat freely. Furthem10re,

the whole building is steeped in the soft natural light


that spills through the transparent facade and toplights.
Contemporary life has made the concept of "community" untenable, and it may seem paradoxical that we
are proceeding to homogenize the programs of public
architecture such as this.
The program of public architecture has become petrified, and our interest lies in rendering it transparent,
thereby enabling us to create a flexible spatial condition, capable of fresh interpretation. Through this work
we want to re-examine the essential meaning of "public", The building is scheduled for completion in the
Spring of 1997.
(Jun Yanagisawa I Toyo Ito Associates, Architects)

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Site: scale: 1/1,200,

(facing page, above) View from rile south.


(facing page. below) Entrance facade.

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JA !99B PROGRAMMING

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JA 19953 PROGR.fu\1MJNG

(facing page. abo1'e) Viell' taward the rrading comer


and rhc lobb,r. seen jl'om rhc exercise room.
(lacing page. belo11) I "fcH' roward the \'Oiunteer
acril'iry corner
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14
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C-C section.

I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
II
12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

ELECTRICAL ROOM
GYMNASIUM
LIBRARY
COMMUNICATION LOBBY
COURTYARD
VOLUNTEER CORNER
KITCHEN
RESTAURANT
DAYROOM
GALLERY
MEETING ROOM
MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM
MAIN ENTRANCE
OFFICE
JAPANESE-STYLE ROOM
WORKSHOP
GROUP ROOM
PLAY ROOM
LOBBY
TERRACE
RECREATION CORNER
MACHINE
CONSULTING ROOM
BATHROOM

Second floor.

<J

location: Yokohama. Kanagawa Prefecture


principal use: community center and elderly day care center
structural engineers: KSP-Sasaki Structural Consultants
mechanical engineers: Kawaguchi Mechanical Engineering
and Yamazaki Electric Engineering
site area: 3,026m'
building area: 1,781 m'
total floor area: 2,904m'
struclllrc: reinforced concrete; 2 stories
projected completion date: March, 1997

II

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First floor; scale: I I 600.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

105

Toyo Ito & Associates, Architects

Ota-ku Resort Complex


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);:f:B[?If\'; lj ' / - ~ ::J /7'L--.~

PA

This project was the winning scheme in a proposal


competition held in September 1994. Located in the
town of Tobu in Nagano Prefecture, and based on the
concept of mediation between nature and mankind, the
plan includes both a health facility for the citizens of
the Ota area of Tokyo, and also an out-of-town classroom for its junior high school Sludents.
The site is located on a gentle, south facing slope,
with views towards the Yatsugatake mountain range. In
order to avoid a bulky composition, the complex has
been planned as a linear building hugging the contours
of the site. A deck extends west as far as the playing
field, helping to bring together a site divided by the
Kanahara River, which runs through its center, and the
various existing houses. This deck is intended to be the
venue for a variety of outdoor activities such as preparation for skiing and camping, astronomical observation
and so on. It is also both conceptually and progmmati-

cally the most importam element of the building. Furihermore. we arc invesrigaring th~ surrounding environment, am! making proposals for the activities lObe held
within the site, and interchange with the surrounding
communities.
However, this being a public building. differences
have arisen over the way the problem of building supervision and security is perceived, and we are involved in
what seems a weekly debale over this maller. It seems
misguided that the problem of supervision should be
allowed 10 destroy the concept of openness tow~rds
nalurc and the surrounding environment. However, it is
a fact that by taking on board some of the opinions that
have been expressed during the process of these
debates, the project itself has improved. This is because
the work of making architecture interesting is not the
work of architects alone.
(Mitsuo Yasuda I To yo Ito Associates, Architects)

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(facing page) Bird's-eye view.

Site: scale: I I 4, 000.


106

JA !995-3 PROGRAMMING

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108

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

page. abol'e} View jlom the somh


pag:'. belmr) lnfLriot l'ii!h' l!'ith the roof
npened up.
!rigllf) The site is /orated on o ge11rle solllh-jilcing
slope, ll'ilh i'iews towards the }'msugafakr: mO!InWiJI
range.

11

11

Sec/ion; scale:

location: Chiisagata, Nagano Prefecture


principal use: rest home and outdoor educnrional f;tcilitie;,
structural engineers: KSP +Sasaki Structural Consultants
mechanical engineers: Tetns Engineering
site area: about 182,500m'
building area: 8, 116m'
total floor urea: 8.964m'
structure: reinforced concrete and steel frame (partly wood!:
2 stories
projected completion dale: April, 1998

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i BATHROOM

2 LODGINGS FOR THE HANDICAPPED

3 LODGINGS
4 EtVRANCE
5 ADMINISTRATION
6 RESTAURANT
7 KITCHEN
8 HALL
9 ENTRANCE HALL

\0 STORAGE SPACE FOR SKI


i 1 SEMINAR ROOM

12 MAIN ENTRANCE
13 RECEPTION
14 RESTING SPACE
15 SUB ENTRANCE
16 TERRACE
17 PARKING
A LEVELA
B LEVEL 8
C LEVEL C
D LEVEL D

Hlll*iil

199811'-IFi
Plan; scale: I I 2,000.
JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

109

Toyo Ito & Associates. Architects

S House in Tateshina
1' JfJU!lil#li~:<~t :ey;ffiiW
~'!4S!lll

The clients arc a married couple in their forties, with no


children. Both work in the city, and they currently rem
an apartment in a convenient location. At the same
time, however, they both hope that in the future they
will also be able to live in a place surrounded by nature.
The kind of pl:1ce they are looking for is not one in
which their lifestyle will be cut off from the city, but
one which has a symbiotic relationship with it. They
want somewhere to which they can invite their many
friends, to cook and do crafts on a large scale, in a way
that would be difficult in an inner city apartment. In
addition, with personal computers giving them access to
all sorts of infonnation, they would be able to work
there, and would have access to the same television pro
grams as in Tokyo through cable and satellite. (n other
words, they want a place which is the best of both
worlds, where they could enjoy a lifestyle which is also
an extension of their life in the city. Furthennore, by
moving both a part of their lives, and some of their

belongings to the new house, they hope to be able to


organize their city apartment and to optimize their usc
of it.
By ftoating a single large slab in the midst of nature
we were able to create a place where such activities
were possible. Avoiding the large trees, we laid an cllip
tical slab, upon which we built a steel frame. The frame
suppol1.1 a layer of insulation and a corrugated roof.
Through this primitive composition, and by utilizing
industrial products, we were able to create a place
which is, both internally and externally, as large and
strong as possible. Furthermore, with a classic woodburning stove, sauna, and underftoor heating controlled
through the telephone lines, an ideal living environment
can be ensured even in Winter.
This house is a country villa which lives in symbiosis
with the city
(Kozo Nakamura I Toyo Ito Associates, Architects)

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(facing page) View from the west.

West ele>ation; scale: I/ 250.

Site; scale: I /500.

North elevation
110

JA 19953

PROGRAM~l!NG

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

111

location: Chino, Nagano Prefecture


principal use: villa
structural engineers: Structural Design Office Oak
mechanical engineers: Kawaguchi Mechanical Engineering
and Yamazaki Electrical Engineering
general contractors: Marusei Corporation
site area: I,689m'
building area: 232m'
total tloor area: 126m'
structure: steel frame and reinforced concrete; I basement
and I story
projected completion date: December, 1995

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112

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

r iili

(facing page, abore) View from tire east,


(fadng page, below/ abore) Interior iew with the
roof opened up.

(ti'f[U JILl: IJ JB.


(ti'ITTD ~-~~fL~~-f~6.

Section; scale: 1/250.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

BATHROOM
LIVING ROOM
STORAGE
BEDROOM
TATAMI ROOM
TERRACE
VOID
SAUNA
CHANGING ROOM

[]

0
I

'

Firs/ basemelll; scale: 1/250.

First floor,
JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

113

TO SEE AND BE SEEN


Kengo Kuma

Although some modern architects have used the concept of function to analyze 11Uman life-styles, believing tl1at it was possible to
control-- that is, govern
through function, it is however,
the sight line rather than the function, which truly controls modern
society ancllife. Michel Foucault was one of the first to clearly
delineate this concept.
Foucalt took up the famous "Panopticon" as proof of his argument. [Discipline and Punish (Surveiller et punir}, trs. Alan
Sheridan, New York: Pantheon 1977]. The Panopticon was a
prison system devised by the English jurist, Jeremy Bentham
( 1748-1832}. As a whole the prison formed a circle with numerous
individual prison cells positioned around the rim. A tower in the
center provided an observation point, making surveillance of each
and every prison cell possible. Although Foucault used this system
as a perfect model for modern managed society, the "Panopticon"
is noteworthy not for its function, but rather for the sight line, by
which the whole space could be controlled. That is to say, the
main issue was not simply the function of the individual prison
cells. My argument would stand for example even if these spaces
were 'offices,' or 'living quarters,' even 'hospital rooms.' The
sight line transcends -surpasses
every conceivable function, and dominates every aspect of the space. However much one
argues for diversity of function, or tries to change a specific function, the structure of a space remains absolutely unchanged
and therein lies the fundamental limitation of modern functionalism.

Spatial structure can only be renovated by redirecting the sight


line, not by passing judgement on the function, or for that matter
on the sight line. The sight line, with which we must first take
issue, is that sight line which perceives the building as an objel
--an object. That is to say, the sight line
of a subject
standing outside the building-- which perceives the building as
a single independent form. This very sight line, underwrites the
surveillance sight line of the Panopticon system. The ultimate
paradox of the Panopticon is that it is not even necessary for the
surveillance sight line to actually exist for the system to work. The
tower looms high over the prison center and only the tiniest peephole cut tnto the wall of the tower would be all that was necessary. The system would not require a jailor to stand there in person and keep up a constant surveillance of the prison cells. Rather
than ~the surveillance sight, the maintenance of this Panoptic on
system depended on its opposite
that is, the sight line which
perceived the tower as a single objet-- the systematized code
which recognized this objet as a surveillance tower. The sight line
which recognized the building as an objet was the premise upon
which the concept of the Panopticon was constructed. Through
this process all symbolic objets, turn away from the passivity of
"being seen" and take on the more active role of the observer.
Each individual inmate wished to look on their individual
prison cells as a single objet, because this sight line made it possible for them to re-define their homogeneous and wretched prison
cell as a holy castle
a place of unique and unrivalled individ-

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uality and functionality. Through this process of redefinition, function and decor become completely synonymous. That is to say,
while some applied decorations to conceal the wretchedness of
their individual prison cell, still others made use of that type of
decoration which goes under the name of "function." Thus, functionalism
of its own accord
volunteered to act as a substitute for decor, hitherto seen as the ultimate denial of functionalism. The sight line which
the object as an objet in this
way, conceals the existence of the sight line which manages and
controls the whole length and breadth of the space. Further, by
concealing the homogeneity and wretchedness of the Panopticon,
it supports the modern fiction
the modern fabrication - - of
"a space which blossoms with both a diversity of function and
individuality."
The only possible way of exposing, of aismantling this fiction is
to reverse the sight line
reverse the sight line which perceives the object
the building
as an objet, and to look
instead at the dwelling space inside the building. By reversing the
sight line, we can seize the moment and escape the spell of the
object
the o~jet. Now for the first time we become aware of
the existence of the sight line itself. We can then use this new
awareness to break down the said sight line.
I began a series of projects whose aim was just such a sight line
reversal, with the Kii'O.\an Observatory. An observatory is- by
nature a facility for observation
for seeing. Nevertheless, a
great many observatories tend to stand out in their surrounding

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environment as something to be seen


that is as an objet, perhaps even a phallic protrusion. The aim of my project was to turn
this tendency on its head. r buried my observatory in the earth of
the hilltop seeking to negate
to erase
it as an objet.
Actually to be completely accurate it wasn't quite as simple as
this, for clue to some ground works carried out a number of years
previously, the hilltop had already been leveled off and a small
observatory - - an objet
constructed on the site. Thus my
first move was the construction of a U-shaped concrete retaining
wall on the horizontal of the hilltop. The shape of the mountain
top was restored by heaping soil on both sides of the wall in
which shrubs and trees were then planted. This restoration also
marked the advent of a seemingly invisible observatory.
This theme of sight line reversal, was also central to Akira
Kurosawa's movie Heaven and Hell. The movie tells of the kidnap of the son of a huge mansion built high on a hill in
Yokohama. The kidnapper places a call to the mansion, "I've got
your son. You lot probably can't see me, but I can see you all
very clearly." In other words, the kidnapper had a clear and unobstructed view of whole the hilltop world, and the sight line which
ought by rights to have lorded over all within its ken was suddenly
faced with a crisis. This
incident triggers a complete reversal of the dominant sight line. That which had been regarded as
heaven
the world where the hilltop equals the sight line of
the privileged
and that which had been branded as hell-the netherworld, synonymous with oppressed observees ever

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

115

exposed to that sight line ol'thc


are completely
reversed.
The general run of the mill observatory - - which tends to
stand out in its surroundings as an
and the huge
bougeois mansion buill high on the hilltop are both of the same
type. Both 'buildings' possess the same duality. That of being
firstly, a facility for observation
for seeing
but also, an
objet for being seen. Their existence as an objet is what reconciles
these dual roles. To put it more clearly, the expression of the
object as a mechanism for
or as something which controls
the privileged sight line through its extravagant protruberance into
its surroundings is the aim of both these 'buildings.' It is this
which achieves a unification of the inherent duality.
The kidnapper, however, destroys this unity. One could even
say that he exposes the contradiction inherent in so prominent a
form - - an objet on a hill
and in the possession of the
sight line of the privileged. The prominent
protruding
form upends the sight line vector, and reverses the positive rights
of true privilege to their negative form. Or taking this one step further, the kidnapper exposes the basic contradiction hitherto hidden
in the object called the 'building.' That is to say, the kidnapper
through his single crime has exposed the fact that the two fundamental motivations inherent in all 'buildings,'
that is firstly
the privileged sight line and secondly the existence of the protruberance itself-- are mutually contradictory. The criminal has
not simply kidnapped a son of the bourgeoise, he has kidnapped

--and passed judgement upon


the ve1y existence of the
'building' itself. In this sense, the Kirosan Observmorv forms a
perfect parallel with the kidnapper's crime. Tlutt is to say. the aim
of both the film and my project was to point out the contradiction
between a protruberance and a privileged sight line, and further, to
expose the deeper contradiction hitherto hidden
implicit~~
in the 'buildings' themselves. As the position of 'house on the
hill' is reversed, so too is the role of the observatory as an objet
reversed.
The central theme of Water/Glass was also that of
and
being seen. Wa1e!IG/ass is a solitary villa built on a rocky bluff
overlooking the Pacific Ocean. The birth of the villa parallels the
birth of managed society. To follow Foucault's schema, this villa
is yet another example of the individual prison cells
to
escape the managed sight line. Yet however much one tries to
physically escape from the city one's efforl~ are doomed to failure, for the managed sight line has already been internalized into
the very nucleus of each individual cell, and thus it is impossible
for any such escape to become the means of deviating from the
structure. At this point the policy taken by the individual cell was
to fabricate a Panopticon, placing itself at the center deep within
mother nature. The villa was firstly planned as a facility for viewing-- seeing-- nature. Yet also by taking on a form which
protruded out into the midst of its surrounding environment it
sought to present the privileged sight line to mother nature. But
who was it that this observation tower-- in its use of this pro-

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116

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

tjlO) '~'
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tubcrant form
wished to look clown upon'! Or, to take up an
even more fundamental problem, could it be that the fabrication of
a minute Panopticon in one's own immediate vicinity is in fact an
escape from managed society. WatedGiass arouse out of this
question. The aim of WatedGlass was to architecturalize my criticism of the cliche of a villa. Firstly, it aimed to escape from formalized protuberances, that is to say, to move as far as possible
from architecture as an objeT. Surely the only way any mediation
between the object and the subject - - forcing them to face each
other directly - - becomes possible, is to obstruct the accuracy
of possible surveillance. Water/Glass stemmed from a completely
different viewpoint, that is the viewpoint of nature. The various
mediating forms inherent in the act of observation
of seeing
became the central theme of the structures architectural
design. A number of tilters and frames were inserted into the
intermediate space between nature and the subject itself. Of these,
the most central were the water veranda constructed on the top
level and the stainless steel louvered roof. At one time, Bruno
Taut received a very deep impression from the design of bamboo
verandas and the deep eaves of the Katsura Detached Palace. With
the realization that these particular elements skillfully controlled
the sight line and created a very rich world, he discovered new
architectural possibilities. The group elements such as the water
surfaces, the glass and the louvers in WatedGlass were utilized as
a type of abstract frame or filter. In that way, it was possible to
experiment with breaking into the interior of the act of 'seeing.'

That act of 'seeing is neither surveillance nor control, it is simply


the overlapping of the subject and its exterior space. It is due to
this overlapping form that this must be referred to as an architectural program.
The design for the Japanese Pavilion for the 1995 Venice
Biennale grew from a similar conceptual base. That is to say, it
was definitely not an objet building. It was merely a space made
up of raw wood pathways and abstract water surfaces within
which a number of art works were arranged. By handling the relationship between the pathways, water surfaces and the actual
works in a variety of ways, it became possible to test the great
diversity inherent in the act of seeing-~ a diversity born of the
overlay of a subject upon its exterior environment. In this manner
visitors could see the art through a completely different medium
than that dominated by the surveillance sight line, or for that matter, that of mere art appreciation. As when walking through the
Japanese pavilion, the video artist, Nam-June Paik commented
with a laugh, 'this is the Katsura Detached Palace." The deep
inner world of the act of seeing lies at a depth far beyond even the
realms of imagination, and we but stand at its entrance.
(translated into English by Carol Hayes)

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'ti~)~Yli.

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

117

Kengo Kuma & Associates

Kirosan Observatory
i:fl!~Ji:g:~ie~lHlm~nt$i'~?Ji

ll'i:BilJIK'if!E?

An ObservatOry constructed on the top of Mount Kiro


on Oshima Island in the Seto Inland Sea. Prior to its
construction, the hilltop had already been levelled off
and made ,nto an observatory park. The aim of this project was to restore the hilltop to its origin;ll -- natural -~ form. and the slit-shaped observatory facility
was buried into the new hilltop in the process. A narrow
slit in the hillside is all that is visible from the outside.
Visitors enter into the intaior through this slit. The
interior of the observatory forms a single open chamber
and ascending the large stair case leading up out of lhis
chamber, the view suddenly unfolds before you. Three
sets of video monitors and cameras are set up on the
observation deck at the top of the stairs. The whole
structure has been designed so that this equipment
clearly delineates the meaning inherent in the act of
viewing -~of seeing
nature.
(Kcngo Kuma)

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-'1:.:.7

-~

Site; scale: 111,200.

317m/and heiglttlel'el.

-J;:J1MH

~- 1-U:, 3~JQ) t:'T';;f

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313m fond heiglu /ael.

I LOWER DECK

2 DECK A
3 PLAT'ORM
4 DEO. 8
5 EX!STH>JG TOlLET

307.5mlalld heigh t/e!'e/; scale: 11600.

118

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

Seer ion.

(ahol'e) 71te l'il'll' 10\\'llrds the ocean .fi'o/11 Deck;\, '/Jtc {or111
(!F the ltillioJl was restored hy the construction {l hanks Sllfl
{Wrtcd hy rhe /li'O retaining \l'alts r!f' !Itt' slit-slwfled ohserm/(lly.

(he! ow) The lralk11ay leading to rhe

ohsentlfol~\'.

( 1.) -'j-';+AJ: ;lrhiJii'J;iijU)}jlllj:'"!."}~;~,, /,I}'/ 1<1}~0)/Jt~~hfu


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( I;J

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Section; scale: //61!1!.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

119

(abore) The lmrer dl't:k.


(he/ow) /)eck B is equipped 1rith 1idl'O mo11i10rs l/1/{l 1ideo
Cl/111'1"(1.\',

(/(ning page, ahorc) !Jo\\'111\"lll"d riell" rmranlthc lmrer


deck.
((acing page. helmr) View lmmrd rite access l~{ th' parking
area from the lmrer deck.
( [.) j-'17)[-';

( l:l Bf; ;(-.

East efemrion: scale: 1/600.

(M!U
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+.

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location: Ochi, Ehimc Prefecture


an.:hitccts: Kengo Kuma & Associates
associate archiwcts: Hiromura Design Office. A- Works
(sign designs): T. Konishi + EPK (lighting consultan[)
structural engineers: Aki Structural Planning
mechanical engineers: Environment Equipment Consultant
general contractors: Futagami Gumi
principal usc: observatory
site area: 4, 193m:
building area: 473m: (horizontal projcction)
structure: reinforced concrete: II .35m maximum height
completion date: March. 199~

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..

120

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

_r_-r;--

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

121

Kengo Kuma & Associates


I'

Water I Glass
r:!fl~if'l'ili 1IH31l~'l:~t '1lrfi?li

7)</1i7:A

A villa built upon a bluff high abovc the Atami coa't


overlooking the Pacific O<:Cinl. It stands nc;a door to
the liuga-l'il/a, the only architectural work by Bruno
Taut in Japan. The !loor of the uppcrml>~t kvd is covered with a 15 centimeter deep layer of water. Three
glass boxes have been positioned upon this, with slainless steel louvers .roofing the whole water-covered section. The whole structure is constructed on two horizontal frames - - the water level and louvers
with
the intervening glass working as a filter.
It is an type of experimental sight line installation, a
facility which incorporates a variety of architectural and
natural elements.
(Kengo Kuma)

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<.

Second floor.

Tilirdjloor.
9 GU(S r

I POOL

H00r<~

10 t.OtJrJGE

/\DMINISTRATiON

OFFIC~

ll

H;\ll

12 OPFtJ
lJ KITCHEr,l
14 SU$!11 Bi\f\

15 8HIDGE

f'irst floor: smle: 11500.

122

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

(abmt') Tlw Jou11gc Oi't'rlooking 1/rc Pacific Ocean.


{bclrm') Exterior \'it'll' (:{!he east

( J. 1 L '!;f{: ~- Yl. r: :.:, -; =; ,., / :;


1 fl ').f!tHY~ftQ.

location: Atami. Shizuoka Prer~ctun::


architects: Kengo Kuma & Associates
associate architects: T. Konishi + EPK (lighting consultanl):
SITE Design (Janclscapc architect)
structural engineers: K. Nakata & ,.:\~sociatcs
medwnkul e-ngineers: Kawaguchi Engine-ering Consultant
general contractors: Takcnnka Corporation
principal use gue:st house
;.;ite area: I,2S I m::
buildi11g area: 56Xm;
total 11oor area: I.! 25m:
~lrw..:turc: rdnf~.m.:-cd concrete anti steel frame
completion date: March, 1995

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56Bm'

I ' ';

7.

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Section: scale: 11500.

JA 1995-3

PROGRAM~IlNG

123

fh:fi) Eucrior l'itt~ r:{ rhc thirdJloor.


(ahorf} 1-'icw tmmnlthe lmo;,~cjiwn !he guest room.
i lu:/rnr) Tlw Jimtirurc H'(JS dcsig11cd by the rtrcllilcrt.
ffacing page, abore! Til" lounge, swTotlluh~d with \l'arer.
(/iJcing ]Wgt', lr:f! /Jelm\'J 71/e cmroncc on !he .\enmdflour.
U(u:iiJg page. rig Ill lidO!\')

UtH\'llrd

l'il'n'

10\l'ilrd

fire ,~lass

bridge far elf II~\' flccess.from the dec/.: m1 rile .flr.~>t .floor.

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t

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!.~f;~,

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

125

Kengo Kuma & Associates

Venice Biennale I Space Design of Japanese Pavilion


~~!l~~*t~mi$~t~~ilrli
~I

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a*n~

This P~tviliun \\'a~ an C\p~rimcnt \';hich aimed {O rccr.:~


at: the colllcmporary an e;;hibirion space crc~llcd by
Takamasa Yoshizaka in 1955. A single black drainage
sheet was laid on the floor or the building ami tlkn cmcred in 5 centimeters of water. 70 centimeter wide plain
unvarnished wooden paths were then laid down within
the water to create walkways. These wooden paths.
which cxtemled out into the garden, acted as a mediator
between the exterior and the interior of the structure.
The concept behind this design stemmed from a belief
that the building was a series of paths through nature,
rather than an o!Jiet - - n belief which has dominated
much of traditional Japanese architecture.
18 percent of the 300 art critics asked to rnnk the various pavilions rated the Japanese pavilion as number
one.
(Kcngo Kuma)
;!fl4il~iE ii'l955

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'15 7_ h'ii~-.:: o)dJ!!hir.n/'- ' ~ ~- 0 -ct ;.J ili, -=. o)-~~ .1... ;;
ii R~>:01f:i;;M:(!~ill?~ -:meL 'ftt) t:.-~G- i Ii""C: i) 0 .Q.
Ll 4'11i!LUOOJ,iflJ!i1:f,:l':,ftr:iU!: Hlju: L t~ 7 :,;;- I c
IS%Q)t'[['Xj!ff!?,L--c. drf1

1)

1LI.:.

~- /f'i[~pf[O)~}lf_i}~f.:j~Li'

o:KtiJh'I i

(ubme) Tltc earilion \ exterior is tleconlfel H'ith colmfitl


pla.Hic wbcs by arlifil Jm: full Clwi. (photo hy Yo,,hijil!ni
Moriyll I iVCicdsa & PtiJ'/1/crs)
(belmrj Compffft:l\~em!mted remlering slwwi11g I he tmjin~
islied ~rom/en ptlllt that ct'rdes the enlire pari/ion,
(/(1cin,~ page, abmc) The exhibition .~>Jwce on the second
floor, tlle parh lies bcrueea the ort workx b_v Hiroshi Senju
on tlw left ami by Katsubiko Hibiuo ou flu: right, of the edge
fljtlre water. (photo by Yosltijiuni Moriya I Nucdsa &
Parlllers}
(facing page, rig/a three) Exhibition spaces. (photos by
Kengo Knmo)

1J.J

'tlU!JJH\::.: J: --; "'C 7'7 7~ T r ; :/ + :L -- _:irHf_{ lJ f.l~t ;:, 1.L

t:.Y~UQ.

fU:{;;:3 : Nac;($:1 &

Partner~ I Yo~hifumi

t>.toriya-J

iF) (!*u;r-~~11-l:iJ~-tTG.

({i"J:{J.) 2mMa~;; . r { - 1~. ;m~;i T.Jhtv ~eJi.:~~rc: -f-flt~-~!~7:'tL:


:.:. -{--i!:LiltJ!f~i'$!\:O>fi:M;:!;>lj~,J~::;.itl:"~ /S. (1i~~J;t~: Nacls<l
& P;,utncrs I Yoshifumi Moriy;.;)

t{iJT11J.1!l; i:';lJJJ~.UiL

l.i~U!~: ~~~(IJfV-fl

localion: Caslcllo. Venice. Italy


architects: Kcngo Kuma & Associates
a5sociatc architccls: Kaito Oflicc (lighting design); lkko
Tanaka Design Studio (sign design}
mechanical engineers: Kawaguclli Engineering Consultant
general comractors: SACA!M S.P.A., Venezia
princi1lal usc: exhibition space
building area: 256m:
tolal !loor area: 448m'
complclion date: June, 1995

{ r 'J 7' 'l .r. :::. 7,


l1 <fiJf l~ill?f~~~; dr;;;i;;t:Hfi1f
;l:tcntt..;JJ ?F.,df :1 1 :;, ( 7 1 wr 1 /

J'!rfOI~
;;~;a-

fi!tf~il;l!.ti~l-

~/ J'.fY ( /)
ifirtr--Ji;f''f{ />;i ('r1 /f'!J'{ /)
Jl( r I ;Q:f!/IPH1~1Yf

),l!i !: SACAIM S.P.A.


t'l\'ltJi:il y~;f;:f<JJ1
ill~~iWW 256m'
![f.l<ffiil.'i 448rn'
J,i:[ 19<J5lf.6)j

126

JA t995-3 PROGRAMMING

E;<tii91J0Qej S?ACE A
Z EXH18!Ti0i,< SPACE 8

firs/ floor; Jcale: 11400.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

127

ARCHITECTURE OR PARADISE?

~*f.J'*~t.J\?

Hiroshi Abe

~Qjgf)i=j:

Harold Lloyd never laughs. He simply runs mindlessly


on like a nwt:hinl!, ncccsstng a world run rioL \Vhal we
sec on the screen is not the auur Harold Lloyd. His
body is already fused into the cinematic world
we
~xpc:ricnce the waves emanating from it.
The program pursued by technology is to sec how
many different dimensions of time and space our bodies
can be opened to. The cap<lcity we have nlways possessed to access other forms of existence has recently
been overwhelmingly increased by technology. Bodies
are beginning all kinds of connections, and gradually
fusing into a single world. A bordcrless world view
appears 10 lie ahead, sustained by difference within an
overall sameness. The indications are that we arc pursuing a technological paradise. Architectur~. however, is
originally anti-paradise, as it tries to build divisions
between the body and the world, generating an exterior
around a world of only interior. This presence, like
Adam's fig-leaf, still imprisons the body, which it captures as it tries to melt out along the vector of difference
that precipitated the original expulsion from the grt:"den.
Architecture or paradise'? We must choose the key to
one or the other.
The program of architecture may issue orders.
You must do this. This is forbidden. Or, "be free,"
Who wrote these things'1 For whom?
The program of paradise makes no demands. [( is a
and a,
It is interior and exterior. It is not even text Here
there is no one, and everyone is here.
Architecture or paradise'' In the technological
Eden, architecture melts and the body becomes
intlnite.

ll~~ii!j:(,')J\Cl

JV V rJ { F\J'i)~ L rf~hl;\ '. ft~Ltf-.:t~-f;~

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ff~ i/j:&') r j J

o ')

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M;&?r. Jll:!frtl:.tiJ:-'I'nt:/Mllttli L!Jtiil)n':6!l)t~. {-(/)

Jtt:)HM;/t:Jn 0 (/) l!i(i(il~if,:61iiJ-~i:l: l11P!! hbi7


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111l17i\1'!1.~1Ji

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L>~t_:'J)

1.

.:-H-<"t'J?i,J1:, .!?0>.1if-) VZ:Ihlt!J:,!:.


~ t:, nJ!l11.: L'C1;7o 1:.
{-~Lfj:Jii"jdj/j:T:r A

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i>M'tt::>. t:Q!n', lili,O,Jt:&'J 1: ,IF'!Jitt:(l);?.


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t ij;,.

f-iHl:, a-C'tt'?-bL, ;Jt''bt,IJ, jJ:]Ujl]'(i,<i;IJ,

I. Harold Lloyd
Lloy{/ jusl nms on mul on e.rpressionlessly through the raging chaos.

'fH!!IJ't'iJ<l)l,.
.Z.Jl.lif' '1'- A

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G!,';:>.,

The traces of strings droppedfromfi,wd heights.

f-.: t: ti;l!ilt :{f.lE Lt.:"' L, i.lt<: iJ 1i'fftH -b,


illii'hi'\1\!l'ili'/J>, -J-7; o:/tJJvlj:J:.r./l'liiJl!'iiili/Ml

3. Form of Flex Japanese Sltade

IHB L,

2, Networks of Stoppages (Marcel Due/lamp)

tl'/fli,IJ!Tililtl~l:ij;i,J,

Flex Japa11ese Shade visually records lirres offorce like a


wire~frame on a compwer.

4. Body and Ligllt Experiment-!


A series of eve/lis wking place a/ dijferen/ times, /ll'o bodies
and light, and the movemew of a plane at night are shown
011 film as a si11gle image. The bowrdaries of each clements
begin 10 fuse each other,
Collaborawr: Artltrrr Wriggelcswortl>
5, Body a/1{1/Jght Experlmellll
Arbitnwy mm'e11WII!S of two people in three dimensions are
reduced to lines of light iu two dimemions, If ouc looks
carefa/ly II( the shape generated, the figure of a11 angel (or a
devil) appears.
Col/abomtor: Artllllr Wriggelcsworth

1.1\Clll-~

01'1'

J:IHWI<il.::.i!;iltOJ'I'"'!~;-i<tr'll: ut~-,- ~om rJ

tli<t .::..

2. T .2 ~ v /C)if~
f11iltOJI::;:C::flGl'l\ ri't!L 1:: -tli'l>li dJti!J'.

3. ililiGir t.:'nOJff~ll!l
iliJiCIc,"t.:llll, ');J., \'::J /
J: -1 t.:JJV?i,1tH~I~LHI"'l~.

i::'.o.- J L!WI { -\'-7

v- t,:ll

4. Body & Light Experiment-1

''~L~~~n~.::.q~m~~~~O)rn**' ~tQOJ~
11,;-I"J\';, ll::filll1H'r!liOJi])b2H'n'fit;ff,tsitui:-:>OJII!J:IUU: VC
if;~tvn1.> . .fit GOJ\Til,Xi;!fMilt /f', Lii:H:ift~'tJ tHl'. L ,
'(I. Z>.

~t;jiil~nWf.

: Arthur Wriggclcsownh

5, Body & Light Experiment-2


Me lJ ?l AIUJOJJ:x:if:;:i!I::U:t'(l)l.!fd1c1.\ <1:!1iJJ!! !.! , 2;XJG~(I)J\';
i7l~l:ili:il;tsllt~.
1:!!1!\l~l

i.t!l':i?f( fQ)j\';Q))f%.-IJitll;;:, i:;RN!


li'i?nV'J:n'-,<:< .::..

j~I"Jffil]f1: :Arthur Wri~gctcsowrth

128

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

('f,tc

Atelier Hitoshi Abe

X-Bridge
f>'lI>Lll: 7'

IJ

Xlit\

1-4. Diagram of "X-Bridge".

7-9. X-Bridge

I. Cmulition.

lmenecting with

2. Bridge.

l,:[i;ilt

ciS' antithesis: ~t..-britl,~e sel up, tdwse character is


expressed in lerms r~{ "dttulend. stagnation, diffusitm."
Tltest liw t>icces t~/ tou.Hructionlink and support each
other structttrall.v ar the same time th(lt they tonjlicr in deft
nifion. Uke File posiJi\'e and 1Wgative electrodt'.r of WI electric motor. they stiowlme acJirity. makiltg rite hordas of the

2.

bridge unclear.

J._Brid~!fC~

4. Completion.
rx~J

11 1-'r.'? 7 b..

uew road, its pte

(l

l.!K
79.Xll\

-t Jcr&

Of~:ZJC!~CT::dbN::tlf:t:~::, ;;i.Lt :;; .. ,t:_<

:). r;:i:iL

1~:JJiJ tj.~:~;)-\.. ~-.r;~-

~.JBridgd/~;'~'.lE,::

-,~:fj_!.fi1l;

5-6. Bnsiness Card


A business card has the fJW7HNil! of jfxing a name. address
am/ swtus. Top awl boltom, left wrd right, back mrd front
lwve beeu made \Yigue on this card, so tlwr it mm'es. /limed
rouud and flipped Ort'r rcpeatcd/.J. without tomiug to rest in

h.

:f;J~

['lh

iFJUJO'>!.hi:.Jt:t

"".~c;r:;~zu:dt'lt~

t,

_i!Li.t:---Jrl)Hfi.iilH~IJ:

L 1-'l ) :: f;;j!L):!.::. tli?Jldi!JL.:.t~'i 1;2- tl1J: I. 'L>~~;;__ {t ... l


- -- mNt~U: Si~~cl) J: :; ;: T '/ -r 1 1.:: -;1

~l-lU.t~U:f*1Jf

{~ntrn...

t;;0Jtfl:l :Y13iiJ.t;c 1..

<.

lhe hand.

5-6. t:;J;f..:ZiJ:- f"


t:::J:/-7-n- r:.tt1i:i. ;'!f{EJii!, 7.'T1r:Mt1:'!i:llilit{>EJ
o<J~ h -ocL'. :::.MJ 1-'IH:. 'F, li::l:i . .IJUU/!J.'Iij:l: 2
:1Ic.l31), 'fQ)<p\."{'31;:, :::.tt,: <, 7 Jt-7 it /:IITI ~M1i~~

tt!lilJHm;:,.
designed by I'ABLOV Lcs Sceurs Papin.

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

129

IIJ-13. Slwke lt !
This house i.v com;wscd f~{ a _!;.lass fwx m1d o dark htu ifffcr

!ockt:d like scissotJ. forces(?{ c.tpaJ/sion ami cmllractimr


indun.:d by tempe rat/Ire tlwngc in Jlu wires !mat imo rilL'
roofsmt<'lWT an' frtJII,\'IJiillnl to the sfntctun<, so rhot till'
lumsr irself is doing au {'mlless stretching and shrinking
hrcakc!al!ct'.
10-13. Shake ill
.._ VJ rttc.t ii 7 7-.rJ)t[i ::: at:\UiV;, ,.r;Hftr~t~:ll~(~

J: 6 {r:l;r,{lV)1JLH/fijf!f~~:.: (i: ;t c) ~L.

1 >$':;...

10

11

location: Miyagi Prefccure


archirects: Arelier Hitoshi Abe
associate architects: Snno ConsuiHmts
structural engineers: Uni~System Consultanlo.;
principal use: bridge
length: SS,OOOmm
width: 14, I OOrnm
height: 15.000mrn
srructure: sleel frame

r'i {fllll Jilli!ilff,

~.~,if rm:L:\t 7 r 'J


J;.t;;]t;b}J {&::PJ:J >41-JV9 :..-;
H~ &;1:itit :L.::.. ~ 7, T J.., :J :,....tf JV :1'
tili'ffiiJ; jlf~i\[,0,

[
!f.

I:<~

{flj':;

85.000mm
1.\,IOOmm
15,000mm

t~;~

}Htilf

~g
.!f'l<

1
12

13

130

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

'/) .J: #J
{

(.:~!lh. ~"'~) ~ ~lr

ft:t~:O)

t UJi'Jr;H t 1/:(~;i

l,i-HUiii:l.:~!lh.ibXht.:'-;
7,,!-:t:Jii.l~~t:t~.

Atelier Hitoshi Abe

XX-Box System/Type 000, Type 001


~iiJimt:st. 7' ~

1
)

to adJLJ_;t on tile

~71 I;; 7 7 '-' 7 'T b/? 17'rJ:JJ,

St\~

365 ~!o adJUSt on ~w siw

4 365
125

? 17'cJJ1
~

161

i20120
~

739

125

i15"' ...i20

'~~,'

''
'R'

A
~

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N

~-

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N

panel A
n~>t..vood

-17.0...

500
740

~120

H..O. .

500
740

.10

--

225__ 450

225~

to adjust
on the Site

tO <JdjUSt
on thes1te

365 ~lo adjuSt on ~he site


125

toadJLSit on the sit'L. 365

125

i25- ~i:?O
~

,R:

':e

,R'

panel: 900X1.800

1;j

lOS

iiO" 'i2D

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--

248

I~

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scaffold board

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I

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D:

----

-----------~--------------+

aU:

06 07

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122..

500
740

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to adjust
onthesiw

to adjust
on the site

365

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f;

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D1
07 06
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660

...120...

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-

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450

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3,600

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500
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po .

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5-9, 1329. ~ 71 I;;? 7

fi!Vi'fi'iciJJJ !'< t~H'f'il!!r'icfnJ 1:: iJ'Ei ])'-:>tow Lt~''J t;r. 1::'


b''i ::1:: 'ic:t;'!!)-;Z.I:t;r.--=>t~::tl:tJ?'J i-tt A-n'. -rtc''i-?

:r

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lb:lboard

JJR

.c;_

~~

~-

~~~----

Have you ever thought you wanted to have m1 exhibition


am/ come up with a tvay to make the space really stand our?
Practically everyone who has had sucfz ideas lw.'i given up
ar least once when fllced with the questions of how to do it
and what it H'ill cost. For just such occasions, lhe XXBox
system offers a temporary exhibilion space that tmyone can
design nnd build, based on a principle ju.Hlike l.ego.
The XX-Box system is a temporlll}' space cmzstruction system that can be ,'iet up allll disa.'isembled at any time. For
materials, it uses the forms for pouring concrete and the
scafj'olding and drop sheets that hme tended to play only a
supporting role in architectural activity to dllte. Since this
system is built entirely Fom a combination of construction
:dte materials ami/able 011 the market, once you hme done
the planning, you cmz have all of the necessary material
delivered to you witlz just one phone call, and with a little
simple assembly create a space with real impact. It's not too
difficnlt. Gil'e it n tt)'.... .In nddition, if you access the XXBox lwmepage and use HMD and Dataglobe, a structure
built directly within the CG environmef/1 will be completed
lwo days later 011 the site of your choice.

I. Planning
2. Estimation
3. Comtruclion

12

..100" " " ..

5-9, 13-29. XX-Box

1-4. Diagram of"XX-Box"

l!l!l to cut

_1,8001.800_1,800.),8001.800.).800.).800.).800.

@:
Entrance

i!l

...

](X)

? :17, e i;l? l;r. !v 'C::!:: 'l'~'t;/I)'C L i ? f~:: l:n'i]tl: 'l'


t-Ji)'l;tt,J.>I:ti''l''.". -'C-/vl;r.ll.fl:xx-Box ( e71 ~, 7 A)

? '[

~A~A~t~'i~~A~~~7D~7'l'.'ic-:>(J.,l-j~,

;1t1:<;t fii'lilll, iliilfion'"TiiEI;r.ffZR't7,"'-7, N'tO~ L ii'.


e7 1 ~ ., 'J A~ A~ 1, lii'~~~JJHHrtl'l'l:tll~i'l:'l'J? J.> ::1 /
7 1) - ~I~JHfl!lH 1t\ 1J-J,)t))Ji7V-1,, 1J.:[i;,~- ~i'J:t'O)
'ttfH;fiJIIJT ;~, f.i!i11Ml:U:Wf(.j;:1)'TIJ'IiEI;r.f1ZJ'i:7,"'- At/lii';'O~ A
T 11 ~c-t . .::,0) :.,- J.. T 1, !J:!Ifll!;~.:.~/,~Jill LTV\~ lfi;&tfHO)mf~
-\t'C"I/i:j): L 'CO'J.>:: U'G, 77/.:::/ 'J'~ ;t 'l'tL!f;f:t;;l;-;j>:
-r-1'"'-c~i'tHn'.t;'f}tl:lrtllt >,h. Mlii'l'j,'l;r.' 'l'!oJil: 111.
D-:JA H'J?IJI;r.n'G1 /I''J l,~t,J.,~Jll]n''iJW!'l'~J.,O)
-r-1'. -'C-itlll::'~tLHJit'l'l;tt,IJ i-tt A.. -J-1v/:/L'CJ>
'CT2''' ...... t;r.:f;, XX-Box:t-A"'-:/1:7';-l:A L,
HMO!: T'-1 :1o-7'ic ~j')_;)fl,,U~IHLIJ', CG)f<Jj)J1J'l'ifi

rliMlJi.:U:-c t~ t

~n'2 Gi&l:li:BHJi.~JJ.;ii'f'l'ifr.J:,,t~

L ii'.

fXX-BoxJ 0/1t'?7.L..
1.'17/:::../:1

2.);\!J'!iJ

3.1i'H

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

131

XX-Bo.x/Tyl'e 001 (Photo 12-18)


locMion: Shiraishi, Miyagi Prefecture
architects: Atelier Hitoshi Abc
ns:;ociutc archilccls: Tokyo Bike Ashlba
principal usc: temporary museum
building area: loOm' (1.300X4.000nunl
height: 5,400mm
structur~: conslruclion supporti11g matcriltls
.;;omplction date: November. 1993

132

JA 1995-J PROGRAMMING

f-71:I/7;l;. '/A:r.L./91:1oo1 (fi:A12-1a)


Nr{f:jfu T:fMJtl~Uii!l
,l;t;";l jJlJiH:L::~T I 1) X.
+:;~~1tl.i1l

f1i;1i'J~Wf:1fl

ill~~lJiifi't

txnm' (!JOOX4.0{Klmrn!

If~~

5.-WOmm

l!J-1 /. 11-.\/ask Crperimeut


W1'11ring 1he M(rck ur,nL o 1/n ic( rhm h:t('!Tt'lh'.\ bin:e\H
ifrc bud\ aud rf,'(' Cll\ JfO!I!JI(ll!. rnu nm ,ntwt' ofnmul, fmt rJrc
mask kcqn- nnt

oHlinHously

The11 1he uurslde cn!crs l11to

tn u lutmogf'JI('flliS

'l'fltlit'.

lilt' .1/J(!(C" .

10-11. B-Mask Experiment

It

12

IJ

14

16

17

18

J/1 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

133

XX-Box/Type 000 (Photo 19-25)


location: National Museum of International Art, Osaka
architects: Atelier Hitoshi Abe
associate architects: DAIS AN
principal use: unknown
building area: 5.76m' (2.400 X2.400mm)
height: 4.125mm
stn1cture; construction supporting materials

completion date: April, 1995


~71I;~?;J;, :,.;J;7k/$'17'000(~R19-25)

ilrli:ll!! f:fl'Jrli l<i(!Jfli1iD!!liffi:


~i1~lf 1:~;i;1~t .'1~ 7' I rJ
,:1:;11i!JJ '11 +r;,

:i.'I'SIIJ!l!
1M1iUilll

~"i!
5.76rn' (2,400X2,400mmJ

-rrG-;;

4.125mrn

rr~ii'li

ll':tiiiW~~~~j!)Jh

!t'I 1995il'4fl

26

26. CoCoo11 Experime11t


Wrap wmrself in a thin plastic membrane and you fee/Thai
your skin gmdualy puffs up and overwraps with the fllastic
membrane. Whene~er )'otl come to toucll this artificial sec~
ond skin, you cw1 visualize ll sense of touch.

26. CoCoon Experiment


fo~''77 7..7 J 7 OJiitlli\1: i!/.iJ'JLI,;, i: ~17}0fJLh~!J'7 '7 7 '7 /::
IDm!L. fiL/::1Rt.:-,n ( 01'1 1[::!;[: GiL-b . .:0~'\20flLI>\i

t:A!J'iliilL.bUJ',

15

134

JA !995-3 PROGRAMMING

IJI.J'tl~~lLt:f!lt[iM'f:!;b?'(

<!,;,,

Atelier Hitoshi Abe

C-House
~i]gBt:1: 7' ~

IJ I

C$

15. Diagram af "CHouse"


I. Comlilinn
], ..\ctorl: \lcrticalwa!l
fire Pt{l(~fnl, l:.irclosurl', Westem, Higltly /n.ru/med,
Discowinuity
3. Actm~2: Hori-:mtllll Plane
Flmnmable, Disclosure, Public, Tmditional. Non~
Insulated. Collli1111ity
4. Act/: Passive
5. Act2: Active

15. rc.HouseJ 911'?71..

:IJ(irc
~.

I" '7 Y - l :

l[U!f~\~

CH1~.

lUI!.-'. C!ii~A.
J. T7 9-2: *'I'Li;
l1J~~!.~. /H)fjt

4.

H4<~\.

r~~ilt!f?.t

1.6!h

firlt,'fH,,

):li~:}t,

;\7:J

"~

rr l} 1 : ~fi:JJ

s. Fi.\2;

riE~h

68, 12!5. CHousc


A game begim be nrcen 1\Vo [!laying pieces 011 the field
formed 1111 tlris site by tl1e building code and lof!ORfiiPhical
conditions. One piece is caJJed the white verrical, and is
clmracleri::,i!d by tlu: concepts twn~flallmw/Jllity, enclosure,
Westem stv!e, lligh~insulation, division, primcy. The other
piece is a;lled black lwri~o11111/. and cllimtcteri:ed /Jy tile
conceiJ/S flammahiliry. openness, Japanese style, /ow-insulation, cmai11uiy. puhlimess.
A:fove tlw pieces according to the enviromnelll of the field
and the lifestyle of the area.
68, 12-15. C-HOUSE
Jl~iVHJ~ ~ 1 ;f~ o :; iJ Jt../j 1-'::f'l: ~: J: ~) ~cJJZJiliJ-.:.:Jf~fti: ~ tL~ 7 1
- Jt,.. VJ.'"C, ..r.t:.r)(l)!.;tJ'r'f~ ".) t:. 1F-1 .. 1:-f#:fir;~t::. tJt-? [I
(I)~~JLtl~JVf~!U!::nJ'LnL, ;F~t

fml.'.

,~ljllfrl~~'

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67' 1) 71/;;.t'rn:t--7- ~~I.:J:"')Ljf~~~L~.
11.--{"Q)
J;iJft!:: ~(f))_T~ 1l T&l)!~.itr7~ $t 1 JVI:f;t_..> L~J3::JffidJ~,:

JA !995-J PROGRAMMING

135

9-1/. Sleeper
A dwelling Illm Iran is between two i/iff(Tcnl climarcs ond
SJHICl'.'L Tltc winch translates peoph's enrironmcllfal
tlcmauds into changes in tile form of 1lu arclritecture,

911. Sleeper
.;~t:."?r]),~\1~.: ;~. m.?.-~J~J~~ ~1m1: rr ~ ~~~1~ ;.> f:H~.

J,nJ;tt:i,.h

~Jd!HrJ)~;Rn~'J 1 >-1-!:-iUL..lJf.~fi~~'!X.lt(.

10

locution; Sendni. Miyagi Prefecture


architects: Atelier Hitoshi Abc
associate architects: Shin'ichi Matsumoto
mechanical engineers: Sogo Sctsubi Kcikaku
principal usc: private residence
site area: 348m'
building area: 106m'
total floor area: 164m'
structure; wood; 2 stories
projected completion date: Febmary, 1996

i1rfJill JiHVMut6rn
:&&I i<BM::J: 7 ~ J ;c.
K9::ltt~1J

!r:>~:J'l;

~:J:WJ~;ft l?:i:it~{fUittf!!!i

1'!\\l!lifil l~lAit:ct
'!iiJtliiliiln 348m'
ill?iHliillt 106m'
ID~iliilf!

mm
II!B!

164m'

*ill
Jtlil:2F-l1

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II

136

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

13

Fii'SI floor; scale: 1/250.

A ENTRANCE
B UV!NGROOM

Smrtl1 ele1'ation.

C KITCHCN
D OINII'JG R00"\11
E JAPANeSe-STYlE ROOM
F UTILITY
G BATHROOM

0:::0

H VOID SPACE

MASTER BEDROOM
BEDROOM

North elevation; scale; 11250.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

137

Shoichi Hariu Architect & Associates+ Atelier Hitoshi Abe

Co1nposite Sports Garden of Miyagi Water Tower

~t!J:.;J>;-!i*~il?f\:iiliH'Iiih1:~J7 ~ 1) I
8;J~~*~.g.:~lb~~*%7)\i:g

1-9. Water Tower


;\ stmctcwe 10 hold 150 (Oil!i of water at alteig!Jt of27 m
nads strength nor only \'erlical!y, but horizontally, mr(/ a
base /(lrgc l'nfJUglt 10 prncm collapse. At the samf tinu.',

lwwcrcr, lite comradictury n:quisifc is also nur(/c rlwttflis


s1ructure should ji1sc with its JW!11ral surroundings. Ta
acllierc this, !Ire uniformity of the rower i.'i wtakened as
much as possible while still maintaining its s!ructural
capacities. Specifically, lhc strucrure is recomposed by
breaking ft down fallowing lims offorce, in a kind of stnu:~
tural srrip-tca,w:. lry irill centuafly creetJ up tile stainless~
s!eclmesh skin stretched mer the whole, becoming t/Jc
urchiucture's negligee.
1-9 ~*Jl\
!SOt(/)* T27m(/)ii)J ~ c: 1~1'-t l.J t:. !/J!J)f/l}j;gf1;.!. ~:Htl!J)l.;.~
~)

rr.

_{r~JJlfiJ)Jt.:~{ ;,_ ~) ~~~!Jffa);;':it ~HlfJ!1 ~ Jif.l}lJ ~ r9JJE-r;,;,

Q)(.:"[Jt~:Jz:~ ~Q)tr~P~~~i,~t~~-6.

L.hl,~tl{S.

: iJ)U~if!H:;J:f!ff[BJO) ~!Y!~J,~l>'f!.:~fll L -c~. \-I,: t l:: 1; \ -J. flfr1!


;if,f'fl:tfHUztUH t!,!(<J]Z!!'itcl'. :::_f])f~lt;, ii~iliii11:
nt~Nl~~:::_f])f])~tti~~~q~~~:::_t#

El :lli ~ h, Jil.f1:int-.: !if!!}j~t1))JO)~tt.tt.: f, '? -c, H~~l!H!:Tjf~~


-t;;:,- t. t>i.llii/lii1il*CIJ?, ~ 'J ri7;- ;(:: J: ""-ccj):lJ:il'
fl}f~}fii; ~ ttll:d:.. :htf-t:'l'flJ AT;; I? A .J :t 'l.::d')1~5U:
IJ:, ;j;t.~~~,T,!J),l7;i;'jiJ. j~~ f) ijJ~~O) f_:M')O) ;f~ jw f} :J J. t ~ 1.;.

1-4. Diagram of"Water Tower".

1-4.

r~71<llfJ

1. Coudilion

I. ~;i;ilt

2.Act-1
J.Act-2
4. Act-3

3. 1rt12

2.m.11
4. fTZ-33

, 1 t''P7 L.

location: Miyagi-gun, Miyagi Prefecture


architects: Shoichi Hariu Architect and Associates+ Atelier
Hitoshi Abc
structural engineers: S.D.G.
mechanical engineers: Sogo Setsubl Keikaku
contractors: Miyagi Komutcn
principal usc: water lower
building area: 19.1 X 14.17m
height: 27.6m
slructure: upper; steel frame
lower: reinforced concrete
3 slories
completion date: April. 1994

fWti:llli t~JJ&t~1fUrftlif
:l'l:H W.UJK--!:It~[l}fJ'EriHil'Jffi\f:::T.7 1fmJfd~[if

S.D.G.

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tfr.friU:Wfi1lt~

:t~mi!:

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i\'ri~

138

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

19.1 X 14.17m
27.6m

mill

JJffi: ~:k'ff@
Hf>:jj;}j)j:I/'J'J

t!!m

Jl!d:3~l!

~H

19941['-'lil

rm
..,.

'!~

10

10. Swinger
When a weight is pur i11 rile head section of this peculiar
objec1, if loses balance. 711e falling movemc/11 nf tile head is
transmitted to !he feet, wlticlt readj11s1 position in the oppo~
sire direction, regaining !he haloncc of the ll'lwlc.
10. Swinger
,: Q)~f~jnj: t 7':1 .:r. (})2i!S~t::ffi: i) ~ },tt "C ~' (

C, -('0) ill: fit!:


-'(-Q>f;'JjtiZ>tffiJJ"' n~~~gr;::rr.;1 ~ it&i'r
nliiH:~~>:>llliilP c c fd{;(l)'i'.trJ;r Jf.( 'J 1xr.

ll!Hillll''l'~!!: 1911'~'.

I
i

1
'

140

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

Atelier Hitoshi Abe

Shirasagi Bridge

1-4. Diagram of uSilira:mgi


11ridge 11
/.Condition
2. :lcwr
3. Action
4. Completion
AtTION

.j

1-4 ft,>HIJ!lJ:111'17J.,
l.il:i)L
2. 7 j

J. lil\
4. Jtnl(:

location: Shiraishi, Miyagi Prefecture


architecrs: Atelier Hirosh Abe
struclural engineers; Asia Kousoku
contractor.;: Zenidaka-Gumi Tohoku Division
principal usc: bridge
length: 56,200mm
widrh: 16,800nun
height: 6,500mm
structure: steel frame
complerion date: March, 1994

Hi tEJili e; JJ&~~ 1=1 Tirlr~;:r~ /r :f~Jllirkt


J1ilt

biliT
ur,.._ll<.*l_;
...w

..1kfi'

I 1) .:L
7:/7/L'tii!!J

f.:if;';{lt:::.~T

f/~jft:t:Ziit

}t&~;:Untdt:~u,iJ

:t~mi&r

jf!~!H{1

Nl:~

56,200mm
!tl
16,S00mm
?ifr t- 6,500mrn

!lliirr rHrm
HtJ: 199411'3f!

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

141

South efcmtion.

~- -~

'

j ,-

5-12. Sllirasagi Bridge


Jn order to radically a/Ier the vis11al image while rewining
the existing strucwre of tire place, Ihe whole is wmpped i11 a
new structure. 74 rigbHricmgul(tr shapes provitle the ele~
mews for this wr(lpping composition. The triangular urapping elemems nm the nl/wle series offield conditions,
including 1veighi ltmitations, positions for streetlamps, water
level.'~ minimum clearance, railing height, etc.. to define tire
structure as a whole. 11w permissible movements- rota~
tion, expansion and contraction, lntercll movement wul
pa11se -are fixed in a(/wmce, just as the nuwemems of the
hody are determined by the nW\'ement of joiws. 11te ele
mems overcome these conditions to drive glidingly throu:sh
thefieH
5-12. [,.,

"?!!lA

l!'tt?o:Jl!io:J!/>iiqHffii!iV:)-:>'f:f<!'O)l!/.1U "-'l>l-;U! 0;(.


U~lfJ. ~LY!iliiilfl;l:.t IJ1:iHi'l.Ji.i!:,kC'v'J... :::.llJ7 1
1:::;, :YH/li~T J.,.:r. v ;<:;, ~ Ll:;<. f- Jvi;i1<7)74o:JOO:frr::Jrrl01:
~I), 'E:it'O)ifWili, lR!l!:t>cJF>,~. iili~W0fli:ll. Jil:il'f,:;j(f;i: v-"
Jv, la'H"J 77/?. v-"iv, EffdO)J!':~i'lr.~~/:0)7 1 -!v

"'7 .,

r:::r /7' 1 :/3


!::'/ :/".:L v" / ~-e~~:::.o:J[IIf!r::=:trr
~iJ'iEIJtJiltz, :::./:l:.t "'"'!:~~ tt -cvJ.>. ,:O).:r.v":;, r
lit,! 'i I:'#WO)JIDe: iJ'.fO)I\!lil111lJ!IJJ!i llJ*IJ..ff.il"b'ii:<:iH .b
J:'ii:, iP>GiJt:.I?3Y.~ltUillf?., llt:k~,J. i'J!ih.
0)
~!J!il:.h-c.fttl?o:JM;ill.~fHiiW'~;(.i!11J!J.i:lt'C71
t:~r':H7t~.

142

JA 1995-3 PROGR.AMM!NG

;:,

i3

14

13-14. Roof, Wiug or Cloud


A system to translate narural phenomena into artificial ones.
Tension and slack in bimetal brought abow by changes in
temperawre pass through stretched members and commw1i~
care to the roof. or cloud, inducing a gemle movement.
1314. Roof, Wing or Cloud

'/ :J.. 7 J..,. il.U!t~1tl: J:-,


7 JvOJ~iWU:Jfu;fi)tJ'5hlfi);f.t;!:i!!i?c

EI?!.;OJJJ1~;!: A:COJ.!JI~I:~if-T 6
c'tJi.IU~tL6J<1 ;<
;(7

;<7 (:!;!) IJ *1n'iLt~li\11!06Hi~t:(f;/JI)

~OJ!\:Gn't,:

j~!f1J~~I2~.:.-9.

15-16. Floatiug Object


An object that lwladances in water, pulled between the
forces of gravity aud flotatiou.
15-16. Floating Object
~htillhOJ~ij~ijn~Ji.WT*79xOJ*~77Y~:J...
10

11

12

15

16

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

143

Nobuaki Furuya + Hisako Sugiura

Sendai Mediatheque Design Co1npetition Entry


!5B~"~%~+~;;;m?-. T

t!:l-vt!.'';J.71 T7'-77"1'1

/:J/~7'1 :/3

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~Icdiatheque:

01:

02:

03:

04:

05:

06:

144

\Vc

;1rt:

A Forest Where a l'eol)le and Information Interplay


always carrying along rariou-; kinds of things. such as a pocket-book. a

notebook, magazines. leaflets of many


kinds. an invirution card to a party. a letter
from a frknd, etc. While moving around,
you take them om wherever you feel like
doing so.
Since the walk man came out, you don't have to listen to music in front of an
audio stereo set anymore while riding a
subway or crossing a s;reet, music runs
into your head without any relation to the
world around you. You are now free from
the restriction of when, where, and what
you do. The combination of time, space
and behavior hus become completely free.
A Libmry has hitherto had one entrance and all of its functions are centralized
inside. So it is also with museums, once
you enter, there is solely a succession of
exhibition spaces. You cannot enter the
space and sample a few works of art while
reading the book you've just borrowed,
likewise you cannot slip out on the way
and do something else.
You may feel like seeing this and that today and coming back the following day
to see the rest of an exhibition. With a
magnetic card check at each entrance, the
exhibition can be set up in parts at different locations.
Here books, compact disks and video tapes are placed mndomly on open shelves.
As a visitor you can pick up a book and
bring it anywhere you like
such as a
lounge with a nice view, a gallery, a cafeteria, a performance space, or even outside
under a row of trees. And when you finish
reading it, you can return it to any bookshelf if you let its barcode read into a computer terminal nearby, This way books are
always moving around as the users bring
and return them. When you want to read a
particular book, you can check it through
the closest terminal, and it will tell you
immediately which shelf the book is on.
When you find a book you want, your attention may be caught by a book of a
completely different subject next to it. This
may open you to a new, unknown world
which w:ts brought incidentally by another
visitor. And through the opening left by
the book taken, you might witness an
interesting, enjoyable workshop going on.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

:E

:E
r.

"

0"

'!"

"'"'
s
07: You might find a COfl)'

or

"'

+ The naked !urKh + in the library

It'd be nice w read a book + under the trees

+ which :l fril'llil J:.!kcd abo:n

+ on the terrace + with a person you've


~
never met before.

~.

~~

6
:=

08: The urban landscape we experience every day is also like that. Various people
with diverse purposes pass by one another
at a different pace. This mediathegue is
designed to incite the visitors to interplay
with one another. They will compose and
organize their own space, time and actions
by themselves. And there, someone who
was until now a complete stranger might
pass by.
09: This architecture is a "Forest of Media" where people, things, time, space, landscapes, information etc, freely interplay
with one another. Once you enter through a
slit in the building, the .unexpected will
wait for you. Even without any particular
purpose, one can spend time as he pleases.
The visitors who stroll in the forest of
media will become themselves the dispatchers who trigger the interaction with
each other.
I0: In an age of media technology when one can easily take out or send out any
information from home, what will be the
meaning of going all the way to the site?
The fact that one encounters information
incidentally, unexpectedly and without
purpose is to bring out contrariwise a new
significant value.
II: The opportunities of encounters and interactions this mediatheque offers, while
continually changing, are becoming entangled. Taking a stroll in this sort of "information market," witll all your senses wideawake, is like window-shopping in an
unknown world.
12: There will actually be various kinds of "places": with a high ceiling, narrow, like
a deep valley, where a bright light streams
in, where the wind blows across, which
gets wet in the rain, where the floor is sloping, where the footsteps echo, where you
can hear distant sounds, cold, dark ... Those
variously characterized spaces will generate their own activities as a stage. They are
not neutral boxes.

'Ulll

13: Visitors as well as artisb can nccupy rile space as riley like. Amlrilcy can take
any position they pkasc. The ,aricd spaces
of the m~diath~que can be modulated by
numerous filters. You can combine filters
of many kinds such as paper screens, lattices, glass, panels performed in complete
darkness cuuing off the exterior light, or a
sound-installation exploiting outdoor
sounds may be installed in a translucent
box with numerous holes in it.
14: Someone, for example, wants to find a place to play a musical instrument. He
will connect a portable terminal to an
"information outlet." He will come to know
al once where and what kind of place is
available. In the year 2000 A.D. when this
mediatheque will open, the wireless terminal will be available. An artist who is planning an exhibition will also search out the
space he/she desires through the d<1ta-base
in the computer. He/she will, of course,
simulate the exhibition plan in the threedimensional virtual reality. It is needless ro
say that he/she will have access to the
mediatheque from his/her atelier.
15: Here you can acquire information as well as dispatch your own information.
Many kinds of performances and presentations, although unrelaled 10 each other, are
occurring simultaneously. In this "Forest of
Media" they will become interactive
because of their accidental adjacency. The
audience (who can here be creators as well)
will edit their own "program" by weaving
those events together.

16: The curator will be able w more actively plan a colluborativc work. Furthermore,
this facility muy po.;sc'S its T.V. channel to
dispatch irs own activities day by day. The
tm!diatheque will then become literally the
cjtlzcn s t:ommunication-mcdia.
17: All the funclion;; here are spatially shuffled. They arc not divided inro levels,
zones or sections. The visitors will be able
to catch a glimpse of the sending-in of an
exhibition. the making process of an installmion. the restoration of a work, a meeting
for the next project, etc ... The actual spatial
organizalion will be chaotic, but by
inputting all !he information aboul space
and activities inlo the computer, total facilily management becomes possible.
fNobuaki Furuya)

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

145

~1l.

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

147

This proposal is for a cultural complex containing a


library, an audio-visual library and an cxhibi;ion space.
designed with a total arca of 20.000 square meters. The
site faces Jozcnji-dori, a beamii'HI avenue lined with
zclkova trees, in Scndai city. Except during winter the
climate is mild enough for people to stroll around here.
Instead of separating the facility into three sections or
layers according to individual functions, this proposal
attempts to make them interplay together by shuffling
the different functions. This would result in tlw building
becoming a "Forest of Media," encouraging visitors to
enjoy encounters with unexpected persons or sources as
they take a stroll inside.
(Nobuaki Furuya)

f:<JiJi'JIJj, l~;(g1717''7 1 ) - , i)J~;j;;z"'-7.;1>C,!J:.{,i!);-"Z


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(rigllf two) Per.rpective views of !he inrtrior (comfJttler gen


em ted rendering}. This JJropo.ml remainetlthe final stage of
the jutlgemem with Toyo Ito's ellfr_\', ami achiew:d an excellence.

{filcing page. above) S011/l1 elevmion.


{fitcingpage. below) East cleation.
<~12.~!.) cor'Jill!J'-7,, *~"1:. IJfW~~:~W;0~21: 1: il r:'ifil'f.

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148

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

location: Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture


architects: Nobuaki Furuya+ Hisako Sugiura
associate architects: Waseda Univ. N. Fumya Lab.+ Studio
Nasca; Showa Women\ Univ. H. Sugiura Lab.

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structural engineer: Y.asuo Tanaka


mechanical engineers: Uichi Inoue and Takchito Sano
principal use: libmry and exhibition space
site area: 4,002m'

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building area: 2,40 Irn'


total floor area: 19,800m'+ 2.500 m'(parking)
structure: steel frame and reinforced concrete; 2 basements
and 10 stories

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

149

Iabove wul facing page. above J Temil floor. The floors cross
each mher as in a maze,
(foci!lg !'age. belawj First floor.

cl: :tatL) wmm;:rt.

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150

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

z..

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

151

Nobuaki Furuya

Spreebogen Urban Design Project 1992


tlis~:lit

:/

7'v-;J;"-If/

Y-11/ -T-!f1 /iltii!ii1992

After the reunification of the two Gcrmanys. this international competition was hdd to propose urban design
concepts for the Spreebogen area, where the new government building will rise. The site is located on the
nonh side of Tiergarten, a park for citizens to relax in,
near the meandering Spree River. The planning calls for
a total area of 240;000 square meters, to include the
Bundestrat, Bundestag. Federal Chancellery, press center and so forth. Instead of parliamentary oflices to
occupy the site, this idea proposes an interwoven arc hi
tectural fabric made up of the parliamentary facilities
and the public spaces devoted to the citizens' everyday
life. while achieving the interpenetration of man-made
buildings with green space.
(Nobuaki Furuya)
*~H-~~~{7~mm~t~~~~~&'J~~. ~
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f)

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(;1;-~!/r)

Organization plan: scale: 1160,000.

Axmwmetric dn1wing.

location: Berlin, Germany


architect: Nobuaki Furuya
associate architects: Kinki Univ. Architectural Design Lab.
principal use: parliamental facilities
site area: 549,300m'
total Ooor area: 243,258m'

ili{t:J!!!

152

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

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l!!;f-i'Wi!J'i 243,258m'

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

153

ModeL (above four photos by Nobuaki Fumva)


l!l'l. (l:4!.~Hiti~;: 2i?i;i!.<;!J
154

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

Nobuaki Furuya

Spreeinsel Urban Design Project 1993


tl-i:Hl!X~

:/ 2/v-1 /t!Jv T'-1\/ -T-If1 :.-~tiilii1993

This -ll hectnrc site on the west bank of the Sprccimd,


locmcd in the former East Berlin. was the object of a
competition whose aim was to form a 270.000 square
meter district with the Federal Foreign Office and other
Ministries. the Conference Center, a library and a media
center. The area to the east of Unter den Linden Avenue
is known as Museuminsel, a high prestige museum
area. This idea proposes creating an undulating landscape to envelop the existing buildings
buildings
that ought to be preserved. Some of these buildings may
be dismantled, thus providing replaceable void space
for future uses. Additional architectural changes may be
made within this new landscape in the future.
(Nobuaki Furuya)

IH!flv'J /:li!l!R::ii?l.>:/2. /v-1 /-i:!lv/:li'f-!ftl-'1>


ill <7)rj1 liill!!{if, J:> J: cr:,:- v~ i!lifWJO)-::-f:i; l!: fl;!Jf!.J41ha<l)f.<

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2: O):lJf Lv:J;:Ji!J

location: Berlin, Germany


architect: Nobuaki Furuya
associate architects: Kinki Univ. Architectural Design Lab.
principal use: ministerial facilities and conference hall
site area: 41 O,OOOm'
total floor area: 271.100m'

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l!Ef,{<iilii/t 271,i00m'
Isometric drawing.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

155

(above) Aerial view of !he model. Uwer den Lindell Avenue


rum along the left of I he oval buildi11g, the Conference
Center. towards the A/exanderplatz.
(below left) View from tile east. From tile lop of the /rill-like
building. peaple will be able IIJ see a panoramic view of
Berlin.
(below righl) The undula1ing building form will envelop tile
existing buildings.
.
(facing page, above) A study showing tl1e lramition of the
island from tile 1380s (bollom right), finally to become an
intemmen island (top lefi) in ilw fuwre.
(facin,~ page, below) Aerial view of rhe model. Tile axis of
Umer tlen Linden Avenue is emphmized in 1/re layout plan
of the island.

156

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

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<ti!U.J 138011' (:fiTl t;'i?ltH'Hf;l:~,\t,'ll\~7: t..Uk1L\\Ui'.J)
i:>;:J., ;1''1:QJ7- 77 {.
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!'!llt:lli'l\'1:-t;:, 77 /.

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1380.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

157

Nobuaki Furuya

Y-Museum Project
i!;-~1;!

Y~

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Site; scale: 112,0011.

This art museum, with a tntal area of 1,800 square


meters. dcvmcd to a native cartoonist in the town of
Kahoku in Kochi Prefecture. The museum accommo
dates a fourth t1oor gallery to exhibit tableaus, au audiovisual hall at the back of the first noor, and a playroom
featuring popular cartoon character for children in the
semi-basement. These rooms are not easy to recognize
at first glance either from the exterior or from the interior. The building is united by the one huge void of the
entrance hall, thrusting through the building from front
to back, providing the approaching visitors a view
towards the woods behind the museum. The visitors
will discover and explore the various elements of the
museum as they walk around.
(Nobuaki Furuya)

it:iM,\ f.' :lt.:UifiiJ 1.: \:il-? li"' 1.800m OJ Uij Ill.;). Ol;z 11ij ~' !/l t~
II;OJ'J'Y~ii:iJi!\T;t) iJ,

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7o-17'1C,::f!IIJ<7lH: R.if!it.: u:-r/i J.J. AU' I: Ll
f{jf1'l or sEEJI:~ !i lilll.>.: t C', ~ i: ~;~: lJ:!, V'l ;t:~[;R,t

lo..::atioJt: K:1hoku-cho, K\h.:hi Prefecture


architc-:t: Nobuaki Furuya
as~ociatt: ~~rchitL-.:t~: Opus One + Studio Nasca
produ.:ers: Total Media Development Institute + Frobel-kao
structural engineer: Yasuo Tanaka
mechanical engineers: Uichi Inoue and Takdtilo Sano
gcncrnl contnu..:tors: Okumura Corporatfon ami Daio
Constmction
principal usc: art museum

site area: 3,766m'


building area: 901m'
total 11oor area: I ,313m'
struclure: reinforced concrete~ I basement and 4 stories
projected completion date: July, 1996

i~ittMf 1 ~
;:t~;rt"tift}J

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(facing page, above) Nortl1erl! e.werior vie..- of the model.


(facing page, left below) Exterior view from !he east.
(facing page, middle below) The terrace Oil rhe second floor
level. The slope projecls Olll>>'ard.
(facing page, middle bol/om) Night-time view of the
en/ranee hall.
{facing page, right below) Tire entrance hall.

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cl:irf1Hl ll!~J>'ti!!!.
(t:if{'t 1Tl 2J:lfT7 :J...

Nor1/z elemtion; scale: /1500.

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7

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901m'

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ENTRANCE HALL
THEATER
FOYER
UNPACKING ROOM
STORAGE
MUSEUM SHOP
OFFICE
T:RRACE
RePOSITORY
CURATORS' ROOM
EXHIBITION ROOM

11

Second floor.
JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

r; /

~r A

iJ

~-7~}~iT~~~ft~+7~-x~M

WtJ111iXn!

Third floor.

158

~-- r\A

Section; scale; 11500.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

159

Kazuyo Sejima & Associates

Housing Studies
~'idl\filt!t~~~ll:~tlJf~?li
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This project assembles a group of survey studies of


, urban communal housing. Apanment-style housing is
supplanting the detached house as the dominant urban
form in Japan today. However, as is plain from the fact
that apartment buildings are almost the same style
everywhere in the country, communal housing tends ro
be built on a system that treats only interior space in
isolation from the surrounding environment.
In the present trend of increasing densities, almost all
housing projects seek to achieve the required numbers
of units by tending toward volumes that are extremely
large for domestic architecture. Also, as suggested
above, in almost all cases these gigantic volumes are
~!JJ7r:J'/:r.'l ~li, illlilrii\fr!Vi:i!JJJ?rJ)JI:'Jv'c!JJ
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Mejirodai.

(above three) To study urban exterior space in relation to


landscapes composed of building volumes, several areas in
Tol.yo were chosen for sampling: from left to right,
Mejirodai (a low-rise residemial area). Ebisu (an area with
buildings of varying volume) and Hikarigaoka (a recently
developed area wirh high-rise buildings.)
(facing page, above) Model of a low-rise type with separate
gardens. (see pp. 164-165)
(facing page, below) Model of a high-rise zig-zag type. (see
pp.J70-171)

160

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

arrived at not as a restilt of considermion of the issues


of the larger urban space. but of interior factors such as
the number of units, floor area and the layout of each
unit. We can not treat housing in the enormous volumes
inevitably generated today only by consideration of
interior factors. Urban communal housing must be swdied more as a problem of exterior space than interior, in
terms of the configuration of the many different kinds
of volumes that compose urban space. This project
explores directions in which interior space may also be
reinvented through the reintroduction of exterior space
to the question of housing design.
The project has no specific site. Instead, it studies the

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ttl,;, lhuil?t~ rJ 120f:i, IH:Fi70m' 1:v' 7 i~l NlUfl Ll' J; f),
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kinds of surrounding conditions in which communal


housing. understood from a varit!\y of viewpoinrs, is
easily situated, focusing on the densities created by
architectural volumes, To avoid a gap with current realities, it adopts a standard density of 120 units per
hectare and average unit size of 70 sq, meters, conforming with the present standards for public housing in
Japan. Five types are proposed, considering volumes of
communal housing architecture in the context of an
urban space with mixes a wide variety of volumes, as
well as the system of interior space composition that ,
they would seem to generate,

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Hikarigaoka.

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IA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

(left and facing page, left below) Model of a middle-riseScurve type. (see pp.l66-167)
(facing page. right below) Cut off view of a mode/the lowrise type with separate gardens.
(above and right) Model of a middle-rise cemral court type.
(see pp./68-/69)
(below) Elevation of a model of the scal/ered high-rise type.
(see pp./72-173)

<:!i: :!i:TI:!i: 1 Ni1!.Hf~~!Zt:S' 1 7'!*ll'l ( 166 1 67.IT~~?.)


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ct. . :fi> tf>JM oW~~Clrt? 1 -tmJil.. ( 168 . 1 69ti~U.?.>
(f) ti~~;t;i;.li:!li!ln:S' 17'!~l\'l.li:llii. ( 172 . 1731\~~\\)

I!.
!

Low-rise type with separate gardens (I -srory under


ground parking+ 2-story units)
Two-story units are spread over the entire site. The
open space determined by the building-to-ground ratio
is distributed throughout the site in the form of separate
gardens for all the units. Each unit has a private garden
on the roof as well.as at ground level. Each unit is composed of six elements: open garden, eat-in kitchen, utility spuce and three bedrooms. An entry lane which also
provides light and air cuts through the site at a 15-meter
pitch, allowing a variety of ways to link the six basic
elements and generate different unit plans.

architects; Kazuyo Sejima & Associates


principal use: multiple dwelling house
site area: I 0, 150m'
building. area: 6,034m'
total floor area: 8,797 m' (housing) .,_ 3,240m' (parking)
structure: I basement and 2 stories

number of housing: 120

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Plan; scale: 11200.

ff.~;J:flllil:ill~~;ttiii,-Jq~i~r

i''il'Jfli:fl US{tll:cf;
1/,Jili!fiif,'i 10.150m'
l:ll/i~fffifli

6,034m'

+),240m'
\11!1,iui!li 8,797m'
til~ ~Jrr- tl<r J\l!.lc2r1rr
tl:Fi~

(!ft.ij(Jj})

120

~
Plan variaTions.

164

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

First .floor; scale: 11800.


JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMI-NG

165

.!-story blocks with


i\liddlc-rise S-curvc type
stairwells (semi-underground pilot is parking urea + 4story residential blocks)
Units in this type arc approached by stairs, without elevators. Four-story blocks sit above semi-underground
pilotis parking area. The depth necessary to make a stable four-story structure is turned to positive use in interior space, which is composed of random combinations
of 14.5 meter deep public (living-dining) and private
(bedroom) spaces that attach or overlap and separate.
Since there is open space around the entire block to
guarantee the same environmental conditions to each
unit, it is possible for each unit to have termce space
open to the outside on either end. This type can be
adapted to a wide range of site conditions by changing
the form of the block.

~-~fi~P1~ -~4-t~-6~~~'~'/

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1:., trfi:Fiil'7 ::.- :t'J..t:Mi.7J.~lf<?ll6. :fl.

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~ i'

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;t ;:.';t t.:~!!:lll!Ji~:i!\l:~;tr;t, L'\'i'H' 1 7'-~:;t;,~.

Plan: scale: 1!200.

architects: Kazuyo Scjima & Aociates


principal use: multiple dwelling house
site area: 10,150m'
building area: 2,944m'
total floor area: 8,488m'(housing) + 601m'(common) +
2,944m' (pilotis)
structure: 4 stories
number of housing: 121
~[;HnlitillWi::<.t;;t'Mlii!fr
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Plan variations.

ill~Wiillt

2,944m'

!ilif.liilliflt 8,488m' (t:l'F'i)+60tm'

+2,944m' ( i::'Di" 1)
IJ!Ji.1 Jill.l:.4FI,'i
fi:P~

166

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

121

(~~!fl\l'i)

I
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'

'

';

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

167

Middle-rise central court type - - 4-story blocks

with stairwells (semi-underground pil01is parking area


+ 4-story residential block)
This is the same 4-story volume with stairwell as the Scurve, but since the block is made longer by extending
it around the perimeter of the site, depth has been limited, and open space has been divided into court and
exterior. Each unit has a terrace on either side, a more
public zone containing dining area which links the two
terraces, and a private space that can be partitioned
freely from the dining area. These are essentially oneroom units, but several types can be derived from different planning treatment of the dining area. In an actual site, this type might also be manipulated in shape
according to existing conditions.

Plan; scale: 11200.

Plan variations.

168

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

rp/i'i~i'.1l'tlc[t'i91

'11: ]fi] t: <41(\j<J)':f .,

1) .::t-

h<1)]l,\'p1:

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'1_U~~-ct);.J

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;A>'(- :A<1)aJiiJii<1)JHI: J: fJV <-:; 'i>0 ;r 1 7"11'7!;-X. G

~t.b.

architect:-;: Kazuyo S~jima & r\s:-;ociates


u.s!.!: multiple dwelling hou~e
area: !0,150m'
area; 2.975m'
total
area: 8J83m' (housing) +~32m' (common)+
2,975m' (pilotis)
structure: 4 stories
number of housing: 120

JHJ,;Ii0'!iili!H:.t:lv1'1i,

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10,150m'
2.975m'
lJ!;J.I<Jflif,'( 8.383m' ([1:1 i) +-lDn' IJlJIJi\1:1
+ 2,975m' i >!a 7 1)
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),

f'

T\'[lical floor,

rim jloor; scale: 11800,


JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

169

!'fall; scale: l/200.

High-rise zig-zag type - - 11-story block with corridors on one side (pilotis + I0-slory residential block)
This type increases the height and makes the volume
narrower so that it is possible for all units to face the
side that gets the most sun. Zig-zagging the block
across the site allows a longer block while still retaining
uninterrupted open space around the whole. A variety
of unit sections are possible according to the handling
of the front-side space that links rooms. This space also
serves as a buffer zone between interior and exterior,
ameliorating the effects of living high off the ground.
Terraces of individual units appear like random holes in
a flat volume, revealing glimpses of the landscape on
the far side of the block and reducing its monolithic
quality.

~ffillffiilllilc ?17'

li!LI:.1 Hl'ilHO)f\'Jiiiil'lJf!iil~
I 1:::' r1 .y- i+ Ji/i'i Uirii;IJ)iJ]

ld

site area: I0, I50m'


building area: I ,269m'
lola I noor area: 8.400m' (housing) +
2,138m'(eommon) + 1,269m'(pilotis)

l:x J: '! "h b.- L, >S: E't < L, -tc 0)


;';l:h:: >S: llii((!Jii !~ ~.;-: L <:it -0 .::. t >S: iiJfiE I~ cJ -0 7 1 7'.
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~~:ll:;n~-n .::.

p-('(/J'I:ii;O)fj)O), Yfi\ll~~liil

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structure: II stories
number of housing: 120

,&,il ~!'!:!;.flllll:ill%;i1:;li!JHJ,i9i
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illtf~iiTiUt

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Lt, j/J::IJ;O) "f t 'J .o. -1, O)IOJ7 / !f i., t.:'k t L"CJJUL,

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+!,269m' (i!o-T 1)

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//){,'

III

I I

architects: Kazuyo Scjima & Associates


principal usc: multiple dwelling house

E lld'l

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ldo~

Plan variations.

Sectional diagram.
170

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

ld nl

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

171

1~tll.ri~II-t~r
Scattered higiHise type
10-story core-based
residential blocks (pilotis + 9 stories)
A chain of blocks of highly tmusual proportions. contaiJJing one dwelling unit per noor. are located in the
center of the site, witll a large amount of open space
around tllem. Since the volumes are formed by the
stacking of freely-planned units. all sorts of volumes
result, creating an overall effect that could be very different from communal housing to date. Each unit has
four outside walls. and the small space between blocks
is intended as a visual. physical and psychological
buffer zone for these tower-in-the-park type high-rises.
(Kazuyo Sejima)

::1 /(7) .../."r

jQ:~-}~2
.:J_-

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-coJrJU11~. ~llJII!fl9.

,c,.mw9"''J71'-f-/

L.-c

Plan: scale: /1200.

~
Plan \'cJriations.

architects: Kazuyo Sejima & Associates


principal use: multiple dwelling house
site area: I 0,150m'
building area: !.236m'
!otal floor area: 8.470m'(housing) + I.518m'(common) +
t ,236m' (pilotis)
structure: t 0 stories
number of housing: 117

l&iit flKHil !ltillU~~~;ljtJHMNf


H>!Jlli:!: !t{-rtt'is
')i'4J:Jl'trtlfi! tO.t50m'
illfi~!fi!W

1.236m~

Jilil~<lflilii

8,470m' (f.ti'il + 1.5t8rn'


+!,236m' (Co-T 1 I

mm

fl!lJ:wl?r\
r.trit:(( tl7

Sectional diagram.

172

JA !995-3 PROGRAMMING

(J~/111.1>)

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j~

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Typical floor.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

173

Kazuyo Sejima & Associates

Gifu Kitagata Apartment


ti~~Ui!l:J]t!:,H~~ti!lfflfili
~.tl~ ~~t/JJi'iS

This design is part of a large scale publk housing


reconstruction project managed hy Gifu Prcl'ccturc. in
which I participated together with three other woman
architects under coordination of Arata !sozaki Atelier.
Since the idea for the overall layout was to run the
buildings around the perimeter of the site, this block
was designated to stand essentially on a parallel along
the streetside property line. The ground level is a pilotis
with parking. ollowing access to the site from any direction. I 07 residential units occupy the second through
tenth floors. Roughly one third of the units are
maisonettes, and roughly half of them have two-story
spaces. A range of different types have been combined
freely in section, generating complex elevations.
Public housing blocks typically end up being monolithic volumes. By reducing the depth of the whole to a
thin slab, this design seeks to create something different
from the monotonous volume that tends naturally to
result in design of high-rise blocks. !n oddition, each
unit has a terrace, and 107 terraces create holes in the
block through which the far side of the building can be
glimpsed, reducing the visual impression of massiveness. Each unit is made up of terrace, eat,in kitchen and
bedrooms, all of which are lined up along the side
receiving the most sun, linked by a narow sunroom on
the front. The silhouettes of people moving about inside
should thus be visible on the south facade as on a
screen.
(Kazuyo Sejima)

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174

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,. 'tzuvo Scjima & Assocmtes
arclmccts. K," , l . t ~ d\vellin(t house

loc,l~IOil. .

principal usc:

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t:

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site area: 3.J,6.J2m- ,


building area: lJlOr~- ,
total tloor area: 998 -m- 10 stories
- f ed concrete,
structure: rern ore_ dnc- March, 1999
projected completion ' -

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175

Kazuyo Sejima & Associates

Pachinko Parlor III


I*.!MOiitlU:t~~WlW\Pii
1~7-/:J/~-7-111

Siic.

This is a commercial project for the same client as the


earlier projects Pachinko Parlor I" and 'Pachinko
Parlor II." Pachinko Parlor I, however, was actually a
multipurpose building containing rental space as well as
game space, and Parlor II was an addition to house an
entrance hall and rest area. Parlor III is a design for the
Pachinko facility itself. The site for this building is a
large highway-side lot typical of any provincial suburb.
Surrounding sites are occupied by square volumes
indistinguishable from one another except for signage
indicating the names of the discount shops and storage
companies they contain, each set island-like in the middle of the lot.
There was ample space on the site, and in light of the
character of pachinko parlors, all kinds of shapes for the
volume were raised for consideration. In the end, however, we felt that with a site and function like this, the
more unusual the shape, the more it would expose the
fact that it was merely one variation among any number
of possible shapes. We settled on the entirely ordinary
rectangular form that results most naturally from the
predetermined arrangement of rows of pachinko
machines, bending it slightly in front to follow the curvature of the road it faces. In section too, the design
places the usual pachinko hall, prize corner and offices
in a line on one level. The office has been divided from
the other spaces, however, by a bending a single slab,
resulting in the generation of a rest space above the slab
with a gently-inclined tloor.
(Kazuyo Sejima)
.:::_O)jJl~i;Jii-tl'I:#;![(Ll\'l.J;~f-/:J;~-7-

1 OFFICE

J REST SPMCE
1 PI1CHJt-JKO HALL

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

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First floor, upper lel'el.

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location: Hitachi Ohta. Ihmaki Prefecturt:


mchitccts: K<:tZH)'O St:jima & ,-\s..;ocinlc~
.struclural engineer~: Gcngo i\'latsui & O.R.S.
mechanic<ll engineers: System Design Laboratory (.air-conditioning!: Takamura Dcnsctsu (electrical)
principal u:-;c: pacbinko parlo1
site area: 4.042m~
building area: 680m'
total fioor urea: 800m'
structure: reinforced concrete and steel frame: 1 basement.
2 stories and I penthouse
projected ~ompletion dare: December, 1995

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Scctioo: scale: 1/.fOO.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

177

MIKAN (Kiwako Kamo, Yosuke Kumakura, Masashi Sogabe, Masayoshi Takeuchi, and Manuel Tardits)

NHK Nagano Station


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NHK~~~~li;,~ftll

The competition guidelines for this project called for a


design to honse the facilities of the NHK broadcasting
company and provide a space open to the public. The
guidelines implied a box of a certain volume. However,
since the site is in front of the enormous Olympic Ice
Arena, such a volume could have little presence. The
solution was toput all of the broadcasting facilities
together underground, which would have the merits of
opening the ground floor up to the public, and make it a
single floor without restrictions on floor area. At the
same time, this meant that the architecture would be
broken down into zones instead of volumes, and it
allowed the antenna to become part of the architecture
instead of the appendage it usually becomes.
Horizontal louvers that imitate the scanning lines of a
television screen run the entire 76m extent of the west
side of the site, visually unifying the tower and the
building. Passing under this facade with its strong
frontality, one enters an entrance court which links
indoor and outdoor public spaces, including a viewers'
plaza, event court and cafe terrace. Behind this is an
information board and a surface with windows through
which people can peek into the studios.
(MIKAN)

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l SUNKEN GARDEN
2 ENTRANCE HAll
4 OPEN STUDIO
5 INFORMATION WALL

6 CAFE
7 RESTAU RANT
8 PARKING
9 STAFF ROOM
10 CONTROL CENTRE
11 TV STUDIO
12 STORAGE
13 WAITING ROOM
14 MEMORlAL THEATER
15 VISITORS' ROUTE
16 PROJECT ROOM
17 ROOF TERRACE
18 OFFICE

(ob~l:) l}~!l%>:Ji(.

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Sec/ion; scale: 111,000.

Basemelll floor; scllle: 111,000.


Firs! floor.
JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

~.

J EVENT COURT

(facing 1mge. above} General view of the modeL


(/11cing p11ge. below) Diagmm.

178

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Antenna Tower
Light materials clad this structure, which
runs from 5m below ground to 60m
above ground.
7/f"TY.?-

'Elevator
J'.Vr<-?'-

Project P a v i l i o n - - - - - - - - - - - ,
Multi~purpose space for meeting rooms
and such special uses as broadcasting of
election results. This pavilion is located as
a bridge between the broadcasting rooms
and the regular offices.

7'0:/z?

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j

Louvers whose appearance is reminiscent of the


scanning lines of a television screen visually unify
the building and antenna tower to form the main
facade.
7rtt-l.:"
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li!l!<il:-!fltt., \lli:Mt.T!IliEi!iiUlli!!"til.
Plaza
Since the site faces on a broad street and plaza; the
facade has an important role to perform.

~----Front

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Route

takes visitors from a starting point in the


broadcasting Centre under"
orial theater
eta stage
ack to the

Office P a v i l i o n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - :
This structure houses general manege~
ment offices and facftlties for public use.
The long narrow volume supported on a
stands at the west side of the site.

Alii

Studlo Pavilion
Television
rooms for tech
all of the functions of
centre were grouped
Grouping them all on one I
flexibility and ease of use. One
carrfed up to the ground level,
the upper part of the studios and
ing for broadcasting trucks.
A?:/;j-1-

laval links indoors and


that makes it easy to
It can serve as a public gallery
terrace, and elso has the capacity to
occaSiOnal open studio.
- f 1:-t-:J- f IJUMf17if 1l7z
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A!,

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Sunken Garden
.
, _. ,. .,. . '
:
This _sunken garden provides light and air to the

underground level.

if:,.7:.-ti-7 .....
~~~~"- C~fll\t:1fJ&IJ A h

...

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

179

location: Nagano, Nagano Pr0fccturl:!


architcel>; MIKAN 1Kiwako Kamo. Y0.111ke K11makura,
,\:la,:-;a;;hi Sogabe, !\lasa)'0SI:i Takeuchi, nnd ~hnud T3rdits)
structural cng.in-.!~rs: Kt.:i:-hosha (Jun'ichi Igarashi)
mcchanl~,;al enginccr:i: Dai'i~.:hi Sckke:i, NHK ES, and
Tokutaro Matsud<~
principal usr:: broadcasting
site are;;t:
area: 5.997m'
strucmrc: steel frame, reinforced concrete, sted fmmc and
reinforced concrete; I bascmem nnd 3 stories
projected completion date: J11ne, 1997
fi!( f1:Jfu

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!J}lll!lilillli 3,592m'
ill~iliilli 1,817m'
lJf;\;ilillli 5,997m'

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mm

{fi1cing page) Erterior view of tire model. Hori::.ontallmwers


thm imitate rlre scwming lines of (I tele1ision scret'/1 run
accros tile west jc1cade.
(abO\e) Bin/'s-eye riew of rlre model.

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(below) The fltlblic space at ground /eve/links tire indoors

with the outdoors.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

181

MIKAN (Yosuke Kumakura, Masashi Sogabe, and Masayoshi Takeuchi)

Sendai Mediatheque Design Competition Entry /Media Spiral


b~~~b (Da~~. MHU&~. ~~)
t':~tcV:J.7'17'7-'J 7'-!f1/:J/71Y3//Jr17' .AH17Ji.-

This is a competition entry for Mctliath~que, a project


in the Sembi. The competition called for proposal;; suggesting what architecture can do to respond to the
changes in media taking place as we approach the 21st
century. The idea here was to create a system that did
not divide the whole into many parts, and maintain to as
great a degree possible a borderless condition between
the images arid sounds created by a plurality of media,
including books, painting, sculpture, and computers.
Parts that could be open to the outside were divided
from closed parts in two areas, defined by the walls of a
square zone containing the mechanical core. and determined on the basis of architectural conditions such as
the necessary volume and lighting. Things requiring an
environment cut off from outside influence of light,
sound or climate, such as temporary exhibition space
and a concert hall were placed in the inside. Things that
could share the outside environment with the adjacent
tree-lined street, such as the library and standing art
exhibits, were placed on the outside.
This outer portion forms a gently-inclined spiral slope
on which numerous different media commingle. The
slope was designed so that the different media would be
distributed everywhere and treated equally, rather than
clustered in segregated displays. The inner wall of the
spiral became bookshelves, with panoramas of artviewers, readers, and workshops with people making
things spreading out around them. This way, even people without a clear purpose can come to the
Mediatheque and stroll among various media as if window-shopping.

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10,

(MPiv<'h)

(MIKAN)

Round Ia; scale: /,200.

location: Sendai, Miyagi Prefecture


architect: MIKAN (Yosuke Kumakura, Masashi Sogabe, and
Mnsayoshi Takeuchi)
associate architects: Miki Korcnaga and Tatsuro Sasaki
structural engineers: Keishosha (Jun'ichi lgarashi)
mechanical engineers: Tokutaro Matsuda
principal use: art museum, library
site area: 4,002m'
building area: 2,650m'
total floor area: 21,432m'
structure: steel frame, reinforced concrete, steel frame and
reinforced concrete; 2 basements and 9 stories

(left, above and below) Two views of a model.


(photos on p./82 by Shigeru Hiraga}

182

lA l995-3 PROGRAMMING

i;Ji(Olli

Efli~.\f!llbli\'i'~~l

'>"IJIv <h U!!\fri!f.fr. ':flil:iil\lild!, t'fi"J/0\i&l

il<znrtf\1J J>bH!M 1-1'" *nllftl>


liliiili1'Zi1r lF\lt!J (Ii:-Hiii>IH
~!iili'l::tt t:rnrttttlr.
:1~/FJjj; '.'l<llifr.tl @lllffr.tl
!fll:Ji[itii!li 4,002m'
l.Jl!;'iiliifli 2,650m'
l!ff,!(llilfli 21.432m'
111m fHtil't iti!JJ:t :.-:7 'J r- iii iHtiizi!JJ:t /:7 'I- H1l
:l.illfi: lil!T2Wi Jt!JJ: 9Pii

An office nreu of roughly 650 m' has been placed on the highest level of the
boo~ tower. VVl\h lots of windows on the outside, the resulting space com

"'1)tt;J)JUJ:FJ:il:::.t~650m'UJll~tfiJ....-..:-7,1/Jii.Jtc7;..\6"
gst:[ffig n:'?f.t}.':.f~f~ f.~L:t.:.::, ~~ ::- .;~ l,l. t~@ :.~t(f5Ui:Jtt:iit;"f;t;:

mands an appealing prospect.

lt:::dt-5.
2iX24m.

A#MSmO)Ff;t.t:i~l:n-c. PJHI'i-T1';....?:--7~))'tt6.:
~. ?:Hf!(,}._I~?.r:nt:hQ, ~G)~t~(2J~;'f-f;tj:C1i;Ql.h'IJ

'f{):ifi!!U/.t~.

+33
Fit: o m - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
provided with audio-visual equipment is also suited
CO!ltenp!Jfmy art or performance, so it has been treated

~!Afflf})AV~ii1i ~ (~

;t t:.~~A---~~ ~!;:., t,:~~L( fpl} tfJ ( lJlfi:T


":::J\7 T -7' :..- .AU)g;i&i2 L~!,., T!.. ~~ f:.Y;, iEff(:O)-H5t

f::iJJ, S ttO.

+27

The entrance hnH opens through broad doors from the tree-iined street
Book detection
stand Inside the doorway, where an information booth
and the book
counter .:~re also placed. Ponable phones
available
!low for contact with information system, '.Vhich permits visitors
tn
the
to hear a guide to the building, along with
of art
pieces
of the use of various equipment Terminals for performing computer searches are located nat only at the information desk but in numerous
spots along the media spiraL

+21

The book tower has a basket-type frame structure. All of the intervals In this
frame comprise the stacks. These stacks, which continue along almost the
entire extent of the spiral, include dosed-stack books, videos and CO-ROMs,
as well as open stacks, Open stacks are located close to the floor level of the
where visitors c<:~n easily reach them. Closed stacks are on shelves
the ceiling, enclosed behind glass doors, This way the closed stacks
are also visible, providing an element of the media mix to stimulate visitors'
interest.

+16

+10.4

the top of the spiral is a restaurant which faces out on the row of zelkova
trees planted along the front street. Visitors can eat and relax: here while
down on activity in the street below. Direct access is possible by alethe entrance haiL

+6

J'Lf!i!F#Jii >H:j:i}tJT7;::"@

)~:.J

f.

f,.!J"tTW*t't

""> l~~.

~~;~ ~(7)1!1!':1Cii,

ROMIJ' C tltt 0:, h Tt.. '-5-.


Wtl.ttr\f>tl., *-~:fft/@IE!:i!:IWHf.J:"f.::.ttlt~{l.
iro5f!,::::UJf5APtiJL 1 T :()>J, ror1~(ill;fitr!IIJ ~ h t~~~.
<:'11F<1!':E!l1!1!>EII:.;.n;EI:<'. *lll<f(7)lilii'JJE!~Utl~r:;,;<
~-17' ~-,?.:t(7)-'!i'-'ltl:~3.

Al'i{7JI-O)M}_t_gf;CU:'rt:t-ft;;f;t.::.!mt.. "(L-A f. 7 /;9''~1t Stl.


li:loj';iaizl<r~Gt..:n'Sf<llilf<'~~. t;~;,..r:.

'"'J.

"5 /A;f;-Ji>iJ'SiHlZI Vr\-?-c7'1t'J.1" :::t

lilt I: L, <i!i~B'tHl'l,

+0

<r..'JDZ lf( ?f.:: I:..- t- 7:.- ;ut- JV,

~P]'r;~.

'HCJI!il;fll;l:l;ilii7HGI:Ii!J'-I<-

n'iiU'II!."tcTJ1J.ij(7)11C~AllHF.ili:1"~-

stream runs along a channel in the balcony, providing water to plants on


the balcony and continuing dotm to the event plaza, where It cascades into
a pooL

+33

J\JI-:J =. -O)t;.L:f!!!!17Sffl* ftt)f~~ t! ~*~3b'~\1; tt 't't. 1 ..C.


I{JC:l.::-(7)1,!1ii:il;;J<L,~t,''II11JlUlhT~I!.il!l\~;;J<Il, 1
1'\/ t-IZ.iliiiil'~t

fJ-, Tii2l::::;i~ .:,,

Cafe
--------- .. ,_,. ~
cafe is situated at Round 7, approximately halfway up the spiral. light
~J"i{ 7 JI-0U:Il*f',.1J~.S1"~-!i 7 '7 / l-'71::1;tlrt ;tjt;t;:i:imv -r
and drink service is provided. Here visitors can sit and read or look out
;t-7:.- trh 7 IiJ' ~ IJ. *"""~...;..!~ IJ ;r"\':f~!!ntl)qtlr; .t5~\?
at the trees.
f11tft;.-5.::.tt/?;@'~.

+28
and sofas are located throughout the media
groups can meet inside the "glass follies" or

+25
+22

.. ..

J.J\1
tf::i.!!Lt:.>J"t'~.;;.

T 1 Ya /t'ftt1.h tfTX.-5.
ThemiJHc Exhibition ATeu ~----------------------------------A space for outdoor exhibits against the backdrop of the zelkova trees.

7-?"~.tt.;t;:f"J\;

?i.:.

li~Hi.mf'!'lvt.:tiiFJ.~-A .

"Ginss Follies--------- .............. -------- 1i77..tJJ7t 1Jglasswal!ed rooms ca!led "glass follies" are located here and there
f:ti7AtJJ7;t
use as meeting spaces. They are provided with outputs for terminals and
z. 6\.:.SI'J. %!11~~~ 1'-:Jii!itit.> 1"(7)1J!.'!i t
for privacy.
'l'J7'7 t-1'"1

+16

+12

+7.5

+3

of the balcony permits exhibits of sculpture. it can also


activities other than art display.
Areu------------------floor of the barrier"free area is entirely leveL Braille books are located in
stacks here. Some of the visual media booths are also located in this
ln addition, various media production activities for the disabled take
in the spiral, allowing easy communication between specialists, volunand visitors.

for workshops is not fixed.


can take place anywhere in the spiGroups can choose locations
to their needs, on the basis of the
that can be created by movabfe partitions, differences of floor
and access to fixtures such as AV equipment or a water supply.

?-? '/3 ., 7(7)t,/f!lQ)!Jilfilll>!!:!'llii:~ tt f. ;t.H17 Ml!i1li'/i


1'ffhh t J:l.'fi, !*m:t*"'?/mfttT}I)O)J\I).I.~ :/3/, ;:::.UAV
:Wl~!li!H'i'>l<ill~ ~<1Jiiillriilt: J:

'I, iiill<*l\l'i:ill! L, t,!Jie,l HI

,):<:I:IHl!'l>.

Plaza-------------------building is set back from the streeUine on the east side to gain a space
outdoor activities. A portion of this area is depressed to connect with the
pllotis, creating an event space visible from the street and from
building.
rv1useum
The museum shop is located in a position overlooking the entrance hall.

+0
contain posters and monitors to inform
about events and workshops taking place.

Delivery Area and B m , k n 1 o b i l c ! ; - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Delivery vehicles


mobile libraries take a separate
from ordinary parking, leading from the road on the north to the
area in basement. There Is enough room for large trucks to load and
Things for display in the Mediathtlque are carried to the adjacent
z.one, and from there by elevator to exhibit areas.

~~~O~<i:il~h~fi,;t.t-;t.I:~*Z'-~~=,IfA
t~<AI:m~~~?-?~a~7~1~7

~lJ..;.J:t;'!Ji.:C!H~~:

!I!Aifllliiii"tt'!Hht!l!'ilil1llil!II:11~1J(1)Z0-71'~tllllilil&
tJ?f&"Ft~Q)f1iAlg A-"'-.A.A.J' 7D-7t ~. *~ t-7 '"I ?O)lJI:
hP-l:JS L.fi:il:1:+7t~ :7,/'{-:J..tfJ'lJ.~h r~ '~. l'iij~li~llt !{X
ilfi:"'illih~flfii~fijit--~-?1'/R~i:A.;Ilih~.

Room---- - - - - - - - - - - - room is located next to the delivery area. To prevent humidity


!l'!l''(7)1~AI::li:l~L:nJ!I<llf~lct<
room was located away from peripheral walls.
Area---------------------Cars enter ffom the road on the north side down a ramp to parking in the
l!lltll!l;t~ti!lil!llli!J'
first and second basements.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

183

Akiko & Hiroshi Takahashi / Work Station

Nakamachidai Community Center


~+/7-~~~-~3~
m~ rlii<I>P!J il ilP.Il-tz ~ !I

This district center, which consists of~ gymnasium


and other rooms serving a variety of purposes, fulfills
the wishes of tl1e local residents for a facility that they
can use on an everyday basis.
The site is located in a new town which is currently
under development. To the West of the site there are
commercial facilities, a raised railroad track runs close
along its southern boundary, to the East there is rich
greenery and an office building, while its northern
edge faces a housing development
Our initial design approach was two-fold. First, on a
site which is both small and contextually complex, we
wished to provide an effective open space. Secondly,
we wanted to include the gymnasium, which represents
30% of the total floor area, within the overall composition in a very positive way.
The gymnasium is located on the railroad side, and
a circular forecourt has been created in the north-west
part of the site, between the building itself, and the
main road and housing opposite. The half-mirrored
glass which wraps the forecourt facade fragments the
reflected scenery into vertical strips.
Initially, we wanted to place the gymnasium below
grade at semi-basement level, connecting it with the

first floor entrance lobby through a change in levels.


However, a change in design conditions, requiring the
inclusion of a parking lot, caused us to raise it to the
second floor, linking it visually with the lobby-like
corridor at that leveL A curved void is formed between
the circular wall which defines one side of this corridor, and the arc of the curtain wall which bounds the
forecourt. In contrast to the external space, the circular
flow of space and people around this curved void provides a continuous spatial experience. The basic struc
ture comprises a reinforced concrete frame, stiffness
being provided by the L-shaped wall bounding the
rooms to the East and running along the edge of the
training room to the South. This arrangement provided
us with the freedom required to deal flexibly with, and
to make the necessary adjustments for the various
internal functional requirements. Furthennore, the Vshaped steel columns which take the vertical loads of
the crescent-shaped space, and the roofslab which
steps in thickness in accordance with the flow of loads,
serve to express the idea of a place which itself is in a
gentle state of flux.
(Hiroshi Takahashi I Work Station)

~~~~1-~. ill~~tt~~am~~~mi~~~

:l':itdf!!t,\i:-c-, 'CG'JiiJ?f'i:I;J:f.1;1fEl'i c. 1'\-.fiuffli:!H~J;t:: l:t~1ff


j',ft.Pl?/;;: 15,

r; :.--1: Ll:~'i L-, ilhiill


rII:t r:!li!\'Ji!lllilf;Q'illW L-, I+ml.'l:

jf(ljlj;:tlJl:ffB~;Qllffif1'l' ~.::."" -1

tfll~ l1Jl'H= t:tr.Jil11ln~~.

iJd.,:~t;;J71 .?-, ~~l:l:ttt'i:illlitJlftjjl_.. H>o.

'11t~ i? ~liHJJ~~rr7 7o -7'- li::i:IC.bt.::-:J<i?:>f~, U

1: -:J l:t!lt;H1&:4lll: M!~t;t fliJillllll.!fti:tl L- 'tfi'WJIJ:::zilljlji:li!JII*-n;:. t. t? u t -:J l::t~Wiliit.M130% i: c'i b?.:,


!*l'r~i: i::l*~m~~q, ~~:fi'1~1)\JI:J& IJ tflu::. c. t.:. ") t.::.
l*W~'.!:'iili!\\l~fltfffiiHc!fctfill-, ~tlffitHltilliii!iilK'i. tt'lS!lli
t.lMt!JJ 1: ~r"~ r:Mffl;;;r Pl~U~1.: !ifil* L- t~. Miff I: ilif c t~
litt!JJ1l!l5HWI? ,,_7 ~ 7- 7! 7;, l:t!lll< 1J i.Z;!Jfilt1#:Hli
ffil~l::i9[)tj~1' .:,.

!*~'~ l:t iWJ.'f!fllT 1:

t.r.IJ lil'Ji o

t' -I:

v Jt.- '.!:' ;;r ;z -c

~t;tb;"J H>t.::iJl, ~rp~liT;<f'FtJl)lt:b 'J !l.UI!lfbtJi]JDtJ

") t.: t.: b? h::2Jil:'n: t i?.LJ:f:? n, 2~~ o t:'-atJt.r.t.moJ


iilll*l:ifl:fl:i)\)1:-:JI;r.;(J;Q ;:_ 1: 1:/;;:"Jt.:. '(-~)j)jf!ti~ftilif
l:l:Pl'W\~~ii\'1:

t.r.IJ,

M~ffi:J~!J

-7 ~'/ ;t-Jv~Pl'Dil

tMtn~1v~~~-~~n~~n6. ;:,~~ij

l:i<h -r:Pll!l\~l:mt.[Vrr 15 ~r-1tJ..~mtnb;, :5'Hifl 1: :t


:t,~l\l'la<JKill!~1L-t.:~r.,wiH'll ~~:: -t.

~*l11iiLl:RC7-.X /f1~il'H\ V'f:l\'il:l!JilliO)~t'ftP<?


r.ililifl7ll*!if~l:~l.ll*'li'~b?n>6tJi, i"'Jil!i~~liEI:*

il;l:tltCL- 't~ t

Tf

t,c~~iJihDii.. Gn H>6.

H.:,

o~-~)v~/~~~-J,~~~m~b!~ij

-"' v'f:M~~'Iitttt,

b~mt.nt.r. 'J I:JlllMiF.Jt~~=llt1t

l-tdl'H~~ 7 /iJi, *'!l-\"iJ>I:mt.n.:,~mi:~!Jl.l- H> 15.

(i!ii-tmSl:l

(facing page, above) Overall view.


(facing page, middle and below left) View toward the

entrance,
(facing page, below right) Interior around the en/ranee.
(;bJ{J:) ~11!-.

(:til'i:$tcf) .x.:.--t-7:.--A.nial~5B.
(:tift::til') .x. :.-- "7 :.--Am QJ*l~.
First floor; scale: 1/800.

Seco11d floor.

1 PARKING
2 MACHINE
3 ELECTRICAL ROOM
4 OFFICE

East elevation.

West elevation.

184

JA t995-3 PROGRAMMING

Sec/ion; scale: I /800.

5 MULTI-PURPOSE ROOM
6 JAPANESE-STYLE ROOM
7 LOBBY
8 PLAY ROOM
9 LIBRARY
10 ENTRANCE
I t TRAINING ROOM
12 LOCKER ROOM
13 PASSAGEWAY
14 RECREATION CORNER
15 WORKSHOP
16 MEETING ROOM
17 SMALL MEETING AOOM
iS KITCHEN

North elevation.

location: Yokohama, Knnagawa Prefecture


principal use: commm1ity center
structural engineers: KSP + Kozou Kukan Sekkeishitsu
mechanical engineers: Kankyo Engineering
general contractors: Sango Corporation
site area: 2,000m'
building area: 1,200m'
total floor area: 2,317m'
structure: reinforced concrete, partly steel frame; l basement
and 2 stories
projected completion date: October, 1995

i~i'r:J!!!

tl!i>1ifi;~i#HZ:i'lrnrt2-7

Jl!;c'<;t/J
i[~blffiQ:~-!-

f:JTJ,!:I

liU~T

-+t:..---::1
~'i'(J@Jlili'i 2, OOOm'

litfi\illi!il 1, 200m'
:lifWiliill'l 2,317m'

ft'ii ~~WJ :J :; I) - )' Jli


>JUt<\ 11'!1"11/6 J!!Lt2v&
l!!tFF5E 1995;p10f~

~ffi\t:t'fl'fti

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

185

Ak.iko & Hiroshi Takahashi / Work Station

Osawano Health Care and Welfare Center


~m~T+~m~/7-?A7-~
:k)R!ffiBT(ll!~Dtitft!Ji-tz:

/ 5'-

This is a multi-purpose facility, with a hot spring at its


core, and is intended to provide an opportunity for
health and welfare activities regardless of either age or
gender. Generally speaking, it consists of a day-care
facility for the aged, a number of rooms which will be
the focus of welfare activities, study rooms, a pool and
hot spring complex for which there is an entrance fee,
and a communal hall, which acts as the node for these
facilities.
The site lies near the River Jintsu, at the point where
the river valley opens onto the plain at the center of the
town. Although it does not directly adjoin the river,
both the river and the mountains opposite can be
glimpsed from the site.
After making many studies, we decided that the
building should be long and thin, employing the full
width of the site, and lying parallel to the flow of the
river. While the plan of the building undulates, the
building depth also gently changes at one point, providiog a change io expression. In elevation, the building is

divided into a frame-like upper part and a wall-like


lower part. We are currently making studies of the
frame design, and the scheme shown does not represent
the final design.
This basic composition has been derived both from
our sense of the location, and the needs of the facility.
People who approach the building can sense the existence of the river, even if they cannot see the surface of
the water, because of the receding line of mountains on
each side of the valley. The layout is designed to reinforce these subtle perceptions. The use of a continuous
horizontal frame for the upper part of the building also
helps to reduce any sense of bulkiness. The frame is
glazed where necessary to form interior spaces.
The form of the building, which consists of a clear,
simple continuous section, provides us with a degree of
freedom in the planning of the variously sized rooms,
and a mechanism for giving a complex facility a simple
and distinct silhouette.
(Akiko Takahashi I Work Station)

2: tL1~1!tfttt)J~H"~b'f(lJUJlt-:i < IJ :lO J: tftiiltJ:rMifH~n,;

< ~ 13!rc. 1.1\\iHtlH~ L -cm:\l!~ tLt~!W


f>lil!iilltl'<O o. P'l'iH::kllU-t o 1: i'2ili!ili~O)f' 177hl!iillt,
ffli1.il:JID!JO)mtli\tt,t-.:;,~llf. ~lll!'f:lEI~. 1f.RO)/-;v
l:i!'ltie1i(l!illtllf, t L "C 2:-tL:SO)~Iii'i..1 1: 1t o3tmt*-iv
-b>:St,t-15.
fi:Jt!ll;J:Wil!i/11 f~/a-:> tc.tl-<0 v>t;>IB]"O)tpJLO).!!Zf!!H;: ioJt;-;
"lillli:TO;ff1 ~} f~lli/EtL, /lll~li[:n,;:n,;t.-n>t,t-v>t,O)
!JJ, IIIOO-\"~llii"toil!!lfi:?;.O).~Il!Jif:iiW2: I: fill'~ o.
-nWl~'>'-:>

AJ

-r, '>'mtJ.t.::~!!!:.

IIIO')mttLI~!lli:fri;:W!~ oJxJtB~

v>-:> If>> li:Ml1o/.I'$:-!1Gill L tL, lJZl!iiil(]f;::) tJ. i)-Ito 1: fil]ll(j\


l;:~fJ'$:-gflt,tt:!. :Sfl>li:~1t ~ -tt-c ~1i1Hc:~it?:-:>17"C
,, o. :V:l!ii!l(]f;: l:J:!#;!f\lit;;-t;, O)J:gfl 1: mfl'"t !lJ "F'ffiH;:25Hiii
U.:, ~l$10)JE!'I:J:JJ,l,:ff t>~liHJ!!tJ. "C :lO ~ Jfl~O) t> O)"l

2:!JJJ::J7tJ;:;f;:il9l1l\Ji\:!JJ<O

~::tn:J:, :~JaP.littt1il!i~!JJ~f!f

1:~.!C:Ltd6:!!!:L'<Oo.

7/o-f--to)d;l:, ~001"'.>
il!!lfi:;r;.t;:~:J:-:> n>o 0)-cl]<.lfiitJ!.\l;t t,t < t b/IJO):ff:ff
'>'~'fo. t!JJ~7t~~?:~~-t.:;,remtt.-, -r~;:;
t-=IHll~li~EEi~?:~ifJ:> J:? 1-=l]<.SJZI~i!I!~Lt.:J:;$
O)~l1;\'$:-~H:. :!11!~1;1:;1!7 ::\ilii"l'J!I~.!C;t;"C~ll!Hi:;

(facing page) Employing the full width of the site,


and lying parallel to the flow of the river, the
building is long and thin.
(:t;J{) J!\f.IJI~/IICI)Vff:tL~<:lJifj';;:,tllJ;!i1: <flll!!i&l>? lii>I~SC
ilU.<tLc~'~.

~tL"C>>o.

RiJ:ilii~D~~i~k&~ ~~~f&Rbk
.:;, ][llfO)SJZi!iilitii~H~ EJI:Il15tz t> t~ -tt.:;, '1'3il' <!'> ~ , 1\llf>
11:;1Adi!ili9:!;:Jtl---cf:J:-:> ~ ~ 1: Ltd\Uil~~i1iiV"'l'
b <0 o.
(/Mi.f:l%o"af')

location: Kami-Shinkawa, Toyama Prefecture


principal use: health care and welfare facilities
strucrural engineers: KSP + Kozou Kukan Sekkeishitsu
mechanical engineers: Kankyo Engineering
site area: about 50.000m 2
building area: 4,924m2
total fioor area: 8, 133m2
structure: reinforced concrete, partly steel frame; 3 stories
projected completion date: March, 1997
Pli:tfli!t

1ili.IJ~J:filil$7<:iR!IflllJ:ft!3'f::;k*l:'li<l96-1

~~m~ m~~
tlil\'~ilt

~~~~~

KPS+tlill'~r.,&."tlil:

llitiilll!tilt ~.!Jl;t: :Y;).:::; 7 ') :Y 1'


ll:li!ti!iim ~50, OOOrrl
J!!:ll!i!iil1l 4.924rrl
jltf<i!iim s,I33rrl
m~ ~~~/P~
}il\' -$~~m
mm li!!J:3WI
~I'fiE !997!f3fl

186

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

187

- --....
...--..._-...-..-................
----- .............. ..
.................................
-

......

........- ____________--c.:

~-

__

----_:_,- -

.........................
..........................
........
............
,. ...............
...........--.. .
---------~- .... ~~---------------------

...........................

""

_,.

-----------------------------
------------

----------
----------
------
------

"--
188

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

(facing page, above) View from the nor/h.


(facing page, below) View from !he 1res1.
(right) D11ring the process of design, the rows of
columns changed into a V-slwped pattern, as shown
on rite drawing.
(;!,:J.'lJ:)

~tJ:

ryl,-:;,,

(tc:Vrf l vH 1) rt _,.
(.ti) illlirrtJ~Jllit.. f.9:f~f(C, 91JtHl~Uili:ffiT J: ?!:V::ffi'll:~

lii.t:nt".

1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
8
10

POOL
SPA ZONE
GARDEN
OPEN ROOM
RESTAURANT
MACHiNE
COMMUNICATION HALL
ENTRANCE HALL
GALLERY
LOBBY

North elevation; scale: 1/1.200.

11 CHANGING ROOM
12 OPEN-AIR BATH
13 TRAINING ROOM

!4 FAMILY ROOM

15 KITCHEN
16 BATHROOM
17 RELAXATION ROOM
18 RESTL~G ROOM
19 OFFICE
20 L~DUCTION COURSE ROOM

21 RECORDING/EDITING ROOM
22 AUD;O-VISUAL ROOM
23 MEETING ROOM
24 WOHKSHOP
25 ELECTRICAL ROOM
26 FITTNESS COUNSELING
27 LIBRARY
28 REHABILITATION ROOM
2S CIRCLE ROOM

Section.

South elevation.

Second floor.

First floor; scale: I/ 1,500.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

189

COELACANTH Architects

Utase Elementary School


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of the former linear block plan, with the corridor along
the north side widened. and the walls dividing classrooms omitted. As a result, spaces which arc large, but
otherwise undistinguished in character. have become
widespread. Replete with potential problems regarding
noise, sunshine and ventilation. such spaces also expose
a tendency, common in institutional architecture, for
solutions to be sought without radical departure from
established prototypes. In order to get away from this
standardized pallern, we have taken the opportunity
offered by the changes in the educational program. to
consider in specific terms how activities in schools and

FROM MASS ACTIVITIES TO AN ASSEMBLAGE OF INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITIES


Why have a design for activities'?
uniformity I homogeneity- individualism I self
motivation

teaching-.. learning
The Japanese Ministry of Education has begun a wholesale transformation of its education program manual.
Tl1is is a new school that responds to that transformation.
linear block layout '-' 'X' -plan open school
Recently, 'open layout" schools are increasingly popular, but they are in danger of becoming just another
stereotype, a new 'standard type' of school architecture.
The ideals that sought a high degree of freedom in
learning space have been abandoned and so-called
'open layout' school buildings .are often mere variants

their surrounding neighborhoods might change.

mass activities -~- personal activities


semi-coercion - self motivation
circulation pattern with thick lines - dispersed and
decentralized circulation pallern

1-2

standard I average - individual I specific


During our study, there emerged ns a major theme, the
notion of creating spaces with a developed !lowing and
highly permeable character. that would allow a whole
range of activities, both within the school and outside it,
to be perceptible to students and the community as a
whole. The kind of studies undertaken are shown in fig.
1-1 and 1-2. Apart from the example of the school
entrance ceremony, in which the former mass-activity
pattern is dominant, no highly patterned circulation
!lows are to be found. That is the major characteristic of
this school. The success of the design is to be evaluated
by observation of the degree to which the simulation of
activities corresponds with actual patterns of usc.
(Kazuhiro Kojima I Coelacanth Architects)

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190

JA t995-3 PROGRAMMING

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Programming a town
In towns, there is a bustling movement of people.
Architecture has begun to turn towards activities as a
clue to defining aims and offering opportunities for the
urban environment. The surrounding housing estate ., ,
which is inextricably linked to the elementary school is
a town development based on our activity studies. The
idea proposed by us during the basic design policy formulation', that would "design a town, not public housing compounds," became a very important guide in
determining the overall design of the housing development area. Our aim was to create a lively residential
area, with a high degree of urbanity and a sense of
urban density, in the planned new Makuhari metropolitan area.
public housing estate ~ town
unidirectional flow of people ~ intersecting flows of
people
houses and a few shops only - a mixture of functions
stability I protected living environmenl/resistance to
change ~ growth/change
no influx or provision for influx of outsiders ~ influx
of outsiders
Specifically, we introduced a grid pattern, with a high
degree of potential for choice of routes, into the design
of the road layout, allowed for mixed land uses and sug-

gested interaction between operators and designers


belonging to different design units.
zoning map - parameter area
In addition to incorparating in full the invisible rules of
the city, such as the several radii of schools and parks,
the minimum area of public space and the provision of
routes for radio waves, we controlled the proportion of
volume (built area) to void (open space) based on a sun
shadow curve study and "made the town using architectural volume." We determined zoning, land use and
road width, according to the kind of architecture we
desired to see built in this area in the future. By bordering the playground with green belt, we achieved a
school without a fence for the first time.
(Kazumi Kudo I Coelacanth Architects)

*l This housing project is being designed under the auspices of the


Enterprise Department of Chiba Prefecture as a residential district in
the new Makuhari metropolitan area, assuming a population of
26,000 people housed in 1,800 dwellings on an 84 hecmre site.
*2: from 1987, under a commiltee headed by Sadao Watanabe and
Kei Minohara, we undertook the formulation of policy for the first
phase of the hasic design in collaboration with ichiura
Developments and Housing Consullants. The policy for the second
stage of the ba."iic design wns undertaken as a joint exercise with a
range of specialist professionals, with a view to bringing it to
fruition. At present. the town project is being carried forward under
the Council for Design Coordination.
location: Mihama-ku, Chiba
architects: Coelacanth Architects
associate architects: Jun Ueno, Prof. of Tokyo Metropolitan
University (advisor); GA Yamazaki (planting plan)
structural engineers: T.l.S. & Partners
mechanical engineers: Sou Setsubi
general contractors: JV of Zenitaka and Shoei Corporation
principal use: elementary school
site area: 16,500m'
building area: 5,010m'
total floor area: 7,584m'
structure: reinforced concrete, partly steel frame and reinforced concrete; 2 stories and 3 penthouses
completion date: March, 1995

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J995l!:3f]

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

19t

=
5 principles for elementary schools

One of the basic design conditions for Japanese public


elementary schools is the requirement for classrooms to
accommodate 40 pupils and a teacher, and for circulation spaces to permit groups of 40 pupils to move about
From this requirement was derived a unit termed a
'class set' and the layout of the class units was determined in the following manner.
1) Class sets were made.
Each class set consists of 5 elements; a classroom, a
courtyard, an activity space, paths and an alcove.
Interior and exterior spaces are interchangeable and
equivalent.
Routes and furniture are provided both within inside
and outside the buildings.

2) School buildings were distributed evenly over the


site.
a grid field was established using a class set as the unit.
3) Elements other than classrooms were laid out
Special classrooms, a gymnasium, an administration
department, and a cafeteria were grouped in a random
manner to define courtyards throughout the site.
4) Paths were created to allow thoroughfare from outside the site.
The site boundary was eliminated, to create a school
that is not separated from its surroundings.
5) A circulation system with loops but no dead ends
was designed, to ensure free movement and maximum
choice of routes.
(Kazuhiro Kojima)

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Relationship with !he site

Blocks were incorporated into the design of Utase


Elementary School, following the characteristics of the
town on which it was situated.
I) Site boundary defined by architecture.
A layout that maintains a sense of continuity with the
street was adopted.
2) A sense of urban blocks, rich in choice of routes,
was created.
Paths were made as extensions of streets.
3) Individually characterized street corners.
'School plazas' make school activities visible through
the pilotis.
4) Eyestops in the street.
The volume of the gymnasium.
5) Mixed functions.
The classroom for lifetime education are set along the
street.
6) Establishing a belt of public space.
Opening up the playground to the community.
(Kazumi Kudo)

192

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

I
'

Creating opportunities
limitation - induction
specified act - free opportunity
The activities of the children are not limited by the
name of a given classroom, but induced by free opportunities triggered by things such as slight changes in
level. furniture, water and trees. Jumping, whirling,
rolling and hiding are pure forms of movement that
adults often overlook. The outdoor blackboard and
stone spheres are both inducements rather than tools.
The children freely climb on them, jump over them, sit
on them and hug them.
(Kazumi Kudo)

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Going beyond the framework


building type - activity type
A space in which interior and exterior continue interchangeably, with architectural volumes and small internal courts disposed alternately. Visual permeability
brings distant objects closer, enabling one set of activities to stimulate another. As a place where people can
spend their time freely, just as they like, this building
could be converted into an old people's home, or a hospital, or a suburban office, but not a station.
(Kazuhiro Kojima)

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CUHU~)

100-year timescale
object - activity
During our study of residential areas, we took note of
the mixed craft workshop-residential districts around
Ueno and Nihombashi in Tokyo, as well as Minami in
Osaka. In these districts, the scale of the urban blocks
and the level of segmentation of the architecture induce
activities. Some say that the part of the project already
completed has a European character, but 5 or even 10
years is too short a time for us to appreciate the true
character of this town. The activities of the people will
gradually create a truly uroan atmosphere. When it has

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(I[~;ffl~)

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

193

Site: .1adc: 1/3,000.


1 ARENA
LOWER GRADE CLASSROOM
3 LOWER GR,\0 WORK SPACE
4 ALCOVE
READING CORNER
MID~LE GRADE ClASSROOM
MIDDLE GRADE WORK SPACE

HOME ECONOtvHCS ROOM

9 PlAZA
10 COMPUTER ROOM
11 ELECTRICAL ROOM
12 At.:D!O-V:Su;~;_ ROOM
13 .\1USJCAL AOON:
14 KITCHEN
15 WOHKSHO?

17 NURSE'S OFF!CE

:a

UPPER GRADE CLASSROOM


19 UPPER GRADE WORK SPACE
20 FACULTY ROOM
2: WORK ROOM
22 SCIENCE ROOM
MUL i!PUAPOSE ROOJ\..~

24 LIBRARY
25 PAL~~C!PAL S ROOM
SUIVMEA COURT

27 WINiER COUAi
28 cUflCH COcAT
29 GALLERY
30 P!L0 7 1$

16 OFFiCE

EXTERIOR

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clossroom on !he second flooL
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194

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

Fl)-t.

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

195

1 FACULTY ROOM
LIBRARY

(above) Lower grade classrooms are aligned along rhe


right of the {His.mgeway.
(below) Summer court.
(facing page) Lunch court.
(J:) :i11lmi:f[Vi'1f.Nit.>'~i'~;,q ;t Jg_
(T) j\[O)JJI.
t:b):[) 7/-T<TJii&.

Section; scale: 1/600.

196

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

198

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

({acing page, abore} Upward Pien' of 1/u.: emrwlct' for rile


upper gnuks.

(facing page, leji below) The fH.lJsu,r;nmy in 1he are11a is


imegra!ed into 1/u.: circulation.
(facing page, right /1dow) Reading corntr.
(abm--'e) Thefw:ulry room, covered wirh (/wooden grid shell
which also c:mers the wmk space.\'.
(below le{i) A '.>prmg' ill the work .>pace.
(below middle) Work space 011the secondjloor o{ the middle grode wing.
(below right) Mco\'e.

ild'( t.J ,:'tic'iii'N!IIf..W\L !.If.


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JA !995-J PROGRAMMING

199

Mitsugu Okagawa/PARADISCS +Izumi Soken Engineering

Mukai-shima Orchid Pavilion


!1i\liiiJ1'l:/ ~~7-T, -tt .A+~wJl!lli :rs;=- r
[ii].!\)'f7/iz/9-lftii'l!l!

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Programming- The Possibility of a I'ost-Phmning


Though! Process
The island of Mukai-shima in Japan';; Inland Sea has
put effort into the production of orchids, taking advantage of the warm climate. This building was planned for
display of !he island's orchids. The idea of a glass hothouse was already on the tnble at the beginning of the
design process. In response to this plan, the designers
proposed a change of program based on observation of
the possible spatial roles the building could play in the
region. The study began with an investigation of the
nature of new regional projects in public architecture. In
light of the island's present circumstances, it was necessary to gain the most efficient use of space within a limited budget. This meant seeking a new reality for local
public architecture. The original glass house was altered
into a structure of two slabs fonning a ground level and
roof-level zone. This eliminated the stereotypical
thought process leading from orchids to hothouse. The
object of the building was to be a new type of public
space, usable as a reception room and living room for
local residents, a town meeting hall, a concert space,
and a place for art exhibits or workshops, at the same
time that it filled the originally planned function of an
orchid showroom. In this context, the orchids displayed
were understood as the back-drop to this variety of
activities. Simulations showed the potential for a spatial
programming that would permit all of these activities to
be realized in the loose and yet delimited space created
between two slabs. A flat slab structure with randomly
distributed columns was used to create in plan a loose
column-free space suited to the activities of a meeting
house. Two holes were opened in the slabs. The one
above brings in natural light, while the ground penetrates through the hole below. This space was proposed
as a free and controlled space, led by the potential of a
"post-planning" programming approach.
(Mitsugu Okagawa)

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t ENTRANCE

'

2 EXHIBITION ROOM
3 DELIVERY ENTRANCE
4 STORAGE

'

Ot>ening in the roof level slab.

Firs! floor; scale: 1/400.


1995-3 PROGRAMMING

'

204

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

1\lit:-.ukl~gun.

I!in1sblma Pn.:feumc
Ok;tg<t\\ <t I P.-\R:\I)ISUS r\;\:hitr:o.:ls +
I/Ullli Srlk~n Engint:L'ring
;1:-::-:ociate ;Jrch!ll'.,..ts: lt.umi Snkt'll Engint~t:ring: tlatsullli
Kawada tmd HL..,;t~hi 1\.a\v;~motol
,,[rue! ural
lr.umi Sok\.'n Engin..:..:ring iShigcnobu
i\litsushinti
locHtiln;

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m-:..:hanical engineer~: Nakayama Sogo Sebubi Kik.aku


(Eiwu Nakayama)
Ctmtractors: Okamoto o.)l!SifllCil{lll
principal
exhibition hall
slit: ;m:a: J:i,265m::
!Hlitding an. a: 3SHm'
tow I f:>.ll;r area: 370m'
~tnK'Inrc: flal slah: l story
compklwn d:.lll.': i\lar...'ll. ltJ95
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(p.20/) Partial viewjromthe south at night.


(pf1.202-203) Interior vieH'. Many holes were opened in the
slabs. Tire openings above bring inllatnralligllt, while the
growrd penetrates through the openings helm\.
(facing page) interior view. A jlat slah strrtctare with rtm
doml~v distributed colrmms,
(lOp and above) Two 1iell's of the Interior.
(right) Vie11' of the interior tlrrougll tile nindow.
ift!r rig/11) VieH' of tlte nortl1jacade.
(p.20!l fllil!l .l: IJ il:J;::z\il'ti'fr f~h.
(pp.202-203l { /7 1) 7. :A 7 7'1: :h ( -?i,f!)/':.~'7. 7 /I:
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JA !995-3 PROGRAMMING

205

Shin Takamatsu/Takamatsu +Lahyani Architects

High-Tech Center Babelsberg


i\liitH 71'-.::.Jt~~~t~Mi'ii
"17712/5- J\-~ivA~iv7

Toward the Rebirth of a Cinema Capital


Babclsbcrg. Beginning in 1912, this city was the capital
of German lilm. Fritz Lang, Marlene Dietrich and Leni
Riefcnstahl were here. Under Nazi and then East German rule, the many people who had participated in the
film industry here dispersed, and Babdsberg declined.
Today, after the unification of Germany, a project supported by European capital is underway to revive the
film capital that once occupied this Berlin suburb. With
a redevelopment area of 46 hectares, the total floor area
will be as much as 680,000 m'.
It is expected that in lime the line linking Berlin and
Potsdam will come to form a powerful economic zone.
Babelsberg lies at the key position on this line, so the

redevelopment is planned for more than just revitalization of the film capital. It involves reorganization of the
industrial base here to support the link between Berlin
and Potsdam. The hope is that the film business will
provide the spark needed to bring about this transformation.
This high-tech center represents the main project in
the redevelopment plan. Our design was selected in a
competition among seven designated architects. The
center is intended not only to house the film-making
facilities and specialists in three film studios, but to
serve the function ofBabelsberg's media center. A public zone will include cinema, cafes, seminar and
research facilities. There are also offices for related
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First floor; scale: l/1,000.

206

JA t9953 PROGRAMMING

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companies. The design seeks to achieve a flexible architectural space that combines livability with urban vitality at the same time that it organizes these separate
zones systematically and provides them with clear articulation. The enormous atrium, filled with light and
greenery and linked to the rooftop garden, integrates
each of the zones into the whole in a flexible manner.
The activities in each zone and the dynamism created
by exchange between zones gives vitality to the space.
Stimulating spatial experiences resonate with the
dynamism of creativity. Here one can encounter the film
capital of the future.
(Toshiya Maeda I Shin Takamatsu Architect & Associates)
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Fifth floor.

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Air-bn~sh

drawing of front facade. 1Eil!i7 y-lf-1'0) l'P---(

Air-brush drawing of east elevation. :llti'i:il!iO) l'P--1


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
B
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

PUBL1C LOBBY
CAFE
EXHIBITION SPACE
SHOP
VISITOR CENTER
PROFESSIONAL LOBBY
RECEPTION ROOM
TECHNICAL ROOM/STORAGE/WORKSHOP
STORAGE
STUDIO 1
STUDIO 2
STUDIO 3
FILM THEATER
STAGE-SET STORAGE
WORKSHOP
MAKEUP ROOM

17
1B
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
2B
29
30
31
32

'/7'.

'/7'.

CLOAKROOM
RAMP TO UNDERGROUND PARKING
CENTER OFFICE
ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE
EXECUTIVE OFFICE
CONFERENCE ROOM
SEMINAR ROOM
LlBRARY
MEDIA LABORATORY
VOID
TERRACE
BRIDGE
ROOFTOP GARDEN
POND
OUTDOOR THEATER
CLUB LOUNGE

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

207

location: Babelsberg, Potsdam, Germany


architects: Takamatsu + Lahyani Architects
structural engineers: Leonhardt, Andrli und Partner
mechanical engineers: Reuter+ Ruhrgartner
principal use: film studio, cinema, gallery, rental offices, etc.
site area: 3,850m'
building area: 3,650m'
total floor area: II ,418m 2
structure: reinforced concrete and steel frame; I basement, 5
stories
projected completion date: February, 1997

. iiTrtE!li! I' 1 ;t, ;f,'J ?' ,


!BtH ~5f'i;+ 7~-.::._~t!fi&iftiJrf'Jififr

lil'iillilltifr Leonhardt, Andrll und Partner


:&Mfiillt~t

Reuter+ Ruhrgartncr

~-ffl 71~hA?V~ ~*v


1:AlU'
ftOil!iliili'! 3,850m' ll!~ifiifl! 3.650m'
~ti<iliiffl ll,418m'

lil'iJft

~ill'i :1 '/ j ')- 1- )j}

!Jl.fl.l ll!ff HIT ll!l.t 51il'i


!!ii-fl.E 1997if. 2fl

(top) Air-brush drawing of the site.


(above) Air-brush drawing showing the trans>erse
section.
(below right) Perspective view of the exterior.
(above righl) Air-brush drawing showing the
longitudinal section.
(facing page, below) Perspective view of the interior.
(.tl~~H t:I-1 '/ 1/,
('l'lmiiJiiJHo-1 '/'/,
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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

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JA !995-3 PROGRAMMING

209

Shin Takamatsu/Takamatsu+ Lahyani Architocts

Quasar
~:fH71'-::::~~~llt.!Jl:~i'Ji

?:r:-if-

In the 1950's, while the influenc~ of the international


style enveloped many cities of the world, urban design
in the cities of the Soviet sphere was compelled by
overwhelming state authority in the opposite direction,
toward the socialist realism favored by Stalin. The
works produced cannot escape the criticism that they
were created under a system of strict regulation affecting not only architecture but music, literature, art and
every form of expression. Nevertheless, they impress us
anew with a beauty capable of finding continued
expression even under such conditions. The main
avenue that extends east from Alexanderplatz in the former East Berlin, comprising Karl Marx Allee and
Frankfurter Allee, is a typical example of Stalinist
urban design. The project introduced here faces onto
Frankfurter Allee. The avenue is one of the key points
for commercial development in present-day Berlin, and
the building is planned to house rental office space on
every floor. The four glass towers that mark the comers
of the site define the b_uilding's visual character. At
night they become towers of light
In view of the context of this building, it may risk a
dangerous misinterpretation to say this, but the keyword
for this architectural design is force. The development
of force as a beauty derived from an entirely new language of form. In it we have instilled hope for the kind
of force possessed by a sign of the future not yet burdened with meaning, or an ancient code that can no
longer be deciphered. A language in which memory of
both pa~t and future lay hidden. But this does not mean
the disappearance of tense. On the contrary, there is a
positive expression of tense here. Tense could be called
the process of confirming the present Affirming what is
"now." A force for continuing in the present "now."
This was the kind of force we wanted to introduce to
this avenue.
(Toshiya Maeda I Shin Takamatsu Architects & Associates)

1950'-ff~. 1 /IJ-1-V
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Seventh floor.

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JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

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Second floor.

210

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212

JA 1995-3 PROG RAMMING

(p.211) Night-time view of the facade at the comer


of a Frankfurter Allee intersection.
(facing page, above) Upward view of the exterior.
(facing page, below) Air-brush drawing of the facade.
(above) Elevator hall
(above right) Four glass lowers a/ a street comer.
Photos on pp.21/-213 by Katsuaki Furudate
(2!1)1[) 7 7 :,-;; 7 ;v)' ~iffi ~ J:(I)Jl:.ilL\\\J'Ill~il'ii-r <> 7 7
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-v-

location: Frankfurter Allee, Berlin, Gennany


architects: Takamatsu + Lahyani Architect~
structural engineers: Arup GmbH
mechanical engineers: Arup GmbH
general contractor: lndustrie-Sonderbau Brandenburg
principal use: retail and office
site area: 603m2
building area: 546m2
total floor area: 4,3!5m'
structure: reinforced concrete; 1 basement, 8 stories
design tenn: October, 1991-November, 1992
completion date: August, 1994

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illt~iltift-

Arup GmbH

atI lndustrie-Sonderbau Brandenburg


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1994lF 8 Fl

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

213

I'
I

Shin Takamatsu/Takamatsu +Lahyani Architects

Techno Terrain Teltow-Baufeld 5


~tH 71'-.::.lUH9:rr.jji::m?li

'T?IT-7-f:.-- T-M'7-,~'77:r:J~I- 5

Technology, Poetry and the City


Invisibility is one of the characteristics of toclay's technology. It was easier for people to understand the poetics of technology in the days that it was still spoken of
optimistically, in terms of speed, strength and brilliance.
The poetics residing in a technology that flew in order
to fly, ran in order to run and built in order to build. Yet
today, technology takes an increasingly invisible form.
And, of course, the poetics behind something invisible
are invisible too. Gradually, we forget the poetics of
technology.
Architecture is one of technology's shapes. The word
"architecture" itself means the summation of technologies. It seems paradoxical, yet architecture and the city
are becoming invisible. Perhaps our rask is to reconstruct in the context of rhe present rhe poetics of technology for this invisible architecture.
This project, occupying a block in a business park
presently being developed in the Berlin suburb of Teltow, will provide offices for a high-tech company. We
hope to see the discovery of a new poetics of technology in this new small city.
(Toshiya Maeda I Shin Takamatsu Architects & Associates)

r?/o~-~tllm

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First floor; scale: I/ /,000.

214

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

principal use: office


site area: 9,649m 2
building area: 4,220m'
!otal floor area: 21 ,020m2

?/os/-O)Nttf~B~9mLm~~J065. -~~

structure: reinforced concrete; 2 basements, 5 stories

~~-~ ~6~~~~0, lliT6k~~lliT677/

design !erm: Augus!, 1994projected completion date: unfixed

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TENANT SPACE
ENTRANCE
COURTYARD
4 PARKING AREA

location: Tel row, Potsdam, Germany


architects: Takamatsu + Lahyani Architects

~- e@
ltll_t5W,

it'.tiitltfltin !994iJ' 8 fj~


>!ZI

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(top) Computer graphics: upward view of the


entrance.
(above) Computer graphics: perspective view of the
exterior.
(above right) Computer graphics: aerial view.
(right) Computer graphics: aerial view showing the
main entrance on the right.

.:c."

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lA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

215

Waro Kishi + Kishi Lab. I Kyoto Institute of Technology + K. ASSOCIATES I Architects

M Office Complex Project


~fDeB+ *ll~TlUtl%lt:A:'!~~~~~~:ill: +K. ASSOCIATES

M ot71.A

:::J//v;J'/.A

/D7I?

I. CQnccpt: Office in the Garden


The green landscape of the hitherto untouched countryside is slowly turning into an unplanned and disordered
industrial zone. In this area of about 310,000 sq.
meters. development is being planned-- but any mistakes in the planning concepts would definitely have
very serious repercussions in terms of the resulting
environmental irhprcssion.
ln view of this concern, the concept of an "Office in
the Garden," --making the whole site into a park or
garden --is proposed. In this proposal, an environmental plan for the whole site
including the relation between nature and architecture and the relation
between external space and internal space on the expansive site
is the key to the development concept
The Concept of Nature
l11e concept of "nature" is different for Europeans and
for Japanese. In the case of Europe, for over two thousand years architecture has been made primarily of
stone and brick, and buildings are interpreted as shelter

1.

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from nature. At times man's existence is seen as a threat


to nature, and at times man becomes an object of opposition to nature. In the case of Japan, the meaning is different. Japan is on the east side of the Eurasian continent, and it is said to be a monsoon island. Man and
nature do not become objects of opposition. It is a concept where man and nature co-exist, where nature
envelops man's existence. In this plan, I propose a concept of nature where man is enveloped by nature. Man
living in naltlre or man working within a park. To live
in nature, to "work" in the park.
Transition of Space I Exterior to Interior
Through the window one views nature while working,
but this does not mean living in nature. The window,
with one sheet of glass, divides the world in two pans
--the interior and the exterior. ln this plan I propose
the concept of Tram.ition Space, a concept for gradual
transformation from the exterior space to the interior
space or vice-versa. The whole site is seen as a park.
where the composition is an incidental interweaving of

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open spaces and architecture, 1.vhere interior courL gar~


dens and terraces arc transformed into exlcrior space
from the interior space. while remaining connecled to
the interior space. From the window. the interior court
gardens, terraces. and exterior spaces that have been
interiorized are visible. In the distance the expanse of
the site can be seen now and then.
Tradition and the Contemporary Condition

This plan, created in 1995, can be said to have been


made near the end of the 20th century. I believe that it
should be composed of architecture that is appropriate
and contemporaneous to its age. It is also important that
the architecture should take into consideration the site
where it will arise, in the Northern Italy. an area rich in
cultural tradition. So it is my wish to continue that rich
cultllral tradition in the architecture. For this proposal l
have therefore decided to use the material that is a special feature of the area - - brick
and at the same
time to use materials of this centut'y such as steel, glass
and concrete.

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location: Italy
architects: Waro Kishi + Kishi Lab./ Kyoto Institute of
Technology + K. ASSOCIATES I Architects
principal use: office
site area: J IO,OOOm'
building area: 28,091 m'
total floor area: 36,084m'
structure: steel frame and reinforced concrete

ifr1.111l { l' ') 7


:l'.tfif /~1101> +Ji\f,f>I~lll*);}f:i;j':f,ff?;;;\I +K. ASSOCIATES
:E'l\!ltlid! llif)'jjij[
!ll'dil!ifiifi'i 310,000m'

(facing page) Aerial view of 1/1e model. Tire site is compo.>ed


of 7.2-me/er grid blocks wlriclr are also the basis of the
building gri1M. A.> a re.w/1, thi.> is expec/ed to provide unify
beTween the imerior space am/the exterior sptlce.

illli'iiliifll 28,091m'

<tHfl l'Jl!'lliiiML

[J

216

lA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

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1
Com:epr uf light: tradiTiOJw/ Japanest arcilitcctun'

2. Light and S1mcc


The traditional re:.idential architecture of Japan has a
very deep roof eave space on the southern side. beneath
which is typically a garden made of stones and e:mh
that effectively become reflectors of light. On the northern side is a garden where trees are planted, and the
green is incorporated into the architecture as a view. If
trees were planted on the southern side they would
block the light, and when seen from the side opposite
from the light source, trees full of shadows do not really make a good view; it i> for this reason that trees are
located on the northern side. This is one rule for making

Collccpri!f'li,<;lu Office..\.

a natural gnrden. ;md in this prop(md the "nne thinking


is employed. On the southern side, to prevent direct
glare. steel louvers will be employed. On the northern
side of the building, interior court gardens, sloping
green nreas nnd cxtcrinr spnccs will he located, and the
main rooms will face onto these areas. As a result of
this approach, northern light will be used effectively, as
required in the design concept. The necessary lighting
condition is attained while at the same time maintaining
good views from the windows. By meeting these
requirements, it can be said that this design achieves the
best conditions.

2. :J'U:~fa9
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Type 8: 0./ficc D and E.

3. Material I Structure and Construction


Brick and Steel
As mentioned earlier, one special characteristic of tbis
design is the use of brick as a traditional local material,
and structural materials such as steel will be used to
maximum advantage taking in mind the special qualities of brick. Since a low profile is necessary, the buildings will be maintained on two to three stories.
Tilerc are three types of structural schemes for this
proposal. The first one, Type A, uses steel members on
top of the brick. forming a structural frame with concrete panels, where both materials are integrated as one
element (in office A, B and C). The second type, Type
B, features a sloping brick wall that forms a visual barrier which is articulated separately from the steel frame
structure with concrete panels (in of~ce D and E). The
third type. Type C, is composed entirely of enameled
steel panels supported by steel structures (in the
Showroom, Comm~n Facilities and Warehouse). The
employment of structural systems and materials somehow become a metaphor in the transformation of materials through time, and in the relation of traditional and

218

JA t995-3 PROGRAMMING

It.-O)Ii:
modern themes.
The movement in tile articulation of the materials and
structural systems also creates a positive relation
between interior and exterior spaces. The brick - - as
a non-homogeneous material on which the marks of
craflsmanship remain, and as a material expressed on
the first story
will provide a human scale to the
entire scheme.

Prefabricated Building Elements


The steel-frame structure will be prefabricated at the
factory, and the wall panels and sash units will be
inserted into tile spaces between the members of the
structural frame. For the floor, !.2m-square floor panels
will be placed on top of the slab. The building's structural plan is based on a !.2m module with a 7.2m span.
The flexibility and durability of the outer walls is guaranteed by the use of prefabricated concrete panels or
hollow steel panels. The interior walls and partitions
will be of drywall, thus making them flexible and
responsive to functional changes.
(Waro Kishi)

/7 !
1

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(i.jl;fO~ID

I OFFICE A
2 OFFICE 9
3 OFFICE C

OFFICE 0
OFFICE E
SHOWROOMS
7 COMMON FACIUTIES
B WAREHOUSE

{above) General view of rhe model from the north The


Spine Canopy. extends from north to south and leads to the
employees' offices.

IJlllliHtllL JflitHt< ;1,1~1;;. 'i'-1' J t::-l.tA


Hr:t 71 J..lill"-tif~ <.

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Site; scc1le: 1/6,000.


JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

219

Office A. sertJou: snrlt: /!/,000.

Office A, sec/11111: scale: 111,000.


220

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

Office A, third floor.

Office A, second floor.

'

Office A
This is the largest building in the complex. On /he norlh
side is an inlerior court garden with a block floating like a
bridge ill the lop of a green area with on east-west slope.
On I he 11pper story one can find terraces and exterior
spaces.
>t70..A
::..rfJ ::1 / 7'1n 7 7-/iicf;l])!:: !vT' 1 Y ~- ~tfi!IH: 'l>fl!i'S: iJ -:::>~(
j!ljl:!illU'.b 7o 1 7 tt, ~,~17)7. o-71])J:.I: ~ (;:J)<C,jl.\17) J:-)

!:i'l'mn,.

1/U::PJI: t-r7 7-t:t /:'1])9}e~~~~JJ1l'ft7l'-:>cv'"'

Office A, first floor; scale: 111.000.

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

221

Office C
(lc')!J Tltis building has ct .\'loping green conn gmdeu and
rcrrucc 011 rll(' norrh srde along cill ewll~est uxi.l. On tlw
so11th side. there i'i a soulbrwrrh sloping green court gar~
den. Tht.' jirst and second ]/oors hme metal iou\'NS rv con~
trul light r~flcctions.
:t71 ;;:\ C

rhn!i i~ ih:lt
'L

2 :_q:~r~:f!fti:.::::i::'\1,1ti~--~~;<-

Of}7cc C. first .floor; scale: Ill ,000.

Garden Facilities: (sec overalllieH' l~( the site pJroros on


previous pages)
Res/ pavilions, a number of which arc distributctl
in various areas of the site.
Spine Canopy: A canopy made up o( 11 series of Tcjloo
sheet~rotifed sections. From the porking areas, people puss
beneath rlris canopy 011 !he way to !heir offices. At night. it

Office C, e(lst elel'otiOit; scale: 111.000.

becomes alight structure I sculpture and a }amlmarkfor tlw

siu:.
Charwel I Bridge: On tlu: ~rest sidt' of the sire, this is tlll

east-wesJ walkwoy

Ctmmwu Facilities
(left) On tlte first .floor is a restaaru/11, 011 tlte cast side of
which is o public common green area, with a wide roof garden on rJw west side; iVIrile dinin;t, people can enjoy the
expanse of these wide open spaces. On the some story, there
is the EDP section with its own roof garden that serves as a
resting orea.

Pi :filii~

t, J., v 7. ~ 7 /I ~(fl~l 1: li't~J~i~~J.:c. 11 7;: ffi;,..,


i'!in!ll:lill:Hil.l:.ilI$1H,t,, ft 1)~1''~L.l.<:U'l'!il.>. :!'
/~Iii! t: <2PMlEDPili\l"l iJ J!f.Jfi<7JiiU"Jll~l;: iJ J:,, {K0.<7J /:: !i
;:t,-:>::bl'l'!il.>.t?, illill'i~hc~>l.>.

(~d 211,[1:

222

JA !9953 PROGRAMMING

1ha1

can be enjoyed tiS a sJrolling route

or as a meditation palh. T11e flowing H'aJer lwlps calm the


hearls of peOfJie who .'if roll along the pmh.
M!allii~ ('IY<lii!{I~!;l'J:n~mo
f!!l~

lt.li!.V?tcll>dl JJ<-7. 1:: t.. -c'!'Oii!V?ti:" < c:>iincl>'1.


;;:\1(1/. ~,/c:-

FRW>I.iliK<7Ji~t.: 7~ ~ r / t'-. ~jijiJj!;;'J C, l',;f 7 f


7:7 -t 7. ;:jj,t. '*'IIIH:!.UJl;,..jb ;Utt~!!l!IJ)I: .t I).
<7)

7./ij!"-V?

;J.J{-{;_,;:;r;L.-c(ttJ.,.

*ia/114
~fJ!<I)r_lifl!l 1- nir~i:l!fu'"' r;~;J< 1:: lll[;\!!<7Jt~!J)<7J~tii!.
!j:'li~l:AO)l.Z'f& t..{JI.H-t"t" <J.l.Q.

it.i*L"'*

Office D, jirsrj1oor, scale: 111.000.


Office D
(abol'e) "/J1is small building has a frosted glass screen Oft
the sowh 10 soften tl;e sowhem Jig!rt. and has lmners on tile
roof to .'iiften the impact of light from tlze bright courtyard.
The sl(r.;laly sloping brick 1rttll forms a sharp comrast to rJw
steel frame.
:;f"7{ ;:<.

!:f i) if7 ::<.!!!; lOJi!illG07U:, ffilfllJTIOJiv-;\-1!]; LOJ


'/G;?'J;,,;..!l-'S rtlJJ \!:I, 'Jij, i' fo:i:!!jiJJ. ~'Ill>;: f!llfr:'f lt~ifii \!: b c~
v ;, 1f OJ\~ 1:: ?Hi<7J ~ ,. -1' ~ ii'H Jtft'J>:i: l'Wi i- 0 <;s.

(!:)

Office E
(above) Tllis building shares a similar design vocabulary
wiril office D on its norril side
sloping brick wallthm
comras1s with !he steel structural frame, AI the norrh end of
the building is an interior court garden with a senu'~lrans
parem trealmelll offrosted glass and gratings, composing a
space wirh a gentle slope.
:i'71 ::<.E
(!:) ~tl:i:!!"J t 7 1 ::<. Dt !iii

t: r+J' 1 / "it 'I' 1/7 1) -

(fr:'f~~~;,iflli~WiliWI::L~OJ~+-~)~"J(;n~ill

~tff!I)I:J1;\>~) 1 rllr~ I, iJ, 'i'~I~J~;!if.f (l:H ij7 ~ /: :!1'~


-- -1 > 7') ~Jill;&~ ltt~'i:lill 1: ;, o -/Jl'i'i'cf-'\':>i'l:lf~l~li' ;s.

llJ.

Office, .tecrioll; scale: 111.000.


Office, first floor; scale: 111,000.

JA 19953 PROGRAMMING

223

:\rata Jsozaki
!93 t
h!)rn in Oi:.:
l ':JS-~
graduot~cd from :\rchi!c..:tud
! 95')
co1npkt..:d the ~.!octor cour~o:
lllliVo:l:dty
1'163
cs!ab!i~hcd Ara1:1 lsozaki and :\ssoci<llcs

complc~..:,: :h~.. doo::-tor


;1ssis!mit ;l! HN.mni Jab.
\\';t>::J:! lJ!Iin:r~i!y
t..:.:um:r al
l;n)\L:.~ity; worked a: S:m!m ;\\;,rio fkaa
;1;; "
Grl'~:rtHncnt (hcr~\.';t Swdy l'rngr:nr,
:\n!.~h
:t~~odal:: ptPf::;:sor :11 Kit~ki Unin.'rsity
as~O\.'ial:..' professor a; \1/a.:.tib liniq-:r-:i!;: .,;,~!ahlishcd Stu:lio

:L,l>Jsl;l!t: :1:

19'J0
J::9.J

ll~tdm

Jlasrgawn

lliroshl

Tablt~lshi

1985-SfJ
19US

cstah!i~l:ed

Nr\SCA

After graduating from the


of Architcc(urc at Kall!o Gaknin
Univcr."ity, ltsnko Hnscg-nwa
rc;;carch stutltnL in the
Department of ,\n:hilcctmc at Tokyo ln:>titu!C ofTcdmo!ogy. In 1979
she cstthlishcd ltsuko
include a variety
thc
Pri1.c
Her
for th.. Shonandai Cu!wr:tl
Centre.
C.dt\lr:ll H:1ll aud t\rc:1

K>tzuyo Scjima
1956 born in lh:traki Pre!'.

<L~sis!an!

of Dl..'p<mm..:m of An.:hi!t:ciUrc, the ::niJ unin::rsity


Work St:ttion with Akiko Tr;k:th::>hi

1<181

Codacimth ,.\rchi!ccls

19R5

a~ Co~l;n:;,nth ,\r:.:hi!e..:t.~

!lJS7

1986

:\rchit:..~..:t:; lth.:.
Ito, Kazumi K11do. K~tzuhiro Kojim;~, Hlro;;hi
,S;mpt:i aml Sus.lllHI llno

,\llKt\N'

MJK.-\:.1

r:~ttHbhed

JIJ())

~l:n.O:II I<;Jto.

cun<:a!

Kut!l(l Akmnabtt :md

K~~ii

Kiwako Knuw:
[1)87

llo
PrcL

l979

the T(1kyo Univcrsily S".:houl of En&inccring.


of Architecture
!065-61)
a! Kikuwkc An.:hilcct & Asso.:iatc;;
1971
CSI<thlishcd Urbtm Robot (URBOTj
1979
the munc of the office imo To:o Ito & Assocb!cs.
l%5

1'/'i:!

19B I

Yosuke KunHJknra:
!993

t:onip!th:d the docwr cuur;;.: of Ardlitcc-turc, Tok)'\1

1994

Univcrsil)
Yns:ukc Kum;:;kura Archite<.:l

~fasashi

19:\8

Sogabc
t:ompk!althc

ll.J};7

fro::: :lw T(lkyullb!ihlh: <.l:'Tct'hllolugy.


of :\r-:hikctm..:
cmnpk!cd !he mas!t.r cmm;e of architc:c!Ure. the :;aid
t111ivcr.<:ity
compk1ed !he tlo:.:tur t:nur.-;: \}f arrhitet:Hlrc. th" ;-;:1id
t:ni\'er.~l!y

!9S5-R6 worked 1\ ith Bernard Tsdmmi in Pan.: de Ia Viii\)IIC,


Ul:IS!Cr cour.~c

or t\rdli!ct:!tm.:. Tokyo hlS!itute

11):{6

t:~t;lb!i:-;tetl

PARADISU." An.:hitct:t;;

Kcngo Kuma
1954
born in Knn<~gawa Prcf.
1979
completed tbc nmstc:r course, Tokyo University
1935-86 visiriag scholar a1 Columbia University
1987
estnblishcd Spati::rl D!!sign Studio
1990
cstablishcd Kcngo Kum,1 & Associates
199~
visi1ing critic :tt Columbia lJniwrsity

l!o & Associates. ArchiiCts


hccarne ~~s.<>is!an: a! Tokyo ln~lilulc of Technology
cst:Jblisbed Sngabc i\tctier
Mas:lyo-shi Takeuchi

Shin T~tkama!su
ltJ-4~
horn in Shim;mc Pref.

19&9

197-i

HihJshi Ahc

cs!abliscd Masayoshi T:tkeuehi A!ditr


M~tmtcl Tardits

1962
!983

199.J

llJ71

complett:d the doctor cour;;c of architecture, Tokyo insti!Utt'

19RO

1991

1993

born in Miyagi Prcf.


comple!l!'tl the master course of t.tn:hitccturc. ll the Southern
California institute or Architecture.
wQrkcd at Coop Himmelblau
received PH. D. in archilcclure from Tohoku Univ?rsity

199-t

cs!ablishetl Atelier Hitu:.hi Ahc


beca::1e lecturer at Tohoku !nslilute or Technology

Nobuaki Furuya
born in 1955

1978

from the Waseda Univcrsiry. Department of

1984

Tokyo Institute

19$~

19j0

hom in K;tnagawa Prcf.

1975

Akikn T:1knhashi
1958
born in Shizuoka PrcL
1%0
gnHJUulcd from !he Kyoto University School of Engi11Ccring,
DepartmL!nl Architecture
1980..86 Knuo Shitwhara Laboratory, Tokyo ln~titutc ofTcdwnology
1986-SS worked at KaY.tJO Shinohnra Atclia

I97.S

from the Kyow University School of


Dcp;mnwm of An.:hitccrurc
master cour:;e of llrchi!cciurc. the said univcrsitv
at f.-b:>ayuki Kurokawa i\$SOciatc.s

established Waro Ki~hi. Architect


rhc oHkc irHo Waro Kishi+ K.ASSOCIATES

{/

iJ~~:;-:tl; if:-J~:f:i'!i+;;~r:mr~

t9Jl ft~J.:.1}~1r~!l 7 1 tL/ 195-til:1f!~;~J;,q:c 'f:i~ilill;N;::n-r:rs/tY59Wflil

~:r:~xra;f~-~ :1.:

:kc~~~W:!:r~1H'tl~~-{ / 19631f.~(!,.'fT ~

J~t.&di~iiJf~/Jli94{!~~~.~;u::~:k~?~JJl.

.&

J:<llli!Ff

ill~;i'l!iH:

Ji)Jf7i/J9911f. iti 1Jtt,-t.7

( l9841f.::.L.::: f

J 98 I
1993

nssoci;Hc profe....,;,or m Kyoto lnstitu!c ofTcdmvlogy

199.JWI!~{tffcft~&~~t,ii'J~ff?i~r;,:z:.!.J,

( t9ss:~~-~c:;(-r:::i1J::7:j~.l:;m~'l$~ If&.
;-Jf/( 1

u9~9;l'll!:;n:~;J~q:J.:.lf:~~nt 1::/1Hn~

:1 /

11l~Uf:p~},:q;, ~n~CLl).:.q:yf~c. W79ii~!Ht!llj~~~t-

Waro Kishi

1992

~illi:Ji

'J .I.;il:'(

1992

fn}m 1h0 Kyow U11ivt:r.,ity, School uf


DcprunerH of :\n.:hi!ectun:
completed !.he nm::acr cour.sc of art:hiiCCI\JfC. the said univer!>i!y
compkicd ihc dtk'tor cuur:-;..:. the s:tid unlvcrsitv
c.stab!ished Shin T:rk<m:atsu :\rchltcct &. Asso;i;ucs
c~tabli-;hctl Taklmat\n + Lahyani Architects A%ociates
Sr\ (offit:es in fkrhn :md Geneva}

~ IJ

W!tL~HJiill~j~;z;n

t IJ _::.;;r,::i, rrr)Jn

f /ltJS9~'.rJ-7

:L,{;:.f:!, ,, :=. :t.:LJ!- ~: J\..T' {

If ::f :_; .., 'l No.I

-t:Jf/ ltJRX 1j~4tJ;( )~.:-;: J.:.fr':"ii~S:

''l

1:~ 1f;

1/JrU':l.. _;i~~'IU: ~6. JJJ.:(L IJ:~~ :r~Jt1JH~~Q),-~rtillt 1 P,L!.:ilifti~'l 1 ,


19861Jofi:.J.:ill!ii''f:frlt (I{IIIJ*-Iv), 11"-l'J<ftr!f{ :.-'{( lifO)(I'
~t;}, if.fi/frJH~Iihtr Xftt :;_, 1J -1:~/J!J ::1 :..--:lt~~1H't. ~ijfM!Iil(X::it11
P.ili~JHJ :1 / r{frlfftf.rl't~'lt

1958ff.J)'ffi!:l~1r~il:.

ttL/ t9SO-t!: )j( ffl;);)(:~t:~f':;i~ffi~~:l:H!f:-:;rf/ 198086 fj~

1lo;u~:zu~-:;::~iJ;(ftlf'fc~\/ 1986-ssW-UJ~( -~l7

r 11J../ J9s!l-r!'r'<':JI~t'f:~

PHOTO COPYRIGHT

All photographs except as noted: by


The Photography Dept., JA (Shinkenchiku-sha)

1941 )f. fk!!FH1~~~f~ :.E tt/ 19651f~O;U,.:?;': T/f:;;rJill~~q:H'f ~'i/ 1965-69iF


:llYrW:JH.ll~;l!Z;WJ~ffiFJf /1971 q~ 7' ~ :\/
~ (URBOT)~2' <'r:/
19J91f.fJ>lJil!latill1i\~~;;jj(j)j,WI:&f1};

~~:1!:
1953:1~ -~ JJ( m:~t: i

-1L/ 19?6':f: ;f!J;D_:Ji).;~;::~~~~';':Hif::Jfi/ 1978fnii k

:'(:Rtrft;,~;WH ~r

1985-891f. ft;JA:-f:iJH::'?: fHJJJ T~ / 19SH {f:f.':Jte,;/, (' t

Chief Photographer:
Shigeo Ogawa

IJl!jfli
1954li'Jlll.illl~\ 1 i'. ;tit/ 1979if. ~Cf,i:J;?J;of'~A'Ili J:;<t.:;~ '( /
11~::1

o:,. e:7i.,:?"f:'ftHfdf'ffJL Asian Cultural

lr::~ullfrlfJEj~fi&:V:/ I9w:FrnfrJFtHl~~m; ili~1~t;t .~JHhi'l(;ilt 't:/

0/

TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH

19H586

co~tnc!IM~'l~VJf1'Eft/1987

t99.J ;v. :::1

to:71.;1(:'firtl'll

~-7:tJ/A

71

l'c.

l%2~F't;{t.:~J~~~~:;!: h/191'3\fSCI~ARC~~ I:~~~~W?t.I {~:. 199211~ J: 1::J-

AJl>J.

~~77 71:'ihfn/IY9J'I'~:1U~'i'MN.<~id:~;lrLf::.

JilrJ;JJIJll{rf;/19&61r~r:r:tdl:/-

/ABI;iX/.!JlNflV~tlMi :ito;d~!; ..:u~?l, niHH-1~. -1-~L~UJ:..

llil$1:~

7t: "';

Hiroshi Asano:

19ss::1::.--711//.. t-tri'J

cj:o/p;r(f)sl,ol;;- H-

t!Jni#l'!:~i.

Descriptive texts on pages 34, 44, 48, 58, 64,68.72

,1,

HNIHl: (, 114U;':iiiill.1

184, 186

/ll~"t'l8f~h!Jl

Veronique Belmont

1"nr'1

oH::e 7 r J "'il1MVJ!!1<'~i.itrv~:;:;,~~~~

Descriptive texts on pages 144-145


l h/J9791f:ll!J;( 1: ;fiJ~?it~Yf:H-'f::t"i/19SI \1'-lnlk
;::;-'~S:-J:,~ f:t'f1 t~ f / IIJX7 :1~ -ll!. ;;! L-:7~ )~'{:1'1-!:.~HtF~ f / 1Wi5- H(J1f, 1 '
- !'- V -!-::. ~ -~J~f:61~(/19861!~PARADlSUS,&.~!~
195)q'.I];J:~~~~~!I:.

;t;<illl'
1955'1''1'

*1.v

19JstF'r'!ifiliiJ;'J:J'f!_r::;:m:ill~~'i'~'~'i':IV 19so:1 ''lifi

IU"k/{:);_q:~~lt\'.-J:iliiJYJ/,'f.f'i~lf -(. ~J.WfiJf'J't:,{fWJ{: / 193JiJ'C!i~fili!lf );_~~::

!'l!:r ,,~ ~~Wif:UJJ y. / 19So'r i!i!'f:k'f'J::'nl:,wnm. :5c 1~1r 4:f*i* tmm


J~ll t L-cllWF~~~ 1] ;1 . ;f. 1 )' ~I~67Jgr~.:<J:Iif/ 1990J:~j!f~u.:~r:J~'\f:
aWlf.dQ/ !i 1-fifllflk.::;.':JIIC:{:itJJWJUt;t,

'J. ~ :; t

Paul Baxter

Descriptive texts on pages 82. 92, 100, 102, 106, 110,

T 7. 11 <i.i:.Z

;!i;lJ:i$
1948 ft~i.'HIE1~~'1: t h/ 1971 if: J;~ till)~q:L"f:iii:H.~!tSq:f-1.:-t-::\-~/ 1974 fi'.Ji;J
Jc'f:f~I~J:i.UtMiT /

19soll'i'1i!l:l:;:l'!'t!l' -r.

mr: Pl'ill~:.&::l :l'ft,,r

Carol Hayes

Descriptive texts on pages 118127


Martin Morris

Descriptive texts on pages 190-193


Jordan Sand

Descriptive texts on pages 18, 128-143, 160-177, 178


179, 182183, 200, 206, 210, 214

I*!Ol!ll!!
I95Mf~trV~ 1;~!: ~ ~L/ I9811f': I] 'l~{.(T);:':f:j.,:'f:~i;.t$T Ut f]r~[ ~HM.l!

!il&.:"'iitrJlfJHrr.Ai~r /

1987if.~~trMu t~illlli<~H 'i'fflm~::.:

li-~h,('J;

1995Jio, IJI!iJtlC.fll'f (1987Jf.~Oiii'!/U;'I:};'f:fA:iH~~WtT /Jq;


ill~~J'ffiffi'~fi-clm1i:-e:; "'J 1 7 ; ~:.r.1 J;tt_)J:.). rm~ht1i" uw3

224

JA 1995-3 PROGRAMMING

A'fOe!\
1950iF fti:~~JII ;~~~!:l:. i ~ t. / 197511 J;Uffi }~q: T ;-':nli ill*:'f:H If: :Vi/ 197~ 11:
fi;i);:HA:Ild:JU'IJH Iii, 1.1.\III~L':ffi~>;i~;ii!Jtf)jil'r J..ilr/ 1981 ~'ir: Ill
nr.ill~"~;lr')fffliir0'.,1./ 1993il'l'iPHI/i(ii'l: l;!~llr.f;+K.ASSOCIA TES i:&
~l ll.hU-:::IlHU'i<!VJ~W

Copyright 1995 Shinkenchikusha

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be


reproduced, in any form or any means: electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, or otherNise, without permission in writing from the publisher.