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H00164902

Course: Mechanical Eng. Science 6 (B58EF)

Lecturer: Dr. Mehdi Nazarinia

Summary/ Abstract:

We investigated the effect of pipe friction on head loss in different types of flow. To achieve

this objective, we used a hydraulic bench with a hydraulic motor, test-pipe with a constant

diameter and a head tank with stilling material inside it. It reflected that beyond a certain flow

velocity, the type of flow changed from laminar to turbulent. There was found to be a linear

relationship between Reynolds Number and Fanning friction factor.

Introduction:

Pressure drop or head loss in pipes is due to eddy currents caused by friction

between the pipes inner surface, as a result of its roughness, and the fluid it

contains. The frictional force acts tangential to the motion of the fluid and

results in a decrease in the overall energy of the fluid in motion. The study of

the frictional force between a moving fluid and the walls of a pipe and the

energy loss associated with it has numerous engineering applications in industry

The results of this experiment could be used in the oil pipe system design and

pump design industries where knowledge of different magnitudes of pressure

drop for different types of fluid flow is imperative to their work. In pipe system

design, the pressure drop between two locations determines the minimum

acceptable cross-sectional area of the pipeline given the flow rate requirements

for a desired output in a system.

Engineers in the oil pipe system design industry also use their knowledge of

pressure drops in piping networks to produce the most economical balance

between installation costs of the piping system and operational costs of the

pumps system.

In oil pump design, the knowledge of pressure drop is crucial to determining the

size of the pumps. After engineering calculations to find out the type of oil flow

using the dimensionless Reynolds Number, the pressure drop or head loss

between two points is determined. This value of pressure drop is then accounted

for by the pumps as the amount of power loss due to frictional losses in the pipe

is the power required to be added to the system by the booster pumps. These

booster pumps will be placed at points in the pipe system where maximum

pressure drops occur.

This pipe friction experiment aims to investigate the magnitude of pressure drop

for a broad range of flow rates that represent laminar, transitional and fully

turbulent types of flow and to calculate an estimate for the critical Reynolds

number where the flow changes from laminar to turbulent in nature.

Theory:

The type of fluid flow in a system is found by calculation of the dimensionless Reynolds

Number (ratio between inertial forces and viscous forces):

R eD=

VD

Generally, there are three types of fluid flow in pipes:

Laminar flow

Transient or transitional Flow

Turbulent

Laminar flow occurs mainly in pipes with small-cross-sectional area, at low fluid flow

velocities or with fluids of relatively high density. It is the flow in which viscous forces

dominate inertial forces. Laminar flow is a smooth steady flow of a fluid where its particles

move in layers that do not mix and are parallel to the wall. Shear stress depends solely on

viscosity and is independent of density. Occurs below Re=2000

Turbulent flow occurs generally at high flow rates, in pipes with larger cross-sectional areas

or with fluids of relatively low density. It is the flow in which inertial forces dominate

viscous forces. Eddies and wakes mean the layers of particles are now mixed and the flows

behavior is unpredictable. Shear stress for turbulent flow is directly related to the fluids

density. Occurs above Re= 2000

Transient flow occurs when turbulent and laminar flows occur simultaneously with

turbulence in the middle of the flow and laminar flow at the sides. This occurs around Re=

2000.

The energy loss due to friction between the pipes inner surface and the fluid it contains can

be derived from the Bernoullis Equation which describes the different forms of energy

involved in the fluid:

2

p1 V 1

p V2

+ +Z 1 = 2 + 2 +Z 2 + h

2g

2g

)(

Where:

= g = Specific weight of the fluid in N/m3

= Elevation in pipe in m

g = Acceleration due to gravity in m/s2

The value of Z (Z2 Z1), the length of the tube, is 510mm which will be a

constant throughout the experiment. The change in fluid velocity is

negligible, therefore, V2-V1= 0. Factoring these conditions into the

Bernoullis Equation and rearranging to make h L the subject of the

formula will give us an expression to calculate the total head loss:

h L=

p1 p 2

Z

In turbulent flow, the surface roughness of the pipe has a significant effect

on the head loss but in turbulent flow, the surface roughness of the pipe

has negligible effect on the head loss.

Through experimental observations, Darcy and Weisbach developed an

expression to calculate the energy loss in both laminar and turbulent flow:

which relates the head loss to the fluids flow velocity:

hL

f=

h L = Head loss in m

LV

2 Dg

= Diameter of pipe in m

Diagram using the values of surface roughness and

Reynolds Number to reflect how close the experimental

value was to the theoretical value of friction factor. The

Moody Diagram is a graph that reflects the relationship

between surface roughness, Friction factor and

Reynolds Number.

Equipment:

1)Stopwatch- To

measure time

taken for water

to be

collected.

2)Measuring

Beaker- To

measure

volume of

water

collected

3) Hydraulic Bench:

A vertical piping

system with 3

valves in the rear

to switch

between

different types of

flow. A hydraulic

motor pumps

water up the

pipe and into the

head tank with

the stilling

matter for

laminar flow. The

motor is

connected

directly to the

test pipe by

adjusting the

valves to obtain

a higher flow

rate. (Turbulent

flow)

Laminar Flow:

To obtain a laminar flow for the test, adjust the 3 valves at the back of

the bench. Engage Valve V1 and close valve V2 to allow the water to

flow to the reservoir.

Set the over flow tube at the required water level in the head tank.

Open valve V3 to allow the fluid to flow through the stilling material

and into the test pipe.

Control the volumetric flow rate using valve V4. Start the stopwatch

when the valve V4 is opened.

Close V4 and stop the timer simultaneously.

Record readings on the mercury manometer, reflecting pressure loss in

the test pipe between the 2 test points, and the water level reading on

the measuring water.

Repeat 4,5 and 6 for other rates of flow.

Turbulent Flow:

Disengage valves V2 and V3 and open valve v2 to allow water to flow

directly from the hydraulic bench into the test pipe to obtain a higher

rate of water flow.

Repeat 4,5 and 6 for a range of flow rates.

h1

(cm

.Hg)

h2

h

(cm. (cm.

Hg) H20

)

Head

Loss

(m)

Volum

e

(m3)

Time(s

)

22

22.5

0.5

0.505

0.0001

14.2

23

21.4

1.6

0.494

0.0001

13.3

21

23.5

2.5

0.485

0.0001

10.5

24

20.5

3.5

0.475

0.0001

8.75

23.7

20.9

2.8

0.482

0.0001

9.56

Flow

Rate

(m3/s

)

7.042

25E06

7.518

8E-06

9.496

68E06

1.142

86E05

1.046

03E05

Velocit

y

(m/s)

Reynold

s

Number

0.9962

76

1.0636

93

2598.98

1

2774.85

2

1.3435

06

Fanning

friction

(Experimen

tal)

Fanning

Friction

(Moody

diagram

)

0.01467987

0.015

0.0125975

0.013

3504.79

8

0.007752694

0.0076

1.6168

13

4217.77

4

0.005242807

0.0049

1.4798

24

3860.41

1

0.006350632

0.0064

Laminar Flow

0

3.4

-0.5

log(f)

3.45

3.5

3.55

3.6

3.65

-1

-1.5

-2

-2.5

log(Re)

h1

(cm.H

g)

h2

(cm.H

g)

h

(cm.H2

0)

Hea

d

Los

s

(m)

Volume

(m3)

5.5

0.45

5

0.000

1

9.8

7

1.013

E-05

Time(s)

1.4333

45

Flow Rate

(m3/s)

3739.161

623

Velocity

(m/s)

0.006389

985

Reynol

ds

Numbe

r

Fanning

friction

(Experimen

tal)

0.006

2

3.572774

Fann

Fricti

(Moo

diagr

4.5

7.5

8.4

9.7

0.46

5

0.43

5

0.42

6

0.41

3

0.000

1

0.000

1

0.000

1

0.000

1

9.6

6

7.0

3

6.5

3

5.7

5

1.035

E-05

1.422

E-05

1.531

E-05

1.739

E-05

1.4645

05

2.0123

92

2.1664

81

2.4603

68

3820.447

746

5249.719

093

5651.688

396

6418.352

213

0.006255

49

0.003099

232

0.002618

726

0.001968

52

0.006

2

0.003

1

0.003

0.002

5

3.582114

3.720136

3.752178

3.807424

Turbulent Flow

0

3.55

-0.5

3.6

3.65

3.7

3.75

3.8

3.85

-1

-2

-2.5

-3

log (Re)

the Fannings friction factor and the Reynolds Number, thus, the flow

rate, is linear. For each test, the friction factor calculated from the

experimental results was fairly close to the theoretical value taken

from the Moody Diagram within an acceptable margin of error which

will be reflected in the calculations portion below.

The critical Reynolds Number where the type of flow changes from

laminar to turbulent was estimated to be 2680 from the table of

results above. This estimation was calculated from the tests

immediately before the significant rise in Reynolds Number which was

the indicating factor that the type of flow had changed from laminar to

turbulent. This number falls within the acceptable critical Reynolds

Number range of 2000 to 4000.

According to the Darcy and Weisbach expression to calculate friction

factor, the Fanning friction factor is inversely proportional to the square

of the flow velocity. This relationship is reflected in the table of results

friction factor.

The fluid, water, was assumed to be an ideal fluid in the calculations

which is not the case in reality and this contributed to an error in the

calculation for the experimental friction factor.

It was observed that the friction factor for laminar flows was

significantly lower than the friction factor for turbulent flows. As the

head loss is directly related to the friction factor, it is observed that the

head loss in laminar flow is much higher than the head loss in

turbulent flow.

Calculations:

The sample calculations to calculate the Fanning friction factor and

Reynolds number from the results of each test are as follows:

h=h2h1

h water=5.5 cm

h L= h Z 0.055 0.510| = 0.455m

Flow rate Q=

Volume

Time

0.0001

m3

5 m

=1.013

=1.013 10

9.87

sec

s

2.25 10

2

5

Velocity v=Q( r )=(1.013 10 )/

hL

Frictional Factor f =

L V

D 2g

0.455

=0.00639

0.51

1.433 2

4

0.003 2 9.81

VD VD 1.43335 3 103

R eD =

=

=

= 3739.161623

1.15 106

Percentage error:

Largest percentage error in friction factor (laminar flow):

f ( Moody Diagram)

100

0.0052430.0049

0.0049

100 =

7%

Largest percentage error in friction factor (turbulent flow):

f (experimental )f ( Moody Diagram)

f ( Moody Diagram)

100

0.0019690.0025

0.0025

100

21.3 %

The percentage error for turbulent flow was much larger than that of

laminar flow as the much higher velocities needed highly accurate

mechanism for time measurement, which meant that, human error had a

much greater impact on the calculation of the friction factor.

Possible Sources of Error:

1) Human Error: Parallax error while reading the levels of manometric

fluid in the manometer and the volume of water in the measuring

beaker. Delay in recording the time taken for a volume of water to be

collected.

2) Diameter of test pipe: The diameter of the test pipe might vary slightly

through its length which would greatly affect the accuracy of the

readings as the readings are very susceptible to changes in pipe

diameter. This is because the diameter affects the flow rate calculation

and in turn, the calculation for the friction factor which is directly

related to the square of the flow velocity.

3) Fluctuations in Manometer: Air bubbles coul have been formed during

the calibration of the manometer which would lead to an error in the

readings for pressure difference.

Precautions:

1)

2)

3)

4)

Check if the heights of manometric fluid in the columns are the same.

Ensure pipe doesnt touch the water in the measuring beaker.

Practice caution while handling the flexible tube delivering water into

the measuring beaker in order to avoid causing back pressure.

Improvements:

1) Place measuring beaker at an appropriate height to avoid parallax

error rather than a relatively low height in the sink.

2) Use a stand to hold the delivery tube in order to avoid causing

unwanted fluctuations in pressure difference due to varying

elevation.

Conclusion:

The head loss in the test-pipe was found to be proportional to the flow velocity of the fluid.

The findings of the experiment have shown that the head loss due to friction in laminar flow

is much larger than in turbulent flow. It reflected that beyond a certain flow velocity, the type

of flow changed from laminar to turbulent. This laboratory experiment proved that the

Fanning friction factor was directly related to the Reynolds Number for both laminar flow

and turbulent flow which was expressed in the log graphs plotted from the results. It also

showed that the friction factor for laminar flow was significantly larger than for turbulent

flow.

References:

http://www.mvsengineering.com/files/SubsurfaceBook/MVS-SVE_Chapter02.pdf

http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/pressure_drop

/pipe-friction-calculation.htm

http://www.ipt.ntnu.no/~jsg/undervisning/prosessering/

kompendium/ErrorAnalysisStrupstad.pdf

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