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Chapter (1)

Introduction and Basic Concept

Chapter (1): Introduction and Basic Concepts

ME 306 - Fall 2013

Chapter (1) - Introduction and Basic Concepts


1. Definitions
Kinematics: The branch of mechanics deals with the motion of a body without
discussing the cause of motion.

Kinetics: The branch of dynamics considering the forces causing the motion.
Dynamics: It is the combination of kinematics and kinetics.
Mechanism is a combination of rigid bodies joined together to provide a specific
absolute motion.

Machine is a device (consisting of fixed and moving parts) which receives energy in some
available form and utilizes it to do some particular type of work.

Engine is a machine which converts energy from one form to another.


Work: When a force is applied to a body so that it causes the body to move, the force is
said to be doing work. The work done is the product of the distance moved and applied
force in the direction of motion (Figure 1). The work done is measured in Joule (where 1
Joule = 1 Nm), i.e.,

Work done = Force(F) Distance (d)

F
x
Figure (1)

Example: Find the work done if the force is 100N and the distance is 4.0m for the shown
systems in Figure (2).

Chapter (1): Introduction and Basic Concepts

ME 306 - Fall 2013

F=100N
F=100N

F=100N

30

X=4.0m

F=100N
30o
X=4.0m

(a)

(b)

Figure (2)

Energy is the capacity to do work which implies movement of a body by the application
of a force, as for example: raising of a weight, walking, moving of a car etc.

Types of Energies
Energy exists in many forms such as thermal energy, chemical energy, mechanical energy,
electrical energy. Examples:
1. An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
2. An internal combustion engine is one example of a machine that converts chemical
energy to mechanical energy.

3. Steam engine and Car engine convert heat energy to mechanical energy.
The mechanical energy can be kinetic energy (T) or potential energy (V).
where T

mass velocity
2

1
mv 2 , and
2

V=mass(m)acceleration of gravity (g) height (h)=mgh

Law of Conservation of Energy


The law of conservation of energy states that Energy can be neither created nor
destroyed but is convertible from one form to another.

Power is the rate of doing work and can be expressed mathematically as:
Power (W) = work done (J)/time taken (sec) = force (N) velocity (m/sec)
The unit of the power is the Watt, where 1 Watt = 1 J/sec.

Chapter (1): Introduction and Basic Concepts

ME 306 - Fall 2013

Example: A body of weight 10kN is to be raised through a height of 8.0m in 5 sec.


Calculate the power required.
Solution:
Work done = force (weight) distance moved = 10kN 8.0m = 80 kNm = 80kJ
Power required = work done/time = 80 (kJ)/5 (sec) = 22 kW.

Efficiency is the measure of the usefulness of a machine, process or operation.


Efficiency () = power (or work) output/power (or work) input

2. Linear Velocity and Acceleration


Linear Velocity is the rate of change of linear displacement of a body with respect to
time. Linear velocity (v) can be expressed as:

Velocity(v) =

dx
x
dt

(m/sec)

where x is linear displacement,

Linear Acceleration is the rate of change of linear velocity of a body with respect to
the time. Mathematically, the linear acceleration is:

Acceleration (a) =

dv d dx d 2 x

x

dt dt dt dt 2

(m/sec2)

3. Angular Velocity and Acceleration


When a rigid body rotates about a fixed axis all points on the
body are constrained to move in a circular path. Therefore in
any period of time all points on the body will complete the
same number of revolutions about the axis of rotation.

Angular Velocity is the rate of change of angular displacement with respect to time.
Angularvelocity( )

dt

(rad/sec)
4

Chapter (1): Introduction and Basic Concepts

ME 306 - Fall 2013

in which = Angular displacement in radians, and


where the speed N is given in rev/min.

2
N
60

(rad/sec)

Angular Acceleration is the rate of change of angular velocity with respect to time.
Angular acceleration ( )

d d

dt
dt

(rad/sec2)

Relation between Linear and Angular Motion


Consider a body moving along a circular path from A to B as shown in Figure (3).
From the geometry of Figure (3):

at

S=r

an

The relation between linear and angular velocities:

vt

dS d
d
r r
r
dt dt
dt

Tangential velocity(vt ) = Angular velocity () radius(r)

The relation between linear and angular accelerations:


The linear acceleration consists from two components;

Radial component

Figure (3)

dv
d
d
at t r r
r
dt
dt
dt

Tangential component

an v

vt

d
v v2
v v
dt
r r
r r

at

The total acceleration or resultant acceleration is given as:

at

an

a
Total acceleration

The angle of inclination with the tangential acceleration is given by:

an

at

tan 1

an

Chapter (1): Introduction and Basic Concepts

ME 306 - Fall 2013

Example: The speed of a flywheel increases from 150rpm to 200rpm in 5sec. Find its
angular acceleration in rad/sec.

Mass moment of Inertia


All rotating machines, such as pumps, turbines and engines have a moment of inertia
given as:
I mk2

Where m is the total mass and k is the radius of gyration is the radius.
(1) The mass moment of inertia of a thin disc of radius R ,
R

about an axis through its centre of gravity and


perpendicular to its length is:
IG

mR2
.
2

Thin disc

(2) The mass moment of inertia of a thin rod of length

, about an axis through its

centre of gravity and perpendicular to its length is:


IG

m L2
.
12

G
L
Thin rod

The mass moment of inertia about any other parallel axis may be determined by using a
parallel axis theorem. Then the moment of inertia about a parallel axis is given by:

IO IG m d 2
where I G is the moment of inertia of a body about an axis through its centre of gravity,
and d is the distance between two parallel axes.

Problem: Show that the mass moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the end of
the rod is given by:

IO

m L2

.
3

Linear and Angular Momentum


6

Chapter (1): Introduction and Basic Concepts

ME 306 - Fall 2013

The linear momentum (LLm) of a system of particles is equal to the product of the total

mass (m) of the system and the velocity (v) of the center of mass.
LLm m v m r

(kg.m/sec)

The moment of momentum (Lam) of whole body mass m about


fixed axis O is:

Fixed axis

Lam m v r m r I o

(kg.m2/sec)

where Io =m r2 is the mass moment of inertia of whole body (m) about the point O.

Inertia Torque
The Newtons second law of motion states that the torque is directly proportional to the
rate of change of the angular momentum, i.e.,

dLam d I o

dt
dt

The torque required to rotate a body of angular acceleration is

T Io

d
Io
dt

(N.m)

Chapter (2): Mechanisms and Machines