Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 339

dR DEP: I RTA- r 1- WT TEc: HNI C3L Al W

NUAL
TM9- 000
Thi n Topl snl csd Manual super sr dX TI N 9- 1940 . dat ed S Jol y 1$42. end Chsngax No, 1,
dal ad
August ;
I 943 OST 0- i e . l +ol a, 1 t o 5, i nr l . , r l st a d Oct ober 1742; OFSTb 1944- 11, dat ed L3
] neaunr y 1943; OFSTI I 1904- 13, dat ed 23 Apr i l 1943; W
L>TB 9 1940- 11, Ant ed 21 Apr i l 1943;

nY&Tl t 1940- 1G, dat ed 11 Juua 10431, OFSTE 1900- 17- t l wt ed 20 Sept ember 1943; W
DTB
9- 1} LO- 14, dal ad S August 1944; and l 4i W
A ORD 51, dat ed i hdpr r f t 1943. Thi s Techni
vat
] annual aupar sedea pnsi i r mt , of W
DTB ORD 194 { 9 i r pr i nt of OF5TO 1940- t f l ) , dat ed 5
DTB ORD 214, dat ed 38 Oct oher 1444; gi , d W
Camber 1943 W
DTB ORD 349, dat ed
1 Fr Lr uar y 1445.

GENERAL

1' 11 " A1t

I M1' . I Ra' ME.' 1T

J UNE 1945

RESTRI CTED. DI SSaMI NdTI ON OF RESTRI Cr ED bf dTTER.


No per son i s endt l ed t l * i y by vi r t ue of hi s gr ade or ppsi dan t o 6r mkdga
, or pussr sgi on of r l aui f i ed mat uz Such mat t er i s ent r ust ed aal y t o t bo&
i ndi vi dual 9 whose uf l caal dut i es mgui r a such kl i owl edge or powmi on( 3ac al so par agr aph 23%AR38D- 5, 15 Mar ch 1944. )

W
AR DEPARTMENT
Washi ngt on 25, D, C, 18 June 1945
T 9- 1900, Ammuni t i on, Gener al , i s publ i shed f or t he i nf or mat i on
and gui dance of al l concer ned.
A. G300, 7 ( 22 Aug44)
0. 0. 300. 713890
AR
YOF W
Ax:
BY ORDER of THE SC

G- C. MARSHALL,
Chi ef of

St af f .

OFFI CI AL:
EDW
ARD F. W
I TSELL,
Maj or Gener al ,
Act i ng Tho Adj ut ant Gener al .
D=RmuTi ox: AAF ( 5) ; AGF ( 5) ; ASF ( 2) , S Di v A5F ( 1) ;
Tof Opn ( 10) ; AA, F Comd ( 2) ; Ar m& Sv Bd ( 1) ;
Tech Sv ( 2) ; SvC ( 10) ; FC ( 1) ; BU ( 1) ; 1?E, Or d
0 ( 5) ; Di st O, 9 ( 5) ; l eg O, 9 ( 2) ; Est abl i shment s,
9 ( 5) except AmEst abl i shment s ( 2) ; Decent r al i zed

Sub- 0, 9 ( 2) ; Gen & Sp Sv Sch ( 10) ; A ( 10) ; C14Q


( 10) ; D ( 2) ; B 2, 4- 6, 18, 44 ( 1) ; F 2, 4- 11, I 7- 19,

44, 55 ( 1) ; En 2- 11, 17- 19, 44, 55 ( 1) ; C2- 11, 17- 19,


44, 55 ( 1) ; AF ( 2) 1 W
( 1) ; G( 1) ; S ( 1) ; LS ( 1) ;
F ( 1) .
( For expl anat i on of

symbol s, see FM21- 6. )

TM 9- 19000

CONTENTS
ac. OW
aFYa

CHAPTER 1. GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SECTI ON I . I nf aduct i on . . . . . . , . ,

I I , Gener al di scussi on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4- - 10

2- 25

I I I . Mi l i t ar y expl osi ves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11- 15

26- 31

I V. Pr opel l ant s . . . .

16- 23

31- - 37

. Hi ghexpl osi ves . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24- - 4a

37- 48

V1. Chemi cal agent s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49- 58

48- 53

CHAPTER 2. CLASSBs OF AMMUNI TI ON. . . . . . . . . . . 59- - 158

54- 212

I
'

. . . ..

SECTI ON I , Smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on . . . . . .

. .

..

1-

1- 53
1

...

... ..

ago&

. ..

1- 58

"

. .

59- 80

54- 75

I I . Or enades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81- 91

75- 85

I I I , Mor t ar ar nmuni t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

92- 96

86- 92

I V. Ar t i l l er y ammuni t i on . . . . . . . . . . . .

97- 148

93- 131

V. Bombs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109- 119

131- 160

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120_- 138

160- 181

VI . Pyr ot echni cs . . .

VI I . Racket s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139- 146 181- 193


VI I I . Land mi nes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147- 153
I X. Demol i t i on mat er i al s

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 154- 158

194- 204
204- 212

7M 9- 1900

r e, . ,

r or oar oo.

CHAPTER 3, CAKE, HANDLI NG, AND PRESERVATI ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159- 223

213

SECTI ON 1. Gener al saf et y pr ecaut i ons . . . . . . . . . 159- 166 213- - 225


157- 174

225- 260

111. St or age at suppl y pai nt s and


dumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175` 176

261- 2153

. . . .. .. .

177- X82

263- 270

. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . .

183- 190

270- 283

VI . I nspect i on and sur vei l l ance. . . . . . . . . . 191- 206

283- - 290

VI I . Renovat i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207- 214

294- - 294

VI I I . Pr ecaut i ona f ar pr act i ce f i r i ng. . . . 215- 223

295- 305

I I . St or age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

I V. packi ng and mar ki ng . .

v. Shi ppi ng . .

I
I

CHAPTER 4. DESTRUCTI ON OF AI ++r muNr r t om


I N ZONE OF ' THE I NTERI OR . . . 224- - 242

306- 322

CHAPTER S. REFERENCES . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243- 245

323^329

. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

330- 335

I NDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

TM 9- 1900

Par s . 1- 3

Tbi e Techni cal Mp. , u*l super sedes TM9- 1900, dat ed 3 Jul y 1943, end ChXges No, 1, dat ed
August 1943; O&T 9- 18, Vat s. I t o 5, i oal ., dol ed Oct ober 1942; OA' &' I ` S 1400- 11, dat ed 13
Jsouar y 1443: OFST13 1000- 13, dat ed 32 Apr i l 1943; W
DT3 4" 190013, dat ed 22 Apr i t 190;
47FSTJ3 J4pX18, dat ed I t June 1948; 4FS1TJ l Q00- 17, dnt od 34 l l ept et l i br t 1943; W
D"
9- 19f l 4 . 19, dat ed 5 August 1944; ai d W
DT8 ORDy1, dat ed 9 5dar ch 1943. Thi s Techni cal
D' TH ORD 194 S P FOVent of OFSTE 1904- t 11 ] , dol ed 6
Manual aapcr sedes ppr Onm or W
DT13 ORI 3 214, dat ed 28 Oct ol xr 1944; pad W
Nor r mber 1943; W
DTJ3 ORD 249, , l aud
I N' ebr uar y 1945.

CHAPTER 1
GENERAL

Sect i on 1
I NTRODUCTI ON

a.

Thi s manual i s publ i shed f or t he i nf or mat i on and gui dance

of Ar my per sonnel concer ned wi t h ammuni t i on. Those r esponsi bl e


f or t he handl i ng of ammuni t i on

shoul d become t hor oughl y f ami l i ar

wi t h i t s pr ovi si ons,
h.

The r equi r ement s of t hi s manual wi l l appl y t o Cl ass 1, I I , and

I I I i nst al l at i ons.

The r equi r ement s of t he Or dnance Saf et y Manual

( O, O. For m 7224) Wi l l

gover n Cl ass I V i nst al l at i ons under t he

cont r ol of t he Chi ef of Or dnance.


2.

SCOPE.

The i nf or mat i on coot al med i n t hi s t ext i s of a gener al

t echni cal nat ur e .

I t concer ns t he sever al t ypes of ammuni t i on, t hei r

gener al char act er i st i cs, means of i dent i f i cat i n, car e i n handl i ng and
use, st or age, sur vei l l ance, par ki ng and mar ki ng shi ppi ng, and t he
dest r uct i on of duds and unser vi ceabl e ammuni t i on .
3.

REFERENCES. Fur t her i nf or mat i on concer ni ng speci f i c t ypes of

ammuni t i on i s Cont ai ned i n speci f i c Techni cal Manual s and Fi el d


I +danual s. A compl et e l i st of r ef er ences appear s i n chapt er 5.

TAt 4 9- 1900

Par . 4
Gener al

5eat i on 11
GENERAL DI SCUSSI ON
4.

Y0111[ CNCLATURE.
a.

SNL gr eupp.

St andar d nomencl at ur e i s est abl i shed so t hat

ay be speci f i cal l y
ever y i t em suppl i ed by t he Or dnance Depar t ment m
I t consi st s of t he t ype, si ze, and model of each
es of r ecor d i s mandat or y, except wher e
i t em. I t s use f or al l pur
i dent i f i ed by name.

use of AI C symbol

( par . 4 h)

i s aut hor i zed.

Ammuni t i on nomet t .

cl ot ur e i s publ i shed i n ORD11 St andar d Nomencl at ur e Li st s ( SN1, ' s)


of gr oups P, R, 5, end T, and i t s exact use wi l l keep t o a vni ni mur n
er r or s i n t he shi pment , st or age, i ssue, r ecor di ng, and use of ammuni t i on i t ems.
( 1)

Gr oup F cont ai ns I si s of ammuni t i on f or medi umand heavy

f i el d ar t i l l er y ( 155- mm gun and above) , Coast ar t i l l er y, and ant i ai r cr af t weapons.


( 2)

Gr oup Rcont ai ns l i st s of ammuni t i on f or l i ght and medi um

f i el d, t ank, ant i t ank, and ai r cr af t

ar t i l l er y weapons ( Mr nr n gut s

t hr ough 155- mm howi t zer ) , mor t ar s, mi nes, and demol i t i on mat er i al .


( 3)

Gr oup S cont ai ns l i st s of bombs, gr enades, pyr ot echni cs, and

r ocket s.
( 4)

Gr oup T cont ai ns l i st s of

ammuni t i on f or

smal l - ar ms

wcapo" ,
h.

Amnsul ut i on I dent i f i ca t i on Code nyni hol e. TheAni t nuni t i on

I dent i f i cat i on Code ( AI C) symbol has been est abl i shed t o f aci l i t at e
t he suppl y of ammuni t i on i n t he f i el d.

Code symbol s assi gned t o

each i t em of ammuni t i on i n a speci f i c packi ng ar e t o be used i n


messages, r equi si t i ons, and r ecor ds, These code symbol s ar e publ i shed
basi cal l y i n ORD11 SNL' s of gr oups P, R, S, and T. Af ul l expl anat i on of t he composi t i on and use of t he AI Csymbol wi l l be f ound i n
SB 9- AM
M5 and changes t her et o.

TM 9- 1900

Tar s. 5- 6
CCener al

CLASSI FI CATI ON.

5.
a.

Gener al .

pr act i ce, bl ank,

Ammuni t i on i s cl assi f i ed accor di ng t o use as ser vi ce,


or dr i l l ( ar dummy) .

accor di ng t o t ype of Mi er
16.

as expl osi ve,

Ser vi ce ammuni t i on,

I t may al so be cl assi f i ed

chemi cal , or i ner t .

Ser vi ce ammuni t i on i s i nt ended

f i r ed f or ef f ect i n combat .

t o be

Such ammuni t i on ( except smal l - ar ms

ammuni t i on) may be f ur t her cl assi f i ed accor di ng t o t ype as hi ghexpl osi ve, hi gh- expl osi ve- ant i t ank, ar mor - pi er ci ng, gas, smoke, cani st er , i ncendi ar y, i l l umi nat i ng, or pyr ot echni c.
e,

Pr act i ce. ammuni t i on.

Pr act i ce ammuni t i on i s f i r ed f or ef f ect

i n si mul at ed combat and i s pr ovi ded f or t r ai ni ng i n mar ksmanshi p.


The pr oj ect i l e i n t hi s t ype of ammuni t i on may have a si nal l quant i t y
of

l ow- expl osi ve

f i l l er t o ser ve as a spot t i ng char ge,

or i t

may

be i ner t .
{ 1,

Bl ank ammuni t i on.

Bl ank ammuni t i on i s pr ovi ded i n smal l

and medi umcal i ber s f or sal ut i ng pur poses and si mul at ed f i r e . I t has
no pr oj ect i l e.
e.

Mi l l

ani t kwuni don.

Dr i l l or dur nr ny ar nr nuni t i oa i s used f or

t r ai ni ng i n handl i ng and l oadi ng ( " ser +r i ce of t he pi ece" ) ,

I t i s com-

pl et el y i ner t ,

6.

I DENTI FI CKi TI ON.


a.

Gener al .

Ammuni t i on i s compl et el y i dent i f i ed, except as t o

gr ade, by pai nt i ng and mar ki ng on or i gi nal packi ng Cont ai ner s . For


pur poses of r ecor d, t he st andar d nomencl at ur e of t he i t em, t oget her
wi t h i t s l ot number , compl et el y i dent i f i es t he ammuni t i on.
r emoved f r om i t s packi ng,

Once

ammuni t i on m
ay be i dent i f i ed by t he

pai nt i ng and mar ki ng on t he ammuni t i on i t ems.


Ot her essent i al
i nf or mat i on may al so be obt ai ned f r omt he mar ki ng on ammuni t i on
a

TM 9. 1908

For . 6
Ger mr af

i t ems . The mur al s vel oci t y of pr oj ect i l es may be obt ai ned f r or n t he


f i r i ng t abl es and ammuni t i on dat a car ds; i n t he case of some r ounds
of snxal l er cal i ber , t he muzzl e vel oci t y may appear on t he packi ng box.
I ncl uded i n t ent h t he mar ki ng and t he st andar d nomencl at ur e ar e
( 1) A br i ef descr i pt i on of t he t ype or qui t abl e abbr evi at i on
t her eof .
( 2)

Cal i ber , wei ght , or si ze.


Model desi pat or L

( 4) " Wher e r equi r ed, such addi t i onal i nf or mat i on as t he model


and t ype of f uze, t he model of t he cannon i n whi ch t he i t emi s f i r e$,
t he wei ght of pr oj ect i l e f or whi ch a separ at e- l osdi ng pr opel l i ng
char ge i s sui t ed, et c,
( 5) The l ot number i s mar ked on t he ammuni t i on but i s not a
par t of t he nomencl at ur e. However , when r ef er r i ng t o speci f i c at i ' I mu
ni t i on, i t i s necessar y t o ment i on t he l ot npmber as wel l as t he
st andar d nomencl at ur e.
h. Mar k or model . To i dent i f y a par t i cul ar desi gn, a model
desi gnat i on i s assi gned at t he t i me t he model i s cl assi f i ed as ai m
adopt ed t ype. Thi s model desi gnat i on beoot t t es an essent i al Par t
of t he nomencl at ur e and i s i ncl uded i n t he mar ki ng of t he i t em. The
pr esent syst em of model desi gnat i on consi st s of t he l et t er " M" f ol l owed by an ar abi c numer al , f or exampl e, " M1. " Modi f i cat i ons ar e
i ndi cat ed by addi ng t he l et t er " A" and t he appr opr i at e ar abi c
numer al . Thus, " MI AL" i ndi cat es t he f i r st Modi f i cat i on of an i t em
f ar whi ch t he or i gi nal model desi gnat i on was " XI . . " Wher ever a ". B"
suf f i x appear s i n a model desi gnat i on i t i ndi cat es an i t em of al t ecna"
t i ve ( or subst i t ut e) desi gn, mat er i al , e manuf act ur e. Cer t ai n i t ems
st andar di sed f or use by bot h Ar nWand Navy ar e desi gnat ed by " AN"
pr ecedi ng t he model desi gnat i on, f or exampl e, AN- MI 03AI , AN- Mk
19. Fr omWor l d W
ar I t o l Jul y 1975, i t was t he pr act i ce t o assi gn
mar k number s, t hat * t he wor d " Mar k, , abbr evi at ed " Mk" f ol l owed

TM 9- 1900

Par .
Gener al

by a r oman numer al . The medi f i cat i on was i ndi cat ed by t he addi t i on


of M
I t o t he mar k number , t he second

I I , et c. ; af t er 2 Apr i l 1945,

. t hese r oman numer al s i n Mar k number s wi l l be i ndi cat ed by ar abi c,


r at her t han r oman, numer al s,

Thi s change f r om r oman t o ar abl e

numer al s wi l l af f ect ammuni t i on i t ems i n use by t he V. S. Ar my


whi ch ar e of Br i t i sh or Navy or i gi n, and al so ol der ar my i t ems whi ch
ar e nowassi gned Mar k number s. ' Pr i or t o W
or l d W
ar I , t he year
i n whi ch t he desi gn was adopt ed, pr eceded by t he l et t er 14f , " was
used as t he model desi gnat i on, f or exampl e, M1914.
c.

Ammuni t i on l ot number .

At t he t i me of manuf act ur e ever y

i t em of ammuni t i on i s assi gned a l ot number . W


her e t he si ze of
t he i t em per mi t s, i t i s mar ked on t he i t emi t sel f t o i nsur e per manency
of t hi s means of i dent i f i cat i on.

I n addi t i on t o t hi s l ot number , t her e

i s assi gned t o each compl et e r ound of f i xed and ser ni f i xed ammuni t i on an ammuni t i on l ot number whi ch ser ves t o i dent i f y t he coml i t i ons under whi ch t he r ound was assembl ed, and t he component s
used i n t he assembl y. Thi s ammuni t i on. l ot number i s mar ked on
ever y compl et e r ound of f i xed and semi f i xed ammuni t i on ( except
wher e t he i t em i s t oo smal l ) and on al l packi ng cont ai ner s . I t i s
r equi r ed f or al l pur poses of r ecor d, i ncl udi ng r epor t s on condi t i on,
f unct i oni ng, and acci dent s,

i n whi ch t he ammuni t i on i s i nvol ved.

As f ar as pr act i cabl e, al l compl et e r ounds of any par t i cul ar ammuni t i on l ot ar e made up of component s sel ect ed f r omt he same l ot . To
obt ai n t he gr eat est accur acy i n any f i r i ng, successi ve r ounds shoul d
be f r om t he same ammuni t i on l ot ,
d. Ammuni t i on dat a car d. Ammuni t i on dat a car ds wi l l be f ur ni shed i n t he pr escr i bed amount s f or al l ammuni t i on i t ems of i ssue
except smal l - ar ses ammuni t i on. Thi s i s a 5- by 8- i nch car d, on whi ch
i s pr i nt ed dat a concer ni ng t he i t em and i t s component s . Dat a car ds
ar e f or war ded wi t h shi ppi ng t i cket s at t he t i me of shi pment sand ar e
al so Sent t o t he ul t i mat e consi gnee.

I nf or mat i on on t he car ds i n;
packed;
i
dent
i t y of component s; expect ed
cl udes l ot number dat e
pr essur es; expect ed muzzl e vel oci t y ; assembl i ng and f i r i ng i nst r uct i ons when r equi r ed; and AI Csyr gboi s on l ot s now bei ng pr oduced.
5

Ti l l 9- 19M

Par . 3

r.

PAI NTI NG AND M


ARKI NG.
a.

Pai nt i ng.

Ammuni t i on i s pai nt ed pr i MW
i l y t o pr event r ust .

Secondar y pur pose$ ar e t o pr ovi de, by t he col or , a r eady means of


i dent i f i cat i on as t o t ype, and t o camouf l age t he ammuni t i on by t he
use of l ust er l ess ol i ve- dr ab pai nt .

See f i gur es 1 t o 15, i ncl usi ve,

f or t he use of col or on ammuni t i on and i t s packi ngs.

The col or

scheme i s as f ol l ows :

( 1}

For ammuni t i on ot her t hen bombs, smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on,

and pyr ot echni cs ,


Hi gh- expl osi ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ol i ve- dr ab, wi t h mar ki ng i n yel l ow
Lour expl osi ve . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

IRced,
ed, wi t h mar ki ng i n bl ack

I l l umi nat i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gr ay, wi t h 1 whi t e band and mar ki ng


i n whi t e
Chemi cal %
Per si st ent casual t y gas . . . . . . . . Gr ay, wi t h 2 gr een bands and mar ki ng i n gr een

Nonper si st ent casual t y gas . . . Gr ay, wi t h 1 gr een band and mar ki ng


i n gr een
Per si st ent har assi ng gas . . . . . . . Gr ay, wi t h 2 r ed bands and mar l ang
i n r ed
NOnper si st ent har asai ng gas . Gr ay, wi t h 1 r ed hand and mar ki ng
i n r ed
Smoke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gr ay, wi t h 1 yel l ow band and mar ki ng i n yel l ow
I ncendi ar y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gr ay, wi t h 1 pur pl e band and mar ki ng i n pur pl e
Pr act i ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bl ue, wi t h mar ki ng i n whi t e
Dum
m
y or i ner t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bl ack, wi t h mar ki ng i n whi t e ( br onze
or br ass assembl i es ar e unpai nt ed) .
4

Pa r .

TM 9, 1900

Gener al

For bombs, ot her t han Chemi cal and pr act i ce, t he pai nt i ng i s
ol i ve- dr ab, and 1- i nch col or bands ar e pai nt ed at t he nose and t ai l
ends of t he body. Mar ki ngs ar e i n bl ack, except f or t he i ncendi ar y
bomb whi ch has pur pl e st enci l l i ng. The col or of t he bands i s as f ol l ows f or t he t ypes of bombs i ndi cat ed .
( 2)

Ni gh- expl osi ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yel l ow


I ncendi ar y _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pur pl e
Dr i l l

or i ner t . . . . . ._. . . ___ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bl ack

W
hen bombe ar e l oaded wi t h Composi t i on B, " COMP. E" i s st enci l ed
t wi ce, 180 degr ees apar t on each band. W
hen bombs ar e l oaded wi t h
t r i t ona4 a t hi r d col or band, 1/ 2- - i nch wi de, i s l ocat ed mi dway bet ween
t he t wo bands on ei t her end. These bombs have an i ner t pad i n each
end. W
hen TNT or COMP. B l oaded bombs ar e equi pped wi t h
i ner t pads, t hey wi l l be st enci l ed " W
I TH FADS" t o di st i ngui sh f r om
bombs wi t h t he smal l f i l l i ng, but wi t hout pads ; t he pur pose of t he
i ner t pad i s t o r ender t he bomb l ess sensi t i ve t o bl ows on t he end
dur i ng handl i ng and shi ppi ng. Pr act i ce bombs ar e pai nt ed bl ue wi t h
whi t e mar ki ngs but have no col or bands. Smal l f r agment at i on bor nbs
have no col or bands but t he nose and t ai l ar e pai nt ed yel p . Chemi cal bombs ar e pai nt ed gr ay, except i ncendi ar y bombs whi ch ar e
pai nt ed ol i ve- dr ab, and mar r ed wi t h col or bands and st enci l i ng i n
accor dance wi t h t he col or scheme f or ot her ammuni t i on gi ven i n st ep
( 1) , above.
()

Smal l ar ms car t r i dges do not r equi r e pai nt i ng. However , t he


bul l et t i ps of car t r i dges ar e pai nt ed a di st i nct i ve col or ( f i g. 1) t o ai d
i n r eady i dent i f i cat i on as t o t ype, as f ol l ows .Bal l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . No col or t i p
Ar mor - pi er ci ng . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bl ack
Ar mor - pi er ci ng- i ncendi ar y . . . . . . . . . . Al umi num ( si l ver )
Ar mor - pi er ci ng- i ncendi ar y- t r acer . . Red wi t h al umi numannul us t o t he
r ear

TM 4- T900

For s . 7- - _. g

_ Var i ous shades of 4l ue

I ncendi ar y . . . .
Tr acer . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . .

of
. . . . ., . . _ , . Var i ous 5bAdes

r ed,

such as

or ange and mar oon, and whi t e

W
hi t e t i p wi t h gr een annul us t o

Fr angi bl e

t 1r. e

cesr

wi t h t he gener al
pyr ot echni cs ar e not mar ked i n accor dance
t
hey i ndi cat e t he
col or scheme but , wher e col or mar ki ngs ar e used,
geamer al , however , pyr ocol or of t he pyr ot echni c ef f ect f scOduce- d . I n
bl ack. I f t he body of he
t echni cs, ar e pai nt ed gr ay wi t h mar ki ng i n
may nt he pai nt ed. I f t he ! . em
i t em i s t l ur r xi num car magn. egi um, i t
cor e i n pur pl e.
i s i nt ended f or i ncendi ar y pur VOses, mar ki ngs
( 4. )

on t he anr r l uni f l ar ki t i g. The mar ki ng st enci l ed or st amped


al l i nf or mat i on ne ; sar y
t i on and on. i t s packi ng CODt ai l %e' i ncl ucl ol.
concer ni ng T t nt i ng
f nr compl et e i dent i f i cat i on. . Fur t her i nf oi nt at i on
of ammo. t i t i an i n
and mar ki ng wi l l be f ound under t he speei &v t ype
chapt er 2 and i n sect i on I V of chapt er 3.
} a.

GRADI NG.
spec' f cat i ons and i s
a, . Ammuni t i on i s - Anuf act ur r d t o r i gor Ous
Ammuni t i ot "-k st or age i R
t hor oughl y i nspect ed bef or e accept ance,
wi t h Qpeci f sc i nst r ucper acndi cal l y i nspect ed and t est ed i l l accor dance

t i onX- f ur ni shed by t he Chi ef of Or dnance,


,
ammki ni t i On i s gr eded ' r r a001i l y on t he
. .: i n a- par t i cu
qualit es whi ch make t hat l ot especi . a113." sui t abl e f or
ao:
d ant i ai r cr af t
ai r cr af t
Jar cl ass or smal l - ar ms weapons such as
M4) .
(W
DSS 9- AM
machi ne eons . r i f l es, and gr ound machi ne guns

1a .

Each

al j Tar m
s
l ot ckf sm

sr - . ! - amt s ammuni t i on i s
Fach l ot nf ar nmuni t i on ot her t han
one c . f our gr ades, depe , i dgr adt - r l as i s r esul t of sumei l l ance t est s i nt o
I ) SB P- AMBA 1) .
i ng; on i t s ser vi ceabi l i t y ( W
- .

Par . 8

TM 9- 1900
Guncr al

VAUL

50,

I NCENNARY
W
Ej nt `

ARmOVVJKQLNG

ARMOQLA91mm
I NQ
N0MORMAT0
49

TRACER,

TRACER, MI QTI O. l i j fi X

FRANGRI F

TRACER, ml . mW
, T30, , _MZ1

RA PD 97748

of Smal l - ar r ms AmmunW
or l

Types

Pat

TI NA 9- 1900
Genvr K

CASUALTY C! A5j j yj #M-T

10P. ASSI NG GAS. L- XFSi 5TLOI

91 W
I NAT-1- NG

PkACTI MCE

RA po
Fi gur e 2- - Col or 1cl enj i f i cat i on of

Ar t i l l er y Pr oj ect i ks

W
AY

Pon 8

TM 9- 19W
W
encr al

. 1- ' , , F 11 .

R
KI T ,. -;

" 3 DOW
AT ON C; W
EAM
" -KM
0 or - wxg
AN10OL" EL ' - ` f ." I X-. ' - - - .
- "` F ' , :

i
Q OLS- SW
LS. AS AFMCAU C I

"s . . . .` X"' EFZ A' j D W


) PX i , 0 :
XXCT \ 11 0MR!
A" ' Y" AFf q TXi F
X" , Al ' Ai x, 44.
.
sua CARK&GE f VF , , j

RA PC) 80670A

Fi gur e 3 - Typi caf Mar ki ng of


13

Fi xed Ar t i l l er y Am
m
uni t i on

Far .

TM 9- 19W

Gener al

L CH I

'C

r vm
AT ON W
Km
3 or AL t R
----.

01)

, r ,.

100LI LL >

1 - TW
VV
- - - .-( : l I-

! J Ju, . P7P ` , - T

F' OLS-

" > - , I T-

, ` :J - 'l . -

XF11 . 1XAF;
. 2ER, C, = C, X.i

Sm
M
. AS

F_ X

r - cKj AR A" DM
O
W
0 , CANX11Xl j j X, Tl X, t J XCT
AI J ' Y" AFX59 M
E
: XFPI Aj
4! V. NXXf AT"
sma CAI ROGE Z0

RA P8 80679A

Fi gur e 3- Typi cal Mar ki ng of Fi xed Act i l l er y Ammuni t i on


I I

TM 9- 1900

Par . 8
Gene; r al

For . 8

3M 9- 7900
Gener a;

RA PD 97765

Fi gur e 5- - Mar ki ng of 4A- mr n Separ at ed Ar t i l l er y Ammuni t i on


13

par ,

TM 9- 1900

Xr o
a

v
X-

0
C

a
i
w

14

Par . 8

TM 9_1940

Gto r i er al

F- OR PRACTI CE
Ar , 0. r i U141110N

FOR CA$UALT. T
pER$I STEnr T GAS

FOR HARASSI NG
PERMS TENT GAS
XM
M
UNI ' I ` f ON

O
K
C
F_UR. W

AMI MUN:I TI ON

METAL
CONTAI NER

r i nd Mef sr l Cont ai ner s


Fi gur e 7 - _ Ca1Qr Mar ki ng of Aar ki r t cl j aoxes
15

T1A 9- 1900t o

par. 8
W
r oyal

HUAI CS.

W
COCE

W
kI

I NERT

QW
&I D

i gAS

W
I LK-

JI USUKAJUI P

XDR. i l AF T,
APCA F' VC ME,
CAM
SM

GUTY&O
c" way

baw
kvi ppy

I HHFE BAG

CHARGESRA

Fi gur e a - .- Col or i dent i f i cat i on of Fi ber Cont ai ner s and


Car t r i dge St or age Cases
36

Par _ 8

TM 9- 1900
Get - er ai

0
4

17

pur ,

TAA 9- I 40( }

QI I LL

r pAQN!

41 A I " N

PKANQAW- YO4
1AL0
RA PO 10W
O
O

Fi gur e 10 - - Col or I dent i f i cat i on of Bombs ( Cont i na- A)


is

Par .

g
a
Q
a

C
C
Q1

a
a
cs
G

a
m
a

19

TM 919( 30

Pai r . 8
Guner at

pf i ACl l CE

VMF 5) 4?OKE

CO
LO
RE. p . SW
, OK_E

RA

f i gur e 12- Cof ar I dent i f i cat i on of Ri f l e Gr enades


-Xn

Par .

3' 149 9- 1900

G4 : Fwr %i l

7k' %",

_I N, I

HI GH EXPLOSI VE I L' Gr ' .

PRAC f 1CE

HI GH EXPLOSI VE 11- A' v ; :

I C. LI . : MRLNA?". hEG

RA pu t 03SO3

Fi gur e 13 - Cof or I dent i f i cat i on of Mor t ar Shel f


2i

Pur ,

9-

1! 1' 1 XvLOSW
E

?a
tMu

PkACYI CE

RA PD 103504
hgt f r e 14- - Col or #dent +ACCSt i on of

A. nt r ' par sonne( Mi nes

Pan

TM 9- 1900

Gener al

I AVY ANT17,1 N,,


W

14 ( ; l 4 -

. , ,k
1<
"
.
,` I

H+

W
.

1 1" 1 mINE, TSET


RA PD 10: 3 . 57i

yi yur e

15 - Col or Wer yt i f i cat i cn of Ant i t ank Muses


23

TM 9- 1900

Par .
Gener al

w
0

a
a

w
0
of
0
e
0

Par %. 9- 10

TM9- 1400
Ger r er i

t ' REOE{ 3` F' Y OF I SSl - E.


a.
Sut aj ect t o t 3ect aal i n%t r i i ct i or m f i ' or n t yr e Chi ef of 0sc1r : - i nns.-.
Xr i at e t ype and m
odel wi l l t ai used i n t he l ol at nmuni t i or i Of appM
i t hi n
] owi t xg ar dor : l i mi t ed st r r r t X9ar ct , subst i t ut e st andar d. %I i i sndar d. W
t hi s r ul e, amr nuDi t i on whi r , - l 1 has l : ad t he l ongest or l east Gi vcnabl e
f i r st
AI -; I QTI LI 1r . 1: 1 ( A c=r Xur r 1 age. pr i or i t y Qf I NSUL
si or oge wi l l be use- - d .
wi l l be gi ven t o t l r E smal l est l ot .

*I ,

li.
To pr evLXt , t t he bui ) di ng ki p a7 f xr - L?! i . 3 st ocks i n t he f i el d, t r ansf er s f r om one St r - i t ' ' Ki n t o X4; ", nt her shor i l d be K3r : ang( l d wi l ] i i n t he ser V- i ce
cor n[ nand i f no st ar k <__( Xppr opci ot e gr ade f or i r : medi mv use i s on
hand.
e . Pr i r i r i t y of i sj j i , se f i . > l XcXt s c>f smal l - xr - i ns ammuni t i on i >- V' i l at M4
D SEA 9, AM
l i shed by t he Chi ef of Or dnance and pul f l i st i ed i s W
oar i n sper i a1 i nst r uct i ons.
ar Depar t ment SLI ] f l AY Bul l eFur t her det ai l s wi l l . he f ound i n W
el .
t i ns of t he 19- AMMser i es and sri AR 77. 5- 10
Iii .

f dal { E AND YRE' S] ERVATT} ?t i ,

a.
I n or der t r > keep nmmumt i on i n a ser vi ceabl e condi t i on ar i ( l
r " - ar t y. f ns i mmedi at e i ssuo and use. dr ams c CXnsi C3gr xt i r aX3 sboul d be gi ven
t o t he gk , ner al r ul es gi ven 1w4ow_ Det ai l ed nf ?r mHt i c, n or t car e and
pr eser vci t i on i s gi ven i n chapt er s 2 anr t : 3 .
!, .
St or e ar nzr r uni t pun i n t he or i gi nal cusi t ai ner s i n a dr y- wel i +ent i hi t ed pl ace pr ot ect ed f r om t he di r uct r ays )f t he sun and ot her
t i out ces of excessi ve } wHt ,
c . Keep ai nnauni t i . j n and i t s cont ai ner s Ll eun and dr y and pr ot . ect ect f TOr r a po. i bl e damage.
,41 .
Di SKSSX' r nhl y of component s d, f ar r Xr t i uni t i on. such as f uzus and
Any
sr nct t y pr Ql i 0?i t e_cl .
pr i mer s, wi t bou, t speci f i c aut hor i zat i on .
al t er at i on of l oodesl ar acmuni t i on, except l i v di r t kXl i nn of t he t echai X, s1
sour ce concer ned %r nd unci vr t he super vi si on o Rcmr i n i s i oned of f i cer
of t hat ser vi ce . i s hat nr dci uK ana9 must not . be under t aken,
e.
Dc) r r cpt oper a seXj l ec. i : nr i ' , Ni nr : r s ar r emove. pr ut et : t i vv Cr r Saf et y
deVi e+?s unt i l ; r i f t bc : 3ur e use. eXCXPt as r e" yui . ed f or i nspect i t i n .
f.
Expi osr y eni r r ur r 1ar l on r l zr asr he har i s3i ed wt r f 7 " ?_PPr r Xpr r dt r ; Car e
at al l l ouses, Expl o5i vr 4 r l ei nenr s, such a3 i n pr i mer s aci d f t . - L- 5, ar m
, ser , si r i ve t o undue. shoe or i d hi gh f er r t per ai : ar v.
f i r-d to its
Ret ur n ammuni t i on pr epar ed f or f i r i ng but not .
r xr i gi nal packi ng, and mar k i t app r opr i at e=4y"_ Lt se such acna?=uni t i on
f i n", i n subsequent ! i r i r r gk i n s73r df t o kea=1:, sj cwkN of opened par ki ngs
mi n n1ual .
at
. TZi 121 1: , - 4k - .,

23-

TM 4- 1900

ear s. 11- 13
Gener al

Sect i on I I I
MI LI TARY EXPLOSI VES
GENERAI , , To under st and t he composi t i on and f unct i oni ng of
a compl et e r ound of ammuni t i on, a basi c knowl edge of t he, char act er i st i cs end uses of mi l i t ar y expl osi ves i s necessar y. I n or der t hat ammuni t i on may f unct i on at t i me and pl ace desi r ed, i t i s necessar y t o
empl oy di f f er ent ki nds of expl osi ves . each of whi ch has a speci f i c r ol e .
Expl osi ves sui t abl e f ar one pur pose may be ent i r el y unsat i sf act or y
f ar anot her . Thus, t ha expi or i ve used t o bur st a f or ged st eel pr oj ect i l e
t al so hi ghl y danger ous i f used t o pr o
woul d not onl y be unsui t ed W
pel t he pr oj ect i l e out of t he weapon. Si r ni l nr l y, t he expl osi ves used
i n i ni t i at or s, such as i n pr i mer s and f uzes, ar e so sensi t i ve t o shock
t hat onl y smal l quant i t i es can be used saf el y. The char act er i st i cs of
var i ous t ypes of expl osi ves ar e gi ven i n sect i ons I V and V. For f ur t her i nf or mat i on, see TM4- 205 and TM9- 2900.
' 11 .

12. UI La' ' I VI ' 1' I ON. Any mi xt ur e or compound whi ch, under t he
i nf l uence of heat or mechani cal act i on, under goes a sudden chemi cal
change ( decomposi t i on) wi t h t he l i ber at i on of heat and l i ght ener gy
accor npani od by a l ar ge vol ume of gases, i s cal l ed an expl osi ve.

13.

CLASSI FI CATI ON.

a. Expl osi ves ar e cl assi f i ed as l ow and hi gh expl osi ves accor di ng


t o t hei r r at es of decomposi t i on when such decomposi t i on i s i ni t i at ed
by t he spi t of a f l ame or a mechani cal shock. Amor e exact cl assi f i cat i on f or mi l i t ar y pur poses di st i ngui shes bet ween nunpr opaget i ng ant i
sel f - pr opagat i ng expl osi ves
. Ther ef or e, expl osi ves ar e di vi ded i nt o
t wo basi c gr oups : Lowexpl osi ves ( pr opel l ant s) and hi gh expl osi ves .
( 1) LowEXFu78r vp- 8, Low expl osi ves ar e combust i bl e mat er i al s
whi ch decompose ver y r api dl y but do not nor mal l y expl ode; t hi s , ac
t i on i n cel l ed def l agr at i on. I n decomposi t i on, t hey pr oduce a l ar ge
vol ume of gases whi ch pr oduce enough pr essur e t o pr opel a pr oj ect i l e
or r ocket f or war d. The r at e of bur ni ng i s an i mpor t ant f act or end
depends upon such f act or as pr essur e, gr ai n f or m, composi t i on, et cLowexpl osi ves do not usual l y pr opagat e a det onat i on. Under cer t ai n
condi t i ons, however , t hey r eact i n t he same manner as hi gh expl osi ves,
t hat i s, t hey may det onat e.
( 2) HI GH EXPLOMEs. Hi gh expl osi ves ar e char act er i zed by t he
ext Yet ne r api r l i t y wi t h whi ch t he decomI wa: i t i on occur s; t hi s act i on i $
cal l ed det onat i on. They t l ec+mt pose al most i nst ant aneousl y, ei t her
i n a manner si mi l ar t o an ext r emel y r api d combust i on, or wi t h r upt ur a
and r ear r angement of t he mol ecul es t hemsel ves . I n ei t her case, gaseous and/ or sol i d pr oduct s of r eact i on ar e pr oduced. The di sr upt i ve
ef f ect of t he r eact i on makes t he expl osi ve val uabl e as a bur st i ng
char ge but pr ecl udes i t s use as a pr opel l ant because t he gases ar e
26

Far s . 13- T4

TM 9- 1 " 0
Gener al

f or med so qui ckl y t hat excessi ve pr essur es woul d be devel oped whi ch
mi ght bur st t he bar r el of t he weapon_ A det onat i on may be pi ct ur ed
as r esul t i ng f r om an expl osi on wave t r uvel mg t hr ough t he hi gh- expl of i i ve char ge at an ext r emel y hi gh vel oci t y ( 22, 000 t o 27, 5010 f eet
per . second) .
]. -1. .

REQUI REM
ENTS OF AN EXPLOSI VE,

a.
( ; t onal i nf l i t ar y r equi r cmcnt r ) . Bef or e an expl osi ve can be
oopt ed f or Tnaf r ar y use, i t must hav4 t he f ol l owi ng char act er i st i cs :
( 1)
Chemi cal st abi l i t y over ext ended per i ods of st or age under
nor mal cgi sdi t i ons,
( 2) Abi l i t y t o wi t hst and t he , nechani cal shocl at i nci dent t o l oad.
i ng, t r anspor t i ng, and handl i ng.
( 3) Abi l i t y t o wi t hst and t he shock of set - beck on f i r i ng weapon
( when used i n ar t i l l er y shel l ) . or i mpact when dr opped " saf e' ( when
used i n bombs) ,
( 4)
Suscept i bi l i t y t o compl et e i gni t i on or det onat i on under t he
act i on of t he pr ecedi ng el ement of t he expl osi ve t r ai n.
( 5) Br i sance ( shat t er i ng abi l i t y) .
( 6) Ar easonabl e degr ee of economy i n manuf act ur e,

h,
Si sc, Pi f i c i t si l i i ar v r egt t i r ement e. Addi t i onal r equi r ement s, di f f er i ng f r om t he basi c ones, must be est abl i shed t o make sur e t hat t he
expl osi ve wi l l per f or m pr oper l y i t s t he capaci t y desi r ed, I n det er mi ni ng by t est s whet her a gi ven expl osi ve wi l l meet t he r equi r ement s,
consi der at i on must be gi ven t o st abi l i t y, sensi t i vi t y, and br i sance.
( 1) STABI LI TY. St abi l i t y r ef er s t o t he cr ap" i cy of an expl osi ve
t o r et ai n unal t er ed i t s chemi cal and physi cal pr oper t i es dur i ng or s
i ndef i ni t e per i od of st or age, under nor mal condi t i ons or at hi gher t han
nor mal t emper at ur es,
SEFY9JYI VI TY.
( 2)
( a)
To shock or i mpact . Sensi t i vi t y t o i mpact or shock r ef er s
t o t he ease wi t h whi ch an expl osi ve can be det onat ed by t he sudden
appl i cat i on of mechani cal f or ce.
( h) To det onat i on by means of i ni t i at or s . Thest andar d sensi t i vi t y t o det onat i on by i ni t i at i ng agent s ot her t han mecbeni caf i mpact i s
expr essed i n t er ms of t he amount of i ni t i at i ng expl osi ve as, f ar exHmpl e, mer cur y f ul mi nat e r equi r ed t o ef f ect compl et e det onat i on of
a gi ven wei ght of expl osi ve under a gi ver s set of condi t i ons,
( 3)

BRZsANcz.

Br i ssance i s t he abi l i t y of a det onat i ng expl osi ve

t o Shat t er mat er i al cl ose t o i t . Thi s pr oper t y i s di f f er ent f r om t he


pot ent i al heat ener gy of t he expl osi ve, somet i mes r ef er r ed t o as power
or st r es%gt h, whi ch det er mi nes t he f or ce ar t expl osi ve can exer t when
i t expl odes . Such f or ce depends upon t he amount of gas gener at ed
and t he t emper at ur e r eached dur i ng an expl osi on, wher eas br i sance
27

7M9- 1904

Par . 74

FORI
SUPERQUI CK
ACTI ONI

' : i - " FI RI NG PI N
XXX
PRI NTER
,
- ' XXJPPER DETONATOR FUZE
-.. DELAY ELFMFNT
-`t
: , . , LC) WER DETONATOR

FURSTI NG
CHARGE
EXPLOSI VE
TRAI N
( UPON ) MPACi J

PROPELLI NG
CHARGE
EXPLOSI VE
TRAI N
( UPON FI Rl hK; X

FI RI NG PI N OF W
EAPON
KA FO W
72A
Fi gur e 17- - - Expl osi ve Tr ai ns i n Ar l l t f er y Ammuni Pi on
21

Par s . 14- 13

TM 9- 1900
Gener al

aCTONATOR

e0wsr a

Fi gwr e ] a - Det onat i ng W


ave Ampl i f i ed by Use of 8aost er
depends on t he vel oci t y wi t h whi ch a det onat i on occur s . Bl ack pow,
der , f ar i nst ance, i s a " ' power f ul " expl osi ve because of t he l ar ge amount
of gas t hat i t gener at es upon expl osi on, but i t s br i i ance i s ver y l ow
because of t he l aw r at e of epl osi on,
15.

EXPLOSI VE TRAMS,

a. Genr r nl . The ar r angement of a ser i es of expl osi ves begi nni ng wi t h a smal l quant i t y of sensi t i ve expl osi ve and t er mi nat i ng wi t h
a r el at i vel y l ar ge quent i t y of compar at i vel y i nsensi t i ve expl osi ve, i s
t er med an " expl osi ve t r ai n. " I n gener al , t her e ar e t wo such t r ai ns
( f i g. 17) ; t he pr opel l i ng- char ge expl osi ve t r ai n ( whi ch i g al ways a
l ogy- expl osi ve t r ai n) , er r d t he l t ur ot i ngXhar ge expl osi ve t r ai n ( whi ch
may be ei t her a hi gh- or l ow- expl osi ve t r ai n) . I n al l expl osi ve am.
muni t i on one or bot h of t hese expl osi ve t r ai ns wi l l be f ound.
l r . Pr opel l i ng- ehur ge +- - xl xl x*i vv t r ai n . The pr opel l i ng- char ge
expl osi ve t r ai n i s ennpl oycd i n t he ej ect i on of t he pr oj ect i l e f r omt he
weapon on i t s way t owar d i t s t ar get . Thi s t r ai n usual l y consi st s of
a pr i mer , an i gni t er or i gni t i ng char ge, and a pr opel l i ng char ge. Thus,
a spi t of f i r e f r om a smal l quant i t y of sensi t i ve expl osi ve ( t he pr i mer ) ,
i ni t i at ed by a bl ow f r omt he f i r i ng pi n, i s t r ansmi t t ed and i nt ensi f i er )
( by t he i gni : . - ) . t o t hat , a l ar ge amount of r el at i vel y i nsensi t i ve expl osi ve ( t he pr y._ ; di ng char ge) bur ns i n t he pr oper manner t o pr opel
t he sl t i cl l f or war d.
( 1) SAQAL1r AAMS AMMUNI TI ON. I n smal l - ar ms car t r i dges, wher e
t he pr opel l i ng char ge i s r el at i vel y smal l , t he i gni t er i s not r equi r ed,
The cor nponexas i n t hi s t r ai t s ar e e. per cussi on pr i mer and a pr opel l i ng
2t

TM 4- 19M

Par . 15

char ge. The f i r i ng pi n expl odes t he pr i mer and t he f l ame passes


t hr ough t he vent l eadi ng t o t he powder chant er and i gni t es t he Pr opel l i ng char ge, t he expansi on of t he r esul t ant gases f or ces t he bul l et
out t hr ough t he bor e of t he weapon,
( 2) ARTI L" I RV kmmuNr r 5ON, The pr opel l i ng char ge expl osi on of
a r ound of ar t i l l er y ammuni t i on i X sl i ght l y di f f er ent f r om t he one i n
smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on. I n t hi s t r ai n, i t i s necewar y t o pl ace an
auxi l i ar y char ge of bl ack powder , cal l ed t he pr i mer char ge or i gni t er
char ge, bet ween t he pr i mer and t he pr opel l i ng char ge. The addi t i on
of t he pr i mer char ge i s necessar y because t he smal l f l ame pr oduced
by t he pr i mer composi t i on i s not of suf f i ci ent i nt ensi t y t o i ni t i at e pr op
er l y t he l ar ge quant i t y of pr opel l ant powder . The pr i mer or i gr Xi t et '
char ge gt ay be cont ai ned i n t he body of t he pr i mer , maki ng one as-.
ser nbl y of t he per cussi on el ement of t he pr i mer and t he pr i mer char ge
as i n f i xed ammuni t i on, or i t may be di vi ded bet ween t he pr i mer body
and t he i gni t er pad at t ached t o separ at e- l oadi ng pr opel l i ng char ges,
c,

Bur st i ng- char ge expl osi ve t r ar r i s.

( 1) Al t hough t her e ar e t wo expl osi ve t r ai ns- t he pr opel l i ng.


char ge expl osi ve t r ai n and t he bur st i ng- char ge expl osi ve t r ai n- - t he
t er m " Qxpl oi ve t r ai n" as commonl y used i s i nt ended t o mean t he
bur st i ng- char ge expl osi ve t t ai r L Bur st i ng- char ge expl osi ve t r ai ns may
be cl assi f i ed as hi gh- expl osi ve t r ai ns or l ow- , expl osi ve t r ai ns .
- HXPLOSSVE TRAI N,
W
hen l ow- expl osi ge pr oj ect i l es or
( 2) LOW
ot her t ypes of mi ssi l e r each t he poi nt of f unct i oni ng, t he ser i es of expl osi ons whi ch t akes pl ace i s known as t he l ow- expl osi ve t r ai n. I n
bas" j ect i on smoke shel l , t he expl osi ve t r ai n consi st s of a per cussi on
pr i mer , a t i me t r ai n of bl ack powder , a magazi ne char ge of bl ack
powder , and an expel l i ng char ge of bl ack powder . The act i on i s
i ni t i at ed by t he f i r i ng pi n of t he f uze st r i ki ng t he pr i mer , t he r esul t ant
f l ame bei ng t r at mmi t t ed t hr ough t he component s named t o t he expel l i ng char ge. The expl osi on of t he expel l i ng char ge f or ces t he
smoke cani st er s out of t he base of t he pr oj ect i l e .

hen t he pr oj ect i l e or bomb r eaches


( 3) Hi ol z- EXVLos1VR-r PAI N. W
t he t ar get or t he poi nt at whi ch i t i s set t o f unct i or y t he ser i es of expl osi ons whi ch t akes pl ace i l l or der t o det onat e t he pr oj ect i l e i s known
as t he hi gh- expl osi ve t r ai n. The basi c component s whi ch must be
pr esent i n pr act i cal l y al l hi gh- expl osi ve t r ai ns ar e a det onat or , a
booW
r , and a bur st i ng char ge. Ot her el ement s ar e somet i mes r equi r ed, but t hese t hr ee char ges ar e f undament al .
( a) The det onat or set s up a hi gh- expl osi ve wave when i ni t i at ed
by t he st ab act i on of a f i r i ng pi n or by a f l ame. Thi s det onat i on i s so
smal l and weak t hat i t wi l l not i ni t i at e a hi gh- or der det onat i on i n t he
bur st i ng char ge, unl ess s boost er i s pl aced bet ween t he t wo. The
boost er pi cks up t he smal l expl osi ve wave f r om t he det onat or and
30

Par %, 1 3- 16

TM 9- 1900
Gener al

ar npl i f i es i t t o such an ext ent t hat t he bur st i ng char ge i s i ni t i at ed wi t h


a hi gh- under det onat i on ( f i g. 18) _
( b) To gai n t he act i on necessar y t o cont r ol t he t i me and pl ace at
whi ch an expl osi ve wi l l f unct i on, i t i s necessar y t o i ncor por at e ot her
component s i n t he hi gh- expl osi ve t r ai n. The act i on desi r ed may be
a bur st i n t he ai r , a bur st i nst ant l y upon i mpact wi t h t he t ar get , or a
bur st shor t l y af t er t he pr oj ect i l e has penet r at ed t he t ar get . The component s whi ch may be used t o gi ve t hese var i ous act i ons ar e a pr i mer ,
a bl ack- powder del ay pel l et or t r ai n, an upper det onat or , or any com
bi nat i on of t hese component s, Regar dl ess of t he ar r angement of t he
component s, t he bask Chai n wi l l r emai n t he same, ot her component s
bei ng pl aced i n f r ont of t he basi c chai n.
( c) The act i on whi ch causes a pr oj ect i l e t o bur st i n t he ai r may
be obt ai ned by pl aci ng a pr i mer , whi ch i s f i r ed when t he pr oj ect i l e
l eaves t he weapon or when t he bomb i s dr opped, and a bl ack- powder
t i me t r ai n i n f r ont of t he basi c chai n. Tha pr i mer i gni t es t he t i met r ai n r i ngs, whi ch bur n f or t he l engt h of t i me f or whi ch t he f uze i s
met and, i n t ur n, i ni t i at e t he act i on of t he det onat or , boost er , and
bur st i ng char ge.

To bunt t he pr oj ect i l e pr ompt l y upon i mpact wi t h t he t ar get ,


( d)
a supezqui ck or i nst ant aneOUS Act i on i s necessar y. Thi s act i on i s
usual l y obt ai ned by pl aci ng an upper det onat or i n t he ext r eme f r ont
of t he f uze and a l ower det onat or i n t he body near t he boast er char ge,
I n t hi s manner , t he det onat i ng wave i s t r ansmi t t ed i nst ant l y t o t he
bur st i ng char ge.
( e) To per mi t penet r at i on of t he t ar get by t he pr oj ect i l e, a del ay
act i on i s necessar y. Thi s i s obt ai ned by pl aci ng a pr i mer and del ay
el ement ahead of t he det onat or . I n some cases t hi s combi nat i on of
pr i mer and del ay i s i nser t ed bet ween an upper and l ower det onat or .
( f ) Avar i at i on of t he hi gh- expl osi ve t r ai n i s f ound i n chemi cal
shel l , I n t hi s t r ai n t her e i s no l ar ge bur st i ng char ge such as i s f ound
i n hi gh- expl osi ve pr oj ect i l es, es i t i s onl y necessar y t o r upt ur e t he
shel l case and ei l ow t he chemi cal cont ent s t o escape. The act ual
bur st i ng of t he case i s accompl i shed by an enl ar ged boast er , known
as o bur st et char ge, cont ai ned i n a t ube r unni ng dawn t he cent er of
t he shel l .
Sect i on I Y

PROPELLANTS
16. GENERAL, Al l expl osi ves cur r ent l y used as pr opel l ant s have
a ni t r ocel l ul ose base and ar e commonl y known as smokel ess powder s.
Var i ous or gani c and i nor gani c subst ances ar e added t o t he vi t r ocel l ul ose base dur i ng manuf act ur e t o gi ve i mpr oved qual i t i es f or speci al pur poses . These powder s ar e di st i ngui shed by such t er ms as

Par .

TM 9- 1940

16
Gener al

MULI I

PERFORATED
RA PD 80877A

f i gur e

i v-

Types of Powder Or Qi ns
32

Par s. 16- 17

TM 9- 1900

doubl e- base, f l eshl ess, end smokel ess, as wel l as by commer ci al t r ade
names or symbol s . Bl ack powder , whi ch was For mer l y cl awed as a
pr opel l ant , i s no l onger used as such but i s now used as a del ay
el ement , AS an i gni t i ng char ge f or pr opel l ant s . i n f l ash r educer s, or f or
ot her speci al pur poses .
POW
DER.
17 . Xaf TQi ( I ; LF
a. Char act er i at i en. Smokel ess l xj wder i s essent i al l y gel at i ni zed
ni t r ocel l ul ose and i s manuf act ur ed i n t he f or mof f l akes, st r i px, pul l et s.
or per f or at ed cyl i ndr i cal gr ai ns ( f i g. 19) . Powder i s made i n di f f er ent
scr apes t o obt ai n cer t ai n t ypes of bur ni ng ( par . 17 c) . The cyl i ndr i cal
gr ai ns ar e made i n var i ous di amet er s and l engt hs, Gr ai ns var y i ts
di amet er f r om 0. 032 i nCh f or cal i ber 30 car t r i dges t o 0. 947 i nch f or
16- i nch pr opel l i ng char ges, and var y i n cor r espondi ng l engt hs f r om
0_085 i nch t o 2. 170 i nches ( f i g. 20) . For smal l - si ze gr ai ns ei t her no
per f or at i on or a si ngl e per f or at i on i s r equi r ed . However , f or l ar ger
gr ai ns, seven equal l y spaced per f or at i ons ar e pr esent i n or der t o have
The cr i t i cal di mensi on i 4
t 3 l ar ge bur ni ng sur f ace ar ea ( par . 17 e) .
t he web si ze, t hat i s, t he aver age t hi ckness of t he powder bet ween t he
per f or at i ons . I n col or , t he gr ahi s var y f r om a l i ght owber t o a deep
br own or bl ack .
11. Sol vent . Smokel ess powder i s manuf act ur ed t o cont ai n i n t he
f i ni shed gr ai ns a def i ni t e amount of sol vent ( an et her and al cohol
mi xt ur e) . Thi s amount var i es f r om 0. 5 t o 5 per cent . I f t her e i s e
mar ked change i n t he amount of sol vent , a change i n bal l i st i c pr oper t i es wi l l r esul t . Powder must be car ef ul l y pr ot ect ed agai nst hi gh t vmper at ur ps and moi st ur e. To guar d agai nst changes di ce t o such condi t i ons, unnokel ess powder i s al wt 4ys pHCked i n ai r t i ght cont ai ner s,
Some r ocket pr opel l ent powder may not cont ai n any sol vent .
e. 19ur ni ug act i on .
.
( 1) GENEEW., Unconf i ned smokel ess powder bur ns wi t h l i t t l e
ash or smoke but , when conf i ned, i t s r at e of bur ni ng i ncr eases wi t h
t emper at ur e and pr essur e. I n or der not t o exceed t he per mi ssi bl e
chamber pr essur e of t he weapon i n whi ch i t i s t o be used, t he r at e of
bur ni ng of t he pr opel l ant has t o be cont r ol l ed. At const ant pr essur e,
t he r at e of bur ni ng i s pr opor t i onal t o t he powder sur f ace f r ee t o bur r o,
Ther ef or e, powder i s made i nt o accur at e si zes Hod def i ni t e shapes.
Fi gur e 21 i l l ust r at es t he " pr ogr essi ve" bur ni ng of a powder gr ai n.
( 2) DEOREssi vE BURNI NG, As t he sur f ace of t he cor d and st r i p
t owns of smokel ess powder change wi t h bur ni ng, t he sur f ace of t he
gr ai n decr eases . The bur ni ng act i on of t hese gr ai ns i s, t her ef or e,
cl assi f i ed as " degr essi ve. "
( 3) NEUTI At r BURNI NG. As a si ngl e- per f or at ed gr ai n bur ns, t he
out er sur f ace decr UAWS and t he i nner wf ace i ncr eases . The r esul t of
23

. ' 7r - yK
' ,T- r :. a p; _ _ . R: P: I Or. L-N
: . ?aS
. : : . ..
v_ . e_. . R . ev_wJ4t 7NXXX. , . . , 4aua r X

Par &. 17- 18

TM 9- 19+00
Gener al

B. ! BI l t NI NG GRAI N

A- UNBURNED GRAI N

MA PD 4219A

f i gur e 21 - Pr ogr essi ve Sur ei ng of Powder Gr ai ns


t he t wo act i ons i s t hat t he t ot al sur f ace r emai ns appr oxi mat el y t he
same i n ar ea. The bur ni ng of t hi s t ype of gr ai n i s known as " neut r al : '
W
hen t he mul t i per f or at ed gr ai n
( ) PROCRssseva avRNt xs,
bur ns, t he t ot e! sur f ace ar ea i ncr eases si nce t he per f or at ed gr ai n bur nt ,
f r omt he i nsi de and out si de at t he same t i me. Thi s t ype of bur ni ng i s
cal l ed " pr ogr essi ve" ( f i g. 21 ) .
SmvoRsi . W
hen a mul t i per f or at ed gr ai n i s not compl et el y
( 5)
consumed, por t i ons of t he gr ai n r emai n i n t he f or m of sl i ver s ( B, f i g,
21) and ar e nor mal l y ej ect ed as such f r om t he weapon.
cl . Use. Ni t r ocel l ul ose smokel ess pr opel l ant s ar e used as t he
pr opel l ant f or smal l - ar ms and l ar ger - cal i ber ammuni t i on. The per f or at ed f or mof gr ai n i s t he one most commonl y l ur ed i n Uni t ed St at es
a2i l i t ar y powder s, Si ngl e per f or at ed gr ai ns ar e used f or smal l - ar ms,
mi nor - cal i ber weapons, and cer t ai n howi t zer s. Powder s wi t h seven
per f or at i ons ar e used f or l ar ger - cal i ber weapons.
1$.

DOUBLE- SASE PQW


1; 1ER ( BALLI ST1TG) .

Bal l i st i t e i s a

combi nat i on of ni t r ogl ycer i n and ni t r ocel l ul ose, cont ai ni ng appr ox-

i mat el y 13. 15 t o 13. 25 per cent ni t r ogen obt ai ned by mi xi ng pyr o


powder ( 12. 6 per cent ni t r ogen) wi t h guncot t on ( 13. 35 t o 13. 4 per cent
ni t r ogen) , The ni t r ogl ycer i n ser ves t o i ncr ease t he pot ent i al . Smal l
per cent ages of i nor gani c sal t s ar e of t en added t o r educe t he f l ash and
i ncr ease t he ease of i gni t i on . Bal l i st i t e i s used i n shot gun shel l s, f i el d
mor t ar i ncr ement s, and r acket mot or s. Doubl e- base powder s cause
mor e er osi on i n t he weapon bar r el but ar e bei ng used i ncr easi ngl y
because of t he hi gher muzzl e vel oci t i es obt ai nabl e by t hei r use.
35

TM 9- 1900

Pp m. 19- 22
Gener al

DERSSTANDARD SMOKELESS AND FLASFI LFSS POW


These powder s . whi ch wer e f or mer l y desi gnat ed as FN14
( f l ash I usz- nonhygr oscopi c) and NH ( nonhygr oscopi c) , ar e a mi xt ur e
of ni t r ocel l ul ose and ot her mat er i al s added t o cool t he pr oduct s of
combust i on, t her eby r educi ng t he f l ash and t he hygr oscopi ci t y, t hat i s,
t he t endency t o abeor b moi st ur e. They ar e used as pr opel l ant s f or
most weapons of 37- r uns send l ar ger cal i ber . Ni t r ogl ycer i n i s used i n
cer t ai n powder s wher e especi al l y r api d bur ni ng i s r equi r ed and i n
cer t ai n hi gh- vel oci t y r ounds and weapons.
h. Rounds of cer t ai n cal i ber , such as 3- i t t ch, 7b- r nr n, and 90- mm,
ar e desi gnat ed as " f l ashl ess, " " smokel ess, " or Fl ashl ess- smokel ess, dependent upon f l ash and smoke char act er i st i cs upon f i r i ng,
c. Whet her ammuni t i on upon kt i r i ng i s f l ashl ess, smokel ess, or bat h,
depends upon t he weapons i n whi ch used, t he t ype of i gni t i on used,
weapon wear , t he t emper at ur e of t he t ube of t he weapon, and t he
quant i t y and desi gn of t he pr opel l ent powder . Fl ashl ess and smokel ess ar e r el at i ve t er ms HTI CI have et i t def i ned as f ol l ows : f l aehl ess
ammuni t i on does not f l ash mor e t han 5 per cent of t he t i me i n weapons
of aver age l i f e under st andar d condi t i ons; smokel ess ammuni t i on pr o.
duces l ess t han hal f t he amount of smoke pr oduced by ammuni t i on
not so desi gnat ed. Acompl et e r ound havi ng bot h t hese char act er st i cs
i s desi gnat ed " f 1ash1css- smokel ess: '
19.

211 . CUNC07TUN. Guncot t on, a ni t r ocel l ul ose of ' hi gh ni t r at i on


{ 13. 35 t o 13. 4 per cent ni t r ogen) i s used i n t he manuf act ur e of pr o
pel l ant s. I t i s al so used i n el ect r i c pr i mer s and i n el ect r i cal l y i ni t i at ed
dest r uct or s,
21 . EC S3I UKELESS POW
DER. EC smokel ess powder , or EC
bl ank f i r e, consi st s of ni t r ocel l ul ose wi t h i nor gani c ni t r at es . i t i s
usual l y or ange or pi nk i n col or and r esembl es coar se sand, t hough i t
i s sof t and l i ght I t i s sensi t i ve t o f r i ct i on, shock, or heat . I t absor bs
moi st ur e r eadi l y end t her ef or e must be pr ot ect ed f r omt he at mospher e .
I t bur ns ext r emel y r api dl y i n t he open, but expl odes i f conf i ned. I t
i e usual l y expl oded by f l ame f r oma pr i mer or f uze. I t was used at
one t i me as a bur st i ng char ge i n f r agment at i on hand gr enades. I t i s
used i n cal i ber . 30 and cal i ber . 50 bl ank car t r i dges, i n shot gun shel l s,
and i n cal i ber , 22 ammuni t i on.
22. SMALr , ARMSPROPELLANTS. Smokel ess powder f or smal l
ar ms i s usual l y gl azed wi t h gr aphi t e t o f aci l i t at e machi ne l oadi ng and
t o pr event t he accumul at i on of l ar ge char ges of st at i c el ect r i ci t y, and
t hus pr esent s a bl ack, pol i sl +ed appear ance. Si nce t he powder gr ai ns
ar e smal l , t hey i gni t e mor e r eadi l y and bur n mar e f r eel y t han cannon
powder , and when moi st ur e i s pr esent or abnor mal t emper at ur es pr e"
vai l , t hey ar e subj ect t o mor e r api d det er i or at i on t han t he l ar ger
gr ai ns, Many smal l - ar ms powder s ar e near l y as sensi t i ve t o f r i ct i on
46

Par s . 22- 94

I M9- 1900
Gener al

as bl ack powder . ' Wher ef or e, pr ecaut i ons used i n handl i ng bl ack powder shoul d be obser ved f or smal l - ar ms powder s. I n gener al , t her e ar e
t wo t ypes of smal l - ar ms pr opel l ant s, si ngl e- base and doubl e base. A
r ecent t ype of smal l - ar ms powder i s i n t he f or m of smal l spher i cal
gr aphi t e- Boat ed bal l s and i s used i n car bi ne and cal i ber AS ammuni t i on,
23.

DER.
BLACK POW

$,
Gener al ehar aet er i et i ee. Bl ack powder i s an i nt i mat e mechani cal mi xt ur e of f i nel y pul ver i zed pot assi umni t r at e or sodi um ni t r at e,
char coal . and sul f ur . The Commer ci al bl ast i ng powder wi t h sodi um
ni t r at e i s nowused f or snl ut i ng pur poses . Pot assi um ni t r at e i s Used
i n t he powder s f or al l ot her mi l i t ar y pur poses. Bl ack powder i s
usual l y i n t he f or m of smel l , bl ack gr ai ns whi ch ar e pol i shed by
gl azi ng wi t h gr aphi t e. I t i s subj ect t o r api d det er i or at i on on absor pt i on of moi st ur e, but i f kept dr y i t r et ai ns i t s expl osi ve pr oper t i es i ndef i ni t el y. I t i s one of t he most danger ous expl osi ves t o handl e because i t i s ver y easi l y i gni t ed by heat , f r i ct i on, or spar k.
h. Uses. I n i t s sever al gr ades, i t s pr esent mi l i t ar y use i s pr act i cal l y conf i ned t o:
( 1) I gni t i on and pr i mer char ges.
( 2) Expel l i ng char ges f or bas" j ect i on smoke shel l , i l l umi nat i ng
shel l , and pyr ot echni cs .
( 3) Del ay pel l et s f or pr i mer s and f uzes,
( 4) Bl ank ammuni t i on char ges.
Smoke- puf f and Spot t i ng char ges,
( 5)
( b) Bur st i ng char ges f or pr act i ce bombs and shel l , and subcal i ber shel l ,
( 7) Ti me- t r ai n r i ngs i n t i me and Combi nat i on f uzes.
r.
Pr ecaut i ons. Sl ack powder i s par t i cul ar l y sensi t i ve t o shock.
hen bl ack powder i s handl ed i n cons
Fr i ct i on, heat , f l ame, or spar k, W
or bags or when i t i s not absol ut el y pr ot ect ed agai nst spar ks, t he pr ecaut i ons descr i bed i n sect i on r of chapt er 3 wi l l be st r i ct l y obser ved.

Sl Ct i on V

HI GH EXPLOSI VES
24.

GENERAL.

a. Hi gh expl osi ves ar e usual l y ni t r at i on pr oduct s of or gani c subst ances, such as t ol uene, phenol , pent aer yt hr i t ol , ami nes, gl ycer i n, and
st ar ch, but may be ni t r ogen- cont ai ni ng i nvr pni c subst ances or mi x
t ur es of bot h. Ot her mat er i al s, such as powder ed al umi num, pl ast i -

TM 9- 1900

Pur l . 24- 27
f: omer al

ci zhi g oi l s, waxes, r ubber , em, may al so be added t o expl osi ves t o


obt ai n desi r ed char act er i st i cs .
b. Ahi gh expl osi ve may be a pur e compound or an i nt i mat e mi xt ur e of sever al i ngr edi ent s. To avoi d onnf usi on i n t he wr i t i ng of
f or mul as of mi xt ur es, t he f ol l owi ng ol der of l i st i ng of Component s,
t oget her wi t h t hei r pr opor t i ons, has been deci ded upon. i nor gani c
TNT/ TNT/'
met al s i ner t mat er i al s.
ni t r at es/ expl osi ves ot her t han :
Wi t hi n any of t he pr ecedi ng gr oups, t he component s ar e l i st ed al phabet i cal l y shoul d t her e be mor e t han one of t hat par t i cul ar cl assi f i cat i on,
PRI M
ER MI XTURES.
a, Gener al . A pr i mer mi xt ur e i s an expl osi ve sensi t i ve t o a bl ow
such as t hat i mpar t ed by a f i r i ng pi n. I t i s used t o t r ansmi t shook
or a f l ame t o anot her exposi ve, a t i me el ement , or a det onat or .
h, Composi t i on . I n a l ar ge number of mi xt ur es, t he pr i mer mi x"
Lur e consi st s of mer cur y f ul mi nat e, pot assi umchl or at e, and ant i mony
sul f i de, wi t h or wi t hout gr oUnd gl ass and/ or a bi nder . However , t he
cher ni cal s and mat er i al s used may be al t er ed, dependent upon t he
t ype of act i on desi r ed. Pr i mar i l y, however , a pr i mer mi xt ur e Consi st s
of an i ni t i at i ng hi gh expl osi ve, ar e oxygen car r i er , and a combust i bl e
subst ance.
25.

e. Uses . Pr i mer mi xt ur es ar e used i n t he per cussi on el ement s of


cannon pr i mer s, i n f uzes. and i s ur nal l - ar ms pr i mer s, and as t he upper
l ayer of a det onat or assembl y .
26.

M
ERCURY FULMI NATE.

a. Char act er i st i cs . Mer cur y f ul mi nat e i s a heavy cr yst al l i ne


sol i d, whi t e when pur e, but or di nar i l y havi ng a f ai nt br owni sh- yel l ow
or gr ayi sh t i nt . I t i s ext r emel y sensi t i ve t o heat , f r i ct i on, spar k, f l ame.
or shack, det onat i ng compl et el y i n near l y ever y i nst ance. I t s sensi
t i vi t y var i es wi t h t emper at ur e. I t has been f ound t hat i t s sensi t i vi t y
ay
i s _dependent i n par t on cr yst al si ze. I t i s nonhygr oecopi c and m
be saf el y st or ed f or l ong per i ods of t i me at moder at e t emper at ur es.
However , i t wi l l not st and l ong- t er mst or age at el evat ed t emper at ur es .
6. l e. For al l pr act i cal pur poses, mer cur y f ul mi nat e has been
r epl aced by l ead azi de. I t s use i s l i mi t ed t o smal l quant i t i es i n n f ew
pr i mer s, i n f uze det onat or s, and i n bl ast i ng caps. I t may be used
al ons or mi xed wi t h pot assi um chl or at e .
27, LEAD ALI DE. Lead azi de i s an i ni t i at i ng compound used t o
det onat e hi gh expl osi ves. I t i s a f i ne- gr ai ned, cr eam- Col or ed compound. I t i s sensi t i ve t o f l ame and i mpact but i t i s n* t cer t ai n t o
det onat e by t he f i ct i on of a f i r i ng pi n. I t i s not easi l y decomposed on
l ong cont i nued st or age at moder at el y el evat ed t emper at ur es. Ft f l ashos
34

pat s. 27- 29

TM9- 1900
Gener al

at a mach hi gher t emper at ur e t han mer cur y f ul mi nt n. A smal l er


wei ght of l oad asi de t han of mer cur y f ul mi nat e i s r equi r ed [ o el vi r i nat e
an equal amount of TNT, t et r yl , et c. Lead azi de i s r epl aci ng mer cur y
f ul mi nat e because of i t s pr oper t i es and because i t st ands up bet t er i n
st or age and i s l ess hazar dous t o manuf act ur e, I t i s f ound i n pr i mer
mi xt ur es and i n det onat or assembl i es i n f uzes,
28.

TETRYL.

a, ChHr ur t r r i mi r s . Tet r yl ( t r i ni t r opl i enyl met hyl ni t r ami ne) i s a


hen heat ed i t f i r st mel t s and t hen deyel l ow cr yst al l i ne sol i d. W
composes and expl odes . I t bur ns r eadi l y and i s mor e easi l y det onat ed
t han TNT or ammoni um pi r r at c, bei ng much mor e sensi t i ve t han
pi cr i c aci d. I t i s det onat ed by f r i ct i on, Ehock, or spar k I t i s pr act i cal l y nonhygr oscopi c . Tet r yl i s st abl e t i t al l t emper at ur es whi ch
may be encount er ed i n st or age.
b. Det onat i on .
Mr i sence t est s show t et r yl t o have a ver y hi gh
shat t er i ng power . i t i s gr eat er i n br i sance t han pi cr i c aci d or TNT
anci i s exceeded onl y by PETN Hncl some of t he newer mi l i t ar y expl osi ves, such as RDX,
e,
Use.
( 1) CHARGES. Tet r yl i s t he st andar d boost er expl osi ve and i s suf f i ci ent l y i nsensi t i ve when compr essed t o be used saf el y as a boost er
expl osi ve. - The vi ol ence of i t s det onat i on i nsur es a hi gh- or der det ona
t i on of t he bur st i ng char ge. I t i s used i n t he f or mof pr essed pel l et s.
Tet r yl i s t he st andar d bur st i ng Char ge f or smal l - cal i ber ( 2f } - mm and
37- mm) pr oj ect i l es . I t pr oduces Pppr eci abl y bet t er f r agment at i on of
t hese shel l s t hen TNT. I t i s al so mor e r eadi l y det onat ed and yet i n
smal l - cal i ber shel l wi t hst ands t he f or ce of set back i n t he weapon. I t
i s al so a component of t et r yt ol .
( 2)
DETONATOR. Tet r yl i s used i n det onat or s, t he t et r yl bei ng
pr essed i nt o t he bot t om of t he det onat or shel l and t hen cover ed wi t h
a smal l pr i mi ng char ge of mer cur y f ul mi nat e, l ead azi de, or ot her
i ni t i at or ,
29.

TW
T ( TRI I 111MOTOLUENE) .

Gener al . Tr i ni t r ot ol uene, commonl y known as TNT, i s a conH,


st i t uent of many expl osi ves, such as amat ol , pent ol i t e, t et r yt ol , t or pex,
t r i t onal , pi cr at ol , cycl at or , ednat ol , and Composi t i on H, and has been
used by i t sel f under such names as t r i t on, t r ot yl , t r i l i t e, t r i nol , and
t r i t ol o.
}t . ( ai sar aet t Aat i es, . TNT when pr oper l y pur i f i ed i s one of t he
most st abl e of hi gh expi cai ves and can be st or ed over l ong per i ods of
t i me. I t i s r el at i vel y i nsensi t i ve t o bl ows or f r i ct i on. Conf i ned TNT,
when det onat ed, expl odes wi t h vi ol ence. W
hen i gni t ed by a f l ame,
unconf i ned TNT bur ns sl owl y wi t hout expl osi on evol vi ng a heavy

TN! 9- 1904

Par s . 29- 30
Gener al

oi l y smoke; however , bur ni ng or r api d heat i ng of l ar ge quant i t i es, especi al l y i n cl osed vessel s, may cause vi ol ent det onat i on. I t i s r eadi l y
det onat ed by mer cur y f ul mi nat e, t et r yl , and si mi l ar hi gh expl osi ves.
I t i s nonhygr oseopi c and does not f ar m sensi t i ve compounds wi t h
met al s, but i s r eadi l y act ed upon by al kal i es t o f or munst abl e com
pounds whi ch ar e ver y sensi t i ve t o heat and i npact . I t usual l y r esembl i es a l i ght br own sugar but when pur e i s Cr yst al l i ne and i s near l y
whi t e. Easi l y mel t ed and pour ed i nt o a shel l or bomb t o f or ma sol i d
cr yst al l i ne expl osi ve char ge, TNT i s a ver y sat i sf act or y mi l i t ar y expl osi ve. The mel t i ng poi nt of st andar d Gr ade 1 TNT i s 80 . 2 C.
Ammuni t i on l oaded wi t h TNT can be st or ed, handl ed, and shi pped
wi t h compar at i ve saf et y.
hen st or ed i n war m cl i mat es or du* i ng war m
e. Exudat i on. W
summer mont hs, some ammuni t i on l auded wi t h TNT may exude an
oi l y br own l i qui d. Thi s exudat e oozes out ar ound t he t hr eads at t he
nose of t he shel l and may f or ma pool on t he f l oor . The exudat e i s
i nf l ammabl e and may car r y smal l par t i cl es of TNT. Pool s of exudat e
shoul d be r emoved as pr escr i bed i n par agr aph 197,
tl,
17r t ouat i on. TNTi n cr yst al l i ne f or ms canbe det onat ed r eadi l y
by a No. 8 bl ast
by a No. ti bl ast i ng cap or when hi ghl y compr ess
hen cast , i t i s " cessar y t o use a boost er char ge of pr essed
i ng t ap. W
t et r yl ar an expl osi ve of si mi l ar br i sance t o i nsur e compl et e det onat i on.

e. U' *e.
KG CHARGE. TNT i s used as a bur st i ng char ge f or
( 1) BURM
hi gh- expl osi ve shel l and bombs ei t her al one or mi xed wi t h ammoni xl r n ni t r at e t o f or m50/ 50 or 80/ 20 amat ol . Fl ake TNT i s used i n
37- mm shel l and i n f r agment at i on hand gr enades . Ot her mi l i t ar y
uses of TNT ar e i n mi nes and f or par t s of cer t ai n shel l and bomb
bur st er s .
( 2)
DEMOLI TI ON. TNT i s used t o demol i sh br i dges, r ai l r oads,
f or t i f i cat i ons, and ot her st r uct ur es and f or l and mi nes. Far such pur poses TNT i s used i n t he f or m of a l ar ge shaped char ge or a smal l
hi ghl y compr essed bl uck i ncl osed i n a f i ber cont ai ner whi ch pr ot ect s
i t f r om cr umbl i ng i n handl i ng end r ender s i t wat er pr oof , The t r i t on
bl ocks used by t he Cor ps of Engi neer s ar c bl ocks of pr essed TNT
i ncl osed i n car dboar d cont ai ner s.
( 3) BLASTI M. TNT i s sui t abl e f or Hl l t ypef i of bl ast i ng and pr o.
duces appr oxi mat el y t he same ef f ect as t he same wei ght of dynami t e
of SO t o 60 per cent gr ade.
30.

ANI ATOL.

a. Gener al ehar ar t er i adcw. Ani at ol , a mecbanka1 mi xt ur e of


ammoni um ni t r at e and TNT, has appr oxi mat el y t he same gener al
char act er i st i cs as TNT. I t i s cr yst al l i ne, yel l ow or br owni sh, and i n4o

Par s . 30- 32

TM9- 1904
Gener al

sensi t i ve t o f r i ct i on, but i t may be det onat ed by sever e i mpact . I t i s


l ess sensi t i ve t o det onat i on t han TNT but i s r eadi l y det onat ed by
mer cur y f ui r vi nat c and ot her hi gh expl osi ves. I t i s l ess l i kel y t o exude
t han TI NT, I t i s hygr oscopi c and i n t he pr esence of moi st ur e at t acks copper , br ass, and br onze, f or mi ng danger ousl y sensi t i ve compounds . Amat ol , 50/ 54, has appr oxi mat el y t he same r at e of det onat i on and br i sbance as TNT, whi l e 80/ 10 amat ol i s sl i ght l y l ower i n
vel oci t y and br i sance t han TNT. Amat ol , 80/ 20, pr oduces a whi t e
smoke on det onat i on, and amat ol , 50150, pr oduces a smoke Less bl ack
t han st r ai ght TNT.
h. Composi t i on and f or m. Amat ol , 50/ $0, consi st s of 50 per hen hot ,
cent ammoni umni t r at e and 50 per cont TNT by wei ght W
i t i s suf f i ci ent l y f l ui d t o be pour ed or Cask l i ke TNT. Amat ol , 80%20,
consi st s of 80 per cent ammoni um ni t r at e and 20 per cent TNT. I t
hen hot , i t becomes pl ast i c and i n t hat
r esembl es wet br own augHr . W
st at e i s pr essed i nt o shel l s and bombs.
e, Um- . Amat ol i ts a subst i t ut e f or TNT. Amat ol , 54154, i s used
f or 3- i nch and l ar ger shel l , and go. 120 amat ol i s used f or shel l of t 55r nmand l ar ger . Amat ol i s al so used i n l ar ge bombs. I t s pr i mar y
use, however , i s f or bangal or e t or pedoes .
31.

PI CRI C ACI D ( Tt I I NI TH( 1PMENOL) .

a. Cener al . Pi cr i c aci d, under t he name of mel i ni t e, was adopt ed


as a mi l i t ar y hi gh expl osi ve by t he Fr ench i t i 1886 and has been used
mor e ext ensi vel y as a mi l i t ar y expl osi ve by f or ei gn nat i ons t hen by
t hi s count r y. The Br i t i sh desi gnat e i t as l yddi t e,
h. Char act er i st i cs. Pi cr i c aci d i s a l emon- yel l ow ct yst al l i ne sol i d.
I t i s ent i r el y st abl e but r eact s wi t h met al s when moi st , f or mi ng ext r e+nel y sensi t i ve compounds. Pi ai c aci d i s mor e r eadi l y det onat ed
by means of a det onat or t han TNT but has about t he same sensi t i Vi t y
t o shock. I t i s not as t oxi c as TI NT and i s al so nonhygr oacopi o al .
t hough sl i ght l y sol ubl e i n wat er . Pi cr i c aci d has a hi gh mel t i ng poi nt
appr oxi mat el y 124" C.
c. l hw, Pi ot i c aci d i s chi ef l y used f or conver si on t o ammoni um
pi cr at o ( expl osi ve D) and t o f ar m mi xt ur es wi t h ot her ni t no compounds .
32,

AM
M
ONI UM M
t ; RATT ( EXPLOSI VE D) .

a. Char act er i st i cs. Ammoni um pi cr at e i s t he l east sensi t i ve of


ekes i t wel l sui t ed f or
mi l i t ar y expl osi ves t o shock and f r i ct i on. Thi x m
use as a bur st i ng char ge i n ar mor - pi er ci ng pr oj ect i l es. I t i s sl i ght l y
i nf er i or i n expl osi ve si r nngt h t o TNT. W
hen heat ed, i t does not mel t
but dr cumpmes and ej cpl odes, I t r eact s sl owl y wi t h met al s, and when
wet i t may f or msensi t i ve and danger ous compounds wi t h i r on, copper ,
and l ead. I t i s di f f i cul t t o det onat e but bur ns r eadi l y l i ke t ar or r esi n.
776L21

n.

49 - 2

41

TM 9- 1900

gar s; 22- 36
Gener al

Speci al pr eeaul i on&


( 1) Ammoni umpi cr at e, whi ch has been pr essed at a shel l - l oadi ng
pl ant and r emoved f r om a shel l , i s ver y much mor e sensi t i ve t o shock
or bl ow t han f r esh ammoni umpi cr at e. I t shoul d be pr ot ect ed agai nst
shock or f i l e and shoul d pr ef er abl y be st or ed al one i n a bui l di ng
( 2) Al t hough l ess sensi t i ve t han TNT, i t can be expl oded by
sever e shock or f r i ct i on, i s hi ghl y i nf l ammabl e, and may det onat e
when heat ed t o a hi gh t emper at ur e.
e. Ji m. Expl osi ve 1: i s used as a bur st i ng char ge f or annor pi er ci ng shel l , i n pr oj ect i l es f or seacoast cannon, and i n ot her t ypes of
pr oj ect i l es whi ch must wi t hst and sever e shock and st r esses bef or e
det onat i ng.

1b.

33-

PI CHATOL

a. ( ; ener al . Pi cr at ol i s a mi xt ur e of 52 per cent expl osi ve Dand


48 per cent TNT. I t can be pour ed l i ke st r ai ght TNTandhas appr oxi mat el y t he same r esi st ance t o shock as t hat of st r ai ght expl osi ve D,
The br i sance of pi cr at ol i s bet ween t hat of ex1posi ve D and TNT.
Pi cr at ol i s nonhygr oscopi c .
b. Lose . Pi cr at ol i s a st andar d f i l l er f or al l Ar my ser ni - ar mor pi er ci ng bombs.
3+h

W
I ROSTARUI EXPI A) SI VES.
a. ( : har ael er l f i es . Ni t r ost ar ch i s a whi t e f i nel y di vi ded mat er i al
si mi l ar i n appear ance t o or di nar y powder ed st ar ch . I t i t consi der abl y
mor e sensi t i ve t o f r i ct i on and i mpact t han TNT, consequent l y t he
cr ushi ng or br eaki ng of t he expl osi ve i s hazar dous. Ni t r ost ar ch i s l ess
sensi t i ve t han dr y guncot t on or ni t r ogl ycer i n. I t i s hi ghl y i nf l ammabl e, can be i gni t ed by t he sl i ght est %par k such as may r esul t f r om
f r i ct i on, and bur ns wi t h expl osi ve vi ol ence.
h. Det enat i on. Ni t r ost ar ch expl osi ves ar e r eadi l y det onat ed by
a Na $ bl ast i ng cap,

r . Eme. Aui t r ost ar ch demol i t i on expl osi ve, consi st i ng of 1/ s- pound


or 1- pound ( f our t r i pound) bl ocks, has been adopt ed as a subst i t ut e
f or TNT. TNT f or mul as f or comput i ng smal l char ges ar e di r ect l y
appl i cabl e t o t he ai t r ost ar ch demol i t i on expl osi ve. These bl ocks
must not be br oken i nt o f r agment s, as t hi s may cause det onat i on.
. 35.

PETN ( PENTAERYTHRI TE TETRANI THATE) .

a. Char act er i st i cs. PETNhas a vel oci t y of det onat i on gr eat er


t han t hat of TNTand i s mor e sensi t i ve t o shock or f r i ct i on t han TNT
or t et r yl . I n i t s pur e f or m, PETN i s a whi t e cr yst al l i ne powder ;
however , i t may be a l i ght gr ay due t o ot her i ngr edi ent s . I t wi l l det onat e under a l ong, sl ow pr essur e. PETN i n bul k must be st or ed
wet ,

42

Pan. 35- 39

TM 9- 1400
Oener sl

h. Uses . PETNi s suspended i n TNTt o f or mpent ol i t e, an expl o.


si ve of hi gh br i sance. I t i s al so used as t he expl osi ve cor e of pr i macor d f uze- - a det onat i ng cor d whi ch i s wi del y used i n demol i t i on wor k,
36. PENTQLI TE. Pent ol i t e consi st s of PETNi t s a TNT mat r i x. I t
i s super i or t o TNT i n expl osi ve st r engt h and i s l ess sensi t i ve t han
PETN, Pent ol i t e 50150 may be mel t - l oaded. I t i s, t her ef or e, sat i sf act or y f or use i n gr enades, r ocket s, hi gh- expl osi ve- ant i t ank shel l , and
i n shaped char ges .
a?.

TETRYTOL

a. Char acwr i sl i r o . Tet r yt ol i s a mi xt ur e of 75 per cent t et r yl and


25 per cent TNT. I t has hi gher br i sance t han TNT and i s mar e
ef f ect i ve i n cut t i ng t hr ough st eel and i n demol i t i on wor k. I t i s l ess
sensi t i ve t o shock and f r i ct i on t han t et r yl and onl y sl i ght l y mor e sensi t i ve t han TNT. Tet r yt ol i s nonhyggr osscopi c and i s sui t abl e f or under wat er demol i t i on si nce submer gence f or 24 hour s does not appr eci abl y ef f ect i t s char act er i st i cs.
h. Use, Tet r yt ol i s used i n chai n Ar i d i ndi vi dual demol i t i on bl ocks
and i n cer t ai n dest r uct oos,
38.

DYNAMI TE.

a. f : r "ner al . Commer ci al hi gh expl osi ves ar e mor e f ami l i ar l y r e


f er r ed t o as dynami t e. Ther e ar e sever al t ypes, each t ype bei ng subdi vi ded i nt o a ser i es of gr ades . Each t ype and gr ade di f f er s i n one
or mor e char act er i st i cs . Dynami t e consi st s of ni t r ogl ycer i n absor bed
i n a por ous mat er i al . The por ous composi t i on var i es, dependi ng on .
t he t ype of dynami t e. Dynami t e i s gener al l y avai l abl e as Oar af f i ncoat ed 1' 2- l b r t i cks or ct i r t r i dges and i s r at ed accor di ng t o t he per ceht
by wei ght of ni t r ogl ycer i n cont ent .
h. Char aat er i st i es. Dynami t e of f r om 50- t o 60- per cent ni t r ogl ycer i n cont ent i s oqui val ent on an equal wei ght basi s t o TNT i n
expl osi ve st r engt h, Dynami t e of 40 per cent i s equi val ent t o TNT i n
t he r at i o of 1 1/ 4- pound dynami t e t o 1- pound TNT. St r ai ght dynami t e
i s mor e sensi t i ve t o shock and f r i ct i on t han TNT and i s capabl e of
bei ng det onat ed by t he act i on of a r i f l e bul l et . The hi gher per cent ages
of dynami t e have ver y good wat er r esi st ance. Expl osi on of t he common t ypes of dynami t e pr oduces poi sonous f umes whi ch ar e danger ous
i n conaned pl aces .
e. Use. Dynami t e i s used as a subet i t ut e f or ni t r ost ar ch or TNT
and f or t r ai ni ng pur poses. The f ol l owi ng l i mi t at i ons ar e pl aced on i t s
use ,.
( 1) Not t o be i ssued or used f or dest r uct i on of ' ' duds: '
( 2) Not t o be suppl i ed f or t r ai ni ng i n use of demol i t i on equi pment .

TM9- 140o

Pan. 38- +13


Gener al

( 3) Not t o be used i n Coast Ar t i l l er y submHr i ne mi nes or mi ne


bat t er i es.
Not t o be car r i ed i n combat vehi cl es subj ect t o ext r emes of
( 4)
t emper at ur e.
: 39.

FDNATOL.
a. Gener al char act er l al i es. Ldnat ol i s a mi xt ur e of hal ei t e or
expl osi ve H ( et hyl enedi ni t mmi TYe) and TNT, and i s one of t he most
power f ul expl osi ves. I t i s l ess sensi t i ve t han t et r yl , PETN, or 12DX.
Ednat ol i s equi val ent t o t et r yl i n br i sance. I t can be cast i n t he same
manner as amat ol . I t has no t endency t o combi ne wi t h met al s i n t he
absence of moi st ur e and has n4 t oxi c ef f ect . I n t he pr esence of moi st ur e, hal ei t e hydr ol yzes sl i ght l y gi vi ng an aci d r eact i on, but hydr ol ysi s
of ednat ol i s not appr eci abl e. Ednat ol i s ver y st abl e and can be st or ed
f or l ong per i ods; i t i s nonhygr oscopi c,
b. I : Xke. Ecl nat ol may be used f or t he same pur poses as pent ol i t e,
namel y, i n r ocket s, gr enades, and hi gh- expl osi ve- ant i t ank shel l .

M
ONAL The t er mammonal r ef er s gener al l y t o expl osi ve
40. AM
mi xt ur es cont ai ni ng TNT, ammoni umni t r at e, and power ed al umi num,
wi t h or wi t hout ot her i ngr edi ent s such as char coal . Asi mi l ar Br i t i sh
expl osi ve i s mi nol 2. As a r ul e, ammonal expl osi ves ar e i nsensi t i ve
and, because of t he al umi num- cont ent . det onat e wi t h r esul t ant hi gher
t emper at ur e, gr eat er bl ast ef f ect , and br i ght er f l ash t han ot her hi gh
" expl osi ves . They ar e used i n pr ovi ng gr ound t est s of hi gh- expl osi ve
ar t i l l er y shel l f or bet t er obser vat i on.
41 . YRI TONAl L.. Tr i t onal i s a gener i c t er m f or expl osi ves cont ai ni ng TNT and al umi num, gener al l y i n t he r at i o of 80/ 20. I t pr oduces
a gr eat er bl eat ef f ect t hud TNT, or Composi t i on Bdescr i bed bel ow.
I t i s used i n l i ght - cuse and gener al - pur pose bomb:
42. RDX. RDX i s al so known al l cycl t mi t e ( cycl ot r i met hyl enet r i ni t r ami ne ) , CTMTN, CA hexogen ( Ger man) , and T4 ( I t al i an) . I t
i s a whi t e cr yst al l i ne sol i d havi ng a mel t i ng poi nt of 202' C. I t has
about t he same power and br i sance as PETN" I t i s mor e easi l y
i ni t i at ed by mer cur y f ul mi nat e t han i s t et r yl . I t bas a hi gh degr ee
of st abi l i t y i n st or age. RDXi s never used al one but i n mi xt ur es wi t h
at her expl osi ves and. / or oi l s and waxes.
43. TORPEX. Tor pex i s a gr ay compound consi st i ng of RDX, TNT,
al umi numpowder , and beeswax ( or si mi l ar wax) . I t i s a mor e power
f ul but much mor e sensi t i ve expl osi ve t han TNT. Tor pex i s nonhygr oscopi c, noncor r osi ve, and has a ver y hi gh br i sance . Under wat er
i t i s 50 per cent mor e deet r uct i ve t han TNT, wher eas i n ai r t he di f f er ence i s appr oodmat el y 30 per cent Tor pex i s used as a bur st i ng char ge
i n mi nes, t or pedoes, and dept h char ges.
44

TM 4- 1940

Par s . 44- 46
Gener al

P. A)
44. COMPOSI TI ONA, A- 2, AND! E- 3 . Composi t i on A ( COM
i s a mi xt ur e of RDXand a desensi t i zer , bei ng senni pl ast i c i n nat ur e.
Composi t i on A i s a mi xt ur e i ncor por at ed by r ol l i ng, wher eas Composi t i on A- 2 denot es t he sai nt expl osi ve pr epar ed by ket t l e- dr yi ng an ma.
r ol l ed mi xt ur e, and Composi t i on A- 3 a mi xt ur e pr epar ed by t r ay- dr yi ng an unr ol l ed pr oduct . Composi t i on A- 3 i s gr anul ar i n f or m, r e
sembl i ng t et r yl i n gr anul at i on. I t i s buf f i n col or and i s pr ess- l oaded
i n mi nor - cal i ber ( I 0- mm, 37- mm, and 40- mm) shel l . I t may al so be
used f or boost er s, and can be used i n ar mor - pi er ci ng shel l due t o i t s
i nsensi t i vi t y and hi gh br i sance.
4. 1.

P. B) i s ami xt ur e of
{ : OMPOSI TI ONB. Composi t i on S( COM

RDX, TNT, and beeswax or si mi l ar was . I t i s a nonpl ast i c mat er i al


whi ch i s cast - l oaded. I t i s one of t he most power f ul expl osi ves. I t i s
l ess sensi t i ve t han t et r yl but mor e sensi t i ve t han TNT. Composi t i on
B i s an aut hor i zed f i l l i ng f or AN ( Ar my- Navy) st andar d ai r cr af t
bombs, r t mi nes, and t or pedoes, and may be used i n boost er s f or l ar ge
bombs, demol i t i on char ges, and l ar ger - cal i ber pr oj ect i l es.
46.

COMPO5111ON t. , C- 2. AND C- 3.

a. Gener al . Composi t i on C, somet i mes r ef er r ed t o as P, &, i s a


pl ast i c expl osi ve cont ai ni ng RDX and an i ner t pl ast i ci zer . Composi t i ons C- 2 and C- 3 ar e si mi l ar except t hat an expl osi ve pl ast i ci zer i s
used. Composi t i on C- 2 i ndi cat es a mi xt ur e of RDXpl us ni t r ocot t on
and - an expl osi ve pl ast i ci zer cont ai ni ng no t et r yl . Composi t i on C- 3
consi st s of RDX pl us r hi t r ocot t on aT%d pl ast i ci zer cont ai ni ng t et r yl
subst i t ut ed i n par t f or RDX,
b. Compoet t i on C- 2. Thi s expl osi ve i s easi l y mol dabl e at most
t emper at ur es. I t wi t hst ands wat er submer si on wel l . I t i s used i n t he
21/ 4- pound demol i t i on bl ock M
3.
e. Compoei l i on C3. At t emper at ur es bet ween 0 = and 114 F,
Composi t i on C- 3 i s pl ast i c or pl i abl e, cl osel y r esembl i ng put t y. Bel ow
- 20 F, i t becomes har d and br i t t l e. Above 110 F, i t becomes sof t
ar i d, i f kept at t hi s t emper at ur e, has a t endency t o r emai n a sof t mass.
I t i s consi der abl y l ess sensi t i ve t han TNT and may not al ways be
det onat ed by a No. S bl ast i ng cap but wi l l al ways be det onat ed by
t he speci al Engi neer Cor ps bl ast i ng cap, The br owni sh- yel l ow pl ast i c,
however , has consi der abl y gr eat er br i sance t han TNT and i s par t i cul ar l y ef f ect i ve under wat er . I t i s used pr i nci pal l y as a commando
and demol i t i on expl osi ve, ei t her wi t h or wi t hout a cont ai ner , I t i s
al so used as a f i l l er i n some t ypes of muni t i ons. I f i t s pl ast i ci t y i s
l ost by l ong st or age at l owt emper at ur es, i t may be r est or ed t o sat i sf act or y pl ast i ci t y by mol di ng wi t h t he hands af t er war mi ng by i mmer .
si on i n war m wat er . I t must not be exposed t o open f l ame as i t
cat ches f i r e easi l y and bur ns wi t h an i nt ense f l ame. I f bur ned i n
43

TM 9- 1900

Par s. 46- 30
Gener al

l ar ge quant i t i es, t he heat gener at ed may make i t expl ode. I t s expl osi on pr oduces poi sonous gases i n such quant i t i es t hat i t s use i r n
cl osed spaces i s danger ous.
47. PTX- 1. Thi s expl osi ve consi st s of RDX, t euyl , and TNT. I t
has a pour i ng t emper at ur e of 90 t o 95 Cand i s cast abl e. I t i s sl i ght l y l ess st abl e t hen Composi t i on 13 and ednat oi . I n br i sance and power
i t i s equi val ent t o Composi t i on 8 and 50/ 50 pent ol i t e. I n gener al ,
PTX- 1 has appr oxi mat el y t he same expl osi ve char act er i st i cs as 65/ 35
t et r yt ol , Thi s composi t i on does not exude and i s l ess sensi t i ve t o
i mpact t han 55/ 35 t et r yt ol .
VI X- Z. Thi s expl osi ve consi st s of PETN, RDX, and TNT, I t
can be pour ed at 95' - C but may be pr ess- l oaded or used as a l oose
f i l l er . I t i s l ess sensi t i ve t o i mpact t han 50/ 54 pent ol i t e but mor n so
t han Composi t i on 13 or ednat ul . I t i s mor e st abl e t han pent ol i t e and
i t does not exude. PTX- 2 i s mor e br i sant and i s mor e r eadi l y i ni t i at ed
t o hi gh- or der det onat i on t han any of t he bi nar y expl osi ves.
4&

Sect i on V1

CHEMI CAL AGENTS


49. DEFI NI TI ON. Achemi cal agent i s a subst ance whi ch, by i t s
or di nar y and di r ect chemi cal act i on and i n concent r at i ons at t ai nabl e
i n t he f i el d, pr oduces a t oxi c or an i r r i t at i ng ( har assi ng) ef f ect , a
scr eeni ng smoke, an i ncendi ar y act i on, or any combi nat i on of t hese.
An agent t hat pr oduces mor e t han one of t hese ef f ect s i s cl assed
accor di ng t o i t s pr i nci pal use.

go. C1. A%S1f 1i CA' f I t 1N. Chemi cal agent s, or e cl assi f i ed accor di ng
t o t act i cal use, pat hol ogi cal ef f ect , and pur pose, as f ol l oWl .
r. W
ar Saws. Agas i s an agent whi ch pr oduces ei t her a t oxi c or
i r r i t at i ng physi ol ogi cal ef f ect . Such an agent may be i n sol i d, l i qui d,
or gaseous st at e, ei t her bef or e or af t er di sper si on. Gases may be
per si st ent ( t hose r emai ni ng ef f ect i ve at poi nt of r el ease f or mor e t han
10 mi nut es) or nonper si st ent ( t hose becomi ng i nef f ect i ve wi t hi n 10
mi nut es) . Per si st ent gases ar e f ur t her di vi ded i nt o moder at el y per si st ent ( t hose r emai ni ng ef f ect i ve i n t he open 10 mi nut es t o 12 hour s)
and hi ghl y per si st ent ( t hose r emai ni ng ef f ect i ve i n t he open l onger
t han 12 hour s) , These gases ar e cl assi f i ed as :
( 1)
( a)

( b)
( c)

CASUALTY GANV9.

] Bl i st er gases ( vesi cant s)


Choki nggases ( l ung i r r i t ant s)
Bl ood and ner ve poi sons ( syst emi c poi sons)
46

TM 9. 1900

Por s. 30, 32
Gener al

HI YRASSW
Ur * $ES ( i r r i t Ant %) :
( a)
( b)
h.
r.
d.

Voi ni t i ng gases ( st er nut at ar s)


Teat gases ( l acr i mat or s)
Scn4r - ni ng nmuke
. a.
I ncendi ar i es .
Si mul at ed war gums.

51 . DI KSCRI PTI { 1N. The t ype, common name, and symbol of t he


pr i nci pal chemi cal agent s ar e i ncl uded i n t he t abl e i n f i gur es 23 and
23. The f ol l owi ng t abl e i ncl udes t he symbol s and names of chemi cal
agent s whi ch ar e not i ncl uded i n f i gur es 22 and 23 and whi ch may
be encount er ed i n t he f i el d.
C' WS Symbal a and

H. . . . . . . . . . . . .,
HD . . . . . . . . . .
HDV , , . . . .
HVV . . . . . . . .
HP . . . . . . . . . . . .
HDP . . . . . ,
HN . . . . . . . . . .
HL . . . . . . . . .
CK . . . . . . . . . . . .
SA . , . . . . . . .
AC . . . . . . . . . . . .
CNB . . . . . . . .
CN- DM. . ,
. .. . .. . .. .
NC . . . . . . . . .
NP . . . . . . . . . . . .
I M. . . . . . , . . .
FS . . . . . . . . . . . .
AS . . . . . . . . . . . .
MI R . . . . . . . . . .

Ay4m
%I n

Addi t i on f a RSur es 6 and 7

Levi nst ei n must ar d ( 30 per cent i mpur i t i es)


Pur i f i ed must ar d
' Thi ckened pur i f i ed must ar d
Ver y vi scous sol ut i on of met hyl met hwr yl at e
i n pur i f i ed must ar d, HD
Sol ut i on of phosphor us i n Levi nst vi n must ar d
Sol ut i on of phosphor us i n pur i f i ed must ar d
Ni t r ogen must ar d
Must ar d l ewi si t e
Cyanogen chl or i de
Ar si ne
Hydr ocynni c aci d
Sol ut i on of chl or acet ophenonv i n benzene and
cer bor t t et r achl or i de
Bur ni ng mi xt ur e of CMand DM
St anni c chl or i de
Chl or pi cr i n- st anni c chl or i de
Thi ckened gasol i ne, wi t h napal m
Th- ekened gasol i ne
Al umi num- bar i umni t r at e mi xt ur e
Asbest i ne suspensi on
Mol asses r esi duum

Ot her symbol s; such as A1, A2, and D2, may al so be encount er ed but t he chemi cal s associ at ed wi t h t hemar e hi ghl y
cl s" i f i ed f or secur i t y pur poses . A br i ef descr i pt i on of t he
pr i nci pal chemi cal agent s i s cont ai ned i n par agr aphs 53
t hr ough 58.

. i 2.

PAI NTI NG AND WI RKI 1t i C.

a.
Pai nl i t sg.
col or , gr ay.

Chemi cal

ammuni t i on i s i dent i f i ed by t he base

Par 52

TM 4- 1900
Genor al

snow.

HAM

I I Ul RCAR1
LEI I f 19RE

Goo

EI w
asXX

{;

Mw+iM
......O i s.

GBA

Gsr i k

'

T. .. XLI I YYW
LM" "

C9A1t

ODOR , t omSUM

LOADEG

pX R5

Cog

- CG

+X

C. .

( SAM
E

47. 4

.
l X1l XEX171QXAaXG

1 . . 1 .. : . 1

p. . ww waAU

'

1' , ?v1
-

X . .. . ,

.u

' GwwXl l nr . .

Ran:
=X
r

t om
'

""

Ad"
bf n* Q

kv

1l l ssb' f r o'
an" LXsn
gaYu
-I -

CG

rL

U. wwwy4nl .

Gr owl C. X
d- 16-

. .

PHO6f Xl E

--

I .

Bi I Y. . X

".

. w. I Li LMr o- L
X. wnwX7t

Gasar l mma

4 . . ow: . s XX+4
Xwl n, r ow

+
, Xi 11 1 r . wma- , .

. Ad. . F

.1

AN*
bhsasl l w

X. X

. vXnMyX" ) . nom
._
Xw, I. , .
.X
Mn X7. . .XX- _ -

.I7Y0r f avi 5
CTAW
E
, XX
- 1r 1r WX

CHX
X
7UKt

" "
Cap

Cw

Go! Sass

6- . . Yr l l . ".
. ' 1W LI
E.

6' r r 1 Xw. . i q. ,

Few

HC AI m
m

FS

( - CM

I. r r X! 1

SX. Xwc. i J

Jh.. - I . . .

i f . I . 1r . . r r
. .I .

-l o w
Aeei f

FM
I X

PNQ

I ORUS

s1w.

_
.

J6 , - f t p
. . I +Ww

may k, X. r
t we. nr
Q
dar dr nX
. f w7
h
r
M
m
5 J1u111.
C
H
LG
Q
R
O
FO
.
LC
M
LO
R
YI
C
R
I
M.
1111.
Q
U
l
aI
TLYLI
ED
FO
R6A
E
LLM
.
LI
I
R
11 CPU. A SOW
STONOF 6' a I n
ARn
I AI HACHOW
L1 . 5O10
i 7YE IVI LLUG OF A MAGPr dLM W
OO W31101 MI YU TO 5OWY6 THI W
X

i " H

I LA PO 27696A

Fi gur e 92 - Chem
i cal

Ar nr eu* l t i on , - Fxp( anot or y Chor t


As

TM 9- 1900

Far . 52
G
O
M
M

"

'

r 1RST A

T 7D-

. r . r - . Ml L- i i . - l e
r a . . Y1i w.

I f\

coX. al a; &sr kTB


P
U
. EM Tya
L

AXuhX

n- XwSwr

, .. . r . .. +. . . . ..
J .w
^ w` r
w

Xy

SW
. [ ow. X. . r

, 1' A. `r

"

. ". .

OI LY
LI QI w

GX" W
" h. .

&4yp. . d . r
X!

LQUO

- ad X
r X. r L . W
X r , r , sT
kJ . I m
M
pLgt M
VAXOyn "
" . L AXvJyr
GAOLY0
. X- .

l i ne

F. r . J. X. ' X
Lw

l 6 6. . . r

om- . wu . . d- ALYf 4X

j onJO

XX

4"

Anl X. " al l f

wwW
l . .

. SXI I I t j '

u. wddo.

- h
.
1
A"
an - a !
i 7. i . i f
t i . w. - LwAr I . r r l . b. e. n . d . r n

Ti . n. a . L . . r r .
GwXwRi . I l . r y

YAW

xnl L%
uLTTf I I LM

i x. Fl wi Xl w..

PAW

A. ( - - . 1W
. . we: . L . w. ... . r

CA"

wa- aLSd. . . I r s. .

r ?r a

f - h-

nT

. r AXal A Cgy* sd . } Xwe


W
X.I . Nr - wXa- hMA1XM.F'

PAU

Vw r r
1Gr

n10h!

rw

Sr pi i nr l . d. :. i . dr

G
r M
. dANW
p "
AL6 a- I nr

aI 1. 01Ff

i r . XLXa- . r Axe4

r e. . Fr .

M
. r n . XV. .. dwwYYFss

L7 L. r .

1 l mar dei XXr Gl r i

. - a. Od M
6r i r

IYX114

r 41-

Si l mr y_ X

. f ar m

D. - d4. - dw

YALI R.

Cj wAw
s

=mss*

wi nes

LK. . L " - - uLA. el . - a

It

. r l Lr.
suwnnM
. u I f w/ Y-

I A67"

. ' AAf . . . . r i - J . ..

I I Oi
I YAX. OOLP

Si wTX bl i r e

nLr

c=m
=

JC. wPl r aa. r -

Mi r .

"!

. .d
X

c f. . . . " . . i . w. 4e

_.

a. . .

+l O' X. Or " . I A" Lr wr

i m
am

AX XXwd

X. oi " i r - Xdr - r -

Raw
Mi n"

X
m
tr

"

L
^

w. . L.. XenOr Xn

Ct

W' Xr +
.fY

w'

y; a : : kw, . XX
. rh

TA, TJCAI . USES

LOADED

s- . . .
Ji 0- l vM

NRI . . wFr .

W
%i ma

Ii6
A. . ; . "

A. . 11 . . - Cwr 11wm. . .
OWY1r abX.. Kl . 7. . 4

Dk. " . u/
" " L, w,

. I <- r .
.: . . a.

, A* , &- . k' W&- . . .. - .


a L. . . r a. - L "

Mol m
Xr nr as
I OAAf
A
. XYl f

Tr wL X. . i . . n

.. .
NX. YXX++.

r O. XI r Y

" ^Al f r WwwbXr

7. r mw . +. . dv . . a. .
CLY. 1- . . . . V7X- f rb
b A. - ,

l - A. . m.

D. . 1r Am. r r l wl wi . r -

- ol d

Fi gur e
i

93 - Cbeai cor i

Am
m
ui shl an 49

I r r pl am
f ar y

Chad - Cor r f i aued

TM %
. t 400

Pays. 52- 54
Gener al

h,
Mar ki ng, The par t i cul ar agent used as chemi cal f i l l er i s i ndi cat ed i n t he mar ki ng on t he ammuni t i on by one or t wo bands and
i n accor d
t he t ype of f i l l er and i t s symbol , al l i n a di st i nct i ve cal
ance wi t h chapt er 1, sect i on I I .

BUSTER GASES. Bl i st er gases pr oduce casual t i es r esul t ant


f r om i nj ur i es t o t he eyes and l ungs and ski n bl i st er s. The pr i nci pal
bl i st er gases ar e must ar d gas and l ewi si t e.
a. Must ar d gas ( H) i s a dar k- br own l i qui d whi ch sl owl y evap
cr at es t o a col or l ess gas havi ng t he odor of gar l i c . Pur i f i ed must ar d
( HD) may be pr act i cal l y odor l ess- I t s pr i nci pal physi ol ogi cal ef f ect
i s t hat of a bl i st er gas ( vesi cant ) , al t hough t he bl i st er i ng does not
or di nar i l y appear f or sever al hour s. I f i nhal ed, t he vapor s have a
choki ng ( l ung- i r r i t ant ) ef f ect . For compl et e pr ot ect i on agai nst K
bot h gas mash and pr ot ect i ve cl ot hi ng ar e necessar y. The t act i cal
use of Hi s t o neut r al i ze ar eas, cont ami nat e i nat er i el , cause casual t i es,
and har ass enemy per sonnel. I t i s pr oj ect ed by ar t i l l er y and mor t ar
i n shel l s and f r om ai r pl anes i n bombs and spr ays . I t i s l ef t i n l and
mi nes by r et r eat i ng t r oops . I t r ender s f ood and wat er unf i t f or use.
h. Lewi si t e ( L) i s a dar k- br own l i qui d evapor at i ng t o a col or l ess
gas whi ch has t he odor of ger ani ums, I n addi t i on t o bei ng a bl i st er
and choki ng gas, l ewi si t e i s an ar seni cal poi son. Gas mask and pr ot ect i ve cl ot hi ng ar e necessar y f or pr ot ect i on agai nst L. The t act i cal
use of L and t he met hods of pr oj ect i on ar e t he same as t hose f or H.
I t r ender s f ood and wat er per manent l y unf i t f or use.
5: i .

54. CHOKI NG CASES. Choki ng gases i nj wv t he r espi r at or y


t r act nose, t hr oat , and l ungs, The pr i nci pal choki ng casual t y gases
ar e di pbosgene, phosgene, chl or i ne, and chl or pi cr i n.
u. Di ghosgene ( DP) has a t oxi ci t y about t he same as t hat of
phosgene, I t causes wat er i ng of t he eyes, as wel l as coughi ng and
occasi onal vomi t i ng,
I s . Phosgene ( CG) appear s on pr oj ect i on as a whi t i sh cl oud,
changi ng t o a col or l ess gas. The t oxi ci t y i s over t en t i mes t hat of
chl or i ne. I n hi gh concent r at i ons, whi ch ar e of t en met i n bat t l e, one
or t wo br eat hs may be f at al i n a f ew hour s_ Unl i ke chl or i ne, CG
pr oduces but sl i ght i r r i t at i on of t he sensor y ner ves i n t he upper ai r
passages, so t he men exposed t o t hi s gas ar e l i kel y t o i nhal e i t mor e
deepl y t han t hey woul d equi val ent concent r at i ons of chl or i ne or ot her
gases. For t hi s r eason, phosgene i s ver y i nsi di ous i n i t s act i on and
men gassed wi t h i t of t en have l i t t l e or no war ni ng sympt oms unt i l
t oo l at e t o avoi d ser i ous poi soni ng. I t s t act i cal use, act i on on met al s,
f ood, and wat er , ar e t he same as f or chl or i ne,
c. Chl or i ne ( Cl ) i s a gr eeni sh- yel l ow gas wi t h a pungent odor .
Physi ol ogi cal l y, i t act s as a l ung i r r i t ant , The ser vi ce gas mask s
suf f i ci ent f or pr ot ect i on, I t i s used t act i cal l y as a casual t y agent I t
so

YM9_1900

Put s,

54- 56

Gener al

causen vi ol ent coughi ng i mmedi at el y and can be f at al on cont i nued


exposur e I t i s used al one and wi t h ot her of t hi s gr oup i n gas- cl oud
at t ack f r omcyl i nder s, I t has a vi gor ous cor r osi ve act i on on wet or
moi st met al s . Food and wat er cont ami nat ed wi t h chl or i ne can be
made f i t f or use under t he di r ect i on of a medi cal of f i cer .
al . Chl or pi cr i n ( PS) i s a col or l ess oi l y l i qui d, changi ng sl owl y i n
t he open t o a col or l ess gas. I n addi t i on t o i t s l ung i nj ur ant ef f ect s,
PS i s al so a st r ong t ear gas, and has t he addi t i onal advant age of bei ng
capabl e of penet r at i ng gas mask cani st er s t hat ar e r esi st ant t o or di nar y aci d gases such as chl or i ne and phosgene. The i nj ur i ous ef f ect s
of PS al so ext end t o t he st omach and i nt est i nes, causi ng nausea,
vomi t i ng, col i c, and di ar r hea. Si nce t hese condi t i ons ar e di f f i cul t t o
combat i n t he f i el d and of t en per si st f or weeks, even sl i ght cases of
PS gassi ng f r equent l y i nvol ve l ar ge casual t y l osses . Tact i cal l y, i t i s
used i n heavy concent r at i ons as a casual t y agent and i n l i ght er concent r at i ons as a har assi ng agent . PS i s used wi t h t ear gas i n ar t i l l er y and mor t ar shel l s and i n ai r pl ane bombs and spr ays, W
ith
phosgene and chl or i ne, I >S i s used f mr n cyl i nder s . I t has sl i ght act i on
on met al s. Cont ami nat ed f ood and wat er may be r ender ed f i t f or
use under t he di r ect i on of a medi cal of f i cer .
. i i . BLOODANl l NERVE POI SONS. These gases may pr oduce
t oxi c ef f ect s ver y r api dl y. The pr i nci pal bl ood and ner ve poi sons
ar e hydr ocyani c aci d and cyanogen chl or i de,
a. Hydr ocyani c aci d ( AC) f or ms a col or l ess gas upon r el ease.
I t s odor i s si mi l ar t o t hat of al monds, but i s not al ways r eadi l y det ect ed i n t he f i el d. I t s act i on i s ver y r api d. I t s f i r st act i on i s st i mul at i on of t he r espi r at or y syst em, causi ng deeper i nhal at i on. Deat h
by par al ysi s of t he r espi r at or y syst em may occur i n a f ew mi nut es.
h. Cyanogen chl or i de ( CK) f or ms a col or l ess gas upon r el ease
and has a shar p pungent odor . I t s act i on i s ver y r api d and pr oduces
par al ysi s of t he r espi r at or y syst em, Unl i ke AC, i t f i r st pr oduces an
i nvol unt ar y spasmof shor t dur at i on of t he upper r espi r at or y t r act .

'

HAHASSI NG GASES. The har assi ng gases ( i r r i t ant s) ar e t he


56.
t ear and vomi t i ng gases. The pr i nci pal ones ar e:
a. Chl or acet ophenone ( CN) , commonl y known as t ear gas, i s
t ypi cal of t he t ear gases, I t pr oduces pr of use weepi ng and r equi r es
t he use of a gas mask f or pr ot ect i on. I t has no per manent l y i nj ur i ous
ef f ect on t he eyes I n hi gher concent r at i ons, i t i r r i t at es t he ski n,
pr oduci ng a bur ni ng and i t chi ng sensat i on. CN i s used al ong i n
gr enades. I t i s used i n benzene and car bon t et r achl or i de sol ut i on
al one ( CNI 3) and i n chl or of or i n sol ut i on wi t h chl or pi cr i n ( CNS) i n
ar t i l l er y and mor t ar shel l s and f r om ai r pl oner i n bombs and spr ays.
CN has sl i ght act i on on met al s. I t i mpar t s a di sagr eeabl e t ast e t o
f ood and wat er .
51

Par s . 54- - 57

TM 4- 1900
Gener al

h. Br ombenzy1cyani de ( BBC) i s a t ear gas whi ch pr oduces a


bur ni ng sensHt i on of t he mucous membr anes and sever e i r r i t at i on and
l acr i mat i on of t he eyes wi t h acut e pai n i n t he f or ehead.
a. Adar nsi t e ( DM) t ypi f i es t he vomi t i ng gases. I t i s a sol i d
whi ch i s di sper sed by bur ni ng- t ype muni t i ons such as candl es and
gr enades, and appear s as a yel l ow smoke wi t h an odor r esembl i ng
coal smoke. Physi ol ogi cal l y, i t causes l acr i mat i on, vi ol ent sneezi ng,
i nt ense headache, nausea, and t empor ar y physi cal debi l i t y. For pr ot ect i on, t he ser vi ce gas mask, whi ch i s equi pped wi t h an ef f i ci ent
smoke f i l t er , i s r equi r ed. Tact i cal l y, i t i s used as a har assi ng gas.
DMhas a sl i ght act i on on met al and r ender s f ood and wat er per manent l y unf i t f or use.
<l . Di phenyl chl or ar si ne ( DA) i s a vomi t i ng gas whi ch causes i r r i t at i on of t he t hr oat and l ungs. Thi s i s f ol l owed by a headache, and
pai ns i n t he j aws and t eet h. These sympt oms ar e accompani ed by
chest pai ns, nausea, and vomi t i ng,
i ?. SCREENI NG SM
OKES. Smokes ar e pr oduced by t he di wper si on of par t i cl es i n t he at mospher e t hr ough t he bur ni ng of sol i ds
and t he spr ayi ng of l i qui ds. They ar e used t o scr een movement s and
act i vi t y, t o bl anket t he enemy, t o i nact i vat e obser ver s, t o spot 2r t i l I er y f i r e and bombi ng, and t o di sgui se cl oud gas,
a. Hoxachl or et hane- zi nc mi xt ur e ( HC) can be used onl y f r om
bur ni ng- t ype ammuni t i on, such as gr enades, candl es, and base- i gni t i on
and bas" j ect i on smoke shel f . No pr ot ect i on of mat er i el i s r equi r ed.
HC i s har mf ul ( t oxi c) t o unmasked per sonnel who ar e exposed t o
heavy concent r at i ons f or shor t per i ods or t o l i ght concent r at i ons f or
ext ended per i ods of t i me, but t he ser vi ce mask of f er s compl et e pr ot ect i on. Food and wat er ar e not spoi l ed ' by HC but acqui r e a di sagr eeabl e odor .
Sul f ur t r i axi de- chl or sul f oni c aci d mi xt ur e ( FS) i s a l i qui d
whi ch pr oduces a dense whi t e smoke when di sper sed i nt o a humi d
at mospher e. I t i s pr oj ect ed i n shel l s, by ai r pl ane spr ay and f r om
por t abl e cyl i nder s. FS l i qui d i s ver y cor r osi ve, and r ubber gl oves
shoul d be wor n i n handl i ng i t . No mask i s necessar y f or t he smoke,
whi ch i s har ml ess t o per sonnel except i n ver y heavy concent r at i ons .
Li qui d FS r ender s f ood and wat er unf i t f or use; t he smoke mer el y
i mpar t s an unpl easant t ast e- Because of i t s cor r osi ve nat ur e, cer t ai n
r est r i ct i ons ar e i n f or ce on t he use of FS ( AR758- 10) .
e. Ti t ani um t et r achl or i de ( FM) i s si mi l ar t o FS i n appear ance,
pr oper t i es . and use.
d,
W
hi t e phosphor us ( W
P) i s a yel l ow, waxy subst ance whi ch
i gni t es spant ancoml y and pr oduces a dense whi t e smoke. I t s pci t t ci pal use i s t o pr oduce smoke, al t hough i t i s an i ncendi ar y and cas
ual t y agent as wel l . W
P i s used onl y i n expl osi ve- t ype pr oj ect i l es,
51

TM9- 1900

Put s. 57- 55
Gmer al

ar t i l l er y end mor t ar shel l , gr enades, and ai r pl ane bombs. W


hen t he
pr oj ect i l e expl odes, i t scat t er s smal l pi eces of phosphor us whi ch i gni t e
spont aneousl y upon cont act wi t h ai r . These par t i cl es cont i nue t o
bur n even when embedded i n t he f l esh. Phosphor us bur ns shoul d be
kept under wat er or wel l packed wi t h moi st ear t h unt i l t he par t i cl es
ar e r emoved. Phosphor us smoke i s unpl easant t o br eat he but har ml ess; t he par t i cl es, however , wi l l poi son f ood and wat er .
5$. I NCENDI ARI ES. I ncendi ar i es ar e used t o i gni t e Combust i bl e
mat er i al s, but may al so i nj ur e per sonnel , Var i ous t ypes of i ncendi ar y
agent s ar e used. An al umi num- bar i um ni t r at e mi xt ur e ( F$) , t hen
mi t e ( TH) , or t her mat e ( TH) ar e used i n magnesi umor st eel cont ai ner s,
a. Ther mi t e i s a mi xt ur e of al umi numand i r on and t hi s mi xt ur e,
upon i gni t i on, pr oduces mol t en i r on.
b. Ther mat e, a mi xt ur e of t her mat e wi t h ot her subst ances ( such
as bar i umni t r at e) whi ch accel er at e t he bur ni ng, i s used i n i ncendi ar y
bombs and gr enades .
c. Combust i bl e oi l & and j el l ed gasol i ne ar e used i n bombs and
Same t hr ower s. I ncendi ar y mi xt ur e ( PT- 1) i s used i n bombs.

TM 9- 1900

Par $. 5960

CHAPTER 2

CLASSES OF AM
M
UNI TI ON
Sect i on 1
M
UNI TI ON
SMALL- ARMS AM
59.

GENERAL.
a. Ammuni t i on used i n weapons whose bor e i s 0. 60 i nch or l ess
( r i f l es, car bi nes, pi st ol s, r evol ver s, and machi ne guns) and i n shot guns
i s cl assed as smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on,
b. Many t ypes of car t r i dges ar e manuf act ur ed t o t he same pr or i l e, Consequent l y, car t r i dges of t he same cal i ber al t hough of di f f er ent
model may be ver y bi mi l ar i n appear ance. Each t ype, and somet i mes
each model , as i n t he case of some t r acer car t r i dges, has a char ac .
t er i st i c col or ed bul l et t i p. Car t r i dges may be i dent i f i ed as t o t ype,
r oodei , and cal i ber by mar ki ng on packi ng boxes and cot t ons.
c. The col or s used on bul l et t i ps t o i dent i f y t he t ype of car t r i dge
ar e shown i n f i gur e 1 and descr i bed i n par agr aph T a ( 3) .
60.

CARTR11l CES.

a,
Gener al . A r ound of smal l - ar ms amt nvni t i on i s known as a
car t r i dge. I n gener al , i t consi st s of a bul l et , a pr opel l i ng char ge, a
pr i mer , and a car t r i dge case, al l assembl ed i nt o a uni t assembl y ( f i gs.
24, 25, and 26) .
1x Bul l et . Bul l et s f or ser vi ce ume have a met al cor e or sl ug
whi ch i s cover ed wi t h a gi l di ng met al , or gi l di ng- met al - cl ad st eel
j acket . I n t he case of cal i ber . 4S bul l et s, copper - pl at ed st eel may be
used i nst ead of gi l di ng met al f or t he j acket . Bal l and t r acer bul l et s
have a l ead al l oy or common st eel cor e or sl ug, wher eas ar mor - pi er ci ng
bul l et s have a bar dened st eel al l oy cor e. Bul l et s have a f l at or t aper ed
base. Abul l et havi ng s t aper ed base i s sai d t o be " boat - t ai l ed' A cannel ur e, or annul ar knur l , i s r ol l ed or cut i nt o t he j acket t o pr ovi de a
r ecess i nt o whi ch t he car t r i dge case i s cr i mped ( f i gs. 27, 29, 29,
and 30) .
c. Pr opel l i ng char ; c. Ther e ar e t wo t ypes of smal l - ar ms pr opel l ant sgener al l y used, t he si ngl e- base ni t r ocel l ul ose t ype and t he
doubl e- base t ype. The doubl e- base t ype i s a mi xt ur e of ni t r ocel l ul ose
and ni t r ogl ycer i n whi ch bur ns mor e r api dl y t han t he si ngl e- base t ype;
i t i s used i n shot gun shel l s, some cal i ber . 45 r o=ds, and car bi ne ammuni t i on . The wei ght of t he chhar ge and gr anul at i on of t he powder
ar e i n accor dance wi t h speci f i cat i on r equi r ement s f or vel oci t y and
pr essur e. The char ge i s assembl ed l oosel y i n t he car t r i dge case.
54

r at

Par . 60

9. 1900
Ci m&es of Ammuni t i on

LI :

so

Par , 60

TM 9- 19p0
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

A- CAL- . 3Q CARBI NE BALL CARTRI DGE, Ml


A - CAL. . 4X BALL CARTRI DGE, M1911
C- - - CAL. . 22 LONG RI FLE BALL CARTRI DGE
D- 12- GAGE SHOTGUN SHELL
E - - CAL. Ao BALL CARTRI DGE. Mz
KA PD 45076
F - - CAL. - 50 BALL CARTRI DGE, M2
Fi gur e 25 - Types of Smal l - ar ms Ammuni t i on
56

TM 4- 1400

Par . 60
04I wes of Am
muni t i on

A- CAL. . 3C CARBI NE BALL CARTRI DGE, Ml


B - CAL. . 9S I SALL CARTRI DGE, W
911
C- CAL. 3t LONG RI FLE BALL CARTRI DGE
0- 12- GAGE SH07GUI N SHELL
E- CAL. . 30 BALL CARTRI DGF, M2
F CAL. . 50 BALL ( _' ARTRI DGE, h47
Fi g - e 26 - Types of
M
M0- se- A

RA PD 99561A
Sma) t - ar ms Ammvr r i f ! on - Cr oss Sect i on
07

Par . 60

TM 9- 1900
CPasses of Ammuni t i on

A - BASE, FI LLER- GI LDI NG METAL


B- COMP051TI ON, I GNI r ER
I C - OOM
PM
I TI ON, TRACLR
E STEF( ,
D - - CORE- TUN( XSTEN CHROM
r - JACKET GI LDI NGMETAL OR GI LDI NG&%ETAL GLAD STEEL
F - POI NT FI LLER- LEAD " T" SHOT
O. . - SLUG- LEAD W
I TH ANTI MONY
H- BO
DY PLUG- LEAD SHOT
I - I NCENDI ARY CONSPO$I TI ON
3 - STEEL BODY

GAL , 30 BALL BULLET, hi t

BLACK- APPROX. 5.' 16" - i

CAL. 30 ARMOR- PI ERCI NG GULLET, M2


RED- APPROX. 5; " 16" -

CAL , 30 TRACER GULLET, MI


ORANGE- APPROX. 5?: 1&, '
G

CAL,

, 30 TRACER SULLET,

T10

BLUE - .
APPROX 5/ 16"

CAL. 30 I NCENDI ARY BULLET. MI


KA PO 4511C
Fi gur e 27- Cal i ber . 30 BuJi ef s - - Cr ass Sect r owt

$4

TM 9- 1900

Par .
Gasses of Am
m
uni t i on

A- COMPOSI TI ON. I CNI TER


R- COMPOSI TI ON. SUB- I GNI TER
C- COMPOSI TI ON. TRACER
D- CORFSTEEL
E - CORE- TUNGSTEN CHROME STEEL
F- JACKET GI LDI NI S METAL

G
- POI NT FI LLER- LEAD W
I THANTI M
ONY
H- SLSJG- LEAD W
I TH ANTI MONY
I - JACKET- GI LDI NGMETAL CLAD STEEL
J- I NCENDI APY mr ) CTLRE
K- STEEL . BODY

CAL - 50 TRACER BULLET, MI

OPANGE- APPROX 7: -' 1(?'

CAL. SO I NCENDI ARY BULLET MT


r 3LUF- APPROX. 7: 32"

CAL, , 50 I NCENDI ARY GULLET. M2#

RA PI D 89316A

Fi gur e 28 - . Cal i ber . 50 Bul l et s - Cr oss Secf i * n


39

60

7M 9- 1900

Por s . 60- 63

Cl asses of Ammuni t i on
d. Pr i nt er . The pr i mer co, i si st s of a br ass or gi l di ng- met al cup
whi ch cont ai ns a pr i r ner - omposi t i on pe11et of sensi t i ve expl osi ve, a
paper di sk, and a br ass anvi l . A bl ow f r omt he f i r i ng pi n on t he pr i mer
cup compr esses t he pr i mer composi t i on bet ween t he cup and t he
anvi l , and causes t he composi t i on t o expl ode. The bol es or vent s i n
t he anvi l al l ow t he f l ame t o pass t hr ough t he pr i mer vent i n t he car t r i dge case and i gni t e t he pr opel l ant
c. Car t r i dge eaae. The car t r i dge case i s made of dr own br ass
or st eel . I t ser ves as a means wher eby t he ot her component s- pr i mer ,
pr opel l i ng char ge, and bul l et - ar e assembl ed i nt o a uni t , t he car t r i dge.
Anot her of i t s f unct i ons i s t o expand and seat t he chamber agai nst t he
escape of gases t o t he r ear when t he car t r i dge i s f i r ed. Thi s act i on i s
known as obt ur at i on. To make t he car t r i dge wat er pr oof and t o keep
t he pr opel l i ng char ge dr y, t he pr i mer i s seal ed i n t he pr i mer seat and
t he bul l et i s seal ed i n t he neck of t he car t r i dge case by a t hi n f i l m of
l acquer or var ni sh at t he t i me of manuf act ur e. An ext r act or gr oove,
t ur ned i n t he head of t he car t r i dge case, pr ovi des a means of r emovi ng
t he case f r omt he chamber of t he weapon,
61 . TYPES_ Smal l - ar ms car t r i dg" ar e cl assi f i ed accor di ng t o t ype
as f ol l ows=
Dummy
Bal l
Ar mor - pi er ci ng
Hi gh- pr essur e t est
Ar mor - pi er ci ng- i ncendi ar y
Gal l er y pr act i ce
Ar mor - pi er ci ng- i ncendi ar yGuar d
t r acer
Subcal i ber
Gr enade
I ncendi ar y
Tr acer
Shot
Hl ank
Shot gun shel l s
62. RALL. Thi s t ype of car t r i dge, i nt ended f or use agai nst per
sonnel and l i ght mat er i el t ar get s, i s t he ol dest ser vi ce t ype_ I t i s bei ng
r epl aced f or combat pur poses, however , by ar mor - pi er ci ng and ot her
t ypes. The t er m " bal l , " al t hough no l onger accur at el y descr i bi ng t he
shape of t he moder n bul l et , has been c" i t i nued i n use t o desi gnat e
t hat t ype of bul l et and ammuni t i on used f or t he same pur poses as
ammuni t i on of ver y ear l y desi gn, t he bul l et of whi ch was act ual l y a
bal l ( f i gs. 25 t o 30) . A speci al hi gh gr ade of bal l ammuni t i on i s
manuf act ur ed each year f or t he Nat i onal Mat ches of t hat year , The
f ol l owi ng year i t may be used i n pr el i mi nar y f i r i ng f or such mat ches.
The second year , and t her eaf t er , i t i s consi der ed as st andar d ser i t i ce
ammuni t i on. The head of each of t hese car t r i dges i s st amped " 14, M. "
and wi t h t he year of manuf act ur e .
63. ARMOR- PI E1f CI NG. Thi s t ype of car t r i dge i s i nt ended f or
use agai nst ar mot ed ai r cr af t and vehi cl e4, concr et e shel t er s, and si mi l ar bui l t - r esi st i ng t ar get s . The bul l et has a har dened st eel al l oy
cor e. I n addi t i on, i t may have a base f i l l er and a poi nt f i l l er of a
sof t er met al , such as gi l di ng met al ( f i gs . 27 and 28) .

Pai r s. 64- - 48

TM 9- 1900
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on
A- SLUG- LEAF? ALLOY
B- JACKET- GI LDI NGMETAL
C- JACKET- COPPER. K, hTED STEEL
D- I I GNI I TER
E- TRACERCOMPD51TI ON

sORC
CAL . 45 BALL BULLET, M1911
r

, RED- APPROX. 3+" 15

G
A
CAL . 45 TRACER BULLET, T30
Fi gur a ? 9

RA PD 893d0A

- Cal i ber . 46 dul f el s - Cr oss Saef +on

61, ARI VI OR- NI EHCTNC- I NCENDI ARY . Thi s t ype of car t r i dge i s
used i n cal i ber . 30 st ud cal i ber . 50 weal ) OAS i re l i eu of usi ng bot h
ar mor - pi er ci ng and i ncendi ar y car t r i dges.
65, _YRXi O( I - Nl I : KI .: TNC- I NCENUCAI I I ' - ' 1- RACER. Thi s t ype of
car t r i dge combi nes t he f eat ur es of ar mor - pi er ci ng, of i ncendi ar y, and
of t r acer car t r i dges and i s i nt ended t o r epl ace t hese car t r i dges,
66. I NCENDI ARY. Thi s
ar mor - pi er ci ng ammuni t i on
i ncendi aar y pur poses agai nst
posi t i on, 8s a cent r al bul l et
t ar get ( Fi gs . 27 and 28) .

t ype of car t r i dge i s si i ni l at t o bal l or


i n out war d appear once. I t i s used f ar
ai r cr af t . I t cont ai ns an i ncendi ar y Comcor e, whi ch i gni t es on i mpact wi t h t he

67 . TRACER. Thi n t ype of car t r i dge i s i nt ended f or use wi t h


ot her t ypes t o show t he gunner , by i t s t r ace, t he pat h of t he bul l et s,
t hus assi st i ng i i i cor r ect i ng ai m, I t may al so be used f or i ncendi ar y
pur poses . The t r acer el ement consi st s of +t pr essed i nf l ammabl e Mat er i al i n t he base of t he bul l et ; t hi s coml x) si t i on i s i gni t ed by t he pr opel l i ng char ge when t he car t r i dge i s f i r ed ( f i p, 27 t hr ough 30) , For
i dent i f i cat i on . t he nose of t he bul l et i s pai nt ed r ed, or ange, or mar oon,
68. 11LANl i , Thi s t ype of car t r i dge ( f i g. 31) i s di st i ngui shed by
t he al Aence of a bul l et . I t i s uAed f ar si mul at ed f i r e, t r ai ni ng caval r y
mount s, and f i r i ng sal ut es. I t i s al so used i n machi ne guns equi pped
61

TM 9- 1900

Pays . 68- 71
Cl asses of Ammt ar t t i on
A- SLUG- LEAD ALLOY
B- 1ACJCCT- GI LDI NG METAL
C- 1GMTER
D- TRACER COMPD51TI ON
E- JACKET- GI LDI NG ' yi ETAL CLAO STEEL.

CAI . _K CARBI NE BALL BULLET, W


-

C/

. $$0

- RED- APPROX. 1 . g"

CAL . 30 CARBI NE TRACER BULLET t vt W6


RA PD 8933I A

Fi gor e 30 - Car r hi r i e COl i bel . 30 SuPet s - Cr oss Sect i on


wi t h bl ank- f i r i ng at t achment s i n or der t o oper at e t hese weapons f or
i nst r uct i onal pur poses. EC bl ank powdol r i s used t o pr oduce t he
noi se.
69,
DUMMY, Thi s t ype of car t r i dge ( f i g, 32) i s aged f or pr act i ce
ui l oadi ng weapons, t o det ect f l i nchi ng i n f i r i ng weapons, and t o si m
ul at e f i r i ng, The car t r i dge case of ol der l ot s of dummy ammuni t i on
i s t i n- coat ed. However , t he pr esent means of i dent i f i cat i on of dummy
car t r i dges i s by means of hol es dr i l l wl t hr ough t he si de of t he cage
and by t he Cmpt y pr i mer hol e . The car t r i dges ar e compl et el y i ner t
but si mul at e ser vi ce r ounds i n most det ai l s.
7{ l . 1i 11GH- PRESSLRI F ' 1' EST. Thi s t ype of cI I r t r l dg ( f i g. 33) i s
manuf act ur ed f or use i ri pr oof f i r i ng of smal l ar ms, Si nce t he pr opel l i ng char ge of t hi s ammuni t i on devel ops hi gh pr essur es, t hese car hen used f or
t r i dges shoul d never be used f or any ot her pur pose. W
t he pur pose i nt ended, al l per sonnel shoul d be pr ot ect ed by adequat e
: over , ' 1' I t i i s ammuni t i on i s di st i ngui she4.l f r omot her t ypes by t he t i n
coat i ng of t he car t r i dge case_ I n some ol der l ot s, t he wor d " TEST" ' i s
st amped on t he head of t he car t e,
7f . GALLERY PRACTI CE. The pr esent st andar d f or gal l er y pr act i ce i s t he cal i ber _22 l ong r i f l e car t r i dge ( f i gs. 25 and 26) , a r i m- f i r e
car t r i dge of commer ci al manuf act ur e. I n t he past a gal l er y pr act i ce
car t r i dge, cal i ber . 30 1ai 1919 was used, but any Avai l abl e l ot s Of t hi s
car t r i dge ar e r eser ved f or guar d pur poses,
462,

TM 9- 1900

Pam 72- - 73
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

CA4, 34 BLANK CARTRI DGE, M


1"

CAL. , 45
BLANk CARTRI DGE, M
9

CAL. . $0 BLANK CARTRI DGE, Ml

i r 4ol
RA PD g9334A

Fi gur e 31 - Bl ank Car t r i dges

72.
G
UARD. Guar d car t r i dges coaai st ed of a l ow- vel oci t y char ge
and v r ound- nose l ead bul l et t ogeAher wi t h t he car t r i dge case end
pr i mer , The guar d car t r i dge M
1 was f or mer l y known as t he gal l er y
pr act i ce car t r i dge M1919 ( 1mr . 71) . As i n t he case of t he gal l er y
pr act i ce cHr t r i t o, t he use of t he guar s! car t r i dge i s bei ng di scont i nued.
7. 1.

SUBCA1dBl ai .

a. Thi s t ype of , : ar t r i dge ( f i g. 34) i s f i r ed f r om subcal i ber t ubes


i nser t ed i n l ar ger weapons,
The subcal i ber car t r i dge, cal i ber . 30,
M1925 i s f i r ed f r om a " Kr ag" t ype of subcal i ber t ube i n 3- i nch sea
coast guns. Thi s car t r i dge i s i dent i f i ed by t he ext r act i ng r un on t he
head of t he case i nst ead of t he usual gr oove.
h.
Ot her car t r i dges:, speci f i cal l y t he st andar d cal i ber . 22, cal i ber
. 30, and cal i ber . 50 bal l car t r i dges, ar e f i r ed f r om subcal i ber t ubes i n
f i el d, t ank, and ant i t ank weapons.

Par ,

TM 9- 1900

73
Cl asses of Ammar t i f i or t

A - CAL.
B
CAL .
C - , r - Al .
j ) - CAL .

..0
. 90
. 30
. 95

D
GUMMY CARTRI DGE, M2
CARBI NE DUMMY CARTRI DGE, M13
DUMMY CARTRI DGE, h1 S?
DUMMY CARTR4DGE, M1921
RA PD 99344A

f i gur e 32 - - Dum
m
y Car t r i dges
64

Par . 73

Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

CAL, LO HI GH- PRESSURE TEST CARTRI EI UE, M1


B- CAL, . 30 CARBI NE HI GH PRESSURE TEST CARTRI CI JE,
C- CAL. . 30 HI CI J- PRESSURE TEST CARTRI DGE, i " I
D- CAL. . h5 HI GH PRESSURF TEST CARTRI DGE, A41

M18

RA FD 031GA

f i gur e 3S- Nl gh- pr esi vne Test Car t r i dges


65

7M 9- 1900

Par s . 74- 76
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

1A, PD 23079A

Fi gur e

34 - Cal i ber . 30 Su' bcaf i ber Car t r i dge MT925

7
AUXt L1ARY GRENADE CAR7RI DGEM

GAL. - M CARBI NE GRENADE CARTRI DGE.

1,

CAL. . 30 RI FLE GRENADE CARTRI DGE, M3

RA PD G8318B

Fi gur e 35 - Gr enade Car t r i dges


71 . URENAUE. Gr enade car t r i dges ( f i g. 35) ar e speci al bank
car t r i dges f or use i n pr opel l i ng gr enades f r om l aui t i cher s at t ached t o
r i f l es or car bi nes. The Ti t l e gr enade and car bi ne gr enade car t r i dges
ar a di st i ngui shed by a r ose- pet al cr i mp at t he mout h of t he case. The
auxi l i ar y gr enade zar t r i dge M7 whi ch cont ai ns a pr opel l ant but no
pr i mer i s somet i mes used i n conj unct i on wi t h t he r i f l e or car bi ne
gr enade car t r i dge t o gi ve addi t i onal r ange.
75. SH( Yl ' . Shot car t r i dges of cal i ber . 45 ( f i g_ 36) ar e f or use i n
pi st ol s f or hunt i ng smal l game. I nst ead of a sol i d bul l et , t hey cont ai n No. 7' A chi l l ed shot , whi ch i s al so used i n shot gun shel l l oadi ng&
These car t r i dges ar e i nt ended pr i mar i l y f or use by ai r f or ce per sonnel
as an ai d i n obt ai ni ng f ood.
76. SHOTGUNSHELLS. Shot gun shel l s ( shot shel l s) of appr opr i at e l oads ar e pr ocur ed commer ci al l y f or use i n 12- gage spor t i ng- t ype
and r i ot - t ype shot guns ( f i g. 37) .

7M9- 1900

Pays . 77- 78
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

CAL 45 SHOT CARTRI pGE, MI 5

CAL . . 45 $NOI

CARTRI DGE l AQ
RA PD 89562A

f i gur e 3b- - Cal i ber . 45 Shot Car t r i dges


77. GRADES,
a, Cur r ent gr ades of exi st i ng l ot s of smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on ar e
est abl i shed by t he Chi ef of Or dnance i n accor dance wi t h accept ance
and sur vei l l ance t est s, and ar e publ i shed i n W
D SE 9- AMM 4,
Gr ade 3 i ndi cat es unser vi ceabl e ammuni t i on, whi ch wi l l not be i ssued
or used.
Iti. Smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on whi ch has been gr aded " For Tr ai ni ng
Use Onl y" wi l l not be used i n demonst r at i ons or on t r ai ni ng cour ses
r equi r i ng t hi s ammuni t i on t o be f i r ed over t he heads of par t i ci pat i ng
t r oops.
78, CARE AND PRECAUTI ONS I N HANDLI NG.
a. Smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on i s compar at i vel y saf e t o handl e. However , car e must be t aken t o pr event ammuni t i on boxes f r ombecomi ng
br oken or damaged, Br oken boxes must be r epai r ed i mmedi at el y,
and car ef ul at t ent i on gi ven t o t he t r ansf er of al l mar ki ngs t o t he new
Par i s of t he box . Met al l i ner s shoul d be si r - t est ed and seal ed i f
equi pment f ar t hi s wor k i s avai l abl e,
1j . Ammuni t i on boxes wi l l not be opened unt i l t he ammuni t i on
r equi r ed f or use. Ammuni t i on 1vmoved f r om ai r t i ght cont ai ner s,
par t i cul ar l y i n damp cl i mat es, may cor r ode and become unser vi ceabl e. .
c. W
hen car t r i dges ar e t aken f r om t hei r or i gi nal packi ng& f or
l oadi ng i nt o cl i ps or machi ne gun bel t s, t he cl i ps or bel t s shoul d be
t agged or mar ked so as t o pr eser ve t he ammuni t i on l ot number ,
t her eby pr event i ng t he ammuni t i on f r om f al l i ng i nt o gr ade 3 t hr ough
l oss of l ot number ( i dent i t y) ,
d. Ammuni t i on shoul d be car ef ul l y pr ot ect ed f r om mud, sand,
di r t , and wat er . I f i t get s wet or di r t y, i t shoul d be wi ped af t ' at once_
iS

67

Par . 79

TM 9- 1900
Cl asses of Ar r ot r t ur ei f i an

ALL BRA55 NO. 00 BUCK 12- G&GE SHOTGUN SHELL. M19

PAPER #00 BUCKSHOT 12- GAG( SHOTGUN SHEI - L

PAPER

?- 1 . 2 CHI LLED SHOT 12- CAGE SHOTGUN SHELL

PAPER #B CHI LLED SHOT AND TRACER 12- CAGE SHOTGUN SHELL
RA PD 230M
PJgvr e 37 - Shof gun Shef f s, T2- gage

Par s . 78- 90

TM 9- 1400
Cl asses of Ar nmur dbonr

I f l i ght cor r osi on or ver di gr i s f or ms on car t r i dges, i t shoul d be wi ped


of f . However , car t r i dges shoul d not be pol i shed mer el y t o make
t hem l ook br i ght er or bet t er ,
e. Ammuni t i on shoul d not be exposed t o t he di r ect r ays of t he
sun f or any consi der abl e l engt h of t i me. Thi s i s l i kel y t o af f ect i t s
f i r i ng qual i t i es.
f , The use of oi l or gr ease on car t r i dges i s danger ous and i s
pr ohi bi t ed,
g. Car t r i dges t hat ar e dent ed, have l oose bul l et s, or ar e ot her wi se
def ect i ve shoul d not be f i r ed.
79. PRECAUTI ONS I N FI RI NG.
a. Because a mi sf i r e cannot i mmedi at el y be di st i ngui shed f r om
a hangf i r e. i t i s unsaf e t o open t he bol t of a r i f l e f or at l east 10 t o 15
seconds af t er a mi sf i r e occur s. W
hen t he r i f l e M1 f ai l s t o f i r e, i t
shoul d be r ecocked by means of t he t r i gger guar d and r ef i ned bef or e
hen t he r i f l e M1903 f ai l s t o f i r e, i t shoul d be
t he bol t i s opened. W
r ecocked by dr ai ni ng back t he cooki ng pi ece and shoul d be r ef yr ed
bef or e t he bol t i s opened. The r i f l e U1917 cannot be r ecocked wi t hout openi ng t he bol t , i n case of mi sf i r e, wai t a f ul l mi nut e bef or e t he
bol t i s opened. W
hen t he cal i ber . 30 car bi ne f ai l s t o f i re, pul l t he
oper at i ng sl i de t o t he r ear and r el ease t he Oper at i ng r od. I f t he
oper at i ng sl i de goes f ul l y home, ai m and f i r e, To avoi d i nj ur y i n
case of hangf i r e, hol d t he hand so t hat no par t of t he pal mor wr i st
can be st r uck by t he oper at i ng sl i de i n i t s r api d r ear war d movement .
L. Bef or e f i r i ng, be sur e t hat t he bor e of t he weapon i s f r ee of any
f or ei gn mat t er such as cl eani ng pat ches, mud, sand, snow, et c, Fi r i ng
a weapon wi t h any obst r uct i on i n t he bor e wi l l r esul t i n damage t o
t he weapon and may r esul t i n i nj ur y t o t he f i r er .
c . No smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on wi l l be f i r ed unt i l i t has been
i dent i f i ed posi t i vel y by ammuni t i on l ot number and gr ade, as publ i shed i n t he l at est r evi si on of W
D SB 9- AMM4.
d . For pr ecaut i ons i n f i r i ng bl ank ammuni t i on, see TM9- 1990,
Any wr i ous mal f unct i on of ammuni t i on must be r epor t ed
pr ompt l y t o t he or dnance of f i cer under whose super vi si on t he mat er i al i s mai nt ai ned and i ssued. As pr ovi ded i n AR 750- 10, t he
or dnance of f i cer wi l l r epor t such mal f unct i on t o t he Chi ef of Or dnance, I t i s i mpor t ant , t her ef or e, t hat al l evi dence be pr eser ved.
Thi s i ncl udes t he car t r i dge case, ot her car t r i dges f r om t he same box,
t he weapon concer ned, and al l r ecover abl e pi eces- - - i n shor t , ever yt hi ng t hat mi ght det er mi ne t he cause of t he mal f unct i on.
80. PACKI NG AND MARKI NG.
a, Packi ng. Dependent an i t s i nt ended use, smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on i s packed i n l i nk and web bel t s, cl i ps, or car t ons ( f i gs 38
69

TM 9- 1900

Par . 84
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

I TH COVER
BOX W
I NG
REMOVED SHOW
W
AXED CONTAI NERS

W
AXED CONTAI NER OPENED
SHOW
I NG CARTONS AND CONTENTS

RA PD 64466A

Fi gur e 38 - Boxes Cont ai ni ng Car t on- packed Ammuni t i on


}n W
axed Car r t ai nar s
79

TM 9- 1400

Par
.
Cl asaea of Ammur vf i on

Fi gur e 39 - Saxes

Contai ni ng Car t on- packed Ammuni f i on


in M
O
WCans
71

so

TM 9- 1900

PUT. 80

Cl asses a! Ar nmur t i t i cm

RA PD 97725
f i 9vr e 40- Boxes Coj r r ai ni ng 8- r ound Cf i pped Ammunf t i on i n
Bandol eer s i n Mef al Car t s
71

Par . 90

TM 9- 19QQ
C1as2, es of At nn i t t Ri on

8_110 . CLI P PED

5 . RD,

CLI PPED

CAL. X BELTED

CAL_ TD LI NKED
CAL. , 30 LI NKED

Fi gur e 41 sa412l 0 - 4s- e

RA PD 151936

m
uni t i on Boxes
al l - ar m
s Am
bol s an Sm
Packi ng Sym
7a

TM 9- 1400

Par . 50
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

RA PO 6T31UP

Fi gur e 4Z

Wi r e- bound Cr at e f or Four Ammuni t i on &axes, Cal . . 30, M1

R^ Pa i amge
Fi gur e 43 - Ammuni t i on Box, Cal . . 30, M1 ( St eel )
74

r M 9- ' t 9110

Par %. 811` 81
Cl auses of Ammuni t i on

t hr ough 43) . For exampl e, ammuni t i on i nt ended f or use i n t he r i f l e


N1 I i s packed i n 8- r ound cl i ps, For a det ai l ed descr i pt i on of packi ng,
see ORB 11 SNL' s of t he T gr oup,
l o- Mar ki ng.
( 1) Smal l - ar ms packi ng boxes may be ei t her st ai ned br own wi t h
mar ki ng i n yel l ow, or unst ai ned wi t h mar ki ng i n bl ack_ Mar ki ngs
f or shi pment ar e cover ed i n chapt er 3, sect i on I V, and I n TM9- 1990.
( 2) I nst ead of t he l ot number , a r epacked l ot number may be
st enci l ed on packi ng boxes cont ai ni ng web bel t s and met al l i c l i nk
bel t s ; t he ser i al number of t he r epacked l ot number i s pr eceded by
t he l et t er " l 3" f or bel t ed ammuni t i on, and " L" f or l i nked car t r i dges,
( 3) To pr ovi de a f ur t her means of qui ckl y i dent i f yi ng t ype of
packi ng, st enci l ed f i gur e si l houet t es ar e used on boxes and cr at es
cont ai ni ng cl i pped, bel t ed, and l i nked car t r i dges. These symbol s i ndi cat e whet her t he ammuni t i on i s packed i n r i f l e cl i ps, web bel t s, or
l i nked bel t s, The si l houet t es ar e ver t i cal f or cal i ber . 30 car t r i dges,
and di agonal f or cal i ber . 50 car t r i dges ( f i g, 41) . The absence of
st an6l ed f i gur e si l houet t es on boxes i ndi cat es car t on- packed emr nuni t i on ( f i gs. 38 and 39) .
( 4) The expendabl e met al ammuni t i on boxes ar e pai nt ed ol i vedr ab wi t h mar ki ng i n yel l ow ( f i g, 43) ,
Sect i on I t
GRENADES
81 . GFNERAL DESCRI " 10N.
v . 1) ef i ni l i nn. Gr enades ar e smal l expl osi ve or chemi cal mi ssi l es
i nt ended f or use agai nst an enemy at r el at i vel y shor t r anges .
l i . l i ani r. t ypes. Ther e ar e t wo basi c t ypes of gr enades- - t hose
i nt ended t o be t hr own by hand ( f i gs. 11 and 44) and t hose i nt ended
t o be pr oj ect ed f r omr i f l es or car bi nes equi pped wi t h sui t abl e gr enade
l auncher s ( f i gs. 12 and 45) . By at t achi ng a sui t abl e adapt er , some
of t he hand gr enades may al so be f i r ed f r omr i f l es and car bi nes ( f i gs.
46 and 47) , Hand gr enades pr ovi de t he sol di er wi t h an auxi l i ar y
weapon, si mi l ar t o a shel l or bomb, t o suppl ement hi s basi c weapons .
Ri f l e gr enades ar e val uabl e not onl y f ar speci al i zed use, such as
agai nst t anks, but al so f or cover i ng t he r anges bet ween t he maxi mum
f or hand gr enades and t he mi ni mumf or mor t ar shel l . Speci al bl ank
car t r i dges ( f i g. 35) , packed wi t h t he r i f l e gr enades, must be used i n
t he weapon f or pr oj ect i ng t hese gr enades,
c . Gener al t ypes. Bot h hand and r i f l e gr enades can be el assi f i . ed
i nt o t hr ee gener al t ypes, namel y . expl osi ve, chemi cal , and pr act i ce
or t r ai ni ng.
7$

TM 9- 1900

Por s . 81- 83
Cl essea of Ammuni t i on

( 1) Expl ogi ve gr enades ar e used pr i mar i l y f or ant i per kXonoel


( f r agment at i on or bl ast ) or ant i t ank ef f ect . They may al so be used
as demol i t i on agent s .
( 2) Chemi cal gr enades ar e used f or casual t y, har assi ng, i ncendi ar y, scr eeni ng, and si gnal i ng pur poses, Some of t hem may al so be
used f or t r ai ni ng pur poses and dest r uct i on,
( 3) Pr act i ce and t r ai ni ng gr enades ar e used i n t r ai ni ng t r oops
f or combat ,
d. Mi zi ng. Gr enades t hr own by hand ar e nor mal l y f i t t ed wi t h
a del ay- act i on f uze. For expl osi ve hand gr enades and t he chemi cal
M
15 ( bur st i ng t ype) W
Psmoke hand gr enade, t hi s del ay i s set f or
appr oxi mat el y 4. 5 seconds. Bur ni ng- t ype chemi cal hand gr enades
use a f uze wi t h a del ay of appr oxi mat el y 2 seconds. Ri f l e gr enades
ar e usual l y f i t t ed wi t h a base f uze t hat f unct i ons on i mpact .
8: t .

j EXPLOSwE HANDGRENADES.

a.
Fr agni ent al i on t ype. The M
k 2 i s a t ypi cal f r agment at i on
hand gr enade ( f i g. 11 and A, f i g. 44) . Thi s gr enade i s made of cast
i r on var yi ng i n t hi ckness f r om 1/ 8 t o 1/ 4 i nch. The body i s l emonshaped, appr oxi mat el y 21/ { i nches i n di amet er and 3 1/ z i nches i n
l engt h wi t hout t he f uze. I t cont ai ns an expl osi ve char ge whi ch, upon
det onat i on, br eaks up t he body of t he gr enade and . f uze and pr oj ect s
t he f r agment s out war ds i n al l di r ect i ons at hi gh vel oci t y. The body
i s gr ooved bot h hor i zont al l y and ver t i cal l y. The f uze f or t hi s Sr et ade
has a pr i mer . a combust i bl e t i me- del ay t r ai n, and a det onat or . At t ached t o t he f uze body i s a saf et y l ever hel d i , rs pl ace agai nst t he
act i on of t he st r i ker spr i ng by means of a saf et y pi n. Just pr i or t o
t hr owi ng, t he saf et y pi n i s r emoved. W
hen t he gr enade s t hr own,
t he saf et y l ever i s pushed of f by t he st r i ker , al l owi ng t he st r i ker t o
i mpact agai nst t he pr i mer . The pr i mer i gni t es t he t i me- del ay t r ai n
and, af t er 4 or 5 seconds, t hi s del ay t r ai n causes t he det onat or t o
expl ode. Thi s, i n t ur n, causes t he expl osi ve f i l l er i n t he gr er i ade t o
det onat e, t her eby f r agment i ng t he gr enade. Fr agment s may f l y over
200 yar ds.
1) . Of f endve t ype, The of f ensi ve gr enade ( f i g. l l and C, f i g. 44)
i s i nt ended t o have an ant i per sonnel ef f ect over a smal l ar ea. I t
cont ai ns mor e expl osi ve t han t he f r agment at i on- t ype gr enade, appr oxi mat el y 1/ 2 pound of pr essed TNT, sad, t her ef or e, i s m
or e usef ul as
e demol i t i on agent No f r agment at i on ef f ect i s obt ai ned,
1t 3.

CHEMI CAL HAND GRENADES.

a. Bur ni ng t ype . The st andar d cont ai ner f or t hi s t ype of gr enade ( f i g. I 1 and D, f i g. 44) i s a cyl i ndr i cal st eel can 23/ s i nches i n
di amet er and 43N i nches hi gh. The f uze f or t hese gr enades i s si mi l ar
k 2 f r agment at i on gr enade, except t hat i t
t o t he f uze used i n t he M
76

TM 9- 1900

Par . 83
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

PRACTI CE GRENADE, M21


B

FRAGMENTA?1 N GRENADE, MK 2
A

STRI k; ER

1 SAF! 1Y
; LEVER

aELAY
Fl .1 5E
I GNI ' r ER

OFFE 51VE GRENAQE


MK 3AZ UNFUXEO
C

CHEMI CAL GRENADE


RA PD 89340A

Fi gur e 44 - Hand Gr enades - Cr oss 5sct i on


77

Par . 83

TM 9- 1' 400
Ci assus of Af nmuni r i on

has an i gni t er i nst ead of a det onat or , and has a shor t del ay t i me of
2 seconds . Gr enades t ?f t hi s t ype have wat er pr oof , adhesi ve- t ape
cover ed, smoke emi ssi on hol es i n t he t op, si des, or bot t om. These
gr enades ar e descr i bed br i ef l y as Fol l ows :
( 1) CN- D14I I RRI TANT HAND GRENADE. The pr oduct s of coi nbust i on of t he f i l l er i n t hi s gr endde have a har as4i nd ef f ect . I t s
pr i nci pal use i s i n t he cont r ol of ci vi l di st ur bances . The bur ni ng t i me
i s 20 t o 60 seconds. The f i l l er i s a composi t i on of t ear gas, vomi t
gas, and smokel ess powder .
( 2) CN TEAR HAND GRENADE. Thi s gr enade i s i dent i cal wi t h t he
GN- DM gr enade except t hat i t l bas a t ear gas f i l l er . Pr i nci pal uses
ar e i i i cont r ol of ci vi l di st ur bances, ai ul t r ai ni ng i n use Df t he gas
mask.
( 3) HC SMOKE GRENADE. Thi s i s an Ar my- Navy st andar d whi t e
smoke gr enade, used f or si gnal i ng and scr eeni ng pur poses. The cont ai ner i s st andar d except t hat t her e ar e no emi ssi on hol es i n t he si de.
The bur ni ng t i me i s X t o 2i i i mi nut es,
( 4) TH I NCENDI ARY GRENADR, Thi s i s an Ar i ny- Navy st andar d
muni t i on f or set t i ng t i r e t o enemy mat er i el , The cont ai ner i s st andar d except t hat t her e ar e no emi ssi on hol es i n t he si de. Cl amps of
st eel st r appi ng, whi ch f i t ar ound t he body of t he gr enade, may be
used t o nai l t he gr enade agai nst an abj ect t o be bur ned. The f i l l i ng
i s t her mat e,
whi ch bur ns at appr oxi mat el y 4, 330 F f or 30 t o 35
seconds .
( $) COLORED st ai aKE GRENADE M1G. Thi s gr enade, used f or
gr ound- Ri r and gr ound- gr ound si gnal i ng pur poses i s made i n t he f ol l owi ng col or s: gr een, yel l ow, r ed, and vi ol et , I t i s of st andar d Const r uct i on and bur ns f or appr oxi mat el y 2 mi nut es,
( $) CoLoxr v SMOKE GRENAD$ M1 S. Thi s gr enade, avai l abl e i n
r ed. gr een yel l ow. and vi ol et , i s al so used f or si gnal i ng pur poses . The
cont ai ner has emi ssi on hol es i n t he t op, and a si ngl e hol e at t he
bot t om. A t aper ed hol e ext ends t hr ough t he cent er of t he gr enade
f r om t he bot t om emi ssi on hol e t o t he f uze. The st ar t er mi xt ur e
l i t r es t he t aper ed cavi t y, The gr enade pr oduces a heavy smoke f or
appr oxi mat el y 1 mi nut e.
( 7) RED SMOKE RENADE AN- M3. Thi s gr enade i s an Ar myNavy ai r f ar os of f i ci al di st r ess si gnal . I t i s t he st andar d met al gr enade except t hat t he f uze l ever i s shor t ened and t he body i s cover ed
wi t h a met al j acket t o whi ch ar e at t ached t hr ee met al st r i ps whi ch
may be bent out f r omt he j acket t o keep t he gr enade f r om si nki ng
i nt o snow or sof t gr ound. Bur ni ng t i me i s 2 t o 2 y mi nut es.
Bur st i ng t r l t v. Ther e i s onl y one st andar d chemi cal gr enade
IN
of t hi s t ype and i t i s known es t he W
P smoke gr enade MI S, Thi s
gr enade has a dr awn- st eel cyl i ndr i cal body si mi l ar i n si ze t o t he
bur ni ng- t ype chemi cal hand gr enades, and i s f i l l ed wi t h whi t e phos74

TM 9- 1900

Par . 83
Cl asses of Am
m
upi f i on

t
4
V

0
h

n
0
w

V
h
fl
C
G7
C
a
-x

a
I

a
+i

7f

TM 9- 1900

Par s . 83- 87
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

phor us . The det onat i ng f uze used i n t hi s gr enade causes i t t o spl i t


open and pr oj ect bur ni ng par t i cl es of phosphor us over a r adi us of
about 15 yar ds. Thi s pr oduces a dense whi t e smoke scr een and wi l l
cause casual t i es by bur ni ng.
84.
PRACTI CE AND TRAI NI NGHANDGRENADES. Thi s t ype
of gr enade ( f i g. 11 and B, f i g. 44) i s used i n t r ai ni ng. They may be
i ner t ( t r ai ni ng) , or l oaded wi t h a char ge of bl ack powder cont ai ned
i n a cl ot h t ube ( pr act i ce) . I n t hi s case t he char ge i s i nser t ed i nt o
t he f i l l i ng hol e, whi ch i s cl osed wi t h a cor k.
85. EXPLOSI VE RI FLE GRENADES. Ant i t ank t ype : A t ypi cal
ant i t ank r i f l e gr enade, t he M9A1 ( f i g. 12) consi st s of a sheet - st eel
body, cone, and ogi ve assembl y t o whi ch i s at t ached a si mpl e basedet onat i ng f uze and a st abi l i zer and f i n assembl y. The bead of t he
gr enade cont ai ns a 4- ounce cast - pent ol i t e, shaped char ge f or bl ast i ng
hol es i n t he t ar get . At t he same t i me det onat i on of t he mai n char ge
causes f r agment at i on of t he body i n a l at er al di r ect i on. The gr enade
i s i nt ended pr i mar i l y f or use agai nst ar mor ed vehi cl es. I t has been
f ound t o be most ef f ect i ve agai nst enemy per sonnel when i t i s f i r ed
at a hi gh angl e of el evat i on ( 45' ) .
86.

CHEMI CAL RI FLEGRENADES.

a,
Bur ni ng t ype. These gr enades consi st of a deep- dr awn, t hi nwal l ed st eel body wi t h hemi spher i cal ogi ve and body uni on assembl y
t o whi ch i s at t ached a si mpl e base/ f uze and a st abi l i zer and f i n as
sembl y ( B, f i g. 30) . Thi s t ype of gr enade i s avai l abl e wi t h appr oxi mat el y 103/ 4 ounces of HC whi t e smoke or 6 1/ 2 ounces of st andar d
col or ed smoke f i l l i ngs . Bot h HC and col or ed smoke gr enades have
f i ve seal ed smoke emi ssi on hol es i n t he body uni on. The col or ed
smoke gr enades al so have a smoke emi ssi on hol e i n t he ogi ve. Bot h
of t hese t ypes of chemi cal r i f l e gr enades commence bur ni ng upon
i mpact , due t o t he act i on of t he base i ni t i at i ng t ype of f uze. The
HC gr enade i s i nt ended pr i mar i l y f or scr eeni ng pur poses and t he
col or ed sr noke gr enades f or si gnal i ng.
b. Bur st i ng t ype. Thi s gr enade i s t he count er par t of t he W
P
smoke hand gr enade M15. The W
P smoke r i f l e gr enade M19 ( A,
f i g. 45) has a st abi l i zer and f i n assembl y i dent i cal t o t hat used i n t he
ant i t ank gr enade M9Al . I t cont ai ns appr oxi mat el y 8. 5 ounces of
whi t e phosphor us and i s equi pped wi t h a bur st er act uat ed by a basedet onat i ng f uze. The spont aneousl y combust i bl e W
P gr enade i s scat ..
t er ed upon i mpact .
87. PRACTI CE ANDTRAI NI NGRI FLE GRENADE. Ther e i s at
pr esent onl y one st andar d pr act i ce r i f l e gr enade, t he M11A3 ( f i g. 12 ) .
Thi s gr enade i s used onl y i n t r ai ni ng and si mul at es t he f l i ght and
so

Par s . 87- 88

TM 9- 1900
XXsS64

of Ar nmuni t i un

XL STAg1OZER
ASSEMBLY

'

- C
L I P

" SET- BACK BAND

\ - SAFE7Y LEVER

RAPC, 54491

Fi guf e 47 - Chemi cal Gt enode Pr ot ect i on Adapt er M2


act i on of t he AT gr enade M9A1, Br i ng compl et el y i ner t , t hi s gr enade i s pai nt ed bl ack : . For r epeat ed use, i t i s i ssued wi t h addi t i onal
r epl acement f i ns and ogi vi K
$f i . f ; HH: NADE PROJECTI ON A11APTI - A( S.
a. The gr enade pr oj ect i on adapt er { f i g. 46)
t o a f r agm. ni at i on hand gr enade h1k 2 per mi t s t hi s hand gr enade t o be used
as a r i f l e gr enade_ Af t er r emoval of t ho gr enade saf et y pi n bef or e
f i r i ng, t he saf et y l over i s hel d i n posi t i on by t he ar mi ng cl i p. Upon
f i r i ng t he gr enade f r ont ) s l auncher - equi pped r i f l e or car bi ne, t he ar mi ng cl i p f r ees i t sel f f r um t he ar mi ng cl i p r et ai ner , t her eby r el easi ng
t he gr enade saf et y l ever and i ni t i at i ng t he 5- second haze. Gr enade
car t r i dges ar e packed i n each adapt er packi ng bas .
1r . The chemi cal gr enade- pr oj ect i on adapt er ( f i g. 47) i s i nt ended
f or use wi t h t he chemi cal hand gr enades. I t consi st s of a st abi l i zer
t ube, whi ch has a base pl at e and a t hr ee- pr onged cl i p on one end and
on t he ot her end, a st andar d f i n si mi l ar t o t hat on t he gr enade M9A1,
and a met al set back band whi ch f i t s ar ound t he gr enade, over t he
saf et y l ever . Upon f i r i ng t he gr enade f r om a l auncher - equi pped r i f l e
or car bi ne, t he set back band moves t o t he r ekr , t her eby r el easi ng t he
gr enade saf et y l ever and i ni t i at i ng t he ?- second f use. Gr enade car t r i dges ar e packed i n each adapt er car t r i dge packi ng box.
asw
TY3Yat ed

92

Fi gur e 48 - Typi cal Packi ng of Hand Gr enades

RA

n " a3 4 b

Par .

as

TM 9- 1900
Gl asses of Amnt uni di or ,

a
a
rn
c
U

a4
0
.
1-

5X- X- CX LOl

a' X

aWuJ
t.

vs
4 JnX
om
So
S _.:
Tur f

Par s . 99- - 91

TM 4- 1900
Cl asses of Amt nut vt i un

CARE AND PRECAUTI ONS I N HANDI AW.

s! +,

a.

I nf or mat i on concer ni ng t he car er t o be exer ci sed i n


Cmr v .
handl i ng gr enades wi l l be f ound i n chapt er 3 of t hi s manual and
per t i nent Fi el d Manual s_
h.
Pr ecaut i ons . The f ol l owi ng addi t i onal vaf et y pr ecaut i ons f or
handl i ng ammuni t i on wi l l al so be obser ved :
(1 )
Si nce f r agment s may be pr oj ect ed over 200 yar ds . f r agment at i on gr enades wi l l not X used i n t r ai ni ng wi t hout adequat e cover .
The saf et y pi n wi l l be r emj wed j ust bef or e t hr owi ng or
('2 )
l aunchi ng and at no ot her t i me,
( 3)
Occasi onal l y, chemi cal gr enades may f l ash.
Hence, when
used i n maneuver s, t hey wi l l be so t hr own as t o f unct i on not l ess t han
30 Feet f r om per sonnel _
( 4)
Duds wi l l be di sposed of i n accor dance wi t h t he pr ovi si ons i n
chapt er 4.
Ri f l e gr enades must never be l aunched wi t h a car t r i d4e ot her
( 5)
t han t he speci al gr enade car t r i dges pr ovi ded f or t hat pur pose,
The f uze f ur ni shed wi t h t he gr enade M
k 2 i s r r oi sel m,
( d)
smokel ess, and spar kl es.
Under no condi t i on, t her ef or e, wi l l t he
t hr ower consi der t he gr enade a dud because no noi se, smoke, or
spar ks ar e obser ved upon r el ease of t he saf et y l ever ,

90. I DRN' 1' I FI CATI ON. Hi Ot - expl osi ve gr enml es ar e pai nt ed ol i ve.
dr Xb wi t h yel l ow bands ar ound t he t op of t he gr enade body . Tr ai ni ng hand gr enades ( i ner t ) ar e pai nt ed bl ack ; pr act i ce gr enades con
t ai ni ng a si mul at ed char ge ar e pai nt ed bl ue. Pr act i ce r i f l e gr enades
ar e pai nt ed bl ack wi t h whi t e st enci l i ng.
Chemi cal gr enades ar e
pr i nt ed bl ue- gr ay wi t h i dent i f i cat i on band and mar ki ng i n t he appr opr i at e col or as i ndi cat ed i n chapt er 1, sect i on I I and i n f i gur es I I
and 12.
The st abi l i zer assembl y of al l r i f l e gr enades i s pai nt ed
ol i ve- dr ab.
91,

PACKI NG.
a. Gr enades t i r e vsual l y packed as . f uzed compl et e r ounds, each
i n an i ndi vi dual f i ber cont ai ner ,
b. Fr agment at i on gr enades ar e packed 15 or 25 cont ai ner s per
wooden box_
e.
The of f ensi ve hand gr enades ar e packed 50 per wooden box
( f i g. 48) , and t he t r ai ni ng gr enades Ar n packed 24 per box.
The st andar d packi ng f or r i f l e gr enades i s 10 cont ai ner s per
d.
box ( f i g. 49) , wi t h a suppl y of car t r i dges f or l aunchi ng f r om any
appr opr i at e weapon. j ungl e packi ng i s wat er pr oof ed t o wi t hst and
hot humi d cl i mat es,
r.
Gr enade- pr oj ect i on adapt er s or e PAcked 48 per box, wi t h suf f i ci ent number of var i ous gr enade car t r i dges and posi t i oni ng cl i ps.
93

Por s. 92- 93

TM 9- 1900
Cl ass es of Ammuni t i on
Sect i on I I I
M
ORTAR AM
M
UNI TI ON

9?. DESCHI Pl 1( 1N.


a. To obt ai n maxi mum accur acy and r ange, pr oj ect i l es f or
smoot h- bor e mor t ar s ar e st abi l i sed by means of f i ns assembl ed t o a
; shaf t whi ch i s secur ed t o t he base end of t he pr oj ect i l e; when t he f i ns
ar e oi ni t t ed. t he pr oj ect i l e t ern(l , , t o t umbl e and be er r at i c i n f l i ght .
I F.
I n gener al , t he ammuni t i on has an adj ust abl e pr opel l i ng char ge,
consi st i ng of a number cot pr ohel l ent i ncr ement s, usual l y seal ed i n i ndi vi dual vel l ophane bags, and an i gni t i on car t r i dge, t o per mi t f i r i ng var i ous r anges or zones of f i r e. The pr opel l i nt i ncr er nent s ar e at t ached t o
t he t i n shaf t or wi t hi n t he f i n bl ades ; t he i gni t i on car t r i dge i s i nser t ed
i n base end of t he f i n shaf t .

c . The pr i mer and i gni t i on car t r i dge ar e separ at e el ei nent s. The


pr i mer i y scr ewed i nt o t he shaf t af t er t f he i gni t i on car t r i dge has been
i nser t ed The assembl y of t he i gni t i on car t r i dge and t he pr opel l ent
i ncr ement s r n) Ake L117 t he r equi r ed pr opel l i ng char ge . or t he i gni t i on
car t r i si ges al one may be used f or ver y 0- kor t r ange i n t he 60- mm
mor t ar and vr i t h t he l i ght - wei ght r ound ( M43A1) i n t he 81- mm
mor t ar .
I . Because t he compl et e r ound ( r i gs_ 50 and 51) i s l oaded i nt o
t he mor t ar as a uni t end pr ovi si on i s made f or adj ust i ng t he pr opel l i ng char ge, ammuni t i on of t hi s t ype comes wi t hi n t he cl assi f i cat i on
of ser ni f i xed ammuni t i on.
93. CL. i SSI V' I CATl l 1N.
a. Accor di ng t o t he pur p Q_w f pr whi ch i t i s i nt ended, mor t ar amr nuni t i on i s cl assi f i ed as hi gh- expl osi ve, smoke, i l l umi nat i ng, pr act i ce,
or t r ai ni ng.
h, Hi gher xpl uni ve mor t ar sl t el l ar e used f or f r agment at i on or
demol i t i on ef f ect , accor di ng t o t he act i on of t he f uze and desi gn of
shel l .
r . Smoke shel l cont ai n chemi cal f i l l er s .
d. I l l umi nat i ng shel l ar e i nt ended f or si gnal i ng and i l l umi nat i ng
pur poses .
r . Pr act i ce shel l may have a spot t i ng char ge or may be i ner t .
f . Tr ai ni ng pr oj ect i l es ar e pr ovi ded f or t r ai ni ng and pr act i ce_
They ar e i ner t and may be f i r ed mor e t han once . Sever al pr opel l i ng
char ges an, l f sns ar e f i uppl i ed f or each pr oj ect i l e,

TM 9- 1900

Par . 93
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

-O
LI VF DRAB ( MARKI NG I N YELLOW
)
HE SHELL, M49A2, W
. ` PD FUZE, M52

PRACTI CE SHELL, l A50A2, WPD FUZE, MS2

DRAB

) -rrGRAY ; MARKJr 1G" I N YELLOW

: PD NZE, ME2
W
P SMOKE SHELL, M302, W

, X I Xt I V1=
DRAB

GRAY ( MARKI NG 1N RI ACK)


c
TI ME FUZEr I Nf i a
I LLI } MI NATI NG SI AELL r OA83A1, W

BLACK - ' MARKf NG I N W


HJTEj
TRAI NI NG SHELL, M69
RA PD 644185

Fi gur e 50 - 60- mmMor t ar Ammuni t i on


it

Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

HU)
X. - BLACK f 4i , ar r r r - JG m, W

TRAFHI MG SHELL, M441

- OLI VE DRAB ?wAAKW


C Wr E[ I VW
;

HE SHELL, M43A1, W
. PD FUZE. M5Z
AX. - - - - - - ,
Z2. 85 M
- OLI VE DKA13 , ` M4RKVG JH YEUOW
' ' F` -

HE SNFLL, M56, W
.. -' PD FUZE, M53Af

HE SHELL. M56, W
: TSQ FUZE, M77

; PD FUZE, M52
W
P SMOKE SHELL, AA57, W
RA PO 64+49A

f i gur e 51 - 8a- mmMor t ar Ammuni t i on


so

I YhA+?ses oi l Ar i mmi ni f i oYl

- 30i i E- I <I L?I NG t ' I hl CJF . LZE


BORE- RI DI K' . 3 FI I J ; Pf l I Fdi 1

Fi gur e 52 - 60- m
m Mor t ar

; sr.,

X o - sa - 5

19

Shel l Bei ng

Fi r ed

TM 4- 1400

Par . 93
C: r gRses

of Ammuni t i on

E
c
0

o.

a
c0

I
ro
w

90

TM 9. 1900

Par .
RX1&ssXsof

93

l XYnr r t al ni Xi Qn

C
O

E
E
a
a

E
F

0
U
w

V
W
. Qs
ti

41

TM 9- 19OG

Fur s. 94- 9f i
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

N11 ; THO1) ( ) N' PROJECTI ON. The r ound i s dr opped i nt o t he


94. .
mor t ar t ul , E: and upr i n r eachi ng t he bot t omof t he mor t ar , t he r ound' s
pr i mer i mpi nges upon t he f i r i ng pi n of t he mor t ar . Thi s i mpact set s
of f t he i gni t i on car t r i dge and pr opel l i ng char ge, and t he ggs pr oduced
f or ces t he r ound f r om t he mor t ar ( f i g. s2) . The br , ur r el et , or gascheck band, pr event s pr act i cal l y al l t he gas f r om escapi ng past t he
shel l , and pr ovi des 2 hear i ng, sur f ace f or t he r ound i n i t s t r avel
t hr ough t he bor(, -, A bar n- r i di ng pi n i n t he f uze of t he shel l pr event s
t he f uze f r om bet : oi ni ng ar med unt i l af t er i t l eaves t he bor e of t he
weapon,

95 . VRFCAI TI ONX I N HAN1) LI Nh,


a . Compl et e r ounds : par t i cul ar l y r ounds wi t h f uzes, wi l l be han
dl ed wi t h car e at al l t i mes, Expl c, si ve el ement s i n f uses and pr i nt er s
ar e par t i cul ar l y sensi t i ve V) shack and hi gh ' t emper at ur e.
b. Do out br eak t h4 moi st ur e- r esi st ant seal on t he f i ber cont ai ner
unt i l ammuni t i on i s t o be used.
e. The saf et y wi r e wi l l be wi t hdr awn f r om t he f uze onl y j ust
bef or e f i r i ng and at no ot her t i me- Be cer t ai n t he Wr e- r i di ng pi n i s
i n pl ace i n t he f uze at t he t i me t he shel l i s ( Anapped i n t he mor t ar .
d. W
hen l oadi ng muzzl e- f ed mor t ar s, t he r ound i s i nser t ed i nt o
hen t he shel l i s r el eased t o sl i de
t he mor t ar . Car t r i dge end f i r st . W
down t he bar r al , t he hands shoul d be pr ompt l y r emoved f r om t he
muzzl e.
e. Duds shoul d not be handl ed or moved. Eecausc- t hei r f uxee
ar e ar med, t hey shoul d be dest r oyed i n pl ace as descr i bed i n
chapt er 4 of t hi s manual .
96. PACKI NG ANI ) MARKI NG.
a, Packi ng. Except t r ai ni ng ammuni t i on, whi ch may be r equi si t i oned by compot t ent 3, mor t ar ammuni t i on i n t he st t i al l er cal i ber s i s
packed as assembl ed Ca7mpl et e r ounds . Each r ound i s packed i n an
i ndi vi dual f i ber cont ai ner , and t hen i n sui t abl e out er packi ng. I n t he
case of 60- mm and S1- mm mor t ar ammuni t i on, cl over - l eaf bundl es,
wooden box, or met al cont ai ner s have been i n use. The met al cont ai ner ( f i gs. 53 and 54) i s now t he st andar d packi ng f or t hi s ammuni t i on, but i s r eser ved f or shi pment t o cer t ai n t heat er s,
h, r Aar ki ng. I n addi t i on t o t he pai nt i ng whi ch i dent i f i es t he
ammuni t i on as t o t ype, t he f ol l owi ng i nf or mat i on i s st enci l ed ot r t he
pr oj ect i l es:
Cal i ber and t ype of mor t ar
i n whi ch f i r ed
Ki nd of f i l l er
Model of shel l
Anununi t l on l ot number
92

TM 9- 1904

PbY_

47

Gl asses of Ammuni t i on
Sect i on I V
ARTI LLERY AM
M
UNI TI ON

9" . GENERAL,
x. Gaupl et e r ound . The t er m " ar t i l l er y ammuni t i on" r ef er s t r y
ammuni t i on, except r ocket s, n- kar t ar ammuni t i on, and shat f t ur t shel l s .
used i n weapo+t i s havi ng; A bor e di amet er of mor e t han 0. 60 i nch. A
compl et e r ound of : ar t i l l er y ammuni t i on compr i ses al l of t he component s necessar y t o f i r e u weapon once and t o cause t he pr oj ect i l e
t o f unct i on at t he desi r ed t i me and pl ace ( bl ank and dr i l l r ounds
except ed) , These component s i r e, i n gener al , t he pr oj ect i l e, t he f uze,
t he pr opel l i ng char ge, and t he pr i mer , Dependeat upon bot h t he
t ype of pr opel l i ng char ge and t he met hod of l oadi ng 4%t ) t hL' weapon,
f, ur npl et e r ounds of
ar t i l l er y ammuni t i on ar e known as f i xed, semi f i xed, or separ at e- l oadi ng ( f i g. 55) .
l r . Cu1npanent s of n Coui pl et e r ound.
( 1) PROJECi ' I LE. The pr oj ect i l e i ;-. : vj " f ed f r om a v. r eapon by
t he gas pr os:. i ur e devel oped by t he bur ni ng pr opel l i ng char ge. Ot her
t er ms used i n speci f i c nomencl at ur e of cer t ai n i t er ns i n pl ace of
" pr oj ect i l e, " ar c- " ghel l " and shot . "
( " ) Fu2E. A f uze i s a mechani cal r l cvi ee asseml >l ed t o a pr oj ect i l e t v CAUSe i t t o [ U13C( UJr l at t he t i me ant i under t he ci r cumst ances
desi r ed.
( 3) PROPELLI NG CHARGE. The pr opel l i ng char ge consi st s of a
char ge of smokel ess powder i n a car t r i dge case, cl ot h bag, or bot h.
(. 4)
PRI ME?, A, pr i mer i s used t o i ni t i at e t he i gni t i on of a pr opel l i ng char ge. I t canSi st s essent i al l y of A sr naI I quant i t y of sensi t i ve
expl osi ve and a char ge of bl ack powder .
c, Fi xed ai nmuui t i un. Compl et e r ounds i n whi ch t he pr opel l i ng
char ge i s f i xed, t hat i s, not adj ust abl e, and whi ch ar e l oaded i nt o a
Weapon i l l one oper at i on, ar e known as " f i xed" ammuni t i on, As
usual l y desi gned, t he pr opel l i ng char ge i s l oose i n a car t r i dge case
whi ch i s cr i mped r i gi dl y t o t he pr oj ect i l e, The pr i mer i s f i t t ed i nt o
t he baae of t he car t r i dge case. For cer t ai n cal i per s, r ounds of f i xed
ammuni t i on ar e t er med cur t r i dJes_
i i . Senni f i xed ammuni t i on, Thi s t ype of r ound i s char act er i sed
by t he l oose f i t of t he car t r i dge f al se aver t he pr oj ect i l e so t hat t he
pr opel l i ng char ge may he accessi bl e f or adj ust ment f or zone f i r i ng,
Li ke f i xed ammuni t i on, i t i s l oaded i nt o t he weapon i n one oper at i on.
I n t he usual desi gn of t hi s t ype of ammuni t i on, t he pr opel l i ng char ge
i s di vi ded i nt o r eot i onc, each consi st i ng of pr opel l ent powder i ri a bag.
To adj ust t he pr opel l i ng cher gF, t he pr oj ect i l e i s l i f t ed f r omt he car t r i dge case, t he sect i ons of i ncr ement s not r equi t ed ar e r emoved, and
93

Par ,

TM 9- 1900

97
Gl nnncs of

, A-

Amr r r ut t i t i ot 2

Ft , ,ZE

E- BOOSTER
- FUZE ' , ' , ' ELL LI NER
D- ; HELL
E- CGI VE
F- daJf t f i =LET
G- BUR. i TW
, C} 1AI { 3E
H - RJTA' I ' JL W
AD
1- CRI MP
J EP, S_ C{ JvER
K- CARTRI D; E CASE
L - PROPLLLI I 4C. CHAR E
M
- PRW
ER
H LI Fr t r q ; ; PLUG
D- GROW
, LJET
P- COTTER. P1 N %I VI TH PU- L
Q- KI Nf f ER

I NZ3

a
SELi t FI XEDAMt i 1UNI TI OH

SEPARATE- LOADI NG Ai u, 1UNmON


RAPO80671A

f i gur o 55 - - Types of Compl et e Rounds of dr t i l Jsr y Ammuni t i on


44

I
I

Par t . 97- 99

TM 9- 1904
Cr f l sses of Ammuni t i on

As i n f i xed ar n.
t he pr oj ect i l e i s r eassembl ed t o t he car t r i dge cash,
r nuni t i ( Fn, t he pr i mer i s assembl ed i n t he base of t he car t r i dge case.
The 1( ) 5- mm howi t zer HEAT r our - Lcl i 4 a speci al t ype i n t hat t he
c: 7har ge i s f i r ed, t hat i s, not adj ust abl e; t he car t r i dge cwSe and pr oj ect i l e ar e not cr i mped t oget her i n t hi s i nst anco be4Huse of t he met hod
of packi ng.
COMpi et e r ounds i n whi ch
e,
SepKr al v- l oad i ng ammuni t i on.
t he sepCr ot e cumpr j nent s- f uzed pr { - i j ect i l e, pr opel l i ng char ge, and
pr i mer - ar e l oaded i nt o t he %Ver spr t n separ at el y ar e known as " r ep.
ar et e- l oadi ng" er ci r r i uvi t i ci n,
Al t hough t he pr opXel l i ng char ge may be
i n anV F, ecl j COr l , i t i s usual l y dj Er i de : J i 2l i f l sect i ons wi t h each sect i on
a Xeml Xl ed i n a bag. I n t he case ( I f " separ at ed" ammuni t i on ( f i gs, 5
and 5r } ) , t he pr opel l i ng char ge i s cont ai ned i n a car t r i dge case, but
t he pr oj ect i l e { ` Hr nr r ot be f i t t ed i nt o t he car t r i dge case r i nd i s l oaded
i nt o t he weapon separ at el y,
98.

I : LASSI FI CATI ON.

a.
Ar t i l l er y ai i t muni t i on i ! ; cassi f i ed accor di ng t o use as ser vi ce,
pr act i ce, bl ank, or dr i l l . I t i s cl assi f i ed accor di ng t o t ype of f i l l er as
expl ( ) ai ve, chemi cal , or i ner t .
Ii.
Ser vi ce ai wvuni t i un i s f i r ed f or ef f ect i n Combat . I t may be
hi gh- expl osi ve,
hi gh- expl osi ve- ant i t ank,
ar mor - pi er ci ng or ar mor pi er ci ng" capped ( wi t h or %,Ml i out expl osi ve f i l l er ) , I Dw- axpl osi ve
shr apnel ) , chemi cal ( gr i n or smoke) , i l l umi nat i ng, or i ner t f cani st er ) ,
U.
Pr act i ce ammuni t i on i s pr ovi ded f ur t r ai ni ng i n mar ksmanshi p,
The Pr oj ect i l e uce( l r Yl ay be i ner t or may have H spot t i ng Char ge of
bl ack powder .

I L Bl ank 4mct t uni t i ot l i s pr ovi ded i n smal l snr l medi um cal i ber s
f or sbl ut i ng pur pr ases and si mul at ed f i r c, . I t has nb pr oj ect i l e.
e. Dr i l l of dum
m
y :. ammuni t i on i s pr ovi ded f or pr act i ce i n l oadi ng
and handl i ng ( " ser vi ce of t he pi ece" ) . I t i s compl et el y i ner l ,
99.

I DENTI FI CATI ON.

: v . I n common wi t h ot her hypes, ar t i l l er y an] enuni t Wr l i s i dent i f i ed


by pai nt i ng sod mar ki ng. For t he basi c col or scheme, see chapt er 1.
sect i on I I ,
The mar ki ng on t he pr oj ect i l e ( f i gs_ 2, 3, 57, end 58)
i ncl udes
( 1)
Ami nuni t i on I dent i f i cat i on Code ( AI C) symbol - - , n separ at e- l oadi ng shel l .
( 2)
Cal i ber and t ype of weapon i n whi ch f i r ed ( ' 15 H, " " 155 G, "
et c, ) .
( 3)

Ki nd of f i l l er ( " TNT., " ` W


P SM
OKE, " et c . ) ,
Type and model of pr oj ect i l e { " SHELL, M60, "
APC- T, M61AI , " et c. ) ,
( 4)

" PROJ .

TM 4- 19 O
Cj a55B5 Rf

AT7i f 1Tl Xn7Xt Gn

94

Pam' i 9- 144

TM 4- 1' 9M

Cl asses of Amr nuni l i or r


( 5) Wei ght - zone mar ki ng ( cr osses on 75- mm shel l and squar es
vn l ar ger - cal i ber shel l ; gquar es on separ at e- l oadi ng shel l have pr i ck
punches i n t hei r cent er s) or wei ght i n pounds .
( 6) Ammuni t i on l ot number of f i l l ed pr oj ect i l e and i n some cases
l oader ' s i ni t i al s.
h. Si mi l ar i nf or mat i on i s mar ked on ot her component s. Fur t her
i nf or mat i on i s gi ven i n per t i nent Techni cal Manual s and Fi el d
Manual s.
r , Mar ki ngs ar e st enci l ed on car t r i dge cases of 75- mm, 76- mud,
and 3- i nch ammuni t i on t o i zi di cat e t he t ype of pr opel l i ng char ge.
These mar ki ngs ar e i l l ust r at ed i n f i gur e 4 f or 75- r um gun r ounds.
m
m
J. An except i on t o t l t i e basi c col or scheme i s t he case of M
ammuni t i on; t he hi gh- expl osi ve- i ncendi ar y pr oj ect i l e has a r eef body
and yel l ow ogi ve. Some t ar get - pr act i ce pr oj ect i l es of l ar ger cal i ber
ar e pai nt ed bl ack ; when r epl acement or r epai nt i ng i s r equi r ed, t hey
wi l l be pai nt ed bl ue i n accor dance wi t h basi c col or scheme.
! ( l ( 1, Yf l Cl ) El TI LES.
a . { : mi ner al . Wi t h a f ew except i ons, ar t i l l er y pr oj ect i l es ar e of
t he same gener al shape, t hat i s, t hey have a cyl i ndr i cal body, sol i d
or hol l ow, and an cgi val head. ( Cani st er and base- i gni t i on smoke
shel l have bl unt heads. ) The pr oj ect i l es var y i n l engt h f r om a t o
6 cal i ber s. The pr i nci pal char act er i st i c di f f er ences ar e :
( 1) Locat i on of f uzes- - - poi nt or base.
( 2) Radi us of ogi ve snal l er f or l ow- vel oci t y, l ar ger f or hi gh.
vel oci t y pr oj ect i l es.
( 3) Rot at i ng band- nar r ow f or l ow- vel oci t y, wi de f or hi ghvel oci t y pr oj ect i l es.
( 4) Base t aper ed ( " boat - t ai l ed" ) or cyl i ndr i cal ( " squar e" }
base.
( 5) Ar mor - pi er ci ng cap- - - used onl y wi t h ar mor - pi er ci ng pr oj ect i l es .
( 6) Wi ndshi el d ( bal l i st i c cap or f al se ogi ve) - when r equi r ed f or
i mpr oved bal l i st i cs .
( 7) Fi l l er - - - hi gh expl osi ve, gasp smoke, i l l umi nant candl e and
par achut e assembl y, or ot her s,
b. Component b.
{ 1) OGr vE AND WI NDSHI ELD. The cur ved por t i on of t he pr oj ect i l e f r omt he bour r el et t o t he poi nt i s cal l ed t he ogi ve. The r adi us
of t he ogi ve i s somet i mes expr essed i n cal i ber s, t he cal i ber bei ng t he
di amet er of t he bor e of t he gun, The r adi us of t he ogi ve i nf l uences
t he f l i ght of t he pr oj ect i l e and i n pr esent desi gns gener al l y var i es
f r om6 t o kf _ cal i ber s. Si nce ar mor - pi er ci ng pr oj ect i l es have a shor t
17

TM 4. 19oo

Par _ 100

0Ame6 of Ar r r r nuni t i or l
A- W
EI GHT ZphI E MARK?NG
B- W
EI GHT To NEAREST LB.
C- CALI BER AND TYPE OF W
EAPj W
D- - KI ND OF FI LLER
E - - . LOT NUMBER OF LOADED ' - , HELL
F- A. I . C. SYMBUL
G- TYPE AND MCI OEL OF SHELL

A.I . C. SYM
SPI EDAI
APPEARS ON
t EVERSE SI D

RA PD d5199B
FJgur e 57 - Mar ki ng of Separ at e- f ocdi ng Sl hef f - As Shi pped
9+!

TM 9- 190D

Par . 100
Ci assf - s of . ar naur ni t i on

A- ONE YELLC1` 6` EI t i Nb I NDI CATES


SMOKE
S- T1vO GREEN BANDS I NDI CATE
PERSI STENT GAS

W
EI GHT ZONE MARKI NG

CyLI BER AND


TYPE OF CANNON
LOT NUMBER _X

RA PD 65200A
f r gur o S8- Mot ki ny of Separ at e - i oudi n9 Shot ) - As Shi pped ( Cont i r t ued)
94

TM 9- 1904

Par . 140
Gasses of Ammuni t i on

I FUZE AND
i SCOSTER

HI GH. EXPLOSI VE SHELL


C6I %i E r ' , NU
UNI ON 8, SSE1APL' r

HI GH- EXPLOSI VE- AHTSTAHKSHELL

Bt ) R5nk CASI NGS

RVf t yTEK CHARGE

BI JRSTM.TYPE CHEMI CAL S ELL

BLACK PDW
Df R EXPELLI NG CHARGE
BASE- FJECT14N SMOKE SHELL

SPACI NG DI SC

' SMOKE MI XTURE


PELLET CHARGE
BA5E, J, CzH17i 0N SMOKE SHELL

RA PD 97762

Fi gwe 59 - t ypi cal Hi gh- expl osi ve, Hi gh- expl osi ve- ant i t uA, and
chemf i cpl Pi oj ecl i l es
100

TM 9- 1900

Par _ 1Gt ?
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

r adi us of ogi ve f or pur px) ses of penet r at i on, a wi ndshi el d, pf t en cal l ed


a bal l i st i c cap or f al se ogi ve, i s pl aced over t he ar mor - pi er ci ng head
t o i mpr ove t he bal l i st i c qual i t i es,
( 3) BOURRELET, The hour r el et i s t he accur at el y machi ned sur f ace, of sl i ght l y l ar ger di amet er t hen t he body, whi ch bear s on t he
l ends of t he bor e of t he weapon. I t Cent er s t he pr oj ect i l e i n i t s t r avel
t hr ough t he bor e. Gener al l y, i t i s at t he f or war d end of t he body,
but i t may ext end f r om t t t e ogi ve t o t he boat - t ai l ed base. Some
pr oj ect i l es of W
l e cal i ber have a f r ont and r ear bour r el et ,
( 3) BODY_ Whi l e appl i cabl e t o t he ent i r e pr oj ect i l e, t he t er m
" body" i s used t o desi gnat e t he cyl i ndr i cal por t i on of t he pr oj ect i l e
bet ween t he bour r el et and t he r ot at i ng band. I t i s machi ned t o a
smal l er di amet er t han t he bour r el et t o r educe t he sur f ace i n cont act
wi t h t he l ands of t he bor e . Onl y t he bour r el et and r ot at i ng band
b,&at Lm t he l ands,
( 4) ROTATI NG BAND. The r ot at i ng band i s a cyl i ndr i cal r i ng of
Topper or gi l di ng met al , pr essed i nt o a knur l ed or r oughened gr o<we
near t he base of t he pr oj ect i l e, ' [ t af f or ds a snug seat f or t he pr oj ect i l e i n t he f or ci ng; come of t he weapon and cent er s t he base i n t he
bor e. As t he pr oj ect i l e moves f or war d, t he sof t r ot at i ng band i s
engr aved by t he l ands of t he bor e. Because of compr essi on of t he
band. excessi ve met al Mows t owar d t he r ear . Thi s f l ow of met al i s
t aken up by gr ooves cut i n t he r ot at i ng band, Si nce t he r i f l i ng of
t he weapon i s hel i cal , t he engr avi ng of t he band i mpar t s r ot at i on t o
t he movi ng pr oj ect i l e. The r ot at i ng band al so pr event s t he escape
of t he pr opel l ent gases f or war d of t he pr oj ect i l e by compl et el y f i l l i nf
t he gr ooves cf t he r i f t i ng_
( 5) TYPE OF BASE, W
hen t he sur f ace t o t he r ear of t he r ot at i ng
band i s t aper ed or coni cal . i t i s known as " boat - t ai l ed" , when cyl i ndr i cal , t he pr oj ect i l e i s descr i bed as havi ng a " squar e base, "
( 6) 13A$E PLUG, To f eci l i t st e r nanki f act ur e, ar mor - pi er ci ng pr oj ect i l es ar e cl osed at t he base wi t h a heavy st eel pl ug, I n t he l amer
cal i ber s, t he base pl ug adapt er al so pr avi de :X a, seat f or t he base pl ug
af l ( l r aze. I n t he smal l er cal i ber s, i f an expl osi ve char ge i s l oaded i n
t he cavi t y of t he pr oj ect i l e. t he base pl ug i s r epl aced by a base f uze.
I f no expl osi ve i 4 pr esent i n t he smal l er cal i ber pr oj ect i l e, t he base
pl ug cont ai ns t he t r acer el ement ,
( ?) BASE Gt ) vkx . The 20- mm pr oj ect i l es end pr oj ect i l es of
75- mr n or I Ar ger cal i ber cont ai ni ng hi gh expl osi ve, ar e pr ovi ded wi t h
a base cover t o pr event t he hot gases of t he pr opel l i ng char ge f r om
cor ni ng i nt o cont act wi t h t he expl osi ve f i l t er of t he pr oj ect i l e t hr ough
j oi nt s or possi bl e f l aws i n t he met al of t he base. The base cover
consi st s of a t hi n met al di sc whi ch may be t al ked, cr i mped, or wel ded
t o t he base of t he shel l . Smal l - cal i ber and medi um- cal i ber ar mor pi er ci ng pr oj ect i l es wi t h hi gh- expl osi ve f i l l er and base f uzes ar e not
or di nar i l y pr ovi ded wi t h base cover s,

Par . 100

TM 9- 1900
CI a,5 . w.S of Ammuni t i on

DEMENT W
HI LE
CENTER W
I RE
15 ATTACHED
TO I LLUMI NANT

XA. rr_=_

PLATEL
SLI I t r . +wC' t X: : - i ARGF

j i Fl :
., 51
; - _EVE
'
:F
_
=R
?
E
;C
ONI U
CXNTF; W
, RE
CENTER w' FE TUaE
i : Ak
.. M NANT
i ".~HARGE

SPL 1' W
: ' t SHER
- svi . ' d=1 . F I 1.
t ; Xr sPRCSXI ON PP, L`
X11i OU"D PLATE
SI VI VEL FI N N
U
J

RA PD 97760

f i gur e b0 - Typi r af f f f umi ear i ng Pr ol ecf i f e


102

Cl assesoi

TLx5r
11

Ai vmUr zi t i un

r i i ZE A. r au . l . f:X' ,,

. F:

y' FI _1- I ' dE CFI - RXaE

VAPTI ` CA/ ' I Ty'

E;.. - ' , SE S

TRACER

/ 00

,,r

} TLNGSTEN CARBI DE CORE

A- ARM
O
, y R- PI ERCI NG- CAPPf D PROJECTI LE, W
I TH EXPLOSJVE FI LLER
B- ARMOR- PI ERCI NG- CAPPED PROJECTI LE, EMPTY
C- ARMOR- PI ERCI NG SHOT
D- HI GH- VELOCr TY ARMOR- PI ERCI PJG ; HOT
E- CANI STER
RA PD p776. 3

Fi gur e 61 - - Typi cal Ar mor . pi er t ; ng and CQni sr ar Pr oj ect i l es

TM 9- 1900

Par . 100
Cl asses of Ar nmuni t i on

pl r J

BASE

SCREW
BLLLE' JI LLE SPRI NT
yCASTLE NUT
COTTER PI N

- . 31. 07 M
AX.

BRONZE- UNPAI NTED- - 8- TYPI CAL SEMI FI XED DRI LL CARTKI PGE

SPRI NG 1, 801
EXTP, ACTOR RECESS
22- 51 SAX. - . C- r YPI CAL SEPARATE- LOADI NG DUMMY ROJECTI LE

- - - - 22. 0 M
AX. 21 . MI NP - TY I CAL SEPARATE - LOAD[ Pi G DUMMY PBOPELUNG CHARGE
RA PD 090SA
m
y Ammu' r i f 10n
Fi gur e 62 - Dr i U and Dum
19t

Par . 100

7M 9- 1900
Cl asses cal Ammuni t i on

For ol ) sr ' r vX*t i on of f i r e, some pr oj ect i l es er e


( 8) TRACER,
equi pped wi t h a t r k4Kr el ement i n t he hose of t he pr oj ect i l e- I n most
smal l er - cal i l - xr ant i ai r cr af t shel l , t he ' t r ocnr i s used t o i gni t e t he f i l l er
and dest r oy t he shel l shoul d 4 mi ss t he t ar get - Such a t r acer i s cal l ed
" shel l - dest r oyi ng ( SD) , `
e, TypeB of pr oj cd- l i l em.
( 1) HI GH- EXPLC1S1VE ( HE) 9KELL,
Thi s pr al ect i l e ( f i g. 59) ,
n- i adv of coonr ncm f or ged st eel , 1-t as mr npar at i vel y t hi n vl al i s and a
l ar ge bur st i ng char ge of hi gh expl osi ve. I t i s used agai nst per sonnel
and mat er i al t ar get s, pr oduci ng bl ast and/ or mi ni ng ef f ect and I ' r agment at i on at t he t ar get . I t may t : a f i t t ed wi t h ei t her a t i me or i mpact
f i ne, 013 a concr et e- pi er ci ng f i ne, accor di ng t o t ype of act i on desi r ed.
( 2) Hi c; H- Y_xP1- 0R1VE- ANTI TANK ( HE, AT) SHELi - Thi s i s a spet ype of shel l ( f i g- 59) cont ai ni ng a hi gh- expl osi ve char ge f or use
agai nst ar mor pl at e. I t s ef f ect i s dependent upon t he t ype and
shape of t he char ge,
I t has a coni cal wi ndshi el d whi ch pr ovi des
st at ed- of f f ar t he char ge, and a byse- det onat i ng f uze havi ng nnndel ay
act i on,
( 3) CHEMI CAL 9HELL. Ther e ar e t hr ee genecul t ypes of chemi cal shel l ( f i g- 59) : bur st er , base- ej ect i on ( $E) , and base- i gni t i on
ci al

( , BI ) .
( a)
Bur st er , The bur st er t ype i y &i mi l ar t o hi gh- expl osi ve shel l ,
except f or t he t ype of f i l l i l r Ar i d t he absence of x base cover . An
eacpi csi ve char ge, t er med a bur st er , and l ocat ed cent r al l y- i n t he shel l ,
i s used t o br eak t he shel l body and ai d i n di sper si on of t he chemi cal
f i l l er .
( b) Base- ej ect i on ( BE) . Ease- ej ect i on shel l whi ch ar e set t o
f unct i on i n f l i ght do not have x bur st er , but hove an expel l i ng char ge
of bl ack powder , adj ncet i t t o t he t i me f uze . Thi s expel l i ng char ge,
when i gni t ed by t he f uze, i gni t es t he smoke mi xt ur e of t he cani st er s,
st r i ps t he t hr eads of t he base pl ug, and f or ces t he cani st er s f r omt he
base of t he shel l .
( c) Base- i gr t i t i or X ( BI X, Base- i gni t i on ( base- emi ssi on) smoke
shel l have no bumt er or expel l i ng, char ge . The smoke mi xt ur e i s
i gni t ed t oy t he pr opel l i ng char ge t hr ough a hol e hi t he base of t he
pr oj ect i l e. Shel l of ear l y manuf act ur e have a l ow- mel t i ng- poi nt
f usi bl e met al pl ug i n t he base hol e, whi l e shel l of l at er manuf act ur e
have del ay pel l et s of bl ack powder . The act i on of t he del ay pel l et
pr event s di scl osur e of t he gt l n posi t i an by t he smoke,

( 4) I LLUMI NAT646 sHuLL. These shel l ( f i g. 6f } ) cont ai n a par achut e and ar t i l l umi nant assembl y whi ch ar e ej ect ed by an expel l i ng
char ge adj acent t o t he t i me f uze i n a manner si r ni l ar t o base- ej ect i on
smoke shel l - The i l l umi nant suspended by t he par achut e bur ns,
l i ght i ng up a t ar get ar ea.
7761810- I n- r i

105

Par .

100

T141 9- 1900
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

( 5)

AR1v1OR- PI ERCI NG PROJECTI LE ( AP oR APE. ) .

Ar mor - pi er ei ng pr oj ewt i l es ( f i g- 61) ar e made of t i oat - t r eat ed


hi gh ar br - , n yl l ( sy st eel _ Thi s l Hd i s vcf ; y har d f ur penet r at i on of
ar mor qr Ld t he body i s t ough t o +. vi t hst and t he st r ai ns i mpoLwd by
i mpact and t he t Wi St ] ng a[ - t i uct of t he gr oj ect i l u at angl es Of i n -I pi ct
a} ) I I Cl ue t o ci r Mal . A wi ndshi el dl i s gc! nc! r al l y se- our ed t o t he ar r r i or pi er ci i i g cap or t he head of t he pr j ) j L" ct i l e t q gi ve i ml >r oX' ed bal l i st i cs.
A t r acer may he pr esent i n t he base pl ug or i t i t he base end of t he
f uze .
( h)
Ar mor - pi er ci ng pr oj eCl i l es bUVi n& no 1Li gh- expl osi ve f i l l er
hen t he
ay have a sr nr - 4411 cavi t y i n t he body_ W
m
Hy be sol i d ur m
cavi t y i s f i l l ed wi t h expl osi ve D, t he pr oj ect i l e, ar e f i t t ed wi t h a
det ongt i ng f uze havi ng a del ay act i on .
( c .)

' r hu t er m " ani i cr - pi yr ci ng- capped" ( API =: ) r ef er s t o a shot or

H I Jr oj ect i l y wi t h an or at or - pi er ci ng cap f or use especi al l y i n penet r at


i ng f ace- har dened ar mor pl at e . The cap i s of f or ged al l oy st eel , heat -

and
t r eat e
. d t o have a har d f r t "
a r el at i vel y waf t cor e . On i mpact ,
t
he
cap
dest r oys t he har dened sur f ace of t he
t he har dened f ace of
ar mor - pl at e, whi l e t he sof t er cur e of t he cap pr ot ect s t he har dened
poi nt of t he pr oj ect i l e by di st r i but i ng t he i mpact st r esses over a l ar ge
ur ea of t he head,

(t a) T-I I UH- VELOCI TY ARMOR- PI ERCI NG ' FHOT ( HVAP) . Thi s


( f i g- 61) i s a hi gh- vel oci t y, l i ght - wei ght pr oj ect i l e havi ng a ver y
ar mor - pi er ci ng cor e of t ungst en car bi de. The t ungst en car l _, i de
a st eel br i sew cont ai ni r i d H t r acer el er nent , an t. l umi num bodY and
pl ug, and i n al um
i num wi ndshi el d cumpr i se t 11e HVAP- T shot _

shat
har d
cor e.
nose

( 7)
CANI STER.
Cani st er ( f i g. 61) consi st i ng of a l i ght met al
case. f t l l od +vi t h st eel bal l s i n a mat r i x, col i t ai ns no expl osi ves,
It is
hi er l poi nt - bl o>>k f or ef f ect ggei nst pe3' sonnel . The case br eaks upon
h?HVi ng t he TDuxsl e of t I LP
. cannon, And t he bal l s scat t er i n t he manner
of a shot gun shel l .
( 8)
SHRAPJVL_L .
Shr apnel ar e poi nt - f uzed pr oj ect i l es wi t h a COMbi at i on t i me and super qui ck f uze or a t i me f ue. e,
An expel l i ng
char ge of Y) l ack powdt ' r i s assembl ed i n t he base. A cent r al f l ash t ube
connect s t he f uze and base i - har ge. W
hen t he t i t he f uze has bur ned
i t s pr er l et cr ni i ned l i me . t he r nag4zi ne char ge f l ashes t hr ough t he cent r al t ube t o i gni t e t he base cl i Ar ge, Thi s r esul t s i n t l 3e ej ect i on of t he
st eel di aphr agm- bal l s, head, and f uze f r om t he case . The case i s not
r upt ur ed. The bai l s ar e pr oj ect ed f or war d i n t he f or m of a cone,
due t o r ot Hl i onal vel oci t y,
TARGET PRAC71-I CE.

f act - i r on 0knt and sand- l oaded shel l of t he same Si ze, shape,


wX t he ser vi cF shel l i t si mul at es ar e pr ovi ded f or t ar get
pr : j ct i cN_ Some model s may have a smal l quant i t y of bl ack powder
( a)

Ht t d wei ght

104

Par s. 10a- 101

TM9- 1900
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

t o ser ve as a spot t i ng Char ge.


( b) Subcal i ber ammuni t i on coi i si st a of compl et e r ounds of smel l
cal i ber or smal l - ar eas Car t r i dges used i n pr act i ce f i r i ng of l ar ger cal i ber weapons . The subcal i ber ammuni t i on i s f i r ed f r omweapons
f l , t ecl ei t her on t op of or i n t he bor e of t he l ar ger weapon, The use
(i f szubcal i ber guns and ammuni t i on pr ovi des l ow- cost ammuni t i on
f or t r ai ni ng gun cr ews, avoi ds wear of t he maj or weapon dur i ng
pr act i ce, and per mi t s f i r i ng wher e r ange l i mi t at i ons exi st .
( 10) DxI LL OR PUNI MY. I ner t pr oj ect i l es and compl et e r ounds
( f i g. 62) f or t r ai ni ng ar e known as dr i l l or dummy ammuni t i on. They
ar e used f or t r ai i i i ng aj ul pr act i ce i n handl i ng shel l and i n ' ' ser vi ce of
t he pi ece, "
101 . FUT, k: S.
u. Ccner al . An ar t i l l er y f uze ( f i gs. 63 t hr ough 6( i ) i s a mechani cal devi ce used wi t h a pr oj ect i l e t o cause i t t o f unct i on at t he t i me
: j i xi under t he ci r cur nst ances desi r ed.
1o. CI 9Ye4l f i vHt i on .
( 1)
Fuzes ar e cl assi f i ed accor di ng t o posi t i on on t he pr oj ect i l e
as " poi nt " or ' base. ' They ar e f ur t her cl assi f i ed as " t i me" or " i mpact , "
car a combi nat i on of bol l s . Tune f uze cont ai n ei t her a cl ockwor k
mechHni smor a gr edual ed t i me el ement i n t he f or m of A compr essed
bl ack- powder t r ai n whi ch mt ay be set t o a pr edet er mi ned t i me pr i or
t o Br i ng. I mpact f uzes f unct i on on i mpact wi t h t hey t ar get . I f t he
f uze i s desi gned t o f unct i on on i mpact wi t h a ver y l i ght mat er i el
t ar get . such as an , ai r pl ane wi ng, i t i s cal l ed ' super - sensi t i ve, " I mpact
f uzes ar e f ur t her cl assi f i ed as Ruper qui cl { , nondel ay, or del ay. Del ay
on i mpact f uzes i s usual l y 0. 05, 0. 15, or 0_025 seconds. These t er ms
ar e used i n r ef er ence t o t l u" Act i on at t he i nst ant of i mpact . wher eas
` ' t i me" r ef er s t o l engt h of t i me f r om t he i nst ant of t he f i r i ng of t he
weapon t o t he i nst ant of t he f unct i oni ng of t he f uze .
( 2) Sel ect i vo- t ype f uzes have t i me act i on or mor e t hen one
t ype of act i on, f or exampl e, super qui ck and del ay, t i me and super qui ck ( TSQ) , Such f uzes can be adj ust ed i n t he f i el d f or t he t ype
of act i on desi r ed. Ti me f uzes can he set t o f unct i on at any desi r ed
t i r ne of f l i ght af t er f i r i ng by t ur ni ng a t i me r i ng.
c, Saf et y f eat ur es.
( 1) Ar t i l l er y f uzes cont ai n saf et y devi ces whi ch t end t o pr event
f unct i oni ng unt i l af t er t he f uze has bean subj ect ed t o cent r i f ugal
and set - back f ar ces, af t er t he r ound t o whi ch i t i s assembl ed i s f i r ed.
( 2) Cer t ai n f uzes ar e consi der ed t o be " bor esaf e, " A bor esaf e
( det onat or - saf e) f uze i s one i n whi ch t he expl osi ve t t `ai rl i s so i nt er r upt ed t hat pr i or t o f i r i ng and whi l e t he pr oj ect i l e i s st i l l i n t he
bor e of t he gun, pr emat ur k expl osi on of t he shel l i s pr event ed shoul d
any of t he mor e sensi t i ve el ement s, pr i mer and/ or det onat or ,
107

Par .

101

TM 4- 1900
Gl asses of Ar r i mr uni t i on

M4BA3 SQ AND aI 5- SEC. DELAY

M43 MECHANI CAL TI ME

t,

+o

MS4 TI ME GSQ

M$7 SQ
RA PD 99326A

Fi gur e 63 - Fazes f or Fi xed and Semi f i xed Ar amunbr an


1019

I M 4- 19M

Par , 101
C1esses of Anur r unf t i - pn

M51M PD FUZE , 1

SEC DELAY

MS5A3 TXQFUZE

M67A3 MECHANI CAL TI ME FUZE

RA PD 893ZZA

Fi gur e 64 - Fuzes f or Seper r at e" l oodf ng


Ammuni t i on
109

TAI L 9- 1900

Par . 1' 01
Ci wses of Ammuni t i on

RA Pb 144830

Fi gur e 65 - Boost er M25 and

Cor ncr ef e- pi er ci nq

Fuze M78

mal f unct i on.


( 3) Fuzes of t hu i mpact t ype ar e ar med by cent r i f t l gAl or wt back f or ce, or a combi nat i on of hot h, act i ng on par t s of t he f uze
af t er t he pr oj ect i l e l eaves t he muzzl e of t he gun. The t i me el ement
of t i me f uzes i s i ni t i at ed at t he i r i st nnt of f i r i ng by set - back ( t hat i s,
t he ef f ect of i ner t i a) . To pr event acci dent al ar mi ng i n bandkng ar d
shi ppi ng. saf et y novi ces such as a saf et y wi r e or cot t er pi n may by
used, Such saf et y devi ces muA he r emoved bef or e f i r i ng, .

RA PD 104831

Fi gur e 66 - - Rocket Fuze Mi l t

TM 9- 1900

Par %. 102- 143


Cl a4aes

102,

of Ammuni t i on

ADAPTERS . x' 41? R0OSTERS,

Adapt er s . I n chemi cal shel l and i n ct t any hi gh- expl osi ve shel l
t i t l ar ge cal i ber . openi ngs i n t he nose ar e consi der abl y l ar ger t han
r equi r ed by t he f uzes i n or der t o f aci l i t at e t 1j e manuf act ur e and l oad
i ng of t he pr oj ect i l es. For such shel l , a sui t abl y t hr eaded met al
bushi ng, cel l ed an adapt er , i s necessar y t o r educe t he si ze of t he
openi ng t o conf or m t o t he t hr eaded por t i on of t he f uze. I n chemi cal
shel l , t he adapt er has an t i ddi t i anal f unct i on, t hat of pr ovi di ng ti gas ,
t i ght seal f or t he chemi cal f i l l er _
h. Hr mker e. The t er m " huost er " i s appl i ed t o t he expl osi ve el ement i n t he bur st i ng- char ge expl osi ve t r ai n whi ch det onat es t he mai n
char ge. The baast er cont ai ns saf et y devi ces t o pr event pr emat ur e
det onat i on of t he Mai n char ge, The r oost er char ge may be i ncor por at ed wi t hi n t hu f uze i t sel f , I t i s usual l y cont ai ned i n a t hi n
met al or pl ast i c casi ng whi ch i s assembl ed t o and handl ed as a uni t
wi t h t he f uze, I t may be i nver t ed i n t he shel l dur i ng l oadi ng_
r . l i r et er a. An auxi l i ar y expl osi ve el ement i n bur st er - t ype
chemi cal shel l , whi ch opens t he shel l and di sper ses t he chemi cal
agent , i s cal l ed a " bur st er . " I t consi t 4t s of a bur st er char ge, a cont ai ner
f or t he char ge, r i nd a met al head_ The bur st er as used i s cont ai ned
i n a bur st er casi ng i n t he she] L
J, Adapt r r . hoo ner s. I n some cases, t he boost er has been combi ned wi t h t he adapt er , t he t wo assembl i es t her eaf t er bei ng handl ed
as a uni t , Such combi nat i ons ar e known as adapt er - boost er s . Adapt er boost er s ar e not ext ensi vel y used i n pr esent - day ar t i l l er y shel l .
103.
a.

PROPELLI NG CHARGES,
Gener al .

( 1)
I n gener al , pr opel l i ng char ges consi st of a char ge of a
pr opel l ant , wi t h an i gni t er char ge of Bl ack powder , assembl ed i n
a sui t abl e car t r i dge car ve, cl ot h beg, or bot h.
( 2) PROPELLMNT POWD1=x, Pr opel l ant s ar e descr i bed i n chap; r 1, sect i on I V.
( 3) I ONI TER C7t t AxGF. I n f i xed and semi f i xed r ounds, t he i gni t er
char ge of bl ack powder i s pr esent i n t he ar t i l l er y pr i mer . I n " separ at ed" ammuni t i on an auxi l i ar y i gni t er char ge i t ; pl aced ar ound t he
pr i mer or on t he di st ance waddi ng t o i nsur e pr oper i gni t i on of t he
pr opel l ant I n separ at e- l oadi ng r OUTI CI S, t he i gni t er char ge i s assembl ed i n an i gni t er bag sewed t o t he base end of t he pt Xopel l i ng char ge
and i n some cases sl , j o f or mi ng a cor e r unni ng t hr ough t he cent er
of t he pr opel l i ng char ge bag, Car t r i dge- i gni t er pads ar e made of
cl osel y woven si l k t o pr event ki t e bl ack powder f r om si f t i ng t hr ough.
Cl ot h of cur r ent manuf act ur e used f or t he i gni t er char ge i s dyed
l ed t o i ndi cat e t he pr esence of t he bl ack- powder i gni t er . That of
ear l wr manuf act ur e ( undyed) i s mar ked " I GNI TER- "
r 1t

gnr ,

TM 9- 1904

14
Cl esspa of Ar nmuni t i un

par . 103

TM 9- 1400
Cl asses of Af r i t nuni ci on

Tha t ype of pr opel l i ng


( 4)
f 1 i ' Lr 5 ( 1F PRt 1FELLI NC, CHARGE.
t" ht Xr ge r l cpcndr . uhct l t he ki nd of aa-ununi t i on, t hat i s ; f i xed, semi f i xed, 2nd separ at e- 10> i di ug.

6. Fi xed and aemi f i xeal 4- har pr s .


( 1) CARTRI DGE CASE. A car t r i dge case, made of dr awn br ass
cr st eel , ser ves as t he cont ai ner f or t he pr opel l i ng char ge i n t he case
of f i xed and semi f i xed ar t i l l er y ammuni t i on . I t s pr of i l e and si ze
conf or m t o t hat of t he powder char aher of t he weapon f or whi ch t he
case i , i nt ended, The head of t he case i s r el at i vel y t hi ck and has a
f l ange or gr oove t o per mi t n) echan; eal ext r act i on. Rounds used i n
aut omat i c guns have car t r i dge cakes wi t h an ext r act i ng gr oove i nst ead
of a f l ange or r i m. The car t r i dge case hol ds t he pr i mer , pr opel l i ng
char ge, and t he pr oj ect i l e tae, t hat t he assembl y can be i nser t ed i nt o
t he weapon i n one oper at i ot , , I t al so pr ovi des f or obt ur at i on, t hat
i s, i t expands under t he pr essur e of t he bur ni ng pr opel l ent gases ar t d
pr event s t he &soape of gas t o t he r ear ,
( 2) PROPELLI NG CHARGE I N FI XEDAMMUNI TI ON, The pr opel l i ng
char ge i n a r ound of f i xed ammuni t i on i s packed l oosel y i n t he car t r i dge
case. I n some i nst ances wher e t he char ge does not f i l l t he case
compl et el y, a spacer or di st ance waddi ng, usual l y a car dboar d di sk
and cyl i nder , i s i nser t ed i n t he neck of t he car t r i dge case. bet ween
t he powder char ge and t he base of t he pr oj ect i l e.
( 3) PROPELLI NG CHARGE I N $ LFLXB. D AMMUNI TI ON. I n semi f i xed ar t i l l er y ammuni t i on, t he char ge, di vi ded i nt o par t s o* i ncr e.
mer i t s f or zone f i r i ng, i s assembl ed i n sever al cl ot h bags. The f ul l
char ge wi t h al l . i ncr ement s" i n pr oper or der , i s assembl ed i n t he
car t r i dge case, whi ch i s a f r ee f i t over t he end of t he pr oj ect i l e.
Each i ncr ement i s number ed, t he base char ge bei ng number ed " 1: '
Thus, t o ar r ange e pr opel l i ng char ge i n pr oper ol der f or f i r i ng char ge
4, t he i ncr ement s woul d be ar r anged i i i t he or der 1, 2. 3, and 4, i ncr ement 4 } r ei ng pl aced upper most .
" Scpar l ed" HLUMUni i t l at t pr opel l i ng char ge. Thi s pr opel e
l i ng chal l e i s cont ai ned i n a car t r i dge case, t oget her wi t h t he pr i mer .
The char ge consi st s of pr opel l ent powder , l oosel y l oaded i n a br ass
car t r i dge case whi ch i s cl ow- d by a- pl ug. I t wi l l be not ed t hat t hi s
ammuni t i on i s consi de: - ed t o be separ at e- l oadi ng,
d. Sepxr ai c- l oadi ng char geq ( f i g. 67) ,
( 1) CAWr R1DG3 BAGS. Car t r i dge bags f or m a sui t abl e and conveni ent means of cont ai ni ng t he smokel ess- powder char ge i n separ at el oadi ng ammuni t i on. Cot t on cl ot h i s t he st andar d mat er i al f or
car t r i dge hags,
( 2) SI NGLE- X; ECTI ON CHARGES, Separ at e- l oadi ng pr opel l i ng char ges
ar e di vi ded i nt o si ngl e- sect i on and mul t i sect i on char ges. I n t he
si ngl e- sect i on char ge, t he pr opel l ent powder i s cont ai ned i n a si ngl e

Pur , l t } 3

TM 9- 1900
Cl asses Oi Ammuni i t un

t ag, t i ght l y- l aced (),' wr apped t o gi ve t he c: har g_r i gi di t y, The i gni t i ng


and end i gni t i ng chHr ge i s di vi ded i nt o t hr ee par t s, each i n i t s own bag,
t wo end par t s: and a cor e whi ch ext ends axi al l y t hr ough t he cent er of
t he char ge and connect s t he i gni t er pads sewed t o each end. Thi s
t ype! of i gni t er i s t er m
ed a " cor e i gni t e!. - "
( 3) MUL1' I SECT1GK CHARGr g, Mul t i sect i on char ges per mi t t he
gun cr ew t o Var y t he si ze of t he pr opel l i ng char ge and f aci l i t at e
handl i ng t he l ar ger and heavi er char ges. Mul t i sect i on char ges ar e
subdi vi ded i nt o " base and i ncr ement : " " equal sect i on . " Hr nd " unequal
sect i on" t ypes.
( a) 9i j w and i ncr ement , Thi s t ype i t f pr opel l i ng Char ge consi st s
of a base sect i on or char ge Fi nd one or mor e i ncr ement s. The i ncr emE: r i i s i nay be of equal or unequal wei ght , Wher eas t he base sect i on
i s al ways f i r ed. t he i ncr ement s r t t ay or may not be f i r ed. Wi t h some
t ypes, one i gni t er pad i s at t ached t o t f 3e bkge end of t he base
sect i on onl y, whi l e ot her t ypes havo a cor e- t ype i gni t er i n t he base
sect i on and somet i r nes i n one or Tnur e i ncr ement s as wel l .
( b) Equt t 1 vect i or r . I n t hi s t ype, t he sect i ons ar e equal i n si ze
and wei ght . I t was f or mer l y known as t he " al i quot par t ' char ge,
I t i s used i n 14- i r ; h gun ammuni t i on and f or ot her l ar ger - cal i ber
weapons.
( c) Unequal sect i on. I n t he case of cer t ai n howi t zer s . t he O1ar ge
i s Made up i n uncel ual sect i ons, I n t he case of guns, t he char ge may
be Tr ade up of sever al equal sect i ons and t wo cyr mor e unequal sect i ons, Thi s t ype per mi t s f i r i ngs at r oduced vel oci t i es and pr ovi des
t he maxi mum f l exi bi l i t y,
( 4) CoLuR. I n cer l Hi a ceseb t wo base and i ncr ement char ges
ar c pr ovi ded f or one howi t xer - one f or i nner , t he ot her f or out er
ZUTHn of t i r e, The cl ot h of t he bags f or t he i nner zones i s dyed
gr een t o di st i ngui sh t hat char ge f r omt he ot her t ype whi ch i s assembl ed i n undyed ( whi ( e} bags. Accor di ngl y, t hese t wo t ypes of
char ges ar e cal l ed " gr een bag" and " whi t e bag" char ges ( f i g. ( ) .
( 5) STACKED CHARC; ES, I n Or der t hat cer t ai n l ong pr opel l i ng
char ges wi l l have mor e r i gi di t y, t he gr ai ns of powder ar e ar r anged or
st j cked i n UTAFOYr n or der and di r ect i on_ These Cha] ' gL' s, havi ng t he
gr ai ns wi t h t hei r l ong axi s par al l el t ry t he l ongi t udi nal axi s of t he
char ge,, ar e sai d t o l ae" " st acked. "
( 6) FLASJ{ REDUCERS. Fl askL r educer , ar c used wi t h pr opel l i ng
char ges dur i ng ni ght f i r i ng_ These devi c. es gr eat l y r educe t he f l ash
and l hcmby i mpede enemy obser vat i on of gun posi t i ons . The f l ash
r educer dvvel oped f or t he 1 . 55- mi n guns ( f i g, 68) consi st s of t wo
scar l et - dyed cot t on st r i ps whi ch ar c l i nked t oget her wi t h si l k st r i ngs .
Each st r i p cont ai ns t hr ee channel s wbl i Xh ar e f i l l ed wi t h chemi cal s,
Two out si de r hannel s of each st r i p cont ai n a mi xt ur e of 60 per cent
pot assi um sul f at e and 44 per cent bl ack powder . The cent er channel
hen t i ed ar ound t he Char j t e, t he
cont ai ns onl y bl ack powder , W

Pam 103- 104

TM 9. 19130

CJasx&s of Ammuni bon

st r i ps ar e opposi t e aach ot her , pl ash r educer s ar e made t o f i t a


speci f i c pr opel l i ng char ge. The use of f l esh r educer s sl i ght l y i ncr eases
t ht , muzzl e vel oci t y; t her ef or e, t he pr oper cor met i on must be appl i ed
when comput i ng r ange dat a dur i ng f i r i ng.
( 7) Dul amv cHARoE&. Dummy char ges, si mul at i ng ser vi ce
char ges ( f i g, 62) , ar e pr ovi ded f or use wi t h dr i l l pr oj t t ct i l es t o t r ai n
per sonnel i n " ser vi ce of t he pi ece, `
144.

PROI F: RS.

a. Gener al . A pr i mer i s t he cor nt mnent used t o i ni t i at e. t he


Ar t i l l er y pr i mer s ( f i g. f i g)
comhust i vn of a pr opel l i ng char ge,
consi st essent i t i l l y of a st nsl l quant i t y of sensi t i ve expl osi ve or nd a
char ge of bl ack powder , encased i n a met al cont ai ner . I n t he case:
of f i xed and ser ni f i xr d ammuni t i on, t he pr i mer i s f or ced i nt o t he
base of t he car t r i dge case at t i me of manuf act ur e. I n t he case of
sepAcKt e- l oadi ng ammuni t i on, t he pr i mer i s i nser t ed by hand i nt t )
t he br eeahbl ock of t he weapon.
Jj , Typr a. Based on t he met hod of f i r i ng, ar t i l l er y pr i mer s ar e
cl assi f i ed s4 per cussi on, el ect r i c, coenbi nat i on per cussi on- el ect r i c, f r i ct i on, and i gni t i on,
. umi on pr i ur er , Thi s t ype of pr i mer , f i r ed by a bl ow of
c. Pei v
t he f i r i ng pi n, i s gener al l y uses . ] i n al l Hr t i l l er y aI TI r nLI ni t i on except
t hat f or har bor def ense and r ai l way ar t i l l er y . The pr i mer s us; ed i n

TM 9- 1400

por . 104
CJawew of Ammuni t i on

''

r
B

D
C

TYPI CAL PRI MER FOR FI XED ANDSEMI FI XED ROUNDS


( 55

F G

%
USH

C0MBI NATI ON ELECTRI C AND PERCUSSI ON PRI MER MK 15- MOD I

PRI MERS F" SEPARATf - LOADI NG,

. - FI RI NG PLUG
B- PRI M
ER CUP
C - PERCI JSS10N
ELEMENT CHARGE
D- FOSLI NG PAPER
E - ANVI L
F- I GN1l ER CHARGE
I PRr WR CHARGE)
G- BODY PLUG

ROUNDS

H. - CONI CAI . GAS CHECK


1- FI RI NG PLUG
J - - I NSULATOR
K- - PLUNGER
L- G
UN COTTON
M
- CONTACT OR
I GNI TI ON W
I RE
N. . METALLI C SEA!
0 - B UTTOK

Fi gur e 69 - Pr i mer s -

P- SERRATED GAS
CHECK
Q- FRI CTI ON
COMPOSI TI ON
R - CLDS: NG CUP
5- PRESSEL7 BLACK
POW
Dt R
PEL ETS

Sect i oned

RA PD 39324A

T141 9- 1940

Par s. 104- 1 I 2' b


Cl assw o1 Ar r t r nuni t i or n

car t r i dge cases cont ai n suf f i ci ent bl ack powder t o i gni t e pr oper l y
t he smokel ess powder i n t he car t r i dge case, Those used wi t h
separ at e- l oadi ng pr opel l i ng char ges cont ai n onl y enough bl ack powder t o i gni t e t he bl ack- powder i gni t er char ge at t ached t o t he pr opel l i ng change,
d. El eet r i e pAnnr r . Thi s t ype of pr i mer i s f i r ed by t he heat gener at ed when an el ect r i c cur r ent passes t hr ough a r esi st ance wi r e
embedded i n dr y guncot t on. I t i s used dr i l y i n har bor def ense and
r ai l way ar t i l l er y . Al t hough bot h t he f r i ct i on and el ect r i c pr i mer s
ar e ver y si mi l ar i n appear ance, t he el ect r i c pr i mer i s di st i ngui shed
by bl ack i nsul at i on ar ound t he cont act wi r e and by a gr oove machi ned
ar ound t he head.
,". ( : omi t i nat usn per cussi on- cl eci r i c pr i mer . Thi s pr i mer i s f i r ed
ei t her el ect r i cal l y or by a bl ow of t he f i r i ng pi n I t i s used onl y i n
cer t ai n har bor def ense and r ai l way ar t i l l er y,
f . Fr i et i an pr i mer . Thi s t ype of pr i mer i s f i r ed by t he beat gener at ed when a ser r at ed pl ug i s pul l ed t hr ough an expl osi ve composi t i on sensi t i ve t o heat or f r i ct i on At t he pr esent t i me i t i s used
as a subst i t ut e f or t he el ect r i c pr i mer i n t he event of f ai l ur e of
el ect r i c power .
g. I gni t i on pr i mer t q- Tne i gni t i on pr i mer , al t hough ver y si mi l ar
t o t he per cussi on t ype, di f f er s i n t hat i t cont ai ns, i n l i eu of t he per cussi on el ement , an i ner t cap wi t h a hol e i n i t . I t i s i nt ended f or
use i n cer t ai n subcal i ber ammuni t i on f i r ed by a ser vi ce pr i mer . The
f l ame f r om t he ser vi ce pr i mer passes t hr ough t he hol e i n t he cap
of t he i gni t i on pr i mer , t hus i gni t i ng t he bl ack- powder char ge i n t he
i gni t i on pr i mer .
145. BLANK AA11111JN1' 1' f 0j Y,
a. Gcncr al . $l ank ammuni t i on i s pr ovi ded f or cannon of cal i ber
up t o and i ncl udi ng 105- r nm, f or pr act i ce pur poses, f or maneuver s,
f or f i r i ng t he mor ni ng and eveni ng gun, and f or sal ut i ng.
h. Compl et e r ound. Acompl et e r ound of bl ank ammuni t i on ( f i g,
70) consi st s of a car t r i dge case i nt o whi ch ar e f i t t ed a per cussi on
pr i mer , a char ge of bl ack powder , and a chi pboar d Cl osi ng cup seal ed
i n t he mount of t he case. The car t r i dge cage i s usual l y made by
t r i mmi ng ser vi ce car t r i dge cases t o t he pr oper l engt h. The bl ackpowder char ge i n t he l at est desi gn of bl ank ammuni t i on consi st s of A
si ngl e or doubl e pel l et i n pl ace of t he l oose bl ack powder ( i n bag)
f or mer l y used. A hol e, i nt o whi ch t he pr i mer ext ends, i s l ef t i n t he
cent er and t he pel l et i s wr apped i n cel l ophane.
1116. POW
DER TEMPERATURE I NDI CATORS. Powder t emper at ur e i ndi cat or s ( f i g. 71) , upped i n ant i ai maf t bat t er i es, enabl e
t oki ng t he powder t emper at ur es f or ammuni t i on ei t her at bat t er y
or i n st or age at poi nt s of suppl y. Thei r consi st of a t her mor net er

Par .

146

TM 9- 79GO
Oases of Ammuni t i on

AD
FELT W
CELLOPHANE W
RAPPED BLACK POW
DER PELLET
BLANK AMMUNI TI ON ; SI NGLE PELLET CHARGE) , 75- MM GUN OR HOW
I TZER

$CELLOPHANE- W
RAPPEI )
! BLACK POW
DER PELLETS
BLANK AMMUNI TI ON ) DOUBLE PELLET CHARGE) , 75- MM GUN OR HOW
I TZER

1A PG $9116
f i gur e 70 - Bl ank Ar nnt uni t i on - 5i n91e and Doubl e Pei l ms
118

TM 9- 1900

Par . 106
Cl ass es ol Ammuni t i on

DER
A- PROPELLENT POW
B - CARTRI DGE CASE
C- PI SER CONTAI NER
D- THERMOMETEI R, MI
I : - I RON PW
G
F - RUBBER GASKET
ASHER
C- STEEL W
I NDOW
S
H- PLASTI C W

RA FD 89338
Fi gur e 7f - Powder - f emper af 4or e i ndi cat or
719

TM 9- 1400

Par s- 106- 107

Cl asses oi ` Ammur dl i on
st uck i nt o A powder char ge i n a ser vi ce car t r i dge case whi ch, i n
t ur n. i s packed i n 8 f i ber cont ai ner . The t her snomet er can be r ead
t hr ough pi oat t i c l enses pl aced i n t he head of t he assembl y . They ar e
pl aced wi t h t he l ot of ammuni t i on go t hat t he t emper at ur e may be
not ed. Si nce f i r i ng t abl es ar e based on t he t emper at ur e of t he
.
powder at 75` l : at t he t i me of f i r i ng, any devi at i on f r om t hi s
t emper at ur e hay t o be consi der ed i n t i r i ng dat a comput at i ons,
1117,

CAKE A11U PRECAUTI ONS t N ] HANDLI NG.

u. I n addi t i on t o t he pr ecaut i ons pr escr i bed i n chapt er 3. t he


f ol l owi ng wi l l be obser ved :
( l ) PROJECTI LES. Pr oj ect i l es shoul d l ] e i nspect ed t o i n4ur e t hat
t her e i e no exudat i on of t he cont ent s, t hat t he bour r el et and r ot at i ng
band ar e smoot h and f r ee f r om ser i ous dent s or bur s, and t hat t he
t hr eads of t he adapt er ar e cl ean, Fi el d ar t i l l er y pr oj ect i l es shoul d
be cl ean and f r ee f r om gr ease.
( . Z) PROPELLANT6. The pr opel l ant s of f i xed ammuni t i on cannot
be r eadi l y i nspect ed, but t hose f or ot her ammuni t i on shoul d be not ed
when pr epar i ng t he char ge. Make cer t ai n t hat onl y t he pr oper
i ncr ement s ar e r emoved f r om t he adj ust abl e compl et e char ge, Ther e
shoul d be no l eakage of cont ent s f r om any of t he car t r i dge bags.
For separ at e- l oadi ng ammuni t i on, t he t ag and i gni t er pad cover , i f
pr esent , must be r emoved pr i or t o l oadi ng t he char ge i nt o t he weapon.
( 3) Fi zEs. The f uze shoul d be car ef ul l y i nspect ed t o ascer t ai n
t hat i t i s pr oper l y set , and t hat no unaut hor i zed r emoval of par t $
has been made. No at t empt wi l l be made t o di sassembl e f uzes or
r ounds i n t he f i el d wi t hout speci f i c i nst r uct i ons f r om t he Chi ef of
Or dnance. Al l separ at el y- i ssued f ur es shoul d be t i ght ened t o t he
pr oj ect i l e wi t h a f uze wr ench. Wi t h f i xed and semi f i xed ammuni t i on,
t he packi ng st op must be r emoved f r om t he pr oj ect i l e bef or e f i r i ng.
Ti me f uzes whi ch have been set but not f i r ed must be r eset at
" saf e" bef or e bei ng r epl aced i n t hei r cont ai ner s,
( 4) PmmsRs, Because of t he hygr oscopi c nat ur e of pr i mer s,
t hei r cont ai ner cans shoul d not be opened t i l l necessar y . Pr i mer s
shoul d be i nspect ed par t i cul ar l y f or si gns of cor r osi on.
( 5) CARTRmas CASES. Car t r i dge cases shoul d be car ef ul l y
i nspect ed f or cr acks or dent s whi ch may af f ect t hei r f unct i oni ng
or t he f unct i oni ng of t he weapon Badl y cor r oded car t r i dge cases
wi l l i ncr ease t he di f f i cul t y of ext r act i on or may r esul t i n spl i t or
r upt ur ed cases. Gases wi t h f aul t s whi ch may r esul t i n a r upt ur e
shoul d not be used. Thei r use may pl ace a weapon out of act i on
f or a consi der abl e per i od. of t i me whi l e t he r upt ur ed case i s bei ng
r emoved . Wi t h semi f t xed ammuni t i on, i t i s i mpor t ant t hat t he
mout hs of cases not be def or med. i f def or med, such a case may
be di f f i cul t t o l oad and, i f l oaded and f i r ed, a ser i ous bl ow- back
may r esul t .
120

TM 9- 1404

Por s . 107- 100


Cl asses of Ammoni r i on

Rd Pp 104832
Fi gur e 72- Met al Cont ai ner f or Pr i mer s
108.

PACKI NG.
a. Gener al . Ar t i l l er y ; ammuni t i on and component s, except Separ at e- l oadi ng pr oj ect i l es, ar e packed i n moi st ur e- r esi st ant f i ber cont ai ner s whi ch ar e boxed ( f i gs, 73 and 74) or pl aced i n met al cont ai ner s or i n heal ed met al cans . Cr at es may be used f or addi t i onal
pr ot ect i on f or cer t ai n car t r i dge- st or age Camvs ( met al cont ai ner s f or
pr opel l i ng char ges) , pr oj ect i l es havi ng wi ndshi el ds, and dummy
pr oj ect i l es, Some f uzes ar e now bei ng packed i n her met i cal l y seal ed
cans and t hen i n a wooden box ( f i g. 7b) , Separ at e- l oadi ng pr oj ect i l es ar e' shi pped boxed, cr at ed ( Fi g. 75) , or uncr at ed . I f uncr at ed, a
gr ommet i s pl aced. ar ound t he r ot at i ng band and an eyet l ol t - hf t i nK
pl ug i s sgr ewed i nt o t he f uze hol e ( f i gs . 57 and 58) .
h. Met al cont ai ner s. Ai r t i ght cyl i ndr i cal met al cont ai ner s, known
as car t r i dg" t or age cases ( f i g. 8) Ar e used t o pack separ at e- l oadi ng
pr opel l i ng char ges. Si mi l ar met al cont ai ner s ( f i gs. 78, 79, 80, and
81) ar e al so used t o pack one ar t i l l er y r ound, ei t her wi t h or wi t hout
a f i ber cont ai ner _ The met al cont ai ner has a det achabl e scr een- t ype
cap, To i nsur e compact and t i ght packi ng, r ubber f el t and cor k pads
1761210- 48

-X

TM9" 14[ } 0

Por . 108
Cl asses nF A- muni t i on

LL,

OX ma

O
Q
0Z0 hV
wC: ?
Yva Ia
C: z L

H 2
W
wW

W
NH
WU2
W

XXZO
VZ

TM 4- 1900

Par . 10$
C1a" ; vses of Ammuni t i on

Par . 149

TM 9- 19DO
Cf x " . ees of Ammuni t i on

to
Fi g i r e 73 - Typi caJ W
ooden Packi nq Gr at e f or
Sepol ot e- f oodi ny Pr oj ect Jl e
124

PO 80! 41

TM 4- 1900

Pf l f ,
C{ asses ci f

108

Am
m
uni t i on

PC

w
Y
a

v
Z
u
O
w

k
O

b
a
4
" Q.

ti

12 5

For . 108

TM 9- 1900
Ct assev of Amr " uni t i ar n

A- SEPARATE- LOADI NG PROPELLI NGCHARGE


i s- CHARGE I N W
ATERPROOF BAG
C- FI BER CONTAI NER - OUTER PACK
KA I ' D 4: 755

f i gur e 77 - - pr ppei f i eg Char ge Packed t o Wat er pr oof Sag i n


Fi ber Cont ai ner
126

TM9- 1900

Par . 108

RA PO 970SA
Fi gur e 78 - Met af Cont ai ner M175 f or 57- mmAFC" T Rounds
127

Far . 108
C) am%es of Am
m
uni Ogr r

RA PO 97" 9A

Fi gur e 79 - Met al Cont ai ner MT58 f ar 3- Mcb Gan Rounds


128

TM 9- 1900

Par . 10$
Ghmes of Am
m
ur r i i i an

KA PD 9769"

Fi gur e 80 - Met al Cont ai ner M1' 73 f ar 75- mmHowi t zer Rounds


1129

TM 4- 1400

Par . 108
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

f i gur e 8i - - Met al Cont ai ner M132 f or 105- r mnl Howi t zer Rounds
130

Par s, 14a- 109

TM 9- 1900
Cr a&t ez of Ar r t mur r i i t or t

ar e used i n t he i nt er i or of t he cont ai ner t o pr event si dewar d mot i on,


upper and l ower gui de r i ngs ar e pr ovi ded on t he i nt er i or of t he con.
t ai ner .
r _ Met al cans. A seal ed met al can ( f i g_ 72) wi t h met al t ear st r i ps
i s used t o pack separ at e- l oadi ng gr t i l l et y pr i r r t i er s. These cans ar e
packed, i n t ur n, i n a wooden 1>ox .
d. W
al er p" of 1aags. Pr opel l i ng char ges maybe packed i n wat er pr oof bag i n f i ber cont ai ner s ( f i g, 77) _
Set l i on V
B0MI l S

1091 i ; FNFRAJ, .
a. A bomb i s a st r eam- l i ned cont ai ner of expl osi ves or chemi cal s
i nt ended f or r el ease f r om ai r cr af t . I t consi st s of a body cont ai ni ng
t he char ge and a devi ce t o expl ode or scat t er t he char ge at t he
t ar get . Ai r cr af t t or pedoes, submar i ne mi nes pl ant ed by ai r cr af t ,
r ocket s, pyr ot echni cs, and mor t ar bombs, al t hough si mi l ar i n nat ur e,
ar e not cl assi f i ed as 1>ombs .
it,
For r easons of saf et y, t he component s of a bomb ar e usual l y
st or ed and shi pped separ at el y, and must be assembl ed pr i or t o use.
The component s of bombs ( f i g. 82) di f f er ( dependi ng on ( l i e par t i cul ar t ype and model ) but , i n gener al , t hey consi st of :
( 1) The unf uzed bomb body cont ai ni ng expl osi ve, i ncendi ur y, or
chei t i t i i cal f i l l er .
( 2) The f uze, or f uzes,
( 3) The f i n assembl y ( assembl ed t o smal l er bombs as shi pped) .
( 4) The ar mi ng wi r e assembl y,
c. Bombs ar e i nst al l ed i n ai r pl anes by means of suspensi on l op.
Bombs of 100 pounds and mor e have t he f i usl *nsi on 1up on t he
si de of t he body, ar r anged f or hor i zont al suspensi on of Out bomb.
Same smal l er bombs have ove l ug on t he si de and anot her on t he
t ai l end, whi ch per mi t s t he bomb t o be i nst al l ed ei t her i n a hor i zont al
or ver t i cal bomb r ack; ot her s ar e st r apped i n cl ust er s of sever al
bombs and suspended as a uni t . Some AN bombs have t hr ee suspensi on - l ugs, t wo on one si de of t he bomb body ant i one on t he
opposi t e si de t o pr ovi de f or use i n bot h Ar my and Navy ai r cr af t .
d. The f ui t i ct i oni ng of bombs depends pr i mar i l y upon t he act i on
of t he f uze, whi ch may be super qui ck, del ay, or t i me. The t er ms
" super qui ck" ( i nst ant aneous) and " del ay" r ef er t o t he act i on at
t he i nst ant of f uze i mpact , wher eas ' t une" r ef er s i o t he t i me f r om
t he r el ease of t he bomb t o t he i mt ant of f unct i on.

I m 9- 19%

Par . 109
Gasses of Ammuni t i on

132

TM 9- 1904

Par s, 1174- 112


Cl asaes of Ammuni t i on

e. Uomb f uzes, af t er assembl y i nt o t he bombs, ar e pr event ed


f r om awni ng or f unct i oni ng dur i ng handl i ng by means of an ar mi ng
wi r e whi ch i s nor mal l y r emoved by t he bomb' s r el ease f r om t he
si epl ane_ W
hen i t i s neeesRar y t o r emove t he ar mi ng wi r e t o unf uze
2 bom
b, i nst r uct i ons at t ached t o t he f uze shoul d be f ol l owed cl osel y .
Pr ovi si on i s made f or r el easi ng t he bomb " saf e" f r om t he ai r pl ane
v: i t hout r emovi ng t he ar mi ng wi r e f r om t he f uze when i l i s desi r ed
t hat t he bomb shoul d l and wi t hout f uoci i or i i ng.
f . A gener al descr i pt i on of t he sever al t ypes of bor nbs i s i ncl uded
i n t he f ol l owi ng par agr aphs.
110. I DENTI FI C: I LTI ON. Bombs ar e pai nt ed i n accor dance wi t h
t he basi c col or scheme out l i ned i n chapt er 1 . sect i on I I and i l l ust r at ed i n f i gur es Si' and 10. Bombs ar e mar ked t o i ndi cat e t ype,
wei ght , model , f i l l er , l ot number , and l oadi ng pl ant and dat e l oaded.
i n addi t i on, t he AI C symbol i s st enci l ed on uncr at ed bombs,
I l l , ( a, A551FTCATI ON. Hecause of t he many uses f or bombs
dr opped f r om ai r cr af t , t her e ar e many t ypes and si zes of bombs,
r angi ng i n wei ght f r om 2 t o 4, 000 pounds . I n common wi t h ot her
t ypes of ammuni t i on, bombs ar e cl assi f i ed accor di ng t o f i l l er a9
expl osi ve, chemi cal , i ncer xi i ar y, pyr ot echni c, and i ner t . Expl osi ve
bombs ar e cl assi f i ed accor di ng t o use as gener al - pur pose ( GP)
( demol i t i on) , l i ght case ( LC) , ar mor - pi er ci ng ( AP) , semi - ar r oor pi er ci ng ( SAP) , f r agment at i on, and dept h_ Chemi cal bombs ar e
cl assi f i ed accor di ng t o t ype of f i l l er as gas or smoke. I ner t bombs
ar e used f or pr ar t i ce r i nd dr i l l ,
112 .

EXPLOSI VE BOMBS.
y. These bombs at e i nt ended f or t he dest r uct i on or demol i t i on
of mat er i el t ar get s. The dest r uct i ve ef f ect i s pr oduced by t he vi ol ence
of t he det onat i on; " bl ast ef f ect " ; by pr oj ect i on of pi eces of t he case,
" f r agment at i on" ; and by di spl acement of ear t h and bui l di ngs, " mi ni ng. " An expl osi ve t r ai n f or bombs i s i l l ust r at ed i n f i gur e 83.
{ ; +mur al - pi sr p4Ae, The gener al - pur pose ( GP) bomb ( f i g. 84)
I F.
meet s t he r equi r ement s of most bombi ng mi ssi ons. The var i ous
model s r ange i n wei ght f r om 100 t o 2, 000 pounds and t he quant i t y
of expl osi ve i n t hi s t ype aver ages 55 per cent by wei ght . Gener al .
pur pose . bombs may he used f or bl ast , f r agment at i on, or mi ni ng
ef f ect . They use bot h nose and t ai l f uzes, Nose f uzes pr oduce
mor e ef f i ci ent sur f ace ef f ect , And t ai l f uzes pr oduce mor e ef f i ci ent
mi ni ng and penet r at i on ef f ect . Bot h f uzes ar e gener al l y used, t he
secondar y f uze as i nsur ance agai nst mal f unct i oni ng . The met al case
i s st r gt 3g enough t o wi t hst and i mpact wi t h or di nar y mat er i al s when
r el eased f r om hi gh al t i t ud+, , but i t may f ai l on i mpar t wi t h heavy
ar mor or heavi l y r ei nf or ced concr et e st r uct ur es.
132

Par . 112

TM 9- 1900
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

TAI L EXPLOSI VE TRAI N

BM
TCR LEAD
PRI , MFP DETONATOR
FI RI NG, PI N

H05E EXPLOSI VE TRAI N

RA F0 65165
Fi gur e 83 - Samb Expl osi ve Tr ai ns

134

TM 9- 1900

Per -

112

Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

LI GHT CASE BOM


B ! AWL) - La- AN- Ms6Al l

DEPTH ROME ( e1c- t e, t i x.

2PJ

Fi gur e 84 - Types of 0or nbs


135

RA PD $93$7

Par . 114

TM94" 0
Cl asr sm ot Ammuni t i on

Li ght - page, The l i ght - cage. ( LC) bomb ( f i g. 84) i s si mi l ar i n


appear ance t o t he gener al - pur pose homb but has a t hi nner . l i ght er
case and vQnt ai ns a hi gher per cent age of expl osi ve f i l l er by v. ei ght ,
Si nce st r engt h of case has been sacr i f i ced, Rhi s bomb cannot be used
f or penet r at i on and mul ct be f uzed t o expl ode bef or e t he case br eaks
up on i mpact . Appr oxi mat el y 75 per cent of t he t ot al wei ght i s
hi gh- expl osi ve f i l l er .
41, kr i nar - pi er r i ng. The ar mor - pi er ci ng ( AP) bomb ( f i t; . 85)
i s used t o pi er ce deck ar mor of bat t l eshi ps, heavy concr et e st r uct ur es.
and si mi l ar hi ghl y r esi st ant t ar get s . The Pose of t he AP bomb i s
sol i d and somet i mes i s f i t t ed wi t h an ar mor - pi er ci ng cap ( APC)
( f i g. 85) _ These bombs ar e ef f ect i ve agai nst heavy deck ar mor when
dr opped f r oui suf f i ci ent al t i t ude t o at t ai n t hei r r at ed vel oci t y. They
cont ai n a r el at i vel y smal l per cent age ( 8 t o 18 per cent ) of expl osi ve
f i l l er and use t ai l f uses of t he del ay t ype.
e. Semi - ar mor - pi er ci ng . The semi - ar mor - pi er ci ng ( SAP) bomb
( f i g, 13f ) i s convent i onal i n out l i ne, vesembl i ng t he cyl i ndr i cal GP
bomb, However , t he SAP bomb has a heavy case of st eel whi ch
i s dr awn i nt o n t hi ckened nose and * cont &i ns appr oxi mat el y 30 per cent
by wei ght of expl osi ve f i l l er . I t may be used agai nst concr et e pi l l
boxes or ot her t ar get s of moder at eI y hi gh r esi st ance.
1. Uehi b. The dept h bomb ( f i g. 84) i s a speci al l i ght - case bomb
f or use agai nst submar i nes and sur f ace cr af t . I t aver ages 70 per cent
by wei ght of expl osi ve. W
hen det onat ed by a hydr ost at i c f uze, t he
ef f ect of t hi s bomb does not depend upon hi t t i ng t he t ar get di r ect l y
but upon t he shock of det onat i on of t he expl osi ve bei ng t r ansmi t t ed
t hr ough t he wat er . The hydr ost at i c f uze f unct i ons at a pr edet er mi ned
dept h r at her t han on i mpact , I f i t i s desi r ed t o use t hese bombs
f or demol i t i on ef f ect onl y, t hey may be equi pped wi t h nose f uzes
whi ch f unct i on on i mpact . Fuzes m; Xy be of t he nose or t ai l t ype
or i nst al l ed i n a cavi t y r unni ng t r ansver sel y t hr ough t he bomb body.
g. Fr agment ut i an l t ut t 11M.
( 1)
Fr agment at i on bombs ar e f or use agai nst per sonnel and
l i ght mat er i el t ar get s . The ef f ect i s pr oduced pr i mar i l y by t he
f r agment s of t he bomb body pr oj ect ed at hi gh vel oci t y . The bl ast
at t he poi nt of i mpact wi l l cause addi t i onal damage t o near hy obj ect s .
Some f r agment at i on bombs have st abi l i zi ng f i ns, ot her s, f or l owal t i t ude bombi ng, have par achut es f or r et ar di ng, r at e of f al l ( f i g. 85) .
The desi gn of t he bomb body i g such ai ; t o pr oduce t he gr eat est
number of ef f ect i ve f r agment s. The 1} o[ l y wal l s ar e of uni f or m
t hi ckness and may be made up of coi l ed hel i x spr i ngs . Any f r ag
ment havi ng 00 f oot - pounds of ener gy wi l l di sabl e per sonnel . Most
t ypes of f r agment at i on bomb ar e f i t t er l wi t h a nose f uze onl y. The
wei ght of t he hi gh expl osi ve i n t hese bombs i s about 15 per cent
by wei ght . Si nce t he f r agment s ar e pr oj ect ed at appr oxi mat el y
134

TM 9- 19+00

Par ,

111

Cl assee. of Amr ner ni i i on

CAPPED ARMOR- PI ERCI NG I OMBi i gua. La._ MSx)

ARMOR- PI ERCI NG BOM$ ! ?00048 . AN- MK. 33, I

RA PO 84360
f i gur e 85 - Types of Bom
bs ( Cont i nued)
Xssi 2, o - U- 9

137

Par .

TM 4- 1940

112
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

Of

r
O

E
a
I
10

w
ar

138

TM 9" 1900

Per . 112
Cl asses ot Ammuni t i on

0
m
0

h
a

A
0
r
a
a
m
b
ti

I
n
yL
5

Par . 1 T, 2

TM 9- 1900
Cl aws of Ammuni t i on

Fi gur e 88 - 4- pound Fr agment at i on Bomb M8$ t aut t er f y 8ombl


140

TM 9- 1900

Par s . 112- 113


Gl asses of Ammuni t i on

e,

J/

ii
W
AFER- '

RAPO 50512

L TW
I NE TI ED AROUND W
AFER ANJ AROUND ADAPTER

%
3! A PD $0512

Fi gur e 89- Waf er s i n Pl ace i n Cl ust er Adapt er

t i ght angl es t o t he axi s of t he bomb, t ha most uni f or m di st r i but i on


and gr eat est dest r uct i ve ef f ect s occur when t he bomb i s ver t i cal at
t he i nst ant of f unct i oni ng.
( 2) Fr agment at i on bombs st abi l i zed by par achut es or f i ns ar e
f i t t ed wi t h i mpact - t ype i nst ant aneous- act i on f uzes. The bomb expl odes i nst ant aneousl y on i mpact , pr oj ect i ng a l ar ge number of
f r agment s at hi gh vel oci t y.
( 3)
Smal l f r agment at i on bombs ar e assembl ed i n cl ust er s ( f i g.
87) f or mor e ef f i ci ent use and f or ease i n handl i ng and dr oppi ng,
Cl ust er adapt er s suppor t t he i ndi vi dual bombs and, i n t ur n, ar e
i nst al l ed i n st at i ons f or l ar ge- si ze bombs. The cl ust er i s dr opped
f r om t he si r pl gne as a uni t . The ar mi ng wi r e act s t o r el ease t he
W
mbs f r om t he cl ust er , ei t her by mechani cal means di r ect l y, by
ar mi ng a mechani cal t i me f uze whi ch opens a cl ust er af t er an i nt er val ,
or by f i r i ng a car t r i dge whi ch causes t he cl ust er t o open, Cl ust ar
adapt er s have been desi gned f or al most ever y t ype of f r agment at i on
bomb, i ncl udi ng t he but t er f l y bomb.
( 4) The but t er f l y bomb ( f i g, 88) i s equi pped wi t h a case assembl y ( but t er f l y wi ngs) whi ch i s f ol ded ar ound i t . W
hen t he cl ust er
i s r i pened by act i on of e t i me f uze. t he wi ngs unf ol d by spr i ng act i on
and begi n t o r ot at e, r et ar di ng t he f al l of t he bomb and ar mi ng i t s
f uze mechani cal l y. The cl ust er f or t he but t er f l y bomb i n waf er s
i s shown i n f i gur e 89,
( 5) Ai r cr af t mi t r es and dept h char ges ar e si mi l ar t o ai r cr af t
bombs and cont ai n hi gh- expl osi ve f i l l er s ( f i gs. 90, 91, and 92) ,
113. CHEMI CAL BOMBS. Chemi cal bombs ( f i g. 93) cont ai n
chemi cal agent s whi ch pr oduce a t oxi c or an i r r i t at i ng physi ol ogi cal
ef f ect , or a scr eeni ng smoke. They ar e known as gas or smoke,

Par .

TM9- 1904

112
Ct as. s n of Ammuni t i on

0
U

142

TM 9- 19+00

Por .

113

Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

X1XXX' ' E\ j 14hJ LUGS


h1Xi SF. I ' LUG
r. f 7, ' . FTF. X
I

110 - S'

,-

' , )C

FI h;

CU' VLR FOR : h L EEL71ONJ


- F>001 M
AX.
MI NF. P-. I I - 0C ;: RFT, hSK. i 3

MI VEA. NDCR?.- C, M
K

.3
RA PD 49574

f i gur e 91 - M
k 13 Ai r cr ai f Mi ne and Cr af e
143

TM 9- 1900

Par . 113
Cr amses of Ammuni t i on

0
m

a
G
V
Q
0
4

744

TM 9- 1900

Par ,
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

z
J
m

145

f 13

Par . 113

TM 9- 1900
Cf a

s ol Ammuni t i on

14 6

TM 9" 1900

Par ,

113

Cl asses of Ar nmur ni t i on

u
a
co
b
0
v

y7
ar
w
b
OF

Par .

1 T3

TM 9- 1900
Cl asses at Ammumt i vr l

b
04
R
.Q
0

d
sp
n

Y
.r
C

ti

t ri

w
b
IM

b
w
5

l ag

FM 9- 1940

For . 113
Cl awas of Ammuni t i on
a
n
r
c
8
a

-0

O,

4
Z
tF
i
y
"F.

b
C
m
a

TM 9- 1900

Par . 113
C%t assos o{ Ammur i ! [ i or t

RA FU 15027

iw

f i gur e 98 - - Nose Fuze - Pi n Ar mi ng Type f M


I SO

TM 9- 1900

Pat s . 113- 114


Cl asses of Ammunki on

SAFETY bLOCKSSI I F' AR FI N

PRI 6. 4E
SI ) PERQUI CK FI RI NG PI N
DELAY ELEMENT

RELAY 0 i ARCE
DETONATO
DETONATOR SLI DER
M
AY BOOSTER LEAD

RA PO 9M
S

f i gur e 99 - Nose Fuze - Vane Ar mi ng Type

dependi ng upon t he pr i nci pal ef f ect , The f or ce necessar y t o open


t he bomb body and pr oper l y di sper se t he chemi cal agent i s pr ovi dent
by an expl osi ve el ement cal l ed a bur st er , whi ch ext ends t he l engt h
of t he bur r t b cavi t y . I n gener al , t he body ser ves onl y 8s a cont ai ner
f or t he chemi cal agent . Smal l chemi cal and i ncendi ar y bombs ar e
hexagonal i n shape t o al l ow bet t er packi ng i n cl ust er s ( f i gs. 94 end
95) . Fuze act i on i s super yui ck ( i nst ant aneous) t o pr event t he
wast e of any of t he char ge by i t s bei ng car r i ed under gr ound.
l 4. ] I NCENDI ARY BOM
BS.
I ncendi ar y bombs cont ai n j el l ed
gasal enc . oi l , phosphor us. t her mat e, or magnesi um f i l l er s, Smal l

Par . T 14

TM 4- 1900
Gl asses of Ammuni t i on

n
D
4

I L.

I ces . 114- 118

TM 4- 1900
Cl assgs of Ammuni t i on

i ncendi ar y bombs {f i g, 94) ar e hexagonal i n shf l pe and may have a


st eel case f ar an i ncendi ar y f i l l er or a heavy magnesi um al l oy case
cont ai ni ng an i gni t i ng char ge ; t he case i t sel f act s as t he mai n
char ge, Smal l i ncendi ar y bombs ar e ar r anged i n a cl ust er ( f i g. 45 )
whi ch f al l s f r om t hr o pl ane as a uni t and t hen coal cy apar t . al l owi ng t he bombs t o ar m and f al l sppnr at el y f or cover age of an ar ea
t ar get .
lli .

PYROTECHNI C AND TARGET- I DENTI FI CATI ON


BOMBS.
a. ' Phot of l ash bombs cont ai n pyr ot echni c mat er i al , but because
of t hei r cyl . l osi ve nat ur c X1r e cal l ed bci i nbs ( chap, 2, sec, VI , )
11,
Cer t ai n skyr nar l cer , pat hf i nder , ai r cr af t f l ar es, and t ar get Ment i f i c; at i on boml ) s pr oduce a pyr ot echni c ef f ect but r esembl e
bombs i n appear ance and use. The 100- pound r ed smoke t ar get i dent i f i cat i on l wi mb r %184A1 f el l s f r om t he oi r cr Hf t f or a l engt h
of t i me set on t he bor nb i nechal : l i cal t i me f uze and t hen bur st s i n
t he ai r , pr cwl uci ng a l ar ge cl oud of r ed smoke. Thi s cl oud hangs
i n t he ei r f or i i consi der abl e pi "r i od of t i me, The 250- pound t ar get i dent i f i cet i on bombs M89, M90, ond I VI 98 ( f i gs . 96 and 97) i l l umi nat e and mur k t ar get s by t he si mul t aneous i gni t i on and t ai l ej ect i un
of t hei r pyr ot echni c candl es At a hei ght ab* ve gr ound det er mi ned
by t he sel ect ed set t i ng on t he mechani cal t i me f uze, These candl es
f al l t o t he gr ound end cmt t i nue t o bur n f or t hei r pr escr i bed t i me .
Candl e, may be of t ho nondel ay or expl odi ng t ype.
116, F1LXCTI CF: RCI "MBS. Pr act i ce bombs ( f i g. 85) ar e pr ovi ded
f or t r ai ni ng i n mar ksmanshi p- They may be sand- l oaded at pai nt
of use and r r aay cont ai n a l oi n- expl osi ve spot t i ng char ge; f or some
uses, such as agai nst wat er t ar get s, t he spot t i ng char ge may be
caai t t ed . These bombs si mul at e cor r espondi ng ser vi ce bombs of t he
f r agmei nHt i on and demol i t i on Jype, ,
11 . . DRI LL 11{ ?M13S. Compl et el y i ner t Numbs and component s
ar e pr ovi ded f or t r ai ni ng of gr ound cr ews i n assembl i ng and handl i ng
oper at i ons . They ar e t he same si ze and shape as st andar d bombs .
Dr i l l bombs ar e made up f r om t he met al par t s of ser vi ce bombs,
i ner t - l ( xded whet ) necessar y .
1111. FUZES.
a. Gener al .
( 1) A f uze i s a mechani cal devi ce desi gned t o i ni t i at e a t r ai n
of t i r e or a det onat i on under t he ci r cumst ances desi r ed. Fuzes ar e
cl assi f i ed accor di ng t o posi l ! Un as nose, t ai l , and t r ansver se, and r sccor di ng t o t ype of f unct i oni ng as t i me, i mpact , and pr essur e. Ti me f uzes
f unct i on a pr edet er mi ned number of seconds af t er r el ease. I mpact
778 121 f t - 4k - 10

153

Par . 118

TM 9- 19104
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

ARMI NGW
I RE
HOLDER
STEM CUP
1 - L4
L' ss7af
". C' . Yl t i wr t Cl _ 111Y. . _
7 . . ' eq . nr i . . r ncl 0
L : 1nl t
+LMX+7 " A` . :
r I N I : r t - 4 111C' r 11-

LOKI NG BALL
FUZE BOGY
ANTI - Cf t EEP SPRI NG
PRI MER
DELAY ELENI LENT
DELAY HOLDERa
M16A1 PRI MER
DETONATOR PMFNi EI L' Y'

DETONATOR

RA PD 15037

f i gur e 101 - - Tai l Fuze - Yvne Ar mi ng Type ( Ma 12. 4) 1


154

TM 9- 1404

For . 118
Cl sssos of Ammuni l i on

f uzes f unct i ons when t he bomb st r i kes a r esi st ant mat er i al , Pr essur e
f uzes f unct i on i n r esponse t o wat er pr essur e ( hydr ost at i c) or ai r
pr essur e ( r oncusr i on) , 1n1paet t ut ee ar e cl assi f i ed as del ay when
t hey have a def i ni t e t i me l ag bet ween i mpact and expl osi on of t he
Lamb, and as super qui ck ( nose) or nondel ay ( t ai l ) when t her e i s
no del ay. Del ay i n f uzes var i es f r oma f r act i on of a second t o many
hour s and may be pr ovi ded by a cl ockwor k mechani smor a chemi cal
r eact i on. Some del ay f uzes ar e equi pped wi t h an ant i handl i ng
devi ce t o f unct i on on an at t empt t o def uze t he bomb.
( 2) Bomb f uzes ar e shi pped i n a " saf e" condi t i on. They ar e
const r uct ed so t hat t hey cannot f unct i on when t hey er e " saf e" ( unar l ned) . Most f uzes ar e desi gned so t hat an ar mi ng wi r e may be
passed t hr ough par t s of t he f uze, mechani cal l y r est r ai ni ng t he f i r i ng
pi n or keepi ng el ement s of t he f uze mechani sm out of posi t i on unt i l
t hey ar e moved i nt o f unct i oni ng posi t i on, gener al l y by t he r ot at i on
of t hr Ar mi ng vane. The ar mi ng vanes or si mi l ar ar mi ng mechani sms
; , r e hel d i n pl ace by a f i ef et y cot t er pi n whi ch i s r epl aced by t he
ar mi ng wi r e upon l oadi ng of t he bomb i nt o an ai r cr af t . Dr oppi ng
t he bomb causes t he ar mi ng wi r e t o be wi t hdr awn, whi ch per mi t s
t he f uze t o ar m. Ar mi ng- i n- t ype f uzes may ar m i mmedi at el y on
wi t h4j r Awal ci f t he ar mi ng wi r e or may have an ar mi ng del ay el ement ,
t i med by a cl ockwor k mechani sm or, a powder t r ai n, whi ch del ays
ar mi ng unt i l a f i xed t i me has el apsed. I n ar mi ng- vane- t ype f uzes,
t he vane i s r ot at ed by t he ai r st r eam as t he bomb f al l s, a f i xed
number Of t ur ns bei ng r equi r ed t o ar m t he f uze.
( 3) Bomb f uses ar e gener al l y st r i pped separ at e f r om ot her bomb
component s i n most cases i n t he assembl y of f uzes t o bombs, t ool s
ar e not used.
b. Nose f uzxa. Nose f uzes, i n gener al , ar e hel d unar med by t he
pr esence of sAf et y bl ocks bet ween t he st r i ker and t he f uze body,
t hus pr event i ng t he f i r i ng pi n f r om bei ng dr i ven i nt o t he pr i mer ,
Most nose f uzes have a pr i mer , del ay el ement , det onat or , and boost er
assembl ed i n t he f uze body. The wor ki ng par t s Of t he f uxeXxcept
t he ar mi ng mechani sm and st r i ker head- ar e pr ot ect ed by t he bomb
case, t hug avoi di ng t he possi bi l i t y of t he f uze bei ng cr ushed on
i mpact bef or e i t can f unct i on ( f i gs, 9$, 99, and 100) .
i -. Tai l f uzed. Tai l f uzes, i n gener al , ar e hel d unar med by an
ar mi ng st em scr ewed i nt o t he i ner t i a- t ype f i r i ng pi n. I n t hese f uzes,
t he boost er i s not assembl ed t o t he f uze but t o t he adapt er - boost er
W
hi ch i s assembl ed t o t he bomb ( f i g, 101) . For some f uzes, t he
pr i mer - det onot or assembl ed t her et o may be changed i n t he f i el d f or
ot her pr i mer - det on&t ar s of ot her del ay act i ons .
d. hydr ost at i c and coneumi on f uzes. Hydr ost mi c f uzes ( f i gs.
102 and 103) act udder t he i nf l uence of wat er pr essur e t o expl t r ct e
t he t omb a pr edet er mi ned dept h bel ow t he sur f ace of t he wat er .
sss

For _

1 TS

TM 9- 1900
Cl asses o! Am
m
uni t i on

a
4
K
X

h
w
E-

0
u
a

8
w

156

TAI L 9- 1944
Par .

118

U
Ul
4

4
M

4
N
S

a
Y
w
M

C
w

r
0
c7
w

C
b
I
0

4
Cf f

d
Z
w
r
x
w
w
r

L7

Par . 118

TM 9- 1940
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

Par . T] 9

TM 9- 1940
l asses of Am
m
uni t i on

FI N CRATE AS SHI PPED

RA PG 15004A
Fi gur e 103 - Pochi ng of Bomb Fi n Assembf l r

159

Pam 118- 121

TM 9- 1900
Cl asws of 4mmuni l i on

Concut f i i on f uzes act i n r esponse t o t he concussi on wave f r om t he


expl osi on of t he pr ecodi ng bor nb i n a sal vo. Bot h of t hese f i l es
f unct i on on t he pr i nci pl e of a bel l ows or di aphr agm wor ki ng agai nst
hen t he ext er nal pr essur e over comes
a spr i ng of f i xed st r engt h. W
t he r esi st ance of t he spr i ng, t he f i r i ng pi n i s r el eased and dr i ven
agai nst t he pr i mer b spr i ng act i on, I n sor ne f ur eN pf ovl sl on i s made
f or adj ust ment by a mechazr i st n cont r ol l i ng t he compr engi on of t he
di aphr agmbVr i ng,
119.

PACKI NG AND HARKI NC.

a. Packi ng, I n gener al , bombs ar e sbi l aped unf uzed wi t h t he f uze


hol es cl osed by met al shi ppi ng pl ugs. These pl ugs ar e not t o be
r emovccl except f or i nspect i on and f or assembl y of t he compl et e
r ound. Lame bombs ar e shi pped wi t h t wo paper or met al shi ppi ng
hands whi ch pr ot ect t he suspensi on ] t ags . The f i n ansembl i es of such
bombs ar e shi pped separ at el y i n met al cr at es, Smal l er bombs ar e
shi pped f i nned, i n r net gl cr at es. Smal l chemi cal and f r agment at i on
bombs ar e packed i n wooden boxes. Fuzes ar e packed i n i ndi vi dual
seal ed cont ai ner s and wooden boxes ( f i gs. 1114 and 105) ,
h. T*I xr ki ng.
( 1) Wher ever appr opr i at e, t he col or scheme used f or pai nt i ng
t he bombs ( chap. 1, sec . I I ) i s uged on t he packi ng boxes or cr at es .
Ai l i nf or mat i on f or i dent i f i cat i on and di r ect i pns f or shi ppi ng ar e
mar ked on cont ai ner s f or bombs and component s, and on t he bomb
bodi es when no cont ai ner i s used.
( 2) A l i st of al l separ at e component s r equi r ed f or t he compl et e
r ound i s somet i mes st enci l ed on t he shi ppi ng cont ai ner i n Xvhi cl c
t hese component s ar e or di nar i l y packed. Usual l y, however , t hese
component s ar e st or ed separ at el y and t he wor d " W
I THOUT" i s
st enci l ed above t he l i st of component s on t he shi ppi ng cont ai ner . I f
t he separ at e component s ar e packed wi t h t hei r r espect i ve bomb or
f i n assembl y f or shi pmozt t , t he wor d ' ` W
I THOUT' i 8 obl i t er at ed.

Sect i on YI
PYROTECHNI CS
120. I : H, NLM, I I , . Mi l i t ar y pyr ot echni cs ( f i g. 106) ar e f i r ewor ks
whi ch pr oduce a br i l l i ant l i ght f or i l l umi nat i on, or smokes and l i ght s
f or si gnal i ng, i n mi l i t ar y oper at i ons.
121. CLASSI FI CATI ON.
a. Accor di ng t o use, pyr ot echni cs Ar e cl assi f i ed as :
( 1) AI RCRAFT TYPYS. Or i gi nal l y desi gned f or use f r om or by
ai r cr af t .
$60

TM 9- 1900

Par ,

l 2T

Cl ai wes ol Ammuni t Fot i

XX
LX

-i
H

X
X
X

- _- __X

QX

~+
X=F

X
-

X
X
-

2
X
-

X
X

X=

X"

Ton

!
Xf z
m

- X_
X C

y
`

X
'

Qt ' .
^X SI R

Z7 X
XF
X
0 ,X
mX

<

--_

o- - XJ

= ! ---X

Xpat
z

XX
X
X XX XXXX X
X

SI R

SAM X

F- - X

T[ _X

A Q=

0
4
t

iz

Par s,

TM 9- 1900

121- 124
Gl bsuss of

Ammuni t i on

( 2) GKouND TYFEs. For use on t he gr ound,


b. Accor di ng t o pur pose t hey ar e cl assi f i ed as:
( 1) I LLUMI NANT9 . Fl ar eS f or i l l umi nat i on f or a speci f i c l engt h
of t i me, and phot of l ash bombs f or an i nst ant aneous f l ash f or ni ght
phot ogr aphy.
( 2) SI GNALS. Li ght s or smokes of var i ous col or s f or t r ansmi ssi on of messages.
c. Any of t he above t ypes when pr ovi ded wi t h a par achut e i s
desi gnat ed as a par achut e t ype,
122. PYROTECHNI C COMPOSI TI ONS.
a- Pyr ot echni c composi t i ons ar e a mi xt ur e of chemi cal s whi ch
pr oduce i l l umi nat i on.
h, pyr ot echni cs gener al l y f unct i on by means of an i gni t er t r ai n
si mi l ar t o t he expl osi ve t r ai n. I n gener al , i t i s i ni t i at ed by a pr i mer
mi xt ur e and i nt ensi f i ed key a "f i r st f i r e compound" whi ch pr oper l y
i gni t es t he l umi nous candl e.
e. St andar d pyr ot echni c composi t i ons, i n gener al , consi st of compounds t o pr ovi de oxygen f or bur ni ng, such as per chl or at es and
ni t r at es; powder ed al umi num or magnesi um f or f uel ; sal t s of " i um,
bar i um, copper , or st r ont i um f or col or ; and mat er i al s such as asphal t
and par af f i n f or bi ndi ng and wat er pr oof i ng .
123. VI SI U9I LTYY ( OF' PYROT1 CI MI C SI GNALS.
a, The pr i nci pal f act or s cont r ol l i ng t he ef f ect i veness of pyr ot echni cs ar e desi gn, posi t i on and at mospher i c condi t i ons.
( 1) Fact or s of desi gn i ncl ude candl epower , col or , and degr ee of
separ at i on of t he par t s of a composi t e si gnal .
( 2) Fact or s of posi t i on i ncl ude hei ght at whi ch t he f l ar e or
si gnal f unct i ons ; di st ance of obser ver f r om si gnal ; di st ance of f l ar e
f r om obj ect i ve t o be i l l umi nat ed; backgr ound; and r el at i ve posi t i on
of f l ar e, obj ect i ve, and obser ver .
( 3) At mospher i c condi t i ons i ncl ude cl ar i t y of at mospher e ; t i me
( day or ni ght ) ; pr esence of haze, f og, dust , r ai n, or snow; and t he
col or and br i ght ness of t he sky.
l ), Tabl es of vi si bi l i t y, dMi ngui shabi l i t y, and di st ance ar e publ i shed i n TM9- 1981.
124. FLARFS.
a. Fl ar es ar e used t o pr ovi de i l l umi nat i on f or r econnai ssance,
obser vat i on, bombar dment , l andi ng, and pr act i ce f i r i ng of ant i ai r cr af t guns. Whi l e t he det ai l s of f l ar es var y wi t h t hei r pur pose, al l
have cer t ai n common char act er i st i cs { f i gs. 107, 108, and 109) :

TM 9. 1904

Par .
Cl asaegX 01 Am
m
uni t i on

124

I M 9- 1900

Fur s. 124- 125


Cl asses of At r ur zuni i i on

RA PC 44447

Fi gur e T09 - Psucchuf e Ai r cr af t Fl ay& Mf ?A J


( 1)
Pr oduct i on of a whi t e or yel l owi sh l i ght of hi gh i nt ensi t y
r angi ng f r om 60, 000 candl epower f or 1 i ni nut e t o 1, 040, 000 candl epower f or 3 mi nut es or l onger .
( 2) Par achut e suppor t , t o r et ar d t hei r speed of f al l , t hus pr ovi di ng ef f i ci ent i l l umi nat i on f or obser vat i on,
( 3) Del ayed i gni t i on, t o assur e t hei r r eachi ng a speci f i ed al t i t ude
bef or e i gni t i on. I gni t i on i s ususi l y cont r ol l ed by t he openi ng of t he
par achut e by means of a wi r e at t ached t o t he par achut e cabl e nr
shack absor ber , t hi s wi r e pul l i ng i gni t i on wi r es t hr ough t he i gni t i ng
composi t i on, The f 3ame t hus pr oduced i s t hen car r i ed by qui ckmat ch t o t he pr i mer , f i r st - f i r e char ge, and t he i l l umi nant composi t i on
of t he candl es,
h. Fl ar es f or use bel ow a pl ane, such as t hose i nt ended f or bombar dment pur poses, ar e pr ovi ded wi t h shades t o shi el d t he bombar di er s f r om t he gl ar e.

e. Fl ar es t hat ar e t o be r el eased f r om l aunchi ng t ubes or r acks


ar e equi pped wi t h a hangwi r e assembl y whi ch i s at t ached t o t he
ar mi ng pawl of t he t ube or r ack. The f l ar es may be r el eased " ar med"
or " saf e. " W
hen t he f l ar e i s r el eased " ar med, " t he har ` gwi r e r emai ns
at t ached t o t he pl ane and pul l s out t he par achut e or st abi l i zi ng
sl eeve. A sect i on of sof t met al t ear wi r e enabl es t he f l ar e t o br eak
f r ee. I f r el eased " saf e, " i t wi l l not f unct i on i n t he ai r but may i gni t e
on i mpact . Thi s possi bi l i t y most be kept i n mi nd i n r el easi ng f l ar es
saf e over f r i endl y t er r i t or y,
rl . The f l ar e pr ovi ded as a t ar get f or bot h day and ni ght pr act i ce
f i r i ng of ant i ai r cr af t guns, i s t owed by a pl ane at t he end of a st eel
cabl e. See f i gur e 310.
t 25, PHOTOFLASH BOMBS, Thi s ammuni t i on i t em ( f i g. 111) ,
cal l ed " bomb" because of i t s expl osi ve nat ur e, pr ovi des a br i l l i ant
l i ght of shor t dur at i on f or ni ght phot ogr aphy_ A phot of l ash bomb
whi ch i s dr opped saf e, or whose f uze f ai l s t o f unct i on, may det onat e
on i mpact , The f l ash f r omphot of l ash bombs, even at di st ances pr escr i bed as saf e f r om bomb f 7Hgment s, i s i nj ur i ous t o t he eye because
164

TM 9- 1900

Par . 125
Cl asses o! Ammuni t i on

sP

O
i
C

TM 9- 1404

poor . 125
Cl asmo! Ar nmur i i t r ' on

0
R
pl
n

r ay

TM 4- 1900

Par . 125
Cl asses of Ammunr l i on

XW
3
o

a3X
XX
u Wr cX
w

dw

J ur p
W
ce W
w2

> i 7 a ws, 9

zzzzz
X#XcaC

cea . r.

zvX
cc ! vuu{

cr f e
Q
<4Q
j
J' . J J J' XZ
d Qd d [ X
zzzzz 3
00L 2L72 J
CE

vi

W
G

7n v, vi , n C

S
Z
+L

DZz Z

wdCC
O ui <I <<

V
w

F-

H1-

F2-

<dd4
Fi X; oc aX X oc
,X V
V
VV
V
O
C
d'
aC OC CC
p
CCCCC
_I J' J _J . J
dCCt d
zzzzz
+? +agi 20
Cl L' i L' i

Par -

TM 94400

125
Cl asses of Am
m
uni t i on

QENTI FI CATI ON TOP


SI NGLE STAR, AN- M43
SI GNAL, AI RCRAFT, .
YELLOW SAND

YELLOW
I DENTI FI CATI ON TOP
SI GNAL, AI RCRAFT,

DOUSLE- STAR,

AN- M42

NOTE: - COLOR OF BANU5 AND I DENTI FI CATI ON 70P5 TO CORRESPOND


W
I TH COLOR OF 51GNAL I SEE TAKE)

COLOR OF BANDS AND


I DENTI FI CA710N TOPS

SI GNAL
AI RCRAFT,
AI RCRAFT
AI RCRAPT,
AI RCRAFT,
AI RCKAF7.
AI RCRAFT,
AI RCRAFT,

DOUBLE DOUBLE DOUBLE DOUBLE DOUBLE DOUBLE DQULLE -

STAR,
STAR,
STAR,
STAR,
STAR,
STAR,
STAR,

AN- M37
AN- M38
AN- M39
AN- MOD
AN- M41
AN- M
44
AN- M45

RED- RED
YELLOW- YELLOW
GREEN- GREEN
RED - YELLOW
RED- GREEN
YELLOW
GREEN

KA PO M
O

Fi gur e T 13 - Ai r cr wf l ' Si gnal s Xor r r i dge TYPO

TM 4- 1900

Far ,

125

Ct &sses o! Am
m
uni t i on

0
a

w
4
41

N
T
S

O
4
rs

4
w

7. 6121 , 7_4a- 11

TO

Pons. 125- 126

TM 9- 1 " 0
Cl asses of Amr nur vhon

RA Pp 15680

Fi g i r e i 15 - - Sl i ck Mar ker AN- M59


of i t s br i l l i ant f l ash. The phot of l ash bomb M46 pr oduces a f l ash
whi ch r eaches an i nt ensi t y of 504 t o 700 mi l l i on candl epower f or
appr ox' i m' at el y 0. 02 second and f unct i ons f r om 5 t o 90 seconds, dependi ng on set t i ng of i t s mechani cal t i me f uze.
AI RCRAFP SI GNALS.
a. These si gnal s ar e t i r ed f r ompyr ot echni c di schar ges whi ch ar e
descr i bed i n TM9- 290. The si gnal s ar e pr ovi ded f or si gnal i ng f r om
ai r cr af t t o ot her ai r cr af t or t o gr ound uni t s . They may al so be f i r ed
on t he gr ound. Ther e ar e t wo t ypes of ai r cr af t si gnal s( 1) The r i ml ess t ype, assembl ed i n an al umi num or pl ast i c- st eel
bar r el . The bar r el i s i . t he shape of a cyl i ndr i cal cup v' hi ch i s
gr ooved near t he base or cl osed end. The pr i mer i s pr essed i nt o t he
cent er of t he base. A pr ess f i t i dent i f i cat i on t op ( cl osi ng t op) i s
cement ed i n t he opposi t e end. ( See f i g. 112. )
( a) The car t r i dge t ype, assembl ed i n a cyl i ndr i cal shel l t o whi ch
a met al or pl ast i c head, cont ai ni ng t he pr i mer , i s cr i mped. The opposi t e end i s cl osed wi t h a car dboar d wad or pr ess f i t met al di sc
whi ch i s col or ed and mar ked t o i ndi cat e t ype of si gnal. I n appear ance, i t r esembl eq a l ar ge shot gun shel l ( f i g, 113) .
126.

TM 4- 1900

par . 127
Omens of Ammuni hon

Pt A PP

a" r t

Fi gur e ? 16 - Par achut e Tr i p Fl ar e 11148


127. UHI V1' SI GNALS. Dr i f t si gnal s ar e pr ovi ded as an ai d t o
navi gat i on over wat er by pr ovi di ng a st at i onar y r ef er ence poi nt f or
det er mi nat i on of dr i f t of t he ai r pl ane, ' The si gnal s ar e r el eased f r om
t he pl enq by hand and dr op t o t he wat er , bei ng st abi l i zed i n f al l by
f i nal . Ther e ar e si gnal s f or dayt i me use and ot her s f or use at ni ght ,
Day dr i f t si gnal s cont ai n a met al l i c powder i n a st r eaml i ned paper
shel l whi ch br eal m on i mpact wi t h t he wat er al l owi ng t he powder t o
f or m a sl i ck on t he sur f ace f or use as s r ef er ence poi nt , Dr i f t si gnal s
( f i g. 114) f or use at ni ght cont ai n a pyr ot echni c pel l et or candl e
whi ch i s i gni t ed by t he f uze on i mpact wi t h wat er _ The si gnal wi l l

Par ,

117

TM 9A900
Gl d&503 of AM
M
Uni t i on

_, i RI KER SPRI NG
SAFLI ' Y PI "I
PERCU551GN CAP

ST RI KER

DER
BLACK POW

TRI GGER SPRI NG


TRI GGER
I RE SLOT.
TRI P W

Fi gur e 117 - Tr i p Ff ar e M49


172

TM 94900

Par . 127
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

ow o

ow

X
X

66

X
.i . J = Xw
Z
w JZJU
Cu<I - . ( U<X
Z
0

7
Z
)Z- ,Z
a a uJ
u7 d
i

:!; d uX ; . J 3,

w W ui
3:

s
0

vv

_O
-T
F' =
X_
?'
1Q
0
O
z

a
4

h
O

V
t

w w
X_'

C7 QU

Oa pX

XA

z
7 7d
h z
_ X 70
p
,L 7 X
a
0O
V
X
X
XH
U
'
0
l
)
l ) 7QX
z XL Jw a= Jw
I

Par . 127

7m9. 1900
Cl asses of AmmuMi on

4
Z
(7

w
n

174

TM 9- 1900

Por s . 127- 130


Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

RA PQ 144039

f i gur e 120 - Packi ng Box f or Gr ound Fl ar es


f l oat , nose down, i n t he wat er and emi t smoke and f l ame f r om a hol e
i n t he t ai l f or as l ong as 17 mi nut es, ser vi ng as a r ef er ence poi nt f or
ai r navi gat i on at ni ght .
128. SLI CK MARKER. Thi s i t em {f i g_ 115) i s used t o pr oduce a
per si st ent sl i ck f or r ef er ence poi nt s on t he wat er . I t cont ai ns a
f l uor escent dye i n a paper Composi t i on case whi ch shat t er s upon i m.
pact wi t h t he wat er and f or ms a sl i ck whi ch may be vi si bl e f or 10
mi l es at 3, 000 f eet al t i t ude.
129. SMOKEGREMADES. Bot h whi t e and col or ed smoke gr enades
may be used f or si gnal i ng. ( See chapt er 2, sect i on I I . )
130. GROUND TYPE FL4RES.
a. Ai r por t f l ar es ar e used on t he gr ound t o pr ovi de i l l umi nat i on
f or ai r pl ane l andi ngs at emer gency f i el ds or i n case of power f ai l ur e
at ai r por t s.
175

TM 9- 1900

Par . 134
Gf ar r yaw of Ammuni t i on

n
t

0
L
Y
V
b
v
g
q
b
4
v

a
w
a
r
u
Q
4
h

176

TM 9- 1400

Pam,

130- 134

Cl asses of Ammuni t i on
6.
Tr i p f l ar es Ur e pr i mar i l y used t o gi ve war ni ng; of enemy
mar auder s or i nf i l t r at i ng hoet i l e t r oops .
Secondar y use of t he t r i p
f l ar e i s f or i l l umi nat i on of such t r oupe or f or si gnal i ng . Thev ar e
si mi l ar t o booby t r aps i n t hat t hey ar e l ef t i n t he pant of an advanci ng enemy end depend upon some act i on of t he ehenl y f or
i ni t i at i on.
One model r esembl e~ a boundi ng ant i per sonnel mi ne
( hg, 116) , si t i oe i t pr opel s a shel l cont ai ni ng a par achut e- suppor t ed
candl e i nt o t he ai r 300 t o 500 f eet hi gh wher e t he candl e i s i gni t ed
and expel l ed f r omt he shel l case, Anot her r esembl es i s hand gr enade
i n si ze and shape ( f i g, 117) wi t h t he addi t i on of a br ar Xket f or at t achment t o a t r ee or post and a t r i gger mechani sm f or f i r i ng_ Unl i ke
hand gr enades, t he f uze has no del ay Oement _

131, MLI I MI N. ATMG' SHELLS. These pyr ot echni c i t ems ar e pr ovi ded f or i l l umi nat i on by gr ound t r oops of obj ect i ves beyond t he r ange
of ot her f l ar es . They ar e f i r ed t r am mor t ar s or ar t i l l er y cannon and
cont ai n a f l ar e candl e, par achut e and t i me f uze, ( See chapt er 2, sect i ons I I I and I 6' . )
1, 32.

GROLNI I

SI GNALS.

a.
St andar d gr ound si gnal s ( f i g_ 118) ar e l aunched by means of
gr enade l auncher s Ml , M7, and NI S at t ached t o cal i ber , 30 r i f l es or
car bi nes . These si gnal s consi st of t he si gnal assembl y and t he st abi l i zer f i n assembl y . The si gnal s may be gr een, amber , r ed, or whi t e i n
col or and may be of t he par achut e t ype or f i ve- st ar cl ust er t ype. A
new ser i es of gr ound si gnal s pr oduces r ed, or ange, gr een, vi ol et , or
yel l ow smoke.
b.

The hi gh- bur st - r angi ng si gnal I v127 ( f i g_ 119) i s f i r ed f r om t he

gr ound si gnal l auncher MI AI ; t he hi gh- bur st - r angi ng si gnal M27AI B1


( f i g. 119) i s f i r ed f r omst andar d gr enade l auncher s si mi l ar t o st andar d
gr ound si gnal s . Thi s. si gnal si mul at es t he hi gh bur st of ar t i l l er y shel l
f or r angi ng pr act i ce_ I t r i ses t o an al t i t ude of appr oxi mat el y 550 f eet
when f i r ed f r omt he gr ound l auncher M
1A1 mi d appr oxi mat el y 700
f eet when f i r ed f r omt he gr enade l auncher . The bur st i s accompani ed
by a f l ash, a puf f of gr ay smoke, and a noi se whi ch can be hear d f ar
a di st ance of at l east 2, 000 yar ds,

1: 33. DI STRESS SI GNAL. Thi s si gnal i s f or use at sea, I t i s


assembl ed i n ar e al l met al body and i s not adver sel y af f ect ed by
pr ol onged expo . ; ur e t o wat er vapor . The di st r ess si gnal M75 has a
sel f - cont ai ned pr oj ect or and t he si gnal s M
13 ar e f or use wi t h t he
pyr ot echni c pr oj ect or M
1p.
FLASH AND Sf ) LN17 SI GNAL,
134 .
The f l ash and sound si gnal
M74 i s i nt ended pr i mar i l y f or cont r ol umpi r es t o si mul at e ai r bur st
of ar t i l l er y f i r e f or t r ai ni ng t r oops. I t i s f i r ed f r om t he pyr ot echni c
177

Par .

TM 9- 1900

134
Cl aus of Ammuni t i on

178

TM 9- 1904

Paws . 134- 136


Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

Fi gur e l 23 - Pocki ng Box f or Gr ound Si gnal s


pi st ol M$ or t he hand pyr ot echni c pr oj ect or M9, I n appear ance i t i s
si mi l ar t o t he car t r i dge t ype ai r cr af t si gnal s, At an el evat i on of 45
degr ees, t he hei ght of bur st of t he si gnal i 8 about 100 f eet
135. REl } FUSEE. The 20- Mi nut e r ed f usee M
72 i s si mi l ar t o com
mer ci al t ype f usses, I t consi st s of a cyl i ndr i cal paper t ube f i l l ed wi t h
r ed f l ar e composi t i on and a shar p nai l pr ot r udi ng t hr ough t he wooden
bot t ompl ug, A mat ch head i mbedded i n t he t op of t he f l ar e cor n, posi t i on may be i gni t ed wi t h a st r i ki ng composi t i on bl ock .
10i . I DENTI FI CATI ON. I n addi t i on t o t he st andar d mar ki ngs and
pai r nt i ng ( chap. 1, sec. 11) , var i et i es of one t ype of si gnal car r y, as a
means of i dent i f i cat i on among t hemsel ves, mar ki ngs as f ol l ows :
a. Ai r cr af t si gnal s ar e di st i ngui shed by t he col or and embossi ng
on t he i dent i f i cat i on t op ( out er wad) , and by bands i n t he col or of
t he si gnal pr oduced.
17 9

TM 9- 1940

Par s. 138- 144


Cl ass"

of

Ammuni t i on

138, PACKI NG. Due consi der at i on i s gi ven i n packi ng of pyr ot echni cs t o pr event cont act wi t h moi st ur e_ Pyr ot echni cs ar e packed
i n met al - l i ned or unl i ned, nai l ed or wl r ehound wooden boxes. Those
i n unl i ned boxes ar e pl aced i n i nner cont ai ner s consi st i ng of seal ed
cor r ugat ed boar d car t ons, cyl i ndr i cal f i ber cont ai ner s, or met al cont ai ner s . The car t ons ar e di pped i n par af f i n t o pr ot ect t he cont ent s
f r om moi st ur e. See f i gur es 120, 121, 122, and 113.
Sect i on YI I
ROCKETS
1: 39. GENERA) . . Ar ocket i s a pr oj ect i l e whi ch i s pr opel l ed by t he
r eact i on, or r ecoi l , f r om di schar gi ng a j et of gas t o t he r ear at hi gh
vel oci t y. The g- as 1,,9 pr oduced by t he bur ni ng of a pr opel l i ng char ge
wi t hi n t he r ocket i t sel f . A mi l i t ar y r ocket consi st s of a head, or shel l ,
and a mot or , The head cont ai ns t he expl osi ve or chemi cal char ge
and a f uze; i t i s si mi l ar i n f unct i on t o an ar t i l l er y shel l or a bond) ,
The mot or consi st s of a t ube Cl osed at one end and const r i ct ed neon
t he ot her t o f or m a no2zl e ; i t cont ai ns t he pr opel l i ng char ge and
an i gni t er . Pi ns may be At t ached t o t he mot or t o st abi l i ze t he r ocket i n
f l i ght . The pr i nci pal Advant ages of r acket ammuni t i on ar e t hat i t
i mpar t s l i t t l e or no r ecoi l t o t he weapon and does not r equi r e a r i f t ed
bar r el . A f ur t her advant age l i es i n t hat t he f or ceH of set back ar e
spr ead over a l ong per i od of acccl er al i on r at her t han concent r at ed i n
a shor t t i me as i n a gun . Consequent l y r ocket pr opul si on can be
used f or l i ght er ase mi ssi l es of hi gh capaci t y wi t h f uzes of mor e f r agi l e
const r uct i on. The di sadvant ages ar e, t hat pr ot ect i on i s r equi r ed
agai nst t he bl ast of hot gas f r om t he t ai l of t he r ocket , and t hat r acket
di sper si on i s gr eat er t han t hat of shel l of si mi l ar cal i ber . The weapon
used i n f i r i ng t he r ocket i s desi gnat ed a l auncher si nce i t ser ves onl y
t o gi ve t he r ocket i t s i ni t i al di r ect i on and does not pr oj ect t he t ocket
as a gun or mor t ar ,
1 ; 14) .

CLASSI FI CATI ON.

a. Rocket s at e cl assi f i er ) accor di ng t o t he f i l l er of t he r ocket head


as expl osi ve, chemi cal , pr act i ce, or t ar get ( f i gs . 16 and 124 t hr ough
131) ,
1) . Expl osi r i , r ucket 6. Expl ooi ve r ocket s cont ai n a hi gh- expl osi ve
f i l l er and, ar c f ur t her cl assi f i ed as ;
( 1)
HI GH- EXPLOSI VE ( HE) , whi ch has a r el at i vel y l ar ge char ge
of expl osi ve f or bl ast , f r agment at i on, or r ui ni ng ef f ect at t he t ar get .
( 2) HI G11- EXPLOSI VE, AI MTANH ( HE, AT) , whi ch cont ai ns a speci al shaped expl o5i zr e char ge par t i cul ar l y ef f ect i ve agai nst ar mor .
( 3) DEMOLI TI ON, whi ch has an except i onal l y t hi n case and a cor r espondi ngl y l ar ge char ge of hi gh expl osi ve.

TM 9- 1900

Par s . 136- 137


Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

1.i, Same gr ound si gnal s ar e di st i ngui shed by t he col or and embossi ng on t he f i n, ot her = by t he col or and embossi ng on t he i dent i f i cat i on t op,
+".
For i nf or mat i on of t ho; e i nst al l i ng Sxr es MSAI and M24 i n
ai r cr af t , t he wor d " FRONT" i s st enci l ed on t he f r ont of t he case and
t he l ocat i on of suspensi on bandy i s i ndi cat ed by bl ack bends pai nt ed
on t he case.
d. Over - age and subst i t ut e COmposi t i ot i f l ar es assi gned t o t r ai ni ng
wi l l have a bl ue band appr oxi myt el y 2 i nches wi de pai nt ed ar ound
t he body i mmedi at el y bel ow t he l abeL These f l ar es may al so f ee
st enci l ed " FOR TRAI NI NGUSE ONLY" .
1; 37 . CARF, I l _t ADURG, AND PRESLRVATI ON. Pyr ot echni cs
cont ai n mat er i al of an i nt r i nsi cal l y hazar dous nat ur e. I n gener al , t he
same r egul at i ons appl y t o pyr ot echni cs as f or ot her t ypes of ammuni t i on, cover ed i n chapt er 3, sect i ons I and I I . I n addi t i on, t he
f ol l owi ng wi l l be obser ved .
a, Pyr ot echni cs ar e pr ot ect ed f r ommoi st ur e by moi st ur epr oof her hen cont ai ner s showsi gns of dampness
met i cal l y scal ed cont ai ner s. W
or moi st ur e, t hey wi l l be opened and i f t her e i s evi dence of moi st ur e
on t he pyr ot echni cs, t hey wi l l be dest r oyed by aut hor i zed and exper i enced per sonnel , As pyr ot echni cs ar e ver y hygr oscopi c, t hey shoul d
not be r emoved f r om st andar d packi ngs any sooner t han necessar y
pr i or t o use.
h. Besi des t he hazar dous pyr ot echni c composi t i ons, pyr ot echni cs
cont ai n sensi t i ve el ement s, such as f uzes, f r i ct i on composi t i ons, and
pr i mer s, Di sassembl y of pyr ot echni cs or component s i s pr ohi bi t ed.
Boxes cont ai ni ng si gnal s whi ch ar e di schar ged by per cussi on pr i mer s
shoul d be pl aced f l at wi t h t he t op of t he box up. Pr ot eLt i ve or saf et y
devi ces shoul d not be r emoved unt i l i i i st bef or e use, Car e shoul d
be t aken t o avoi d damage t o fi l -v ; r cases : and par achut e pul l - out cor ds_
pyr ot echni cs, especi al l y pr oj ect ed t ypes whi ch ar e ser i ousl y dent ed
or def or med wi l l not be used, as a damaged bar r el or Case mi ght cause
a r ound t o become l oddi. A i n t he bar e of t he pr oj ect or . I t shoul d be
kept i n mi nd t hat phot of l ash powder i s as hazar dous as bl ack powder .
e: . St or age of pyr ot echni cs i s descr i bed i n chapt er 3 .
d, The i ncendi ar y ef f ect of pyr ot echni c mat er i al shoul d be kept
i n mi nd i n usi ng such mat er i al i n t he vi ci ni t y of dr y br ush and gr ass .
e. Pyr ot echni c' mat er i al i s poi sonous t o men and ani mal s i f t aken
i nt er nal l y.
f . Dur i ng maneuver s u+' er t er r ai n, ot her t han mi l i t ar y r eser vat i ons,
t he l ocat i on of dud f l ar es and phot of l ash bombs wi l l be obser ve<l and
r epor t ed . The duds wi l l be ; ought out and dest r oyed, as soon as poasi hl e, as i nst r uct ed i n chapt er 4,

Par . 140

TM 9- 1900
C1assu of Ammuni t i on

X0I _I VE 1) RAQXMARK114G JN YEI LOWJ


HE, AT ROCKET, M6A5
FI N

CLAMPLNG AND CONTACT GROOVE


bVATERPROuF Sl F1` Tl ' F=I N

PRACTI CE ROCKET. M7AI z

RA PP 104834

f i gur e 124- Rocket W


AS and Pr act i ce Rocket M7A6

l
OLI VE DRAB
- - _X,
W
r SMOKE ROCKET M10

HC SMOKE R0CXET T21E1

f i gur e 123 -

IN

AARRJf I NXA Yf i [ Owj

( A&11LKI Nc N xsuoWJ
RA PD 104M

2. 36- i nch Sr nak4 I t ocket s

Chemi cal r ocket s. Chemi cal r ocket s cont ai n f i l l er s of chemi cal agent s whi ch ar e Cl assi f i ed as:
( 1) GI GS, whi ch pr oduces a casual t y or har aasi nK ef f ect on per sonnel ,
( 2) SMOKE, whi ch pr oduces a cl oud of smoke f or scr eeni ng or
si gnal i ng .

Ym 9- 1900

Par _ 140
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

n
h
m

193

Par ,

1140

TM 9- 1400
CLa&seb of Am
m
uni t i on
33 . 0

)
OLI VE DRAB f MARKI NGI N YULOW

ROCKE- ' 9ODY


FI NS, CLOSEDl AI L- FLANGE " X

SX?FETY GROOVE
1
EFN
THREf +4 JOI NT BETW
5HI ELL AND BODY

CONTACT RI NGS
FI N RETAI NER
M8Al H. E_ ROCKET

OL I VE ARAB ; MARKI NG I N YELLOW)

T46 PRACTI CE ROCKET

X- } - - X- X-

OLI VE DRAB ( MARKr NG I Nr EI LOw; - - -

M16 _", E. ROCKET

- - - - XX

END VI EW
W
I TH
CLOS OREf
REMOVED
RA FD 8936+14

f i gur e 127- 4. 5- i nch Rocket s

TM 9- 1900

Par . 140
Cl i mmoi Ammuni t i on

0
r
4

Q
L

I
h

Y
O
a

I
90
eM

75B12L 0

40 - L 2

Par s. 140- - 142

RA FP 39474

Fi gur e 124 - 7. 24ach HE ! l ocket T37 - Assembl ed


d. Pr act i ce r ocket s . Pr act i ce r ocket shel l s ar e l oaded wi t h i ner t
mat er i el t o t he wei ght of t he cor r espondi ng ser vi ce r ocket . The f uze
may be i ner t or may cont ai n a spot t i ng char ge. The mot or f or t he
pr act i ce r ocket i s t he same as t hat of t he cor r espondi ng ser vi ce r ound.
e . Tar get r ocket s . Tar get r ocket s ar e suppl i ed t o f ur ni sh f ast
movi ng f l yi ng t ar get s f or aut omat i c AA gun pr act i ce .
141 . 1DFNr CI FI CAT1( ) N. Rocket s, i n common wi t h ot her t ypes of
ammuni t i on, ar e i dent i f i ed by t he st at t dar d nomencl at ur e and l ot
number of t he i t em. Such i dent i f i cat i on i s mar ked on al l cont ai ner s
and, unl ess t he i t emi s t oo smal l , on t he ammuni t i on i t sel f . The basi c
col or scheme f or pai nt i ng and mar ki ng on t he ammuni t i on i s gi ven i n
chapt er 1, sect i on 11 and i l l ust r at ed i n f i gur e 16,
142. C( 1NI PONENTS.
a. For f l exi bi l i t y of suppl y, a compl et e r ound, as i ssued, may
cont ai n al t er nat i ve component s, onl y one of whi ch may be used. The
compl et e r ound may be i ssued as a si ngl e assembl ed i t emor as separ at e component s t o be assembl ed i n t he f i el d.
1), Head. The head of t he r ocket consi st s of t he l oaded r ocket
shel l , and t he f uze. I t i s usual l y assembl ed t o t he f or war d end of t he
mot or , but i n some model s, t he shel l may ext end i nt o t he mot or t o
use t he mot or t ube as an addi t i onal sour ce of f r agment s . I t car r i es
t he expl osi ve or chemi cal char ge t o t he t ar get I t may have t hi n wal l s
t o i ncr ease i t s capaci t y of expl osi ve f or bl ast ef f ect , i t may have t hi ck
wal l s t o penet r at e ar mor bef or e expl odi ng or i t may have wal l s of
medi um t hi ckness t o pr ovi de a maxi mumnumber of ef f ect i ve f r agment s. Af uze i s at t ached t o t he mot or t o f unct i on i t at t he t i me and
t i nder t he ci r cumst ances desi r ed.

TM 9- 1900

Par . 142
Cl asses of Ar r i r nunhi on

6t A Pa 50473A

Fi gur e 130 - 7. 2- i nch H Rocket r 37 - Component s

f i gur e 731 - 7. 2- i nch Chemi cal Rocket T21


c.

Mot or .

( 1)
G
P. N" AI The r ocket mot or i s assembl ed t o t he r ear of t he
head. I t consi st s of a hol l ow t ube whi ch i s cl osed at t he f or war d end
and has a nozzl e i n t he f or mof a vent ur i t ube at t he r ear , The mot or
cont ai ns t he pr opel l i ng char ge and t he i gni t er . Fi ns f or st abi l i zi ng t he
f l i ght of t he r ocket ar e at t ached t o t he out si de of t he mot or at t he
Spi n- st abi l i zed r ocket %
r ear end, except on spi n- st abi l i zed r acket s .
have sevbr al vent ur i t ubes concent r i cal l y l ocat ed about and al l i ncl i ned t o t he l ongi t udi nal axi s of t he r ocket i n t he same di r ect i on so
as t o pr oduce spi n when t he gases ar e emi t t ed t hr ough t hem.
( 2)
I oNI Txx The i gni t er consi st s of a pr i mer and a char ge of
bl ack powder assembl ed wi t hi n t he mot or . The pr i mer i s f i r ed by
t he beat gener at ed i n a wi r e by el ect r i c cur r ent . The pr i mer i gni t es
t he bl ack powder whi ch i n t ur n i gni t es t he pr opel l i ng char ge,

Par . 142

TM 9- 1900
Gl asses of Amr nur ut i or l

RA Pa 103391

Fi gur e 132- Met al Can Packi ng f or Rocket


30

?M 9- 1900

Par . 144
Cl asses of Ammuni i i an

HOTS A W
MEJJ SOX CONTAh1S PRACTI CE
AMMUNI T10N, 5011p BI Uf AANOS

ANDEN&CLEATTAPPEARONBOX.

RA PD 1448- 13
Fi gur e 732- Packi ng Box f or 2. 56- i nch HE, A7, and Pr act i ce Rocker s

1. 44.

PRECAUTI ONS.

a. I n addi t i on t o t he gener al pr ecaut i ons i n chapt er 3, t he pr ecaut i ons i n t he f ol l owi ng par agr aphs wi l l be obser ved

l , * Rocket s shoul d be pr ot ect ed agai nst sour ces of hi gh t emper a


t ur e such as exposur e t o t he di r ect r ays of t he sun. Those r ocket s
whi ch ar e known t o have been exposed t o hi gher t emper at ur es t han
t he l i mi t s i ndi cat ed on t he packi ng wi l l not be used. They wi l l be
pl aced i n segr egat ed st or age unt i l t hey can be dest r oyed
hen r ocket s ar e i nvol ved i n a f i ne, t hei r r ange i s not l i mi t ed
e. W
compar ed t o ser vi ce r anges, as i s t he case wi t h ot her t ypes of am
muni t i on. Thi s f act shoul d be kept i n mi nd i l l St or i ng r ocket s . They
shoul d, i f pr act i cabl e, be kept i n bar r i caded st or age.

TM 9- 1900

Par .

144

Cl 4sses of Ammuni t i on

4
8
d

h
V

4
w
L

TM9- 1900

Par . 144
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

192

Par s. 144- 144

TM 9- 1900
Cl aseeH of Ammur uf ; on

d, Chet yki Cal r ocket s st or ed f ar one year wi l l be i nspect ed 100%


f or cor r osi on and l eakage,
e. I f any change i s made i n an i t em, such as sl t er i ng t he pr opel l i ng
char ge f or a di f f er ent t emper at ur e r ange, t he i t emwi l l be mar ked t o
i ndi cat e t he t han- gc, I f t he i t em i s r epacked, t he packi ng%wi l l be
mar ked l i kewi se,
f . Car e shoul d b< : exer ci sed t o avoi d dent i ng mot or t ubes and
bendi ng t he f i ns. Rocket s wi t h ser i ousl y dent ed t ubes wi l l not i e
f i r ed because such dent i ng i ncr eases t he l oadi ng densi t y whi ch may
cause danger ous pr essur es on f i r i ng, Damaged f i ns wi l l cause er r at i c
f l i ght .
g. Rocket s shoul d not be f i xed at t emper at ur es out si de t he l i mi t s
spec i f i ecl .
h. Car e shoul d be exer ci sed i n f i r i ng t hr ough a scr een of br ush
or t r ees, I n17act wi t h a t wi g or br anch may def l ect t he r acket or cause
i t t o det onat e .
i . I n maki ng cannect i ons f or el ect r i cal l y f i r ed r ocket s, car e shoul d
be exer ci sed t o i nsur e t hat al l connect i ons ar e good and t hat t t ni nsul at ed sect i ons of t he br i ng ci r cui t ar e pr ot ect ed agai nst shor t ci r cui t .
j . The bl ast Rr ea t o t he r ear i s speci f i ed f or each t ype of r ocket .
Per sonnel and mat er i el must not be per mi t t ed i n t hi s ar ea, af t er a
l auncher i s pr epar ed f or f i r i ng unt i l t he r ocket has been f i r ed or t he
l auncher unl oaded. I f pr act i cabl e, combust i bl e mat er i al shoul d be
r emoved f r omt hi s ar ea.
k. Ammuni t i on, i ncl udi ng r ocket s f or i mmedi at e use, wi l l not be
st or ed wi t hi n 100 yar ds behi nd t he f i r i ng poi nt . Nor aU any ammuni t i on be per mi t t ed wi t hi n 10 yar ds t o t he si de of t he f i r i ng poi nt
unl ess i t has t he name pr ot ect i on f r om bl ast as i s speci f i ed f or per sonnel .
195 . PACKI NG AND SHI PPI NG. Smal l r ocket s ar e packed as
assembl ed compl et e r ounds i n cyl i ndr i cal seal ed f i ber cont ai ner s whi ch
i n t ur n ar e packed i n a wooden box . Medi um cal i ber r ocket s ar e
packed, unf azed, i n seal ed f i ber cont ai ner s whi ch ar e packed i n cl over
l eaf bundl es or wooden boxes . Lar ge cal i ber r ocket heads and
mot or s ar e packed , separ at el y, Poi nt f uzes ar e packed i n seal ed i ndi .
vi dual cont ai ner s whi ch, i n t ur n, ar e packed i t wooden boxes, Base
f uzes ar e assembl ed t o t he r ocket shel l , as i ssued, See f i gur es 132
t hr ough 135 and ORD 11 SNL S- 9.
146. SUBCALI BER ROCKETS. As i s t he case wi t h subcal i ber
r ounds f or ar t i l l er y weapons, subcal i ber r ocket s ar e used f or l ar ge
cal i ber r ocket l auncher s,

TM 9- 1900

Pur l . 147- I 49

Gl asses of Ammuni t i on

Sect i on VI I I

LAND M
I NES

147 . GFNVHAL. Al l t ypes of l and mi nes consi st of a hi gh- expl osi ve


char ge whi ch i s det onat ed by a mecbani cal or chemi cal devi ce
( known as t he f uze) when act uat ed by vehi cl e or per sonnel . An
expl osi ve- cont ai ni ng adapt er , known as an act i vat or , i s used wi t h
some mi nes so t hat st andar d Engi neer Cor ps f i r i ng devi ces may be
i nst al l ed f or secondar y i ni t i at i on, such as ant i l i f t i ng devi ces.
1411. CLASSI FI CATI ON. Land mi nes ar e cl assi f i ed accor di ng t o
use as ant i t ank or ant i per sonnel Had al so, as ser vi ce, pr act i ce, or
dummy.
149. METALLI C ANTI TANK MI NES.
a. Pur pose . Ant i t ank mi nes ar e i nt ended t o i mmobi l i ze and
dest r oy t r acked or wheel ed vehi cl es. Det ai l s of const r uct i on and
per f or mance of i ndi vi dual mi nes ar e cover ed i n TM 9- 1940 and
per f or mance and met hods of handl i ng ar e cover ed i n FM5- 31, Land
Mi nes and Booby Tr aps .
b. r anl i t auk nmi ne&- ol der t uadel s . The ant i t ank r ni t t i es MLA1
and M4 ar e cyl i ndr i cal st eel cases, appr oxi mat el y 3 1/ 2 i nches hi gh
and 81/ , i nches i n di amet er , f i l l ed wi t h about 5 1/ 2 pounds of hi gh
expl osi ve. A f uze, i ssued separ at e f r om t he mi ne body, i s i nser t ed
i n t he f uze wel l and hel d i n pl ace by a spi der . Pr essur e of appr oxi mat el y 500 pounds upon t he spi der by a vehi cl e wi l l cause f unct i oni ng of t he f uze whi ch det onat es t he expl osi ve char ge of t he mi ne. A
saf et y f or k assembl ed bet ween t he st r i ker head of t he f uze and t he
f uze body pr event s acci dent al i ni t i at i on of t he f uze dur i ng handl i ng.
Thi s saf et y f or k must be r emoved t o ar mt he f uze. The compl et e
r ound, mi ne and f uze, wei ghs appr oxi mat el y 101/ 2 pounds.
c. Li ght ant i t ank mi ne. A l i ght wei ght , f l at , quar t - si zed mi ne ( f i g.
1361) f i l l ed wi t h about 3 pounds of hi gh expl osi ve, usual l y t et r yt ol ,
i s i nt ended f or ant i t ank use but i t may easi l y be conver t ed f or ant i .
per sonnel use. I t can be det onat ed by a f or ce of appr oxi mat el y
150 pounds on t he pr essur e pl at e. A " U" shaped pr essur e pl at e f i t s
over t he t op of t he mi ne and cover s t he f uze. A f l exi bl e wi r e r ope
scr ewed i n one end of t he mi ne ser ves $s a car r yi ng st r ap. Upon
r emoval of t he st r ap, t he t hr eaded wel l may be used f or t he i nser t i on
of a seoot l dar y f uze. The mi ne i s r ect angul ar i n shape, appr oxi mat el y 7 i nches l ong by 4 1/ 2 i nches wi de by 2 1/ z i nches hi gh and
wei ghs about 4 pounds. A number of f i r i ng devi ces may be used t o
guar d agai nst t amper i ng wi t h, or r emoval of , t hi s mi ne. The same
chemi cal f uze used i n t he heavy ant i t ank mi ne i s al so used i n t hi s
mi ne,

Ppr s . 149- 150

TM4- 1440
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

X. GLLAR.

SFRI NC,

CO. VRRESSI ON SLEEVi

kkREMCVAULL
; F' RE5$V. E PLA1 L

SSDE FUZE ' VVLLL


RA PD 89370

Fi gur e 736 - Li ght Ant i t ank Mi ne M7


tl .
heavy ant i t ank mi ne. The heavy ant i t ank mi ne i s a hi ghexpl osi ve t ype i nt ended pr i mar i l y f or use agai nst t anks ( f i gs. 137
and 138) . I t has a base di amet er of 13 i nches and a maxi mum
hei ght of 3 1/ a i nches and i s l oaded wi t h appr oxi mat el y 12 pounds of
TNT. Thi s mi ne r esembl es t he Ger man Tel l er mi ne i n appear ance.
The compl et e assembl y wei ghs appr oxi mat el y 20 pounds. The car r yi ng handl e i s at t ached t o t he bot t om of t he mi ne, Per manent l y
assembl ed t o t he mi ne body i s a r ound pr essur e pl at e 7 1A i nches i n
di amet er cont ai ni ng a r ever si bl e pl ug whi ch cover s t he f uze wel l
The pr essur e pl at e i s suppor t ed i nt er nal l y by ci r cul ar ( Bel l evi l l e)
, pr i ngs . The chemi cal f uze used i n t hi s mi ne i s al so used i n t he
l i ght ant i t ank mi ne. A f or ce of appr oxi mat el y 300 pounds on t he
pr essur e pl at e i s r equi r ed t o cause t he f uze t o f unct i on. Thi s mi ne
i s not af f ect ed by st ones, di r t , or moi st ur e .

NONM
ETALLI C ANTI TANK ' NI NES.
a. Pur pow. Thi s t ype mi ne was devel oped as a count er measur e
agai nst met al l i c mi ne det ect or s.
b. - Nonmet al l i c ant i t ank p1 i n e. Thi s mi ne consi st s of nonmet al l i c
component s bot h i n body and f uze. I t i s appr oxi mat el y 51/ 4 i nches
hi gh and 10 i nches i n di amet er ( f i g, 139) . Appr oxi mat e wei ght of
compl et e assembl y i s 15 pounds. Thi s mi ne i s pr ovi ded wi t h s
chemi cal - t ype f uze. An act i vat i on wel l i s pr ovi ded i n t he base of
t he mi ne so t hat f i r i ng devi ces may be i mer t ed, i ncl udi ng an ant i 150.

195

Par e. 154- 151

TM 9- 1904
Cl a" es of Ammuni t i on

PRESSUR` _ Pi A7L PLUG I N SAFE F05M


ON- - - /

FI I .
ACT! VAr OR W

RA Po

50465

Fi gur e T37- Heor vy Ant i t ank Mi ne M6


l i f t i ng devi ce f or expl odi ng t he mi ne upon pi ckup. Ther e i s no
spi der on t he nonmet al l i c mi ne as pr essur e on any par t of t he t op
of t he mi ne body wi l l cause t he f use t o f unct i on. Af or ce of appr oxi mat el y 300 pounds on t he pr essur e pl at e i s r equi r ed t o cause t he
f uze t o f unct i on.
1. 51. AN' l i ' I TANK PRACTI CE MI NES.
. . The pr act i ce met al l i c mi ne
a. Met al l i c ant i t ank pr act i ce ut i ne
M
1 has a base di amet er of appr oxi mat el y 83/ a i nches and a maxi mur n hei ght of 41/ 4 i nches. I t i s si mi l ar t o t he hi gh- expl osi ve mi ne
but upon act i vat i on r el eases onl y a puf f of whi t e smoke. Some l ot s
of t hi s mi ne have t he f i l l i ng pl ug i n t he t op of t he mi ne. The compl et e r ound consi st s of t hr ee component s ; an empt y mi ne
body ( whi ch has f i ve 1- i nch hol es equal l y spaced ar ound t he si de) ,
t he spi der , and t he f uze. Pr act i ce f uzes have t he st r i ker head
pai nt ed r ed. The mi ne has t he same wei ght and f unct i ons i n t he
same manner 9s t he hi gh- expl osi ve mi ne and i s used f or t r ai ni ng.
I t i s cheap t o manuf act ur e and i s not danger ous. The MI BI i s a
pr act i ce met al l i c mi ne and r esembl es t he ser vi ce mi ne except t hat
t he f i l l i ng hol e i s i n t he bot t om of t he mi ne body and t hat al l par t s
ar e manuf act ur ed by . st ampi ng, I t i s appr oxi mat el y SV4 i nches i n
di amet er and 314 i nches hi gh Thi s mi ne i s send- f i l l ed t o wei ght
bef or e i t i s i ssued f or use i n pr act i ce.

Par . 151
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on
z

4
a

h
w
D
v
iJ

0
V

a
w

b
a

wr

Par s,

TM 9- 1900

151- 152
Cl asses of Ant muni t i or r

VI AL OF CHEMI CAL,

J EXPLOSI VE
COMPARTMENT

PRESSURE PI N
PI STON
SYNTHETI C RUBBER RI NG

EXPLOSI VE- COMPARTMENT


W
ALL CERAMI C, GLASS
OOD
OI r , PLYW
RA PA 6" f i $

Fi gur e 139- Nonmet al l i c Ant honk Mi ne M


3
h.
Nonmet al l i c ant i t ank pr act i ce none.
The pr act i ce nonmet al l i c mi ne i s i dent i cal wi t h t he nonmet al l i c ser vi ce ni ne except
t hat i t i s f i l l ed wi t h i ner t mat er i al i nst ead of hi gh expl osi ve and i s
mar ked i n whi t e. Thi s pr act i ce r ni ne has t he same wei ght end f unct i ons i n t he sar ne manner as t he ser vi ce mi t r e.
The pr act i ce f uze
r esembl es t he ser vi ce f uze i n ext er nal appear ance, except f or t he
mar ki ng, Af t er -t he f use i s i ni t i at ed t her e i s a del ay of 2 t o 3 seconds . Then a cl oud of smoke i s pr oduced and a char ge i s pr oj ect ed
sever al f eet i nt o t he ai r wher e i t expl odes wi t h a f l ash and a l oud
r epor t .
' 152,

PACKI NG ANI I U : HARKI NG OF ANTI TANK NI I NES.


a.
Met al l i c mi nes MI A1 and M
4 ar e packed i n wooden boxes,
each of whi ch cont ai ns f i ve mi nes a" d Rve f uzes . The box i s made

TM9- 1900

Par - I 52
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

CAN CONTAI NI NG ACTI VAT{ , 1P


CAR SEAL

NA PG 89461

f i gur e 140 - Mef a! Cr at e M153, Cont ai ni ng One Heavy AW


homi a
Mi ne Md, Wi t h Fuze and Act i vat or

up wi t h a set of pl ywood acpar at ur s. As shi pped, t he f uzes ar e pl aced


i n a compar t ment , whi ch occupi es one sect i on at t he end of t he box ;
t he f i ve mi nes, wi t h spi der s nest ed t o t he bot t oi ns of t he mi nes, ar e
packed i n t he at her f i ve compar t ment p, Tot al wei ght of box i ncI udi ng mi nes and f uzes i s 701/ 2 pounds, The nonmet al l i c mi nes ar e
packed i n t he same manner , but wi t h f our mi nes and f our f uzes i n
a box . Each f uze i s packed i n a her met i cal i y seal ed cont ai ner , t he
f uzes bei ng pl aced i n a sect i on i n t he cent er of t he box, Tot al wei ght
of box i ncl udi ng mi ne; and f uzes i s appr oxi mat el y S$! / 2 pounds . The
heavy mi ne i s pecked i ndi vi dual l y i n a met al cr at e ( Fi g. X40) , t he
f uze and t he act i vat or , each i n a her met i cal l y seal ed can, bei ng pl aced
act i ve
i n cor ner s of t he cr at e. Some mi nes ar e packed wi t hout t he .
t ot . Tot al wei ght i s 30% pounds. The l i ght mi ne i s packed i n a
met al box cont ai ni ng ei ght mi nes, ei ght f uzes, ei ght car r yi ng handl es,
and ei ght cl ot h bags. Tot al wei ght i s 561 pounds. I l l t hi s met al box,
t her e ar e si x campar t ment a. t he t wo out er compar t ment s hol di ng
f our f uzes each, each f uze i n a seat ed cont ai ner wi t h f our of t he f uzes
i n a car t on. Each of t he f our cent r al compar t ment s cont ai ns t wo
mi nes . The car r yi ng handl es wt d cl ot h bags ar e l ai d on t op of t he
cont ent s of t he box .
199

7M 9- 1400

For . 132
Cl assps o! Ammuni t i on

Fi gur e 14i - Ant i per sonnel Mi ne M2A4, Wi r h M6A1 Fuza


200

Par s . 152- 153

TM 9- 1900
Cl a8ws of Ammuni t i on

' 1' he boxes cont ai ni ng pr act i ce mi nes ar e pai nt ed wi t h a bl ue


band ar ound t he cent er of each box and bl ue cl eat s ot t i t he et i ds of
ooden boxes of hi gh- expl osi ve mi nes ar e st ai ned l i ght
each box . W
br own wi t h mar ki ng i n yel l ow, -or, mor e r ecent l y, unst ai ned wi t h
mar ki ng i n bl ank . Met al boxes a.- e pai nt ed ol i ve dr ab.
?I NTI PERSC1NN1L: L M11NFS.
Pur
po6r . I ssued ant i per sonnel t r i nes ar e st si ndar di zed mechaa.
ni sms i nt ended f or t 2f f ect agai nst por a, onnei .
l : i : #.

11. " Br auncl i ng" ant i per sounel mi ne


. . Thi s mi ne, when f unct i oned, t hr ows to pr oj ect i l e upwar d t o a hei ght of 4 t o 6 f eet . I t has
an of eet i ve r adi us of about 30 f eet The compl et e assembl y wei ghs
appr oxi mat el y 5 pounds . The mi ne l 1As t he appear ance of a smal l
mor t ar wi t h an at t ached f i r i ng i l avi oe ( f i g, 141) . The pr oj ect i l e i S
t hr own i nt o t he ai r by t he bunt i ng of smal l pr opel l i ng char ge of
bl ack powder i n t he hasp of t he mi ne. The mi ne i s pai nt ed ol i ve
dr ab yi n whi ch t he mar ki ngs ar e i n bl ack; t he base i s pai nt ed yel l ow,
v, Cast - i r on f r agmr nt ut i on i ni ue. Thi s t ype of ant i per sonnel
mi ne r esembl es a br i de ( f i g. 142) . I t i s appr oxi mat el y 5V_ i nches
hi gh. and 3 1I s i nches squar e. Ther e dar e t hr ee t hr eaded wel l s i n t he
mi ne body, one i n each of t wo si des and one i n t he end, t o accom.
modat e st andar d Cor ps of Engi neer s f i r i ng devi ces ( f uzes) .
A
r el at i vel y heavy change of TNT and t hi ck wal l s pr oduce f r agment at i on and bl ast ef f ect . W
hen used above t he gr ound, t he bur 4t i ng
r adi us of t hi s mi ne i s gr eat er t l i an t hat of t he boundi ng t ype mi ne.
I t i s pai nt ed ol i ve dr ab wi t h mar ki ngs i n bl ack,
d. Pr ocl i ce ant i per sonnel mi ne. The pr act i ce ant i per sonnel
mi ne ( f i g, 143) si mul ot cs t he " boundi ng" t ype ant i per sonnel mi ne.
The met al par t s sr e t he same as t hose used f or t he ser vi ce mi ne,
except f or t he pr oj ect i l e whi ch i s made of car dboar d and t he i gni t er
whi ch cont ai ns i s del ay el ement t o pr ovi de f or a del ayed f unct i oni ng
of t he mi ne f our seconds af t er f unct i oni ng of t he f uze . The pr oj ect i l e cont ai ns a spot t i ng char ge assembl y whi ch r esembl es a shot gun
shel l wi t h a del ay el ement i n pl ace of t he pr i met . I n or der t hat t he
mi ne may be used sever al t i mes, t he r ol l owi ng r epl acement par t s ar e
i ssued :
] Pr i mer and i gni t er assembl y.
Cap ( cover ) .
Pr oj ect de.
Spat t i ng char ge.
Pr opel l i ng char ge,
e. Par ki ng and mar ki ng. The " boundi ng" ant i per sonnel mi ne i s
pecked compl et e wi t h a f i r i ng devi ce and a spool of st eel wi r e i n e
ccr r ugat ed paper j acket . Ten such cont ai ner s ar e packed i nt o a
7761 2: 0 - I u
17
241

TM 9 . 1900

Par . 153
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

m
n
a
a
d
d

c7
J

U
J
W
W

ID
3
w
J

202

TM 9- 190D

Par . 1 . 33
C1awes of Ammuni t i on

w
U

RA PO 84872

i t h MI OAI Fuze
Fi gur e 143 - pr act i ce Andper sonr r et Mi ne M8, W
203

Par s . 153- . 156

TM 9- 1900
Cl asses ul Ammuni t i on

wooden box, whi ch i s st ai ned l i ght br own wi t h mar ki ng i n yel l ow, or ,


mor e r ecent l y, unst ai ned wi t h mar ki ng i n bl ack. The cast - i r on f r agment at i on ant i per sonnel mi ne i s packed i n a wooden box cont ai ni ng
6 mi ni s, 6 f uzes i n i ndi vi duel cont ai ner s, and 6 spool s of wi r e.
The pr act i ce ant i per sonnel mi ne i s packed 2 mi r e bodi es and 2 f uzes,
wi t h 20 set s of r epl acement par t s, per wooden box, The box hus
mar ki ngs i n bl ack, a bl ue cent er band and bl ue ver t i cal ead cl eat s .
Sect i on I X

DEMOLI TI ON MATERI ALS


154. GENERAL . Demol i t i on mat er i al s i ncl ude expl osi ve equi pment i nt ended f or dest r uct i on of obst acl es ( by bangal ar e t or pedoes) ,
f or t i f i cat i ons ( by shaped char ges) , speci al equi pment ( by dest r uct or s) ,
and gener al mat er i al ( by demol i t i on bl ocks) . Most demol i t i on
char ges may he f i r ed el ect r i cal l y by el ect r i c bl ast i ng caps or nor t el ect r i cal l y wi t h saf et y f use and nonel ect r i c bl ast i ng cap or del ay det onat om. For det ai l ed i nf or mat i on, see FM5- 25 and TM9- 1940.
B.S. BA! VGALORF ` 1' ( ?RFEDOFS. The bangal ur e t or pedo MI A1
( f i g. 144) i s a t ube or pi pe f i l l ed wi t h hi gh expl osi ve. The st eel t ube or
pi pe i s 5 f eet i n l engt h and 218 i nches i n di amet er , and i s gr ooved and
capped at each end. The t ube i s f i l l ed wi t h amat ol . wi t h about 4
i nches of TNT at each end. The wei ght of t he expl osi ve char ge i s
about 9 pounds. The t or pedo may be used as an expl osi ve char ge f or
ot her demol i t i on pur poses. The bangal or e t or pedo AUA1 i s packed
10 per ki t or box whi ch al so cont ai ns 10 connect i ng sl eeves and 1 nose
sl eeve.
156.
a.

DESTRUCTORS.
Cener al .

( 1) Dest r uct or s ar e hi gh- expl osi ve char ges f i r ed el ect r i cal l y or by


t he act i on of a f uze.
( 2) Dest r uct or s ar e f or use i n cer t ai n equi pment t o be dest r oyed
when t he mat er i el i s abandoned or when t bei ' e i s danger of i t s f al l i ng
i nt o enemy har t i ds. I n gener al dest r uct or s ar e i nt ended f or dest r uct i on of t he vi t al par t s of t he mat er i el by means of an expl osi on whi ch
i s conf i ned wi t hi n t he housi ng. Dest r uct or s may be r emoved f r om
mat er i al dur i ng nor mal mai nt enance r epai r ,
h. Dr nt r l i r vor AN- A11 . Thi s dust r uct or ( f i g. 145) i s a smal l expl osi ve cont ai ner whi ch f i t.s a t hr eaded adapt er i n cer t ai n r adi o equi p
ment . The head end has a scr ewdr i ver sl ot and i s t hr eaded f or scr ew.
i ng i nt o t he adapt er . At t he opposi t e end i s a gi l di ng- met al use whi ch
i s separ at ed f r om t he head end by a pl ast i c t ube. The head end cont ai ns a smal l cyl i nder of ni t r ocel l ul ose and t he i gni t i on wi r e. The
204

TM 9- 1904

Par . 156
l a-" es of Amr r ; ur ei t f on

w
w
J

J
J
4J
W
rd

295

Par . 156

TM9- 1904
Cl asses aE Ammuni t i on
NI TROCELLULOSE
I RE
I GNI TI ON W
F PLASTI C TUBr E

RA PP 3U09

Fi gur e 145 - Dest r uct or AN- M) - Sect i oned

RA PO 33607

2
Fi gur e T46 - 8est r uct or AN- M

met al component s et each end of t he uni t ar e i nsul at ed f r om each


ot her . W
hen t he el ect r i cal ci r cui t i s cl osed. t he cur r ent passes t hr ough
t he i gni t i on wi r e whi ch, i n t ur n, det onat es t he dest r uct or .
e. Dest r uct or AN- M. Thi s dest r uct or ( f i g. 146) consi st s of a
si mpl e sheet - met al pl at f or m, upon whi ch t he var i ous el ect r i cal and
expl osi ve component s ar e secur ed. The r ear and f or war d edges of
t he pl at f or mar e cur ved upwar d and a panel i s at t ached t o t he f or war d
edge. The whol e assembl y i s 1 1/ 2 i nches hi gh_ Thi s dest r uct or f i t s i nt o
an openi ng i n t he encl osi ng box of cer t ai n equi pment wi t h whi ch i t i s
used. W
hen a swi t ch i s cl osed, t he el ect r i c cur r ent causes t he el ect r i c
det onat or t o f unct i on,
d. Dest r uct or AN- 313AL . Thi s dest r uct or ( f i g. 147) r esembl es
t he dest r uct or AN- M1 i n gener al appear ance but i s much l ar ger , I t
306

r M 9- 1900

For . 156
Cl amses of Ammuni t i on

CONTACT PI NS
/ - LOCKI NG HOLE
_, - PLASTI C SOCKET

RA PD 804046
Fi qur e f 47 - Aesf r ucf or +4N- M3A1

BLOCK- CHAKGE AS; Et AOLY

1 CHARGE SUPPORT
BRACKET

, / FUSE BLOCK
FUSE { BLOCK COVER

YEA PD asms

Fi gur e 148 -

Dext r uct or M+!

hen a
cont ai ns an el ect r i c det onat or and a 2- gr am pel l et of t et r yl . W
swi t ch i s cl osed, el ect r i c cur r ent ent er s t he dest r uct or t hr ough t he t wo
cont act post s at t ached t o l ead wi r es f r om t he pl ane. The cur r ent
causes t he det onat or t o expl ode whi ch, i n t ur n, expl odes t he t et r yl
pel l et .

TM-' 9- 1900

Par . 156
Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

n
N
d
P
l4
A
d
n

4
7
V

TM 9. 1900

Par .

156

C1aases of Anununi t i on

W
l +7 d

m
O
a

{Y

b
v

, Xf

TM 9- 1900

Par s . 156- 157


Cl asses of Ammuni t i on

Fi gur e 151 - - Shaped Char ge, 15- 1b, M2A3


e. Oeai r uvl ur 1114 . Thi s dest t - uct ur ( f i g. 148) consi st s of a 21! _pound bl ock of t et r yt ol mount ed on an T.. - shaped br acket , an i mpact t ype of bomb t ai l f uze, and occessor i es f or assembl y and mount i ng i n
a cont r ol uni t . The mai n dest r uct or assembl y consi st s of an adapt er ,
i nt o whi ch t he f uze f i t s, and t he expl osi ve bl ock mount ed on an
" haped sheet - met al suppor t .
f . Deet r uet ur N13 . Thi s dest r uct or ( f i g. 149) i s essent i al l y a
modi f i cat i on of t he dest r uct or M
4. The compl et e assembl y wei ghs
apPr oxi mat el y 8X/ 2 pounds.
ES,
157. DEM
UI JM
ON EXPLOSW
a. TMl ' and ni t r u$l ar ch. Compr essed TNT i n l ei - and 1- pound
bl ocks, and ni t r ost ar ch i n 1/ 4- pound bl ocks, ar e suppl i ed f or demol i t i on
and l i ke pur poses . These may be used by t hemsel ves ( wi t h any st andar d f i r i ng mechani sm equi pped wi t h a det onat or ) or i n conj unct i on
wi t h ot her demol i t i on mat er i al s, Ni t r ost ar ch i s mor e sensi t i ve t han
TNT; hence, ni t r ost ar ch bl ocks shoul d not be cr ushed or br oken,
h. Dcr uol i l l on bl ock hl 2. Thi s demol i t i on bl ock ( f i g. 154) i s a
r ect angul ar bl ock of t et r yt ol , wi t h a det onat or wel l i n each end. At
t he out er end of each wel l i s an adapt er t hr eaded t o r ecei ve any of
t he st andar d f i r i ng devi ces. At t he i nner end of each wel l i s a t et r yl
pel l et cant i n t he bl ock t o act as a boost er , The demol i t i on bl ock i s
packed i n a car dboar d boa, 8 boxes per haver sack, 2 havemockss per
box.
c. Demol i t i on bl ock 113. Thi s demol i t i on bl ock i s a r ect angul ar
2V4- pound bl ock of pl ast i c expl osi ve. The bl ock consi st s of Composi t i on C- 3 and one bl ock i s equi val ent t o si x i / 2- pound TNT bl ocks.
Thi s pl ast i c expl osi ve can be mol ded by band i nt o any desi r ed shape
or posi t i on and i s ver y ef f i ci ent , due t o t he good cont act t hus obt ai ned
combi ned wi t h i t s hi gh power , The demol i t i on bl ock i s packed i n a
car dboar d box, $ boxes per haver sack, 2 haver sacks per box.
710

f m 9- T90o

Par , 157
Cl asses of Amr nuni 6vr r

RA FD b5188A

f i gur e 152 - Shaped Char gt , 40- 1h, I Yl 3

TM 7- 1900

Par s, 157- 155


Cl , s,v s of Ammuni f i or t

d, hr i i uol i i j Ur i bl ock N14. Thi s demol i t i on bl ock i s i ' ,/. - . pound


bl ock of Composi t i on C- 3 and has t he sat ne pl ast i , - quaht i f s as t he
bl ock M3, The bl ock M4 i s packed 104 bl ocks per box,
158.

S1I APEh C11: LKGhS.

a. Sbaped char ges ar e expl vsi ves whi ch ar e f or med i nt o speci al


shapes f or t he pur pose of f ocusi ng t he det onat i on i nt o a penet r at i ng
j et . Such a Char ge has much gr eat er penet r at i ng capa6t y t han a
r egul ar bl ock char ge of t he same wei ght ,
h. Shaped char ge 15- 1b. Thi s char ge; ( f i g. 151 ) cont ai ns appr oxi mat el y 12 pounds of $0150 pent ol i t e i n a t noi st ur e- r esi st i ng mol ded
f i ber cont ai ner . The t op of t he char ge has a t hr eaded cap wel l f or
r ecei vi ng an Engi neer ' s Speci al ( or ot her st andar d i ssue) bl ast i ng sap.
The cont ai ner ext ends beyond t he base of t he char ge t o hol d t he
char ge al t he cor r ect di st ance ( cal l ed " st and- of f " ) f r omt he t ar get t o
obt ai n maxi mum penet r at i on. Thi s char ge %r i l l penet r at e 36 i nchea
of r ei nf or ced concr et e. I f t he concr et e i s of gr eat er t hi ckness, i t - &i l l
pr oduce a hol y appr oxi mat el y 30 i nches deer and 2 t o 3 i nches i n
di amet er . Thi s char ge i s packed 3 per wooden box ; 4 i n a car t on, 2
car t ons per wooden box; or 4 i n a f i ber cont ai ner , 1 cont ai ner per
wooden box,

Thi s char ge ( f i g, 152) cont ai ns appr oxi At hr eaded


cap wel l i s pr ovi ded f or r ecei vi ng an Engi neer ' s Speci al ( r w ot her
st andar d i ssue) bl ast i ng cep . Met al l egs pr ovi de t he cor r ect st and- of f
di st ance whi ch must be mai nt ai ned f or maxi t t i t ur r z per neuf at i on. Thi s
char ge wi l l penet r at e a 60- i nch concr et e wal l. The r esul t i ng hol e wi l l
be l ar ge enough t o i nser t a st andar d bangal or e t or pedo.
e.

Shaped char ge 404b,

mat el y 30 pounds o 50150 pent ol i t e i n a met al cont ai ner ,

TM 9- 1400

Par %. 154- 160


CHAPTER 3

CARE, HANDLI NG,

AND PRESERVATI ON

Sect i on I
GENERAL SAFETY PRECAUTI ONS
1. 59.

t ; h: . NERAL.

a. Thi s sect i on deal s wi t h t he hazar ds i nher ent i n t he st or age,


mai nt enance. handl i ng, and i nt r apl ant t r anspor t at i on of ammuni t i onWher e r ul es sr e gi ven cover i ng r el at ed subj ect s and oper at i ons . t hey
shoul d be consi der ed as gener al .
b. W
hen wor k i s doi wwhi ch i nvol ves t he di r ect exposur e of expl osi ves mvt er i al t o possi bl e f r i ct i on, spar ks, i mpact , st at i c el ect r i ci t y, et c .,
t he r egul at i ons cont ai ned i n t he Or dnance Saf et y Manual Shoul d be
f ol l owed_ Exampl e of such wor k i s ammuni t i on dest r uct i on. The
Saf et y Manual cover s saf et y i n t he per f or mance of t he oper at i on and
i n t he t vpe of equi pment necessar y f or t he per f or mance of i t .
160.

l ; LNERAL PRECAUTI ONS.

a. I nvest i gat i on of acci dent s whi ch have occur r ed i n t he handl i ng,


shi ppi ng, and st or i ng of expl osi ves and ammuni t i on i ndi cat es t hat .
i n most cases wher e t he cause coul d be det er mi ned, t he acci dent was
due t o ci r cumst ances whi ch may be cl assed as cont r ol l abl e. Ther ef or e, t he f ol l owi ng gener al saf et y pr ecaut i ons wi l l be st r i ct l y enf or ced.
h. For per sonnel .
( 1) Ammuni t i on wi l l be handl ed under t he di r ect super vi si on of
a compet ent per son who under st ands t hor oughl y t he hazar ds and r i sks
i nvol ved. Per sons handl i ng ammuni t i on wi l l be i mpr essed wi t h t he
f act t hat t hei r saf et y . e s wel l as t hat of ot her s, depends upon t he i nt el l i gence and car e exer ci sed by t hemsel ves and by t hei r f el l ow wor ker s.
( 2) Per sonnel handl i ng ammuni t i on must not t amper wi t h any
component s or di sasser nVl e any component s, unl ess especi al l y aut hor i zed t o do so. Ser i ous acci dent s may r esul t .
( 3) Per sons handl i ng at r i muni t i on wi l l cl ean al l mud and gr i t f r om
t hei r shoes bef or e ent er i ng t he magazi ne, car , boat , or vehi cl e i n whi ch
t her e ar e gxpl osi ves or ammuni t i on_
( 4) Appr opr i at e pr ot ect i ve cl ot hi ng and saf et y equi pment wi l l be
pr ovi ded and i t s use r equi r ed.
( 5) Saf et y shoes wi l l be wor n i n l ocat i ons wher e oper at i ons r equi r e
t he handl i ng of oxposed expl osi ves whi ch may be i gni t ed by st at i c
di schar ge or wher e t her e may be exposed expl osi ves capabl e of bei ng
i gni t ed by f r i ct i on or i mpact , Det ai l s of t ypes of saf et y shoes, con713

' Par ,

140

TM9- 1904
Car &, Handl i ng, or al Pr eser vat i on

di t i ons under whi ch t hey shoul d be used, and o l i st of expl osi ves
r equi r i ng use of such f oot wear may be obt ai ned f r omt he Of f i ce of t he
Chi ef of Or dnance.
V.

I n acunl ani l i on handl i ng.

The handl i ng of ammuni t i on shoul d al ways be conduct ed so


( 1)
as t o l i mi t t he number of per sonnel exposed and t he hazar dous mat er i al handl ed t o as smal l a quant i t y as i s pr act i cabl e.
( 2)
Expl osi ves and ammuni t i on wi l l be handl ed car ef ul l y_ Bal e
ho{ } ky wi l l not be used under condi t i ons wher e t he cont ai ner may be
penet r at ed by t he hook or f ul l of f t he hook, Cont ai ner s wi l l not be
t ur +i bl ed, dr agged, t hr own, or dr opped on each ot her or r ol l ed or wal ked
over on t he f l oor or dr opped f r omt ai l boar ds . Bombs equi pped wi t h
shi ppi ng bands m
ay be r ol l ed wi t h car e, Separ at e- l oadi ng shel l may
he r ol l ed, i f t he r ot at i ng band i s pr ot ect ed f r om damage. Met al r ol l er
conveyor s and t r ucks may be used except f or hazar dous expl osi ves
whi ch may be i gni t ed by spar ks_ Such expl osi ves shoul d be handl ed
ei t her by hmand or wi t h wooden ur nompar ki ng conveyor s.
( 3)
I f t he pr ecaut i ons pr escr i bed her ei n ar e st r i ct l y compl i ed wi t h
i n handl i ng ammuni t i on cont ai ni ng t he newer t ypes of expl osi ves . such
as Composi t i on B, pent ol i t e, and t et r yt ol , i t shoul d be no mor e dan
ger ous t han t he handl i ng of ammuni t i on l oaded wi t h TNT,
Hi ghexpl osi ve i t ems wi t h t hi n wal l s and hi gh char ge- wei ght r at i o, r equi r e
speci al at t ent i on t o avoi d dent i ng t he wal l s. Such i t ems must not be
handl ed on chut es or ot her wi se subj ect ed t o excessi ve i mpact ,
( 4)
No t cxw% or equi pment so desi gned t hat st eel or ot her spar kpr oduci ng met al t omes i n cont act wi t h expl osi ve mat er i al s %r i l l be
used i n handl i ng hazar dous expl osi ve& Saf et y t ool s ar e r equi r ed i n
box openi ng and r epai r . Such t ool s ar e const r uct ed of wood or nonspar ki ng or spar k- r esi ut aat mat er i al s, as br onze, l ead, ber yl l i um al l oys
and mor sel met al , whi ch, under nor mal condi t i ons, wi l l not pr oduce
spar ks .
( 5)
Gasol i ne- power ed l i f t t r ucl r s wi l l not be used f or handi ng exposed expl osi ves, or be used i n l ocat i ons wher e exposed expl osi ves ar e
pr esent . They must not be used i n i gl oo magazi nes,
( 6)
Expl osi ves and ammuni t i on shoul d not be exposed t o moi st ur e
or dampness or t o t he di r ect r ays of t he sun f or any l ong per i od. I f i t
i s necessar y t o l eave boxes t empor ar i l y out si de of magazi nes or car s,
t hey shoul d be cover ed wi t h a t ar paul i n so pl aced t hat t her e i s f r ee
ci r cul at i on of ai r t hr ough t he pi l e.
Ammuni t i on wi l l not be i mpr ovi sed, r econdi t i oned, r enovat ed,
( 7)
or sal vaged wi t hi n t he magazi ne ar ea unl ess t he si t es, bui l di ngs, or car s
i n whi ch wor k i s bei ng dome ar e devot ed excl usi vel y t o such wor k and
ar e speci f i cal l y appr oved. Quant i t y- di st ance r equi r ement s i n chapt er
3 sect i on 11, must be obser ved.
414

TM 9- 1940

Pam 164- T61


Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

( 8) I f expl osi ves spi l l oi ' si f t f r om s l eaky cont ai ner , al l wor k


wi l l be st opped unt i l t he expl osi ves have been r emc>ved, and sur f aces
washed or desensi t i zed As f ar as pr act i cabl e,
161, FI RE PROTECTI ON.
a, Gener al .
( 1) Fi r e pr event i on i s of t he - al most i mpor t ance. Many of t he
f i r es i nvol vi ng expl osi ves and ammuni t i on ar e pr event abl e, I t i s t he
dut y of al l concer ned i n t hei r handl i ng t o st udy t he causes of f i r es and
t hor oughl y i nf or m t hemsel ves of t he saf et y pr ecaut i ons t hat must be
t aken t o pr event t hem,
( 2) A gr eat hazar d i n and ar ound expl osi ves i s heat . Some expl osi ves i gni t e at t emper at ur es subst ant i al l y l ower t han t hose r equi r ed t o
i Vi t e wood, paper , or f abr i cs, and i gni t i on mi ght r esul t i n expl osi on.
Ther ef or e, evi r y ef f or t wi l l be made t o mai nt ai n nor mal t emper at ur es
sur r oundi ng ammuni t i on and expl osi ve,
l b.
( : nur ses rti f f i ver . Fi r es i n magazi nes and magazi ne ar eas may
be due t o a number of causes, of whi ch t he f ol l owi ng ar e most common
( 1 ) DRY CRASS. LEAVES, AND UNDERBRUSH, These may be i gni t ed
by spar ks f r oml ocomot i ves, , by smoki ng or t he car el ess use of mat ches
and camp t i r es.
( 2) DETLcx[ OKATI ON OF " PLOSI VES AND AMMUNI TI ON,
Thi s
nor nwl l y occur s at such a sl ow r at e t hat mo+5t expl osi ves and ammuni t i on r emai n ser vi ceabl e f or many year s. However , under unf avor abl e
condi t i ons, expl osi ves and et nr nuni t i on may pr oduce heat so f ast t hat
i t cannot be di ssi pat ed, causi ng t he expl osi ve or ammuni t i on t o bur st
i nt o dame. W
her e t he expl osi ve or ammuni t i on i s conf i ned, an expl ost i on or det onat i on may r esul t .
( 3) RYPACKr NG, RENOVATI ON, AND SALVAGE OPERATI ONS, NO' r
FROPRRLY SUPERVI SED AND I CQNDUCTED I N ACCORDANCE W
I TH RECOCNr zED SAFETY STANDARD$, The most Coul man sour ces of t r oubl e ar e

excessi ve quant i t i es of powder and l oose expl osi ves, accumul at i on of


wast e paper , br oken boxes, unaut hor i zed use of spar ] : - pr oduci ng t ool s,
def ect i ve machi ner y, f aul t y el ect r i cal equi pment , et c, , and f ai l ur e t o
pr ovi de t he pr oper bar r i cades and f i r ebr eaks necessar y t o pr event t he
spr ead of f i r e f r omone oper at i on t o anot her ,
LACK OF TRAI NI NG, OR VI OLATI ONS OF I NSTRUCTI ONS OR
W
RI ' YTEN REGULATI ONS_ The Mo&t common vi ol et i Onu i nvol ve smok-

i ng, car r yi ng mat ches i n f or bi dden ar eas and bui l di ngs, or t amper i ng
wi t h expl osi ves or ammuni t i on, par t i cul ar l y gr enades or f uzes.
( S) FAI LURE TO VKDERSTAND AND CAREFULLY OBSERVE THE
SAFETY FRI t CAUTI QNS PRESCRI BED FOR DESTROYI NG EXPLOSI VES AND
AMMUNI TI ON. The most f r equent sour ce Of t r oubl e. i s f l yi ng f r agment s
whi ch cause gr ass f i r es or expl ode pi l es of expl osi ves and XLmr nunl t i on
awai t i ng dest r uct i on.
215

Par . 161

TM 9- 1900
Car e, Handl ! YW, and Pr ecer vat i on

( 6) SI ' ARRS. Ther e may be caused by st r i ki ng i r on or st eel nai l s


or met al cont ai ner s wi t h i r on or st eel t oot s, or by nai l s i n shoes st r i ki ng
f l i nt , pebbl es, sand gr ai ns, or nai l s i n t he f l oor , Such spar ks, smal l as
t hey ar e, have caused di sast r ous expl osi or r sXof bl ack powder or t he dust
of ot her expl osi ves whi ch i gni t e easi l y . Thi s hazar d i s t he basi s f or
r equi r i ng t ool s of br ass, copper , or ot her nonspar ki ng mat er i al s, cl eani ng mud and di r t f r omshoes bef or e ent er i ng magazi nes, and wear i ng
saf et y shoes appr oved by t he Chi ef of Or dnance, when exposed expl osi ves ar e pr esent ,
( 7) STATI C ELF+CTRI CI TY. Char ges of st at i c el ect r i ci t y can be
accumul at ed on a per son and on expl osi ve mat er i al such as smokel ess
powder . The di schar ge of st at i c el ect r i ci t y i s consi der ed a ser i ous
hazar d i n t kke pr esence of cer t ai n exposed expl osi ves, dust and ai r
mi xt ur es, and i nf l ammabl e vapor - ai r mi xt ur es. Pr ocessi ng equi pment
f or such mat er i al s subj ect t o st at i c di schar ge shoul d be el ect r i cal l y
gr ounded; benches and f l oor i ng shoul d be cover ed wi t h el ect r i cal l y
gr ounded conduct i ve mat er i al ; and per sonnel pr ovi ded wi t h saf et y
shoes of aut hor i zed t ypes . Cushi oned met al chai r s shoul d not be used
i n l ocat i ons wher e expl osi ves or hi ghl y i nf l ammabl e mat er i al s ar e
pr esent .
i ; ) FAI LURE TOCONTROL SAFELY THE USE OF HVAT- AND FLAME
PRODUCI NC EQUI PMENT. Such equi pment may be t hat used i n mai nt enance wor k on bui l di ngs or t hat cont ami nat ed wi t h expl osi ve
mat er i al .
( 9) LI GHTN1NG. Li ght ni ng may st r i ke bui l di ngs, t r ees, or ot her
obj ect s i n or near expl osi ve ar eas . Al l bui l di ngs and st r uct ur es i n
st or age ar eas shoul d have compl et e l i ght ni ng pr ot ect i on whi ch meat s
t he r equi r ement s of t he Chi ef of Or dnance_
( 11} ) ELECTRI C TRANSMI SSI OX .
Lm
- 5 These ar e of t en bl own
down or come i n cont act wi t h Combust i bl e mat er i al s.

( 11) L. 4cx OF A PROPER MUFFLER, or t he use of a i nuf f i er cut out


on r hot or vehi cl es can cause f i r es .
Fi r e- pr event i on r egul at i ons .
( 1) Mat ches or ot her f l ame- or spar k- pr oduci ng devi ces wi l l not
be per mi t t ed i n any magazi ne ar ea or expl osi ves ar ea except by wr i t t en
aut hor i t y of t he commandi ng of f i cer .
( 2) Smoki ng i s pr ohi bi t ed i n any magazi ne or magazi ne ar ea, or
ar ound car s, wagons, mot or t r ucks, or boat s i n whi ch t her e ar e expl osi ves or ammuni t i on. Bui l di ngs or l ocat i ons f or smoki ng may be desi gnat ed out si de r est r i ct ed ar ea, subj ect t o f ol l owi ng l i mi t at i ons t hat .

TM 9- T900

Par . 161
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

( a) Smoki ng wi l l not be al l owed i n l ocat i on, 4 cl oser t han 60 f eet t o


bui l di ngs cont ai ni ng expl osi ves, ammuni t i on, or hazar dous mat er i al s,
( h) Wi ndows and d( I - UTS of bui l di ngs cl ose t o expl osi veb or ammu.
ni t i on ar eas whi ch ar e appr oved f or smoki ng wi l l be f i t t ed wi t h wi r e
scr eens.
( c) Sui t aht e r ecept acl es r nust be pr ovi ded f or ci gar et t e and ci gar
but t s and pi peheels-(d) Onl y per manent l y i nst al l ed el ect r i c l i ght er s of appr oved t ypes
shal l be used i n t he bui l di ng.
( c) Hand f i r e ext i ngui sher s, sand boxes, and wr i t er bar r el s wi t l i
bucket s wi l l be f nr ni shed as r equi r ed f or each r oomor bui l di ng i n whi ch
Sanoki ng i s per mi t t ed. Per sons whose cl ot hi ng i s cont ami nat ed wi t h
expl osi ves or ot her hazar dous mat er i al s wi l l not be per mi t t ed i n such
ar eas .
( 3) Al l f l ashl i ght or 9t vr age- bat t er y l amps used i n bui l di ngs cont ai ni ng expl osi ves or f l ammabl e vapot s shal l be t ypes appr oved as
" per mi ssi bl e" by t he Uni t ed St at es Bur eau of Mi nes or by e si mi l ar l y
r ecogni zed t est i ng l abor at or y f or t hat speci f i c t ype of exposur e,
( 4) I f gasol i ne or el ect r i c- power ed l i f t t r ucks ar e used f or t r anspor t i ng expl osi ves or ammuni t i on, t he r equi r ement s of t he Chi ef of
Or dnance wi l l be compl i ed wi t h.
( 5) W
her e i t i s necessar y t o i nst al l power t r ansmi ssi on and ser vi ce
l i nes i n t he vi ci ni t y of bui l di ngs cont ai ni ng expl osi ves, t he di st ance of
t he l i nes f r omt he bui l di ngs wi l l be gr eat er t han t he di st ance bet ween
t he pol es whi ch suppor t t he l i nes Thi s i s t o pr event br oken ' Wi r e&
f r omhi t t i ng t he bui l di ng . Over head t r ansmi ssi on l i ne must not pass
wi t hi n So f eet of t he bui l di ngs, I n f ut ur e i nst al l at i ons, power l i nes wt d
ser vi ces ent er i ng bui l di ngs cont ai ni ng expl osi ves must be pl aced under gr ound wi t hi n 50 f eet of t he bui l di ng,
( 6 ;) Veget at i on i n t he f or m of gr ass, under gr owt h, weeds, et c.,
whi ch i s or may become a f i r e hazar d wi l l be cont r ol l ed by t he use of
chemi cal weed ki l l er or by mowi ng, pl owi ng, cut t i ng, l i vest ock gazi ng
or , i n cal m weat her and wi t h pr oper cont r ol , by bur ni ng_ Chemi cal
weed ki l l er s shoul d not cont ai n chl or at es or ot her subst ances whi ch
may i gni t e spont aneousl y under hot dr y condi t i ons, Bur ni ng shoul d
not be per mi t t ed wi t hi n t he 50- f oot space speci f i ed i n t he par agr aph
bel ow. Br uBh, gr ass, wood, et c ., i n pi l es, ' wi l l nut be bur ned wi t hi n 200
f eet of a magazi ne, Reser ve suppl i es of dunnage shoul d not be st or ed
haphazar dl y i nsi de t he magazi ne ar ea and i n na case wi t hi n t he 50- f oot
f i r ebr eak ar ound t he magazi ne.
( 7) A f i r ebr eak at l east 50 f eet wi de and as f r ee as pr act i cabl e
f r om i nf l ammabl e mat er i al wi l l be mai nt ai ned ar ound each above
r 71; 121 0 - 46 - 14

Par . 161

1M 9- 1904
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

gr ound magazi ne. The ear t h adj acent t o and ext endi ng over i gl oo
magazi nes wi l l be cl ear ed of dr y debr i s . Fi r ebr eaks ar ound t he ent i r e
magazi ne ar ea and at ot her pl aces wi t hi n t he magazi ne ar ea, such as
al ong r ai l r oad t r acks, wi l l be mai nt ai ned wher ever necessar y.
( 8) Locomot i ves, t r ai ns, and ot her r ai l vehi cl es used i n t he magazi ne ar ea wi l l be sa equi pped t hat t he communi cat i on of f i r e i s pr e
vent ed i nsof ar as pr act i cabl e, I nspect i ons wi l l be made r egul ar l y t o
i nsur e t hat saf e condi t i ons ar e mai nt ai ned.
( 9) Gasol i ne or ot her hi ghl y i nf l ammabl e l i qui ds wi l l not be used
f or cl eani ng pur poses . Sol vent , dr y cl eani ng, Feder al Speci f i cat i on
P- S- 661a ( Quar t er mast er i ssue) wi l l be used i n al l cases wher e sol vent s of t hi s nat ur e ar e r equi r ed . Dr y- cl eani ng sol vent i s i nf l ammabl e di f f er i ng pr i nci pal l y f r omgasol i ne i n havi ng a hi gher f l ash- poi nt .
W
hen handl i ng dr y- cl eani ng sol vent , AR 850- 20, " Pr ecaut i ons i n
Handl i ng Gasol i ne" , wi l l be obser ved i n al l cases. Thi s r egul at i on
does not pr ohi bi t t he use of t r i sodi um phosphat e, t r i chl or oet hyi ene,
t et r acbl or oet hane, or si mi l ar cl eani ng or degr easi ng subst ances f or
cl eani ng oper at i ons. However , si nce many of t he i ndust r i al or gani c
sol vent s have pr onounced t oxi c pr oper t i es, par t i cul ar l y i n vapor f or m,
car e must be t aken i t s t he sel ect i on of degr easi ng subst ances and
appar at us. Adequat e vent i l at i on must be pr ovi ded.
( 10)
Aut omobi l e par ki ng shoul d be r egul at ed so t hat aut omobi l es
wi l l not be par ked cl oser t het a 25 f eet t o bui l di ngs or f i r e hydr ant s .
( 11)
Ammuni t i on boxes, cont ai ner d, dunnage, and l umber must
be st acked i n an or der l y manner when i n t he vi ci ni t y of expl osi ves
r enovat i on, handl i ng, or st or age oper at i ons, St acks of such combust i bl e mat er i al s must be l i mi t ed t o smal l ar eas bet ween f i r e br eaks.
Thi s i s a means of l i mi t i ng t he spr ead of f i r e i nsof ar as i t i s pr act i cabl e
consi der i ng t he avai l abl e space, Avai l abl e means of ext i ngui shi ng f i r e,
and t he pr obabi l i t y of f i r e occur r i ng. Under aver age condi t i ons, ar eas
under sol i d st acks of such mat er i al s shoul d be l i mi t ed t o 1, 500 squar e
f eet separ at ed f r om ot her si mi l ar ar eas by 25- f oot f i r e br eaks i n whi ch
veget at i on has been cut and cont r ol l ed . Bul k st acki ng of such mat er i al s shoul d not be cl oser t han 500 f eet t o magazi nes or ot her bui l di ngs cont ai ni ng hi gh expl osi ves, except t hat wor ki ng quant i t i es wi t hi n
pr act i cabl e l i mi t s may be st acked i n t he vi ci ni t y of expl osi ve magazi nes, but not cl oser t han 50 f eet . W
at er bar r el s and pai l s shoul d be
l i ber al l y pr ovi ded i n such ar eas wi t h whi ch t o ext i ngui sh i nci pi ent
f i r es.
( 11) The above r ul es wi l l be suppl ement ed by such addi t i onal
r ul es as t he commandi ng of f i cer deems necessar y t o secur e adequat e
pr ot ect i on agai nst f i r es,
214

Par . 161

TM 9- 1900
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

d, f i r e- f i ght i ng f aci l i t i es,


( 1) A f i r e i nvol vi ng expl osi ves or ammuni t i on may r esul t so
qui ckl y i n an i nt ense conf l agr at i on or expl osi on t hat means f or
i mmedi at el y at t acki ng t he f i rst smal l bl aze det ect ed ar e vi t al l y i mpor t ant _ I mmedi at e use must of t en be made of hand equi pment I n
addi t i on t o or gani zed per manent f aci l i t i es, t he f ol l owi ng t ypes of
f i r e- f i ght i ng equi pment may be used t o good advant age:
( a) Bar r el s and bucket s f i l l ed wi t h wat er , pl aced at each
magazi ne. I f t hi s cl ass of f i r e} f i ght i ng equi pment i s al ways mai nt ai ned
so t hat i t can be depended upon i n case of f i re, i t i s a val uabt a f i re
pr ot ect i on. However , i n t he summer t i me t he bar r el s must be f requent l y r ef i l l ed, and i n f r eezi ng weat her cal ci umchl or i de or sal t must
be added. Bucket s det er i or at e r api dl y unl ess t hey ar e f r equent l y
pai nt ed or pr ot ect ed f r omt he weat her , and ar e bl own about by wi nd
st or ms i f t hey ar e not secur el y f ast ened i n pl ace. Fast eni ng devi ces
must be r el easabl e at wi l l .
( b) Boxes and bucket s f i l l ed wi t h sand, and shovel s.
( c) Dur i ng f r eezi ng weat her , t r ucks and t r ai l er s f i l l ed wi t h wat er
, N, i l l r equi r e heat ed st or age, Pr ovi si on shoul d be made f or r api d
movement of t he equi pment t o t he scene of t he l i r e.
( d) To combat gr ass or f or est f i res i n or near t he magazi ne ar eas,
t her e wi l l be mai nt ai ned at sui t abl e l ocat i ons an adequat e suppl y of
gunny sacks, br ooms, r akes, hoes, or ot her si mi l ar equi pment . Thi s
equi pment shoul d be r egul ar l y i nspect ed and pr ot ect ed agai nst t hef t
or unaut hor i zed use.
( 2) W
r en expl osi ves and ammuni t i on ar e bei ng handl ed or wor k
i s bei ng done i n t he i mmedi at e vi ci ni t y of such st or es . t her e wi l l be
pr esent , r eady f or i mmedi at e use, t wo chemi cal or ot her t ype hand
f i r e ext i ngui sher s_ rt i s not r equi r ed t hat t hese be per manent l y
l ocat ed i n a magazi ne, al t hough t hi s shoul d be done i f pr act i cabl e, but
i t i s r equi r ed t hat t hese be i n an accessi bl e l ocat i on. Ser i ous f i r es
may be avoi ded by t he pr ompt use of hand f i re ext i ngui sher s . ' t hey,
ar e r equi r ed pr i mar i l y f or use on i nci pi ent f oes i n i ner t combust i bl es
such as gr ass, gr ease, oi l , dunnage, et c., whi ch i f not ext i ngui shed
mi ght r each expl osi ves, Per $oonel ot her t han t he one usi ng t he
ext i ngni sber shoul d seek saf et y i mmedi at el y, r epor t i ng t he f i re en.
r out e.
( 3) The wat er di st r i but i on syst em shoul d be pr ot ect ed by sect i onal cont r ol val ves so t hat damaged sect i ons of t he mai n can be
cut of f wi t hout i mpai r i ng t he oper at i on of t he r emai nder of t he
syst em. Wat er mai ns shoul d not be l ocat ed under r ai l r oads or r oads
used f or conveyi ng l ar ge quant i t i es of expl osi ves or ammuni t i on, as a
319

Par s . 161- 163

TM9- 1900
Car e. Har uf 1mg, and Pr eaer vahar r

hen i t i s necessar y
det onat i on may cause a br eakage of t he mai n. W
t o have wat er mai ns pass under r ai l r oads or r oads, car s or t r ucks
l anded wi t h expl osi ves or ammuni t i on wi l l not be per mi t t ed t o r emai n
over t hese wat er mai ns l onger t han necessar y f or cont i nuous t r avel
and sui t abl e si gns wi l l i ndi cat e such l ocat i on . Wat er mai ns shoul d
be pr ot ect ed wi t h cut - of f val ves on bot h si des of t he r ai l r oad or r oad.
Fi r e hydr ant s shoul d l i e connect ed t o t ooped gr i d syst em so as t o
pr ovi de suppl y f r ommor e t han one cl i r ect i on.
( 4) The dut i es of guar ds, f i r emen, mi l i t ar y per sonnel , and ot her s
wi l l be so ar r anged t hat an adequat e f i r e- f i ght i ng f or ce wi l l be avai l abl e at al l t i r nXs .
( 5) Fi r e dr t i l 1s and i nspect i ons wi l l be car ef ul l y conduct ed t o
i nsur e t hat f i r e- f i ght i ng f or ces under st and t hei r dut i es and t hat f i r ef i ght i ng equi pment f unct i ons dependabl y under act ual wor ki ng condi t i ons . Fr equent l y, hose not t est ed t o wor ki ng pr essur es bur st when
most needed.
ti

162,

FI RES I N W
HI CH EXPLOSI VES ARE I NVOLVED,

a. Fi r es whi ch may occur i n bui l di ngs or magazi nes cont ai ni ng


expl osi ves wi l l var y i n i nt ensi t y and ef f ect , dependi ng on t he mat er i al
i nvol ved i n t he f i r e. Cer t ai n expl osi ves wi l l det onat e or expl ode
i mmedi at el y on cont act wi t h a spar k or f l ame, or when subj ect ed t o
f r i ct i onal heat or concussi on, Fi r e way or may not r esul t f r om t he
det onat i on. Some expl osi ve subst ances may bur n f r eel y whi l e ot her s
wi l l he subj ect t o expl osi on whi l e bur ni ng, or wi l l devel op such i nt ense
heat as i n t he cr use of smokel ess powder , t hat f i r e- f i ght i ng ef f or t s r i l l
be i mpossi bl e. Fi r e- f i ght i ng f oj r es shoul d be wel l acquai nt ed wi t h t he
hazar ds and best mel l hods of combat i ng f i r es i n al l such mat er i al s
under t hei r pr ot ect i on.
1} . Wi t h cer t ai n except i ons wat er wi l l be used as t he f i r e- f i ght i ng
medi um, Gener al l y speaki ng, bar ge vol umes of wat er spr ay or f og
pr oduced by nozzl es desi gned f or t he pur pose wi l l pr ove mor e ef f i ci ent
t han sol i d st r eams of wat er f or exl i ngul shi ng f i r es of an expl osi ve
nat ur e. Sol i d st r eams of wat er at hi gh pr essur es shoul d be used when
consi der at i on f or t he saf et y of f i r e- f i ght i ng per sonnel makes i t i mpossi bl e t o Appr oach t he seat of t he f i r e. I n f i r e- f or ce t r ai ni ng pr ogr ams,
emphasi s shoul d be pl aced on l ayi ng as many hose l i nes as possi bl e,
i n or der t o sur r ound and conf i ne t he f i r e_
163.

GENERAL I NSTRUCTI ONS I N COI t 113ATI NC FI RES I N- YoLVI NG EXPLOSI VES.


Gener al i nst r uct i ons whi ch wi l l be f ol l owed i n car nbat i ng any
f i r es i nvol vi ng expl osi ves and ammuni t i on ar e as f ol l ows :
tt .

Par s .

TM 9- 1900

163- 165

Wer e, Handl i ng, and Pr esdr vat i an


W
hen a guar d or wat chman di scover s smoke coi ni ng f r ar r o a
( 1)
cl osed magazi ne, or ot her evi dence t hat a magazi no i s af i r e, he wi l l
gi ve t he al ar m as qui ckl y ns possi bl e. l - I e wi l l not ent er t he bur ni ng
bui l di ng si nce he may become t r apped and be unabl e t o gi ve t he
al ar m.
I f t he f i r e i s di scover ed i n t he gr asp or ot her combust i bl e
mat er i al sur r oundi ng t ho magazi ne, t he al ar m shoul d be gi ven i r nmedi at el y and t he guar d shoul d t hen do al l t hat i s possi bl e, usi ng ext i ngui sher s, wat er f r omnear by wat er bar r el s, or gr ass f i r e- f i ght i ng t ool s,
t o ext i ngui sh or cont r ol t he f i r e unt i l t he f i r e- f i ght i ng f or ces ar r i ve.
( 2)
W
hen a wor kman or ot her per son di scover s a f i r e i n a bui l di ng wher e peopl e ar e wor ki ng mi d expl osi ves Ar e pr esent , per sonnel
pr esent wi l l be ovacuat ed by sui t abl e si gnal i n accor dance wi t h pr e
ar r anged pl ans . At l east one r esponsi bl e messenger wi l l be di spat ched
i n t he di r ect i on f r omwhi ch t he f i r e depar unont i s expect ed, t o i nf or m
t hem of t he nat ur e and oxt snt of t he f i r e. The of f i cer i n char ge of
f i t w f i ght er s wi l l , l ot per mi t t he advance of hi s men t o such a f i r e unl esf i
he has what he bel i eves t o be accur at e i nf or mat i on as t o t he exi st i ng
condi t i ons and concl udes t her ef r om t hat he i s j ust i f i ed i n doi ng so
( par . 165) .
( 3)
Fi r e- f i ght i ng f or ces wi l l at i a( : k a gr ass f i r e vi gor ousl y and
endeavor t o ext i ngui sh i t even when i t i s cl ose t o a magazi ne_ I f a f i r e
has act ual l y gai ned headway i n a magazi ne, f i r e- f i ght i ng f or ces shoul d
ei t her cor t sbat t he f i r e or seek t he near est sui t abl e pr ot ect i on, dependi ng on t he t ype of ai mi t uni t i on or expl osi ves wi t hi n t he magazi ne
( par , 165) .
164. 1DEV11FI CATI ON OF M
AGAZI NES. As a means of pr ovi di ng a gui de t o f i r e- f i ght i ng f or ces, t he Or dnance Depar t ment di vi des
expl osi ves i nt o f our gr oups i n accor dance wi t h t he gener al bur ni ng
or expl osi ve char act er i st i cs of t he mat er i al s and t he r el at i ve danger
encount er ed i n f i ght i ng f i r es i n whi ch t hey ar e pr esent .
The f our
gr oups ar e i dent i f i ed by syr nhul number s 1 t hr ough 4, t he hazar d t o
f i r e f i ght er s i ncr eor oi ng pr ogr essi vel y wi t h t he number s.
Or dnance
r egul at i ons r equi r e t hat or dnance bui l di ngk: cont ai ni ng baxsr dous or
expl osi ve i nat er i al sX ex<~ept i gl oo magazi nes, be pl ai nl y mar ked wi t h
t he symbol number ( no l ess t han 24 i nches ( si gh) of t he most hazar dous mat er i al cont ai ned t her ei t - 4 as descr i bed i n par agr aph 165.

165,

FI RE HAZARD GROUPS AND FI RE- FI GHTI NG PROCEDURES,

a.
Syml wl 1. Thi s gr oup consi st s of Cl asses 1, 11, and 12 ammuni t i on: met al l i c powder s i n I CC appr oved shi ppi ng cont ai ner s ; and
chl or at es, per chl or at es, per oxi des. ni t r at es, and ot her i nor gani c oxi di z-

Par . 165

TM 9- 1900
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vo6on

i ns agent s i n seal ed cont ai ner s. Whi l e t hese mat er i al s ar e pr i nci pal l y


f i re hazar ds and f i r es i n whi ch t hey ar e i nvol ved may be f ought , mi nor
expl osi ons may be expect ed so t hat ext r eme caut i on must be exer ci sed
i n accor dance wi t h t he f ol l owi ng :

{ 1) SMAkL- ARMS AMMUNI TI ON. Shi ppi ng Cont ai ner s of smal l ar ms ammuni t i on, especi al l y when t r acer ar l d i ncendi ar y r ounds ar e
i ncl uded wi l l cont i nue t o bur n f i er cel y even af t er t he magazi ne has
been consur ned, Per sonnel at t empt i ng t o f i ght t he f i r e af t er f i r e has
r eached t he ammuni t i on i t sel f must be shi el ded f r oml i ght hat mi ssi l es
whi ch may be expect ed t o t r avel up t o 200 Sr ar ds at a vel oci t y of
appr oxi mat el y 200 f eet per second . Sheet met al cover ed wooden
shi el ds can be used and moved t o var i ous vant age poi nt s . W
hen
pr act i cabl e t o use wat er spr ay, i t wi l l be f ound ver y ef f ect i ve i n
ext i ngui shi ng such f i res,
( 2) Oxi di zi ng agent s ar e not f l ammabl e i n t hemsel ves, but when
heat ed i n a f i re i nvol vi ng combust i bl es, gi ve of f oxygen whi ch gr eat l y
f aci l i t at es bur ni ng, Fi r e f i ght er s shoul d be pr ovi ded wi t h sui t abl e
masks t o guar d agai nst poi sonous f umes r esul t i ng f r om such f i r es.
Cool i ng or dr owni ng wi t h l ar ge quant i t i es of wat er may ser ve t o con" I or ext i ngui sh t hese f i res, but af t er t he f i r e has gai ned consi der abl e
headway, f i r e- f i ght i ng ef f or t s may, of necessi t y, be conf i ned t o pr ot ect i ng adj acent pr oper t y as much as possi bl e,
( 3) CHEMI CAL AMMUNI TI ON. For f i r es i nvol vi ng chemi cal ammuni t i on cont ai ni ng bl i st er i ng agent s, al l f i re f i ght er s wi l l be pr ot ect ed
by masks and compl et e pr ot ect i ve cl ot hi ng . I f pr act i cabl e, such f i r es
wi l l be f ought f r om t he wi ndwar d si de . Al l unpr ot ect ed per sonnel
downwi nd wi l l be evacuat ed and ci vi l i an i nhabi t ant s war ned. Fi r es
i nvol vi ng t oxi c chemi cal s wi l l be f ought wi t h si mi l ar pr ecaut i ons
except t hat t he danger ar ea downwi nd i s l ess. Fi r e f i ght er s wi l l be
pr ot ect ed wi t h sui t abl e masks. I n f i r es i nvol vi ng HCsmoke mi xt ur e,
at t empt s shoul d be made t o r emove and segr egat e t he bur ni ng cont ai ner s. W
hen a r el at i vel y smal l amount of HC smoke mi xt ur e i s
i nvol ved i n a f i re, i t can be " dr owned" wi t h wat er . Wat er wi l l al so
ser ve t o cool adj acent cont ai ner s t o pr event f ur t her spr ead. Unl ess
wat er can be appl i ed i n l ar ge amount s i n r el at i on t o t he act ual HC
smoke mi xt ur e whi ch i s exposed and bur ni ng, t he ef f or t s t o f i ght t he
f i r e wi l l be i nef f ect i ve and t he mat er i al may expl ode. Fi r e f i ght er s
shoul d not eat er magazi nes cont ai ni ng a hi gh concent r at i on of HC
smoke unl ess adequat el y pr ot ect ed by oxygen masks and suppl i ed
wi t h l i f e l i nes.
1) . Symbol 2.
expl osi ves .

Thi s gr oup consi st s of Cl ass 3 ammuni t i on and


232

TM 9- 1900

Far . 165
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vof i on

( 1) Per sonnel di scover i ng such a f i r e shoul d gi ve t he al ar m and


at t empt t o put t he f i r e out wi t h t he equi pment on hand, pr ovi ded t he
f i r e i s i t i t he i nci pi ent st age. The f i r e- f i ght i ng or gani zat i on shoul d
f i ght t he f i r e i f t her e i s a possi bi l i t y of ext i ngui shi ng i t . I f t hi s does
not seempossi bl e, t he bui l di ng shoul d be abandoned and f i r e- f i ght i ng
ef f or t s concent r at ed on pr event i ng t he spr ead of t he f i r e, Li mi t ed
expl osi ons m
ay be expect ed f r om f i r e i n t hese mat er i al s. Per sonnel
shoul d exer ci se gl ue pr ecaut i ons t o pr event i nj ur y t o t hemsel ves and
t hei r equi pment
c. SvnAMl : I . Thi s gr oup consi st s of Cl ass 2 smokel ess powder i n
bul k shi ppi ng cont ai ner s and Cl ass 2 pyr ot echni c mat er i al .
( 1) Unl ess t he f i r e i s of a mi nor nat ur e and does not i nvol ve t he
expl osi ve i t sel f , and t her e i s a chance of cont r ol l i ng i t , f i r e- f ht i ng
shoul d be conf i ned t o pr event i ng t he spr ead of t he f i r e t o ot her bui l d
i ngs . These met e6al s bur n wi t h i nt ense heat and per sonnel and f i r ef i ght i ng equi pment shoul d be adequat el y pr ot ect ed.
( 2)
PHOSPI RoxUB. I n f i r es i nvol vi ng phosphor us, per sonnel en.
t et i ng magazi nes wi t h por t abl e ext i ngui sher s wi l l have l i f e l i nes
at t ached i n or der t o be abl e t o f i nd t hei r way out t hr ough t he heavy
smoke, I t shoul d be r emember ed t hat phosphor us wi l l at op bur ni ng
onl y so l ong as i t i s under wat er , when exposed agai n t o t he ai r , i t
i gni t es spont aneousl y.
( 3) PYROTEM4ni cs . W
hen f i r e i nvol ves pyr ot echni cs and l ar ge
quant i t i es of magnesi um- t ype i ncendi ar i es, f i r e f i ght er s shoul d conf i ne
ef f or t s t o pr ot ect i ng adj acent bui l di ngs and magazi nes. W
at er may
accel er at e bur ni ng and cause expl osi ons whi ch may scat t er bur ni ng
mat er i al . The use of car bon di oxi de and car bon t et r achl or i de ext i ngui sher s on such f i r es wi l l cr eat e poi sonous gases. Smal l f i r es
i nvol vi ng 50 pounds or l ess of magnesi umcan be smot her ed wi t h dr y
i ner t mat er i al whi ch i s powder ed or gr anul ar , such as har d coal , t ar ,
pi t ch, gr aphi t e ( pr ef er abl y coat ed t o el i mi nat e dust ) , r ust - f r ee cast
i r on bor i ngs, sof t coal . t al c, sal t , or $and_ Asbest os, sand, sal t , and t al c
ar e not i ner t i n magnesi umf i r es, but may be used dr y i f t he f i r e i s
smal l . The powder shoul d be pl aced over t he bur ni ng mat er i al so as
t o cover i t t o a dept h of one i nch or mor e, I t shoul d not be di st ur bed
unt i l t he magnesi um has cool ed except when t he f i r e i s on a f l oor of
f l ar r nt nabl e mat er i al , i n whi ch case, af t er t he f i r e i s cover ed, a t wo- i nch
l ayer of ext i ngui shi ng powder shoul d be put on t he f l oor besi de t he
f i r e and t he bur ni ng mat er i al r aked ont o t he i nsul at i ng l ayer and
r esmot her ed.
d. Symbol 4. Thi s gr oup i ncl udes Cl asses 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10
ammuni t i on and oxpl asi ves.
223

TM 4- 1900

Par s, 166- 167


Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vai ; vrr

f i ght i ng f or d Avr i ve, except t hat shoul d a f i r e occur


Magazi ne, t hey wi l l not at t empt t o ent er t he magazi ne.

in

a cl osed

c. Hunt er s ei t her i nsi de or out si de a magazi ne ar ea who ar e f ound


usi ng f i r e- ar ms i n a manner whi ch may endanger st or es wi l l be r e
por t ed. Hunt er s i n such ar eas shoul d be war ned not t o shoot .
cf . Except under emer gency condi t i ons, guar ds pr ot ect i ng ammuni t i on and expl osi ves, wi l l not be ar t ned wi t h ri f l es, Gener al l y, shot
guns ar e r ecommended f or guar d pur poses. Many mi l i t ar y expl osi ves
ar e not i ni t i at ed by l ow vel oci t y pr oj ect i l es, but any bul l et st r i ki ng
expl osi ves may cause a ser i ous f i r e and/ or expl osi on. Guar ds pr ot ect i ng expl osi ves or ammuni t i on wi l l be i nst r uct ed r egar di ng t he danger
of f i r i ng i n t he di r ect i on of a magazi ne.
e. Guar ds shoul d he i nst r uct ed t o make a pr ompt r epor t of t he
f ol l owi ng :
( 1) Any unusual occur r ence i n or near a magazi ne ar ea.
( 2) Gr ass or f or est f i r es i n ar eas adj acent t o t he magazi ne ar ea,
( 3) Danger ous pr act i ces of per sonnel war ki r i g i n magazi nes or
expl osi ves ar eas, such as smoki ng, unaut hor i zed use of f i r e equi pment ,
and t amper i ng wi t h ammuni t i on or el ect r i cal equi pment
( 4) Unl ocked magazi nes doom and shut t er s, def ect i ve t el ephone
and el ect r i c wi r es, and openi ngs i n f ences sut r oundi ng t he magazi nes.

sect i on 11
STORAGE

767. ( *h; NERAL.


a. I n t hese gener al pr ecaut i ons, t he war d " magazi ne" i s i nt ended
t o cover any space cont ai ni ng a suppl y of expl osi ve mat er i al , and
i ncl udes such pl aces as an above- gr ound magazi ne, ear t h- cover ed i gl oot ype magazi ne, r ai l r oad car , t he body of a mot or t r uck, a t empor ar y
shel t er , or a st ack.
h. Gener al st or age r egul at i ons ar e cont ai ned i n AR700- 10, Regu.
l at i ons f ar or dnance est abl i shment s ar e cont ai ned i n t he Or dnance
Saf et y Manual ( 0, 13, Far m No. 7224) , and Or dnance Depar t ment
Saf et y Bul l et i ns whi ch suppl ement t hat manual , Regul at i ons and
i nst r uct i ons i n t hi s sect i on ar e f or Zone of I nt er i or Mass I, I I and I I I
i nst al l at i ons whi ch st or e l i mi t ed quant i t i es of expl osi ves and ammuni t i on . Lar ger quant i t i es shoul d be st or ed i n accor dance wi t h r egul a423

Par s . 167- 168

TM 9- 1400
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr ewr v$6on

t i ot i s pr escr i bed f or Cl ass I V ; nst al l at i ons under t he cont r ol of t he


Chi ef of Or dnance. Regul at i ons f or over seas i nst al l at i ons ar e cont ai ned i n FM9. 6, " Ammuni t i on Suppl y" , and FM9- 20, " ' Or dnance
Ammuni t i on Company, Or dnance Ammuni t i on Bat t al i on, "
GF1; 1hl ( AL SoTORACL PRECAUTI ONS .
Expl osi ves and ammuni t i on shoul d be st or ed i n bui l di ngs
desi gned. desi gnat ed, and i sol at ed f or t he speci f i c pur pose. Expl o6ves
and ammuni t i on wi l l not he st or ed i n bui l di ngs whi ch ar e used f or
ot her pur poses such as basement s or at t i cs of bar r acks, company
hen speci al l y const r uct ed
suppl y r ooms: or gener al st or ehouses, W
magazi nes ar e not avai l abl e. t he bui l di ngs used must af f or d good pr ot ect i on agai nst moi st ur e and dampness, and have means f or adequat e
vent i l at i on_ They must be f l oor ed wi t h appr oved mat er i al ar i d may
not be heat ed by open f i r es or st oves.
l ) . Ammuni t i on shoul d be st acked by l ot number i n st acks
ar r anged so ( hat no obst acl e i s of f er ed t o f r ee ci r cul at i on of ai r beneat h
hen mor e t han one l ot i s st or ed, al l
and t hr oughout t he st ack . W
i t ems or cont ai ner s of a l ot shoul d be st or ed t oget her and t he l i ne of
separ at i on bet ween l ot s cl ear l y i ndi cat ed. Lot s of ammuni t i on shoul d
never be mi xed at r andom, The t ops of ammuni t i on st acks shoul d
be bel ow t he l evel of t he eaves t o avoi d t he heat ed space di r ect l y
beneat h t he r oof . The bot t om l ayer shoul d be r ai sed of f t he f l oor
about t wo i nches, Dunnage shoul d be l evel ; i f necessar y, shi ms or
wedges, shoul d be used. St acks shoul d not be so hi gh t hat ammuni t i on
or i t s cont ai ner s i n t he l ower l ayer s wi l l be cr ushed or def or med.
Par t l y f i l l ed boxes shoul d be f ast ened secur el y, mar ked, and kept on
t he t op of t he pi l e.
e. Ruxes, cases, and ot her cont ai ner s of ammuni t i on shoul d be
cl ean and dr y bef or e bei ng st or ed . Ammuni t i on cont ai ner s shoul d not
be opened i n a magazi ne . They shoul d not be st or ed af t er havi ng
been opened unl ess t hey ar e secur el y cl osed . except t hat ammuni t i on
and expl osi ves i n damaged cont ai ner s i n pr ocess of bei ng r epai r ed
nLay be st or ed over ni ght i n magazi nes . W
hen i t i s necessar y t o st or e
ammuni t i on and expl osi ves over ni ght i n damaged cont ai ner s, t hey
shoul d be separ at ed f r omser vi ceabl e ammuni t i on . Repai r or change
of cont Ai ner wi l l not t ake pl ace i n or wi t hi n 100 f eet of a magazi ne
cont ai ni ng expl osi ves .
d. Rounds or component s wi l l not be kepi l oose i n a magazi ne.
No empt y cont ai ner , excess dunnage, or t ool s shoul d be per mi t t ed t o
r emai n i n a magazi ne. No oi l y r ags, pai nt , t ur pent i ne, et c, wi l l be
l ef t i n a magazi ne cont ai ni ng ammuni t i on or expl osi vea,
1613,

216

Par s . 168- 169

TM 9- 7900
Car e, Har bdl i ng, and Pr e$er vat i r m

I mpr ovi sed ammuni t i on such as " Mol ot ov Cockt ai l s, " hand
gr enades of ni t r ni t ar ch, commer ci al f i r ewor ks i nt ended t o si mul at e
ammuni t i on, and ot her nonst andar d devi ces shoul d be pr epar ed i n an
i sol at ed or es or bui l di ng f r ee of l oose expl osi ves f i nd wast e paper or
ot her combust i bl e mat er i al . Al l such wor k shoul d be per f or med
under di r ect super vi kon of compet ent exper i enced per sons. The
quant i t y of expl osi ves pr esent shoul d be t he mi ni mum necessar y f or
t he oper at i on, whi ch shoul d be car r i ed out hi conf or mi t y wi t h quant i t y- di bt ance and i nhabi t ed- bui l di ng di st ance r equi r ement s f or cl ass
10 ammuni t i on gi ven i n par agr aph 172. The number of per sons per mi t t ed at or near t he oper at i ons shoul d be kept t o a mi ni mum. W
hen
a sur pl us of such mat er i al must be st or ed, under no ci r cumst ances
shoul d i t be st or ed i n a magazi ne wi t h ot her expl osi ves or ammuni t i on
because t he i t ems ar e gener al l y of subst andar d const r uct i on and t he
expl osi ve cont ent may be of sucb a nat ur e ag t o pr esent a ser i ous
hazar d i n st or age and handl i ng,
f . I nf l ammabl e l i qui ds and ammuni t i on shoul d not be st or ed
t oget her or cl ose t o each ot her , Ammuni t i on sboul d be separ at ed by
t he i nhabi t ed- bui l di ng di st ance ( par . 172) f r om handl i ng or st or age
of i nf l ammabl e l i qui ds t o pr event f i r es or i gi nat i ng i n one ar ea spr eadi ng t o anot her ,
g. Chemi cal ammuni t i on wi l l be st or ed separ at el y, so pl aced t hat
each cont ai ner may be i nspect ed f or l eaks and may be' easi l y r emoved,
h. Ammuni t i on assembl ed wi t h t r acer pyr ot echni cs, pr opel l i ng
char ges, and ot her ammuni t i on i t er nr r , shoul d be st or ed under t he beat
cover avai l abl e, pr ef er abl y i n a bui l di ng pr ovi di ng pr ot ect i on agai nst
dampness and havi ng adequat e vent i l at i on, Tr acer ammuni t i on i s
subj ect t o r api d det er i or at i on i f damp end may i gni t e spont aneousl y.
i . Tr uck mot or s shoul d not be st ar t ed whi l e t he magazi ne door
i s open, However , a mot or t r uck may Appr oach a magazi ne wi t hout
t he necessi t y of cl osi ng t he magazi ne door s pr ovi ded t he f ol l owi ng
r equi r ement s ar e compl i ed wi t h;
( 1) The mot or exhaust i s equi pped wi t h an ef f ect i ve spar k- and
f l ame- ar r est i ng devi ce i n t he exhaust l i ne,
( 2) No exposed expl osi ve mat er i al i & bei ng t r anspor t ed or
handl ed.
( 3 ) No expl osi ve mat er i al i s l ocat ed on t he pl at f or mor ot her wi se
out si de t he magazi ne or t r uck whi l e t he engi ne i s r unni ng.
1( , 9, OUTSI DE STOI LA. GE.
a. Out si de st or age of expl osi ves and ammuni t i on i s nei t her
desi r abl e nor r ecommended, and must be r esor t ed t o onl y as an smer gency expedi ent . W
hen such st or age must be empl oyed, bombs and
separ at e- l oadi ng shel l wi l l be gi ven pr ef er ence over packaged ammu277

TM 9- 1900

Par . i 69
Car e, Handl i 4, and Pr eser vat i on

f i gur e 153 - I gl oo- t ype Magazi ne


ni t i on, I n or der t hat out si de st or age of expl osi ves and ammuni t i on
may be kepi t o a mi ni mum. f ul l advant age must be t aken of t he cubi c
capaci t y of al t i magazi nes, wi t hi n t he l i mi t s pr escr i bed by t hi s manual ,
Whet s i t becomes necessar y t o ut i l i ze out si de st or age wi t hi n t he cont i nent al Uni t ed St at e, i t shal l be i n accor dance wi t h t he di st ance
r equi r ement s of par agr aph 172,
h . Si t es f or out door st or age wi l l be car ef ul l y chosen t o avoi d
exposur e t o power l i nes. Ammuni t i on shoul d not be l ocat ed adj acent
t o r eser voi r s, under gr ound wat er mai ns, el ect r i c cabl es, or sewer l i nes,
Out door st or age shoul d be l ocat ed wher e t her e i s good sur f ace dr ai nage. Out door st or age shal l conf i ar m t o quant i t y- di st ance r equi r ement s
f or abovegr ound magazi nes,
c. The suppor t i ng t i mber s or pl at f or ms upon whi ch ammuni t i on
i s st or ed shoul d be wel l const r uct ed t o pr event f el l i ng, saggi ng, and
shi f t i ng of t he ammuni t i on.
d . Cr at ed and packaged ammuni t i on, smokel ess powder , pyr ot echni cs, and bal k hi gh expl osi ves shoul d not be st or ed out door s.
Ef f or t s shoul d be made t o avoi d t he necessi t y f or out door st or age of
any t ype of ammuni t i on.
4".
Car e wi l l he exer ci sed i n cl osi ng openi ngs i n l oaded bombs and
ot her ammuni t i on whi ch have not been compl et el y assembl ed . Tempor ar y pl ugs used as cl osur es shoul d be set down agai nst sui t abl e
washer s so t hat di r t and moi st ur e cannot ent er ,

f . St i s advi sabl e t o cover pi l es of bombs and shel l wi t h some t ype


of wat er pr oof mat er i al t o guar d agai nst di r ect exposur e t o t he at mosY
pher e, pr ovi ded t hat adequat e vent i l at i on i s assur ed.

TM9- 1900

Par s . 169- 171


Car p, Handl i ng, and Pr eser va6or x

I LA PO 89] 79

Fi gur e I S4 - St andar d Mogo2i ne


g. Fr equent i nspect i ons shal l be t i nade t o l ocal e saggi ng pi l es and
t o det ect accumul at i on of t r ash bet ween or under t he st acks.
170.

TEM
PORARY STf l l { ACE AND HOLDI NG YARDS.
Tem
pur
ar v nt or agc yar ds. I n somk cases, i t may be f ound
a.
necessar y t o hol d car s of ammuni t i on f or a per i od of snor e t hen 24
hour s but not exceedi ng 2 weeks. The car s ar e consi der ed as abovegr ound magazi nes. Exi st i ng t r acks may be ut i l i zed pr ovi ded quant i t ydi st ances f or shave- gr ound magazi nes ar e compl i ed wi t h. The car s
shoul d be gr ouped so t hat each gr oup i s l i mi t ed t o 250, 000 pounds of
hi gh expl osi ve, and so t hat gr oupe ar e sWar at ed f r om each ot her by
a mi ni mumdi st ance of $00 f eet . I f t he f ul l di st ances cannot be pr ovi ded, t hen gr oups may be spaced 400 f eet apar t i n al l di r ect i ons,
pr ovi ded one or mor e car s of i ner t mat er i al s or of smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on ar e spot t ed bet ween t he gr oups .
h. Hol di ng yar d. The car s an t he t r acks ar e consi der ed as above
gr ound magazi nes. To pr ovi de f l exi bi l i t y of st or age, yar ds shoul d be
l ai d out so t hat t he t r acks ar e 400 f eet apar t wi t h a bar r i cade bet ween
t he t r acks, The car s shal l be i n gr oups so t hat each gr oup i s l i mi t ed
t o 250, 000 pounds of hi gh expl osi ve and t he di st ance bet ween gr oups
i s $00 f eet unbar r i caded or 400 f eet bal Ti caded.
171. M
AGAZM
ES AND MAGAZI NE AREA.
a. Magazi ne ar eas. I t i s essent i al t hat expl osi ves and ammuni t i on
be segr egat ed i n an ar ea speci f i cal l y set asi de f or t hei r excl usi ve
229

Par .

TM 9- 1900

171

Car e . Handl i ng, and Fl esAl * " On

. Mpr l . Jzl r ) e Cr ea Cqn


t wi ni ng I O000' b
Lr f bul k sm
ct cl e: ; : ;
pcl Wde: ! r l vxi 2;

fX. Xhv6i: ed- bu.I . JXng o' i sr vncc


i r on: mVl osi r e f o pnwder l
1?40'
, r ConcXssi an hazer dl

1
' I ni mhi f uvi 6ui f di r aw di si oncc
f . on. nmi nuni ! f an i o expf , ) r i ac;
12' C'
( mi uUa hazar dl

Magazl nt , ar f q COn
t pi ni ny 1D, ( p;) 1t >
of r xpl asi vc
+deni 4Nt i on 6am6r ;
Ohm101

%.6 . NJna- 6ui 0ng di sdooce


. nVAl i l an 10 powd9r ;
f . or . pm
1 00'
; mi sO, hnr ur a :

. Moar : xmc ar ea cumt :i ni r g


17 . 000 I l l cf exp. v: . vc
i l ' 9t - r r. m HE shel l . (. f om r 1
f i pr bmvk- down sae
bt i ow1

A- I nhabi t ed bui l di ng di st aaccs must sepor at c magazi ne ur eus.

Mognz nr . cor i a, ni r . g
"-(Y, ) I F, i f cxl : l osi ye
: r n 75 mr n HEshel l
( <l 5ss 41

Mago zi ne cant ai ni i g
6` a: I b r ;f eXO' . csve
in -5 m
mHE shel l

( magazi ne di sl ame;

( Cl y ; S 4i

223'
f magczi r Xr di am. Xce;
Magazi ne Cont ai ni ng
14. 0 : Y: I L of expl osi ve
i n 7' . mmHE shel l
f dou <)

I B- Magazi r i t di sl ames must sspar at c mogo=i neL wi t hi n a magazi ne ar cs .

RA PG 19318A

Fi gur e 15S - Spar i ng Magazi nes and Magazi ne Ar eas


230

TM 9- 19W

Par , 171

Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vai i on


st or age, Thi ai ar ea need not be l ar ge, but i t i s i mpor t ant t hat i t be
segr egat ed f r om bar r acks, hospi t al s, admi ni st r at i on bui l di ngs, publ i c
hi ghways, i nhabi t ed bui l di ngs end r ai l r oad& Magazi ne ar eas shoul d
be l ai d out wi t h r egar d t o access f r ommor e t han one di r ect i on; r oads
and t r acks shoul d be l ooped, Magazi nes shoul d not be l ocat ed over
i mpor t ant wat er mai ns or cl ose enough t o i mpor t ant power l i nes t o
damage t hem i n case of an expl osi on.
It . Magazi nes. Magazi nes ( f i gs. 153 and 154) shoul d be desi gned,
const r uct ed, and l ocat ed wi t h speci al at t ent i on t o t he cl ass of mat et i al s t o be st or ed t her ei n and shoul d compl y wi t h t he f ol l owi ng gener al
r egt i i r er nent s
( 1) Magazi nes shoul d be const r uct ed of mat er i al s whi ch, i n t he
event of an expl osi on, wi l l not f or mdanger ous mi ssi l es or f i r ebr ands,
Magazi nes shoul d not be l ocat ed upon cont i nuous r ock st r at a because
of t he possi bl e t r ansmi ssi on of shock wave t o excessi ve di st ances.
(' 7) Magazi nes shoul d be f i r epr oof unl ess t he nat ur e of t he hazar d
per mi t s t he use of a f r ame bui l di ng cover ed wi t h f i r e- r esi st ant mat er i al such as cor r ugat ed sheet asbest os. Wher e i t has been necessar y
t o const r uct concr et e- f l oor ed, wooden- ar ched, ear t h- cover ed i gl oos i n
l i eu of t he mor e per manent t ype of const r uct i on (f i g, 153) , exposed
wooden por t i ons of t hese t empor ar y st r uct ur es shoul d be cover ed vr i t h
a f i r e- r esi st ant mat er i al such as sheet r ock, asbest os, or a compar abl e
pr oduct . Pr ovi si on shoul d be made t o cover as much as possi bl e of
t he f r ont and r ear , as wel l as t he si des, of t hese i gl oos wi t h ear t h as
an ext r a pr ecaut i on. Wi t h t hi s t ype of const r uct i on, addi t i onal car e
shoul d be t aken t o pr event seepage of moi st ur e i nt o t he st r uct ur e,
( 3 ) Each magazi ne shoul d be pr ovi ded wi t h vent i l at or s whi ch
shoul d be scr eened agai nst spar ks,
( 4) Al l door s shoul d be made t o f i t t i ght l y so as t o seal agai nst
spar ks, dust , and di r t , and shoul d be f i r e- r esi st ant .
( 5) Magazi nes shoul d be bui l t on wel l - dr ai ned gr ound.
( 6) Magazi nes must be l ocat ed so as t o be accessi bl e t o adequat e
t r anspor t at i on f aci l i t i es_
( 7) Magazi nes must be pr ot ect ed agai nst l i ght ni ng by an ef f i ci ent
l i ght ni ng pr ot ect i on syst em. Det ai l s and speci f i cat i ons of l i ght ni ng
pr ot ect i on syst ems pt mcr i bed f or or dnance est abl i shment s ar e cont ai ned i n dr awi ngs pr epar ed by t he Or dnance Depar t ment .
c. Newconst r uct i on. The const r uct i on of newbui l di ngs or magaai nes f or t he st or age of expl osi ves and ammuni t i on wi l l be i n accor dance wi t h dr awi ngs and speci f i cat i ons f or magazi nes pr epar ed by t he

Par . I I I

TM9- 1900
Car e, Handl i nt , and Pt eSer vat i on

Or dnance Depar t ment . Layout pl ans f or pr oposed magazi ne ar eas


and t hei r l ocat i on on a r eser vat i on must be appr oved by t he Chi ef of
Or dnance.
El .
Ar r angement of NUr agazi nes . I n ar r angi ng t he st or age of hazar dous mat er i al i n above- gr ound ( not concr et e i gl oo- t ype) magazi nes,
t he f ol l owi ng gener al pr i nci pl es shoul d be f ol l owed as gui des f or
pr event i ng t he spr ead of damage t hr oughout an ent i r e ar ea i n case of
a f i r e or expl osi on i n one par t of t he ar ea :
( 1) Smokel ess powder or ot her mat er i al s whi ch may become
hazar dous i f t he bui l di ngs i n whi ch t hey ar e st or ed ar e damaged or
demol i shed, or whi ch t r ay be i gni t ed or expl oded by bur ni ng or expl odi ng mi ssi l es, shoul d be st or ed at i nhabi t ed- bui l di ng di st ances
f r om hi gh- expl osi ves and ammuni t i on magazi nes .
( 2) Bul k hi gh expl osi ves or bombs shoul d be st or ed so t hey wi l l
be pr ot ect ed f r om mi ssi l es whi ch may be t hr own f r om ammuni t i on
magazi nes as a r esul t of expl osi ons. Thi s pr i nci pl e t equi r es t hat a
magazi ne i n whi ch bul k expl osi ve i s st or ed be at mi ssi l e di st ance f r om
a magazi ne i n whi ch ammuni t i on i s st or ed,
( 3) I n appl yi ng t he pr i nci pl es set f or t h i n ( 1) and ( 2) above,
magazi nes si t uat ed bet ween ar eas i n whi ch ammuni t i on, hi gh expl osi ves, or smokel ess powder ar e st or ed may be used f or t he st or age
of such ot her mat er i al as wi l l mi ni mi ze t he danger of f i r es or expl osi ves
pr ogr essi ng f r om ar ea t o ar ea ( f i g. 155) .

e. Cur e. and mai nt enance of magazi nei s. Regul ar i nspect i on wi l l


be made of each magazi ne and magazi ne ar ea t o see i f r epai r s ar e
needed, and t o i nsur e t hat t he gener al saf et y r egul at i ons set f or t h i n
t hi s manual , par t i cul ar l y t hose whi ch r ef er t o t he cl eanl i ness of magazi nes and el i mi nat i on of f i r e hazar ds, ar e st r i ct l y obser ved.
( 1) To i nsur e cont i nuous and r el i abl e pr ot ect i on, l i ght ni ng pr o,
t ect i on syst ems shoul d be i nspect ed not l ess t han t wi ce a year . Once
year l y, each syst em shoul d be t est ed el ect r i cal l y, Gui dance f or t he
t est s and t he equi pment wi t h whi ch t o make t hem may be obt ai ned
f r omt he Of f i ce of t he Chi ef of Or dnance.
( 2)
Roof s must be mai nt ai ned i n t he best possi bl e condi t i on and
vent i l at or s scr eened agai nst spar ks. Ther e must be no unpr ot ect ed
openi ngs ar ound t he f oundat i on and no cr acks i n t he wal l s. Door s
must be t i ght and spar kpr oof .
( 3) I nt er i or s of magazi nes must be cl ear . Pai nt , oi l , gasol i ne,
wast e, r ags, and ot her such ext r aneous i nf l ammabl e mat er i al shoul d
not be l ef t i n magazi nes.

Par , 171

TM9- T900
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

( 4) Fl oor s must be f r ee of gr i t and such st ai ns as t hose caused


by exudi ng 0i el l or cl ynar ni t e, Exudat e f r om shel l shoul d t i e r emoved
by scr ubbi ng Mt h hot wat er . Exudat e or oi l y st ai n f r om dynami t e
must be r emoved by s: r ubbi ng wi t h hot wat er , acet one, or ot her
sui t abl e sol vent s.
( 5) The 50- f oot f i r ebr eak must he kept f r ee f r om i nf l ammabl e
mat er i al s . Fi r e- f i ght i ng equi pment such as wat er bar r el s and sand
hor s must be kept f ul l and heady f or use.
( b) Maga2i t i es must be kept l ocked, except when opened f or
neoessar y oper at i ons or i nspect i on.
( 7) W
hen open, a magazi ne must ' be i n t he per sonal car e of an
of f i cer or ot her r esponsi bl e per son ot her t han t he near est sent r y,
( 8) Keys must be under t he super vi si on of t he i ndi vi dual r esponsi bl e f or t hei r ,
( 9) W
hen l eavi ng t he magazi ne, t he per son i n char ge of oper at i ons must make sur e t hat al l door s and r shut t er s ar e secur el y l ocked .
( 10) A magazi ne pl acar d, " St or age and Cor e of Expl osi ves, " O.(,1.
For mNo, 5991, must be post ed i n ever y magazi ne, posi t i oned so t hat
i t wi l l be conspi cuout a t o el l wor ki ng per sonnel i nsi de.
f . Hepai r s t o magozi nr , 4. Magazi nes wi l l be r epai r ed under
di r ect super vi si on of a compet ent per son who wi l l der i de whet her or
not t he cont ent s of t he magazi nes ar e t o be r emoved whi l e r epai r s ar e
made. Under nor mal condi t i ons, r ooht . l i ght ni ng r ods, vent i l at or s,
&vr e, et c., may be r epai r ed, and mi nor r epai r s may be made t o t he
i nt er i or of t he magazi ne wi t hout r emovi ng t he cont ent s. Thi s does
not appl y t o magazi nes cont ai ni nWbul k expl osi ves, W
hen magazi nes
ar e r epai r ed, t he gener al saf et y pr ecaut i ons get f or t h i n t hi s manual
wi l l be campl i e<l wi t h. I n addi t i on, t he f ol l owi ng especi al . r egul at i ons
wi l l be obser ved :
( 1) Wor k- wi l l be done by car ef ul , exper i enced wor kmen,
( 2) The f l oor i n t he vi ci ni t y of t he wor l ; wi l l be swept and any
st ai ns scr ubbed wi t h hot waf er ,
( 3) No wor k r equi r i ng sol der i ng, mel t i ng of asphal t , or use of a
bl owt or ch wi l l be done i n a magazi ne cont ai ni ng expl osi ves of ammur si t i on,
( 4) No r epai r s wi l l be made t o t he i nt er i or of a magazi ne cont ai ni ng bul k expl osi ves unt i l al l expl osi ves have been r emoved and t he
i nt er i or washed wi t h wat er .
( 5) Al l per so, t s shoul d be sear ched f or mat ches bef or e bei ng
al l owed t o ent er any magazi ne.
17C111 0 4s, - 19
733

isuch
stpr
tfpai
clyaf
tpr
ihor
saf
aken
roexer
fass
165ieact
tom
teet
opel
Al
tsk
wi
nt
he
m
st
oG
adj
eaoughl
he
Iout
por
fpt
ifar
lbom
ipounds
U
yexpl
tor
of
m
lw
nf
on
on
ftolacent
agazi
f166
her
iA
tfpr
obom
ces
m
irtiever
usual
act
or
he
reappr
fnrR
sing
ant
b,
bui
eguar
yecaut
or
ode
nst
m
nat
O
w
guar
D
feiwi
bs,
guar
at
br
by
tiand
ef
pr
as
ces
char
and
on
lbui
yght
her
er
ne
lant
tdut
and
di
oach
ifbui
eaks
of
obabl
PR
lthese
d
yor
ion
di
of
ef
ihe
Rlnonm
ded
er
ngs
sm
and
lds
be
wilons
tges
ar
w
agazi
ot
(di
lf,yshei
scover
hi
fdi
or
okel
lhen
se,
ant
feas
lm
her
iw
ng
lar
iwi
efgi
out
gh
m
504
ar
adequat
trat
ngs
cl
hi
sar
treat
H
EC
eolnot
ithven
and
dest
er
sandl
ieas
up
lequi
fess
otch
he
er
tbe
ne
ow
per
iexpl
st
m
so
ank
inhey
hi
ed
be
ght
fbabl
or
pr
inhol
al
eet
at
tequi
al
irwi
texpl
ch
sonnel
ichar
lot
pow
qui
he
io
sgr
osi
uct
m
aaken,
or
pm
conf
nm
ocat
nvol
ing,
el
ng
sm
tfand
d
oned
agazi
especi
wi
ect
aw
eeat
50,
fw
im
m
hedi
ent
ar
hazar
ar
ckl
yves,
irifhi
ode,
lnes
der
agazi
pm
ade
rtge
eor
on
lirfved,
ay
es
ietand
he
ei
at
er
000
on
ences,
omi
ned
ch
expl
he
ftyat
ent
ces
evacuat
at
inot
ar
ther
ines
and
m
al
al
of
ght
her
ftinvol
ds
unt
el
oftiegr
di
ust
Fr
tnm
hat
ltlne
rtpour
oosi
nt
her
eihem
eytay
st
at
ohul
ytpr
eat
ipr
e6er
ng
ihe
pr
expl
Af
lihe
ved,
fipr
under
hazar
m
ance
ent
ves
esent
sot
cont
appr
m
not
etrwi
hand
k,
,tes
er
event
est
eal
at
expl
her
om
expl
det
event
er
ahi
ar
expl
ect
lva9i
%
osi
rleand
tm
and
eances
ai
gh
ehe
ost
gi
oach
,onat
possi
of
be
dous
one
know
D
ed
osi
tup
M
osi
ons
expl
osi
em
oni
heat
cont
vi
tagazi
on
pr
iexpl
aexposed
hey
m
wi
unpacked
hi
ing
am
ons
ng
det
ol
ves
e,
agazi
ever
ovi
nst
ves
ftbl
llw
have
osi
irgh
otlm
ritedge
ol
osi
ho
eothi
he
onat
uni
tshoul
rhe
di
hat
have
ne
2,
pr
ves
uct
iBl
yfexpl
gh
w
speed
ndi
m
unt
ves
on
ng
rne
esent
040
fabeen
hi
al
eack
w
tomr
iar
eed
m
rand
as
ifcat
expl
ar
iech
tof
dosi
iay
or
on
eas
en
pr
lpacked
tortm
unnecese,fat
ihai
hat
eachi
opel
,tso
4put
pr
a
pow
do
ves
eet
gener
ng
U
avoi
osi
occ
wi
ar
agai
he
m
bltnl
shoul
guar
resent
tasse,
1980
lFi
em
as
thouinm
conder
ves,
lanyess
not
st
ifhei
hat
and
rtfipt
ded
ng
inst
aleor
ihe
ung
er
rbe
ds
tne,dor

Pai r s.

7Jwl
Car d,

shoul d be
( 1) Ever y
. If
ur s
t hi s
in
.
t o put
out wi t h
act ual l y r eached
good chance
t he
.
and t ake
cover ,
.
f i r e- f i ght i ng
speci f i c
i s avai l abl e
of t he
when
st r uct i on of t he
it
f or ces
r emai n
t he f i r e,
sand
di st ant wher e
ar e
i nvol ved, or pr opor t i onal l y
100, 000
occur r ed,
i ndi cat i ng
to
f i ght i ng
be
sar y
ar e l i abl e
pur pose
and
may
pr oduci ng
t he
. Bul k
boxes
bur n qui et l y, but
phot of l ash
char ges,
i s no
t hi ng
save t he
In
i nst ance,
ef f or t s of f i r e
f i r e f r om spr eadi ng
.
. l ` YON.

166,
a. Magazi nes
ni t i on wi l l b
be pr ot ect ed
l ocked unl ess
be
h.
be
t he
most
f i r e.
st ar t
by
wi l l

.
Speci al pr ecaut i ons wi l l
by a sui t abl e f ence-

Guar ds,
i nst r uct ed

of expl osi ves andammuni t i on, wi l l


due t o f i r e and expl osi ons

They

Ser i ous
.
s24

Par e. 171- 172

TM 9- 1904
Car e) , Handl i r Xd r and Pr eser vat i on

( 6)
Al l magazi nes vhoul d be car ef ul l y swr ept af t er r epai r s have
been compl et ed, al t t ool s Shoul d be r eni uved af t er r epai r s have been
cumpl et eel .
( 7)
r epai r s

172.

The mager i no wi l l be i nspect ed by compet ent aut hor i t y af t er

have been compl et ed .


QUAN' i TTY- DI STANCE CLASSES AND TABLES.

a.
To r educe t o a mi ni mum t he ha2ar ds and r i sks due t o f i r e and
expl osi on, t hese r egul at i ons pr escr i be :

( 1) The di st ances whi ch wi l l be mai nt ai ned bet ween magazmes at


mi l i t ar y est abl i shment s uncl publ i c hi ghways, publ i c bui l di ngs, publ i c
r ai l ways, and i nl ) obi t ed bui l di ngs,
( 2)

The r l i r t ances t hat wi l l be mai nt ai ned bet ween magazi nes,

The maxi mum quant i t y t hat wi l l be per mi t t ed i n any one


( 3)
magazi ne,
h. These pr ecuvt i omnot onl y pr ot ect po' r sons and pr oper t y i n t he
t er r i t or y adj acent t o mi l i t ar y est abl i shment s, but al so r educe t o a
mi ni mum t he possi bi l i t y of any expl osi on i nvol vi ng l ar ge masses of
expl osi ves and ammuni t i on, and l i mi t t he quant i t y of mi l i t ar y suppl i es
t hat may be l ost i n any one expl osi on.
I n t i me of war , mi l i t ar y r equi r ement s may make f ul l com( 1)
pl i ance wi t h saf et y r egul at i ons especi al l y .
di f f i cul t Si nce t he pur pose
of t he r egul at i ons i x t o r educe t o a mi ni mumt he l osses of per sonoel
and mi l i t ar y st or es, and t o mai nt ai n t he f ul l ut i l i t y of mi l i t ar y est abl i shment s, t he compl i ance wi t h expl osi ves and ammuni t i on r egul at i ons
i s consi der ed hi ghl y i i npor t ant i n w?. Ar t i me.
I n t i me of pence, t he quant i t y- di sl aTt r e t abl es set f or t h bel ow
{ 2)
wi l l be st r i ot l y compl i ed wi t h except when subj ect t o r educt i ons under
speci al condi t i ons as i TI Cl i cat ed bel ow and i Tn case of exi st i ng empl dceMent magazi nes et har bor - def ense i nsl al l at i ons. Such har bor - def ense
magazi nes mj y be used f or t hey st or age of ammuni t i on per t ai ni ng t o
t he ar mament of t he emp] sr ement and not i n exca&c of i t s war r eser ve
al l owance. Magazi nes of emp1acemKTus f r om whi ch t he Ur mar nel et
has been r emoved or has beCOTr 3e obsol et e may be used f or t he st or age
of any cl ass of ammuni t i on and expl osi ves . pr ovi ded t he quant i t ydi st ance t abl es Hr e compl i ed wi t h.
Bui l di ngs at mi l i t ar y est abl i shment s wher e l - or sonnel ar e
( . 3)
r egul ar l y l omt ed wi l l be pl aced at i nhabi t ed- bui l di ng di st ances f r om
r nagar i l t i ec except when t he bui l di ngs ar e used f or oper at i ons i nci dent
t o t he magazi ne ar ea,
234

Par . 172

TM 4- 1900
Car e, Handl i ng, nn d Pr eser vat i on

c, The di st ances speci f i ed i ri t hese t abl es of f er pr ot ect i on agai nst


st r uct ur al damage and most mi ssi l es. Occasi onal mi ssi l es whi ch
t r avel a mi l e or mor e ar e not consi der ed because of t hei r r ar i t y,
especi al l y when t he amount of mat er i al i nvol ved i n one expl osi on i s
l i mi t ed by keepi ng pi l es sf nal l and spaci ng t hem so as t o l i mi t t he
expl osi on t o one pi l e, I t wi l l be not ed t hat t he di st ances speci f i ed i n
t he t abl es ar e based not on t he t ot al amount of expl osi ves i n t he
magazi nes, but upon t he mi ssi l e hazar d and t he amount t hat may be
i nvol ved i n one expl osi on, The speci f i ed di st ances may be changed
under t he. f ol l owi ng speci al condi t i ons:
( 1)
I n st or age of cl asses 8, 9, and 10 i t ems, when a r naga2i ne i s
ef f ect i vel y bar r i caded or scr eened. f r om ot her bui l di ngs, magazi nes,
r ai l way, and hi ghway, t he di st ances may be r educed one- hal f , Ef f ect i ve scr eeni ng can be obt ai ned by ut i l i zi ng nat ur al f eat ur es of t he
gr ound or by an ar t i f i ci al bar r i cade at l east 4 f eet f r omt he magazi ne,
at l east 3 f eet t hi ck at t he t op, at l east hi gh enough so t hat t he St r ai ght
l i ne ext ended f r omt he t op of t he si de wal l of t he magazi ne t o t he t op
of t he bar r i cade wi l l pass above any par t of a bui l di ng t o be pr ot ect ed,
and at l east 12 f eet above any publ i c hi ghway or publ i c r ai l way,
Ar t i f i ci al bar r i cades shoul d consi st of ear t h or sand f i l l , wi t h not mor e
t han 15 per cent of st ones on gr ound, whi ch shoul d pass t hr ough 1- i nch
openi ngs.
( 2) Magazi nes of st andar d ear t h- cover ed concr et e- ar ch t ype
( i gl oo t ype) and empl acement magazi nes, ar e consi der ed bar r i caded
on el l si des except t hat of t he ent r ance, whi ch si de may be bar r i caded
i f l ocal condi t i ons r equi r e,
( 3) Har bor def ense empl acement magazi nes i n a gr oup, bei ng
separ at ed f r om each ot her by subst ant i al di vi di ng wal l s, need not
compl y wi t h t he i nt er r nagazi ne di st ances, However , each magazi ne,
as a uni t , must compl y wi t h t he t abl e di st ances f or i nhabi t ed bui l di ng,
publ i c hi ghway, and publ i c r ai l way.
( 4) Wher e t he const r uct i on of t he magazi ne i s such as ef ect ual l y
t o st op t he mi ssi l es r esul t i ng f r oman expl osi on i n anot her magazi ne,
t he di st ances bet ween t he t wo may be based upon t he t ot al expl osi ves
mat er i al i n ammuni t i on component s i i i t he l at t er magazi ne, consi der ed
as cl ass 9 i nst ead of t he di gt ance pr ever i bed f or t he cl ass st or ed. Such
magazi nes ar e t he st andar d ear t h- cover ed concr et e- ar ch t ype ( i gl oo
t ype) and empl acement magazi nes . The quant i t y t o be consi der ed
wi l l be t he t ot al quant i t y t o be st or ed i n t he magazi ne except wher e
speci f i c cases ar e except ed i n st ep ( 5) , bel ow.
( S) SPECI AL. REQUI REMENTS FOR SPECI FI C CLASSES OF AMMUNI
TI Ox_ W
hen ammuni t i on of Cl asses 6 and 7 ar e st or ed i n i gl oo magazi nes i n accor dance wi t h Or dnance dr awi ngs, t he ai sl e wi dt h i s not
suf f i ci ent t o pr ecl ude mass det onat i on. Ther ef or e, quant i t y- di st ance
2114

TM 9- 1900

Par . 172 .
Car e, i f endt i ng, ar nd Pr eser vat i on

Fi gur s 156 - Met hed of Sf acki ng Shel l i n Above- gr ound


Mvgazl no St or age
r equi r ement s f or Cl asses 6 end 7 when so st or ed i ncl udi ng t he maxi mum per mi t t ed i n each magazi ne, shal l be t hose pr escr i bed f or
Cl asses 9 and 10. 1n above- gr ound st or age magazi nes, t he quant i t ydi st ance t abl es f or ammuni t i on andammuni t i on component s of Cl asses
6 and 7 ar e based on t he assumpt i on t hat on i ni t i at i on mesa det onat i ons wi l l not occur , end t hat t he det onat i on at any one i nst ant wi l l
be l i mi t ed t o t he amount cont ai ned i n one st ack and t hat t he mi ssi l e
di st ance i s t he cont r ol l i ng consi der at i on. Ammuni t i on of Cl ass 6
st or ed i n above- gr ound magazi nes shal l be spaced i n st acks cont ai ni ng not over 5, 040 pounds of expl osi ves each, wi t h st acks spaced at a
mi ni mumof 2 f eet apar t _ Ammuni t i on of Cl ass 7 st or ed i i i abovegr ound magazi nes shal l be pl aced i n st acks cont ai ni ng not mor e t han
15, 000 pounds of expl osi ves each and spaced i n accoYdence wi t h Or d
nance Dr awi ng 19- 4$- 12 . See f i gur es 156, 157, and 158. I f st acki ng
r equi r ement s ar e not sat i sf i ed i n t he st or age of Cl asses 6 and 7 mat e.
r i al , i t wi l l be assumed t hat , on i ni t i at i on, al l ammuni t i on i n one
magazi ne wi l l det onat e en masse and t hat t he quant i t y- di st ance r equi r ement s, i ncl udi ng t he maxi mum per mi t t ed i n each magazi ne,
shal l be t hose pr escr i bed f or Cl asses 9 and 14.
d. Def i ni t i on" * Ter ms used i n t he f ol l owi ng t abl es ar e def i ned
as f ol l ows :
( 1)
I NHAxr THD Bui LmxG,
Any bui l di ng or $t r uct ur e occupi ed
i n whol e or i n par t as a habi t at i on f or human bei ngs, wher e peopl e
226

Par . 171 X

Tm 9- 190#
Car e, f ancl r i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

Q
OF
y

e
4

h
Q
b

m
C
V

4
O

f
w
a
a
ti

237

TM 9- 1900

Par . 172
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

15, 000
MAXI MUM

14, 000
13. 000
12, 104

12000

0
o=
w
z
0
z_
4J
3
01
p_
X
U.]

rrrrrrrrrrrrrr
10, 000 w
r r wr wr r r r r r r
CCCCi CCCSCCCCC' r r CCCCC" CCC" XXXXXCCCCCCX CCC"' CwI CCCmol l

CwCr r r r r ur r
r r wwwwwwwr wwr r r r r r r r r r r w r C" r r r ur r r r rr rr Cw
r r r wwr n
9, 000 8oom8=8o
6, 000
7, 000

6, 000
z

a
. 5, 000
0
r r r r r XI Vi Xr r r r ur r r r r wr ur r r r r r r wwwwxwwwwwwwr wl
4, 000 rr rr rwrr rrrrrw
wr r r ar r r r r r r wwr r r r wr r wr r r ul Xr r xr r r r r r r r r wl
r r r l l nr r r r r r w
i ar r r r r r r r wr wwr ur r wr r r r rrrrw
waxr
xwrrrrrrrrrw
rrr w
wrr w
wll
r r wwwr r r r r r wl wwr r wr r r r r r wwowr wr r r w
r r r r r r r r r r r r uar r r r . uwr r r r r r r r f r r r " wr r r mr r r r wr r r sr r l
r wr r r uwwwr r wr r r r r r r r r r XI wr r r xwr r r r wr r r r l
3, 000 rr rr rrrrrrrrrw
r wr r r mr r r r r l l er r r r r r r r r r r wr r r r r r r wr wr r r r r r r r l
wE
B
iE
rN
r r r r vl r l er r r r r r r r r r uwwr r r r r r r r wr l XN
xww
r rr w
rw
rrr or
rl
arr rrrxw
r rwrw
rw
rw
wrw
ww
rw
r r r r r rww
wrl uw
r r ww
r rw
w
rr w
w
w
w
w
rw
rr rr rrruuuw
w
w
xr r r wr r wum
M
E
M
O
r r r r r i r r r wr r r r r r r r r r wwr wr wr r r r r r r r r r nwwwwwwwwws. . X
2, 000 Xl
r wr r r r r r r wwr r r r wr r r wr wr r wr r wr r r r wr r r r r nr wr wl Xwr r r n
r wwnr wr r wr r wr Xwur wwuwwuwwwnr wr wuw
rw
i
r ui
r r r r r wwr r wwr r r r wr wr :r rwrw
w
rw
rw
r rwrwrw
rw
rw
r rr rr rrur
nrr xr
rrw
rw
Xl rwrw
w
rw
rlw
rn
wwwwr nwwr wr r www
r ur r r r ' Cwr r ur r r r. rr lnuuw
w
ur rwXi
wi,
1, 000 ur
Xr wr r rrrlnrX
rw
r rur
r i ruuuw
nar r r rrrrr w
_1XI
r
Xr ur r r wr wr r ul a, I
m
IIW
i r r r r r r r wr wr wr r r r r r r r r r n
r r r Xsr wwr r r r ur r r r r ' r r r wr r r r n
0 r r r nr r r r r r r mr r r r wr wr r r r r w
30
35 40 4045
50
0
5
l0
15
20 25
NOSE TONOSEOR BASETOBASE, DI STANCES I N I NCHES
. CONTAI NS 15. 151- 13S. OF EXPLOSI VE PERSHELL.
EXAMPLE SHOW
N- M107 H E SHELL FOR 155- MM HOW
STORI NG 80SHELL, 10 HI GH, OR 800 SHELLS I N ONE ROWI S EQUAL TO800 X 15 . 13, OR 12, 104 LBS. OF
EXPLOSI VE. FROMTHE CHART, 12, 104 LBS I S EQUI VALENT TO A NOSE TONOSE, OR BASE TOBASE,
DI STANCE OF 40. 5 I NCHES.
NOTE=THE DI STANCES BETW
EEN PI LES SHOW
NBYTHI S CHART ARE I NTENDEDTOLI MI T EXPLOSI ONS
TOONE PI LE .
RA PD 89396

Fi gur e 138 - Quant i t y- Di st ance Char t f or , Above- gr ound Magazi ne


St or age of Separ at e- l oadi ng Pr oj ect i l es
239

TM 9- 1900

Par . 171
Car e, Fl andl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

ar e Accust omed t o assembl e, bot h wi t hi n and out si de of Gover nment


est abl i shment s. However , bui l di ngs on Gover nment est abl i shment s
i n whi ch peopl e ar e r egul ar l y engaged i n oper at i ons whi ch r equi r e
t he l ocat i on of such bui l di ngs i n t he magazi ne ar ea, may be pl aced i n
accor dance wi t h i nt r apl ant or magazi ne- t o- magazi ne di st ances. Land
l i mi t s or boundar i es of mi l i t ar y r eser vat i ons wi l l be consi der ed possi bl e si t es of i nhabi t ed bui l di ngs.
( 2)
PUBLI CRAI LW
AY, Any st eam, el ect r i c, or ot her r ai l r oad whi ch
car r i es passenger s f or hi r e.
( 3)
PUBLI CHI GI r wAy. Any st r eet , al l ey, r oad, or navi gabl e st r eam
open t o t he use of t he gener al publ i c,
( 4) NAVI GABLE STkEAm_ A body of wat er capabl e of ext ensi ve
navi gat i on by t ugs, bar ges, or l ar ger vessel s.
( S) NEAREST MAGAZI NES. The near est magazi nes cont ai ni ng expl osi ves or ammuni t i on. The amount of expl osi ves or ammuni t i on
per mi t t ed t o be st or ed i n s magazi ne can somet i mes be i ncr eased i f
t he near est magazi nes ar e f i l l ed wi t h i ner t mat er i al s, t hus gr eat l y
i ncr easi ng t he di st ances t o t he near est magazi nes cont ai ni ng expl osi ves
or ammuni t i on,
( b) MAxi mumPERur r TED. The l ar gest amount of expl osi ves or
ammuni t i on per mi t t ed t o be st or ed i n a magazi ne even i f i t i s mor e
i sol at ed t han t he t abl et s pr escr i be, I t i s i mper at i ve t hat t he l oss of
mi l i t ar y suppl i es be kept t o an absol ut e mi ni mum.
( 7) STRUCTURAL ) DAMAGE. The ser i ous weakeni ng or di spl acement of f oundat i ons or br i ck or st one suppor t i ng WHI l s or t he br eaki ng
of wooden mai n suppor t i ng member s i n out si de or i nsi de wal l s. No
r eadi l y r epar abl e damage such as br oken gl ass at - l oosened pl ast er i s
consi der ed st r uct ur al damage.
r . Expl osi ve cont eut . The expl osi ve cont ent of ammuni t i on or
component s i s shown i n t he t echni cal manual s f or each cal i ber and
t ype of gun, on or dnance dr awi ngs, and i n ORD 11 SNL' s; i f such
i nf or mat i on i s not avai l abl e, i t shoul d be r equest ed f r omt he Chi ef of
Or dnance. The quant i t i es shown i n t he f ol l owi ng t abl es wer e comput ed as f ol l ows :
( 1)
SMOKELESS Powur R. The quant i t i es i n pounds ar e t he net
wei ght s of t he powder i n t he boxes or i n t he pr opel l i ng char ges.
( 2) PYROTECHNI CS. The quant i t i es ar e based on t he net wei ght
of t he i l l umi nant or expl osi ve composi t i on.
( 3) S$PARATE- LOADI NG AND UNFI XED SHE" AND W
M
Bs. The
quant i t i es at e comput ed by t aki ng t he net wei ght Of expl osi ve i n t he
char ge of one shel l and mul t i pl yi ng by t he number of shel l or bombs
i n t he magazi ne,
9"

r ur ,

rs
Car d, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

M
UNTM
N. The quant i t y i s t he net wei ght of t he
( 4) FI XED AM
hi gh- expl osi ve char ge i n t he shel l mul t i pl i ed by t he number of r ounds,
The smokel ess powder pr opel l i ng char ge i s so much l ess hazar dous
t hat i t i s not i ncl uded i n t he comput at i on f or t hi s cl ass of ammuni t i on.
( S) RocxEY' S, Thequant i t y t o be consi der ed f or quant i t y- di st ance
pur poses i s t he wei ght of t he hi gh expl osi ve i n t he head ( shel l ) pl us
t he wei ght of t he pr opel l i ng char ge i n t he mot or . I f t her e i s a det onat i on of t he expl osi ve i n t he head, t he pr opel l i ng char ge may be expect ed t o det onat e as wel l . For cl assi f i cat i on of r ocket r not or s r ef er
t o subpar agr aph 1 ( 4) .

f . Cl asses of expl osi ves and ut nr uuni t i on. The gr oupi ng of


expl osi ves and ammuni t i on i nt o cl asses l i st ed bel ow does not i mpl y
t hat t he i t ems i n a par t i cul ar cl ass ar e t o be st or ed t oget her but means
mer el y t hat t he hazar ds i nvol ved ar e si mi l ar f or al l i t ems i n t he same
cl ass. The i t ems whi ch may be st or ed t oget her on one magazi ne ar e
The
set f or t h i n t he Combi nat i on St or age Char t , par agr aph 173,
maxi mum amount of expl osi ves per mi t t ed i n any l ocat i on i s t he t og
l i mi t f or t he di st ance speci f i ed. However , t he quant i t y may be excessi ve f or any par t i cul ar case under condi t i ons sur r oundi ng t he i ndi vi dual
oper at i ons . Ther ef or e, i t i s mandat or y t hat l ocal l i mi t s be est abl i shed
i n amount no gr eat er t han t hose consi st ent wi t h cont i nuous and
ef f i ci ent oper at i on. Oper at i ons and per sonnel wi l l be so ar r anged
consi st ent wi t h cont i nuous ef f i ci ency as t o const i t ut e t he smal l est
per sonnel exposur e t o any one expl osi on hazar d. W
hen mi l i t ar y
expl osi ves an6 ammuni t i on ar e packed i n accor dance wi t h t he pr ovi si ons of W
ar Depar t ment dt awi ngs and speci f i cat i ons, t hey may be
gr ouped, accor di ng t o t he degr ee of hazar d i nvol ved, i nt o t he f ol l owi ng

cl asses :
( 1)

CLASS 1. Smal l - ar mammuni t i on i ncl udi ng 20- mm, except HE


end RE- 1 r ounds; ar r echar ucal t i me f uzes wi t hout boost er s; ATpr act i ce
gr enade; Engi neer Cor ps combi nat i on, pul l , pr essur e, and r el ease f i r i ng
devi ces; t her mi i ; r r r i t wr ' s sof ot y f use; f uss l r , 4ht er s M1 and M2, Thi s
cl ass i s pr i nci pal l y a f i r e hazar d, No quant i t y l i mi t i s pl aced on st or age
of mat er i al s i , n t hi s cl ass_

( f ) CLAss 2, Si nkl e- . base mul f i per f or ai ed st nokel eas powder oi


web t hi ckness gr eat er t han 0. 019 i nch; chemi cal &r nmuni i i on cor r t ai r i .
i r r g phosphor us ( except compl et a r ounds) ; t her mi t e and si mi l ar bt oni ng composi t i ons; i l l umi nat i ng, f l ar e, or $i gnal composi t i ons whi ch
have been consol i dat ed i n t he f i nal pr ess oper at i ons ao t hat no expl osi ve mat er i al i s expowd; d0- mm and 81- mm mor t ar i l l umi nat i ng
shel l . These mat er i al s may become unsaf e under ext r eme condi t i ons
of moi st ur e, hi gh t emper at ur e, or age. They bur n wi t h i nt ense heat ,
but usual l y do not f or m danger ous mi ssi l es or gener at e pr essur es
whi ch wi l l cause ser i ous st r uct ur al damage t o adj acent magazi nes.
740

Car e, Handl i r f j , and Pr es>ar vaf i an


CLASS 3. QUANTI TY- DI STANCE TABLE
Smakol ea+ powder i n t : anf ai nsr a ( i r t bozos, powder cans, car t t i di go st or age
canes, et c . } : pyr of e4hni ca ( f oomot o' ) t cheadc$0 eat nwr dl l an cont ai ni nd
phoaphUr us ( except compl et e r ounds) : or 60- m
m ar w 81- nun mor t ar
i l l nmi r mt i ng chef ( f oor r i Ol e' )
QUANTI TY'

MI NI MUM UNDARRI GA0l 0 DI Sr ANk1 I N FLI T FROM NI ARESTu

I PQVMPS1

I nhabi r ed
suI l di aS

Nbl i r
R. I l w0T

Publ i c
I I I ghway

1r f 08pl l l ne

300, Ooo
400, 000

3oa, 000
400, 000
500, 000;

75
115
150
190
215
235
250
360
270
2130
' 195
300
375
450
525
600

75
115
150
140
21$
235
250
3f i 0
210
180
295
300
375
450
x25
600

75
115
150
190
21$
235
150
230
70
280
295
: 300
375
450
525
( r o0

50
75
100
12$
145
155
165
175.
1. 85
190
195
200
250
300
350
400

100
1, 000
5, 000
10, 000
2o, 0ao
30, 000
40, 000
50, 000
60, 600
70 . 000
1' 0, 000
90, 000
100, 000
300, 000

Sr nakel es4 powder i n bul k ( xw i n conf ai nvs)


1, 060
100
100
100
5, 000
150
150
150
10, 000
200
200
200
20, 000
X50
250
230
30, 000
285
255
285
40, 000
310
310
310
50, 400
; 530
330
330
60, 000
34S
395
345
70. 000
3150
340
360
86, 000
3' 75
375
37$
90, 000
390
390
390
100, 000
400
40f )
400
200, 000
500
500
500
300, 0000
600
600
1500

50
7S
100
125
145
155
16S
175
185
190
191
200
250
300

Ur er

100
1, 000
5, 000
10, 000
20, U00
30, 001)
40, OOa
50, u4o
60, OOQ
70, 000
0, M0
90, ( ) 00
100, 000
m0, 4ao

1, 000
5, U00
10, 000
20. 000
sa, 000
40, ( 100
50, 006
64, 000
1U. 000
50, 000
90, 000
100, 000
200, 000

1
1

=Fur pt or nve of Cl am 3 pyml whoi cs mar l pyr ot echni c mat er i al s, t hg ( al l owi ng i i guf s appl y
under t he cmdi t l gna Ri ven_
( al
I f l ur of aat i nr r , af i r e or nKuol C- Pasi t i ont W
hi ch have been owt sal i dMed i n t ba Snal
yr es". f pemt i 0ns and er r an r 1Gwd t hat na r " f yl aai ve mat er i al i s ex" ed, and mUf f ur y pyr ot echni cs, Myr * pt CI ass 9 nhnt er W, t hat have boon baxad and ar e r eady f or ; Mvment X may
4t or ed at one- hal f of t he Ct asa 2 di st aaoaa,
f b)
I n quant W
es f r om 100 t o 500 wm
du, i nl t ahl t wi bui l di ng, pUkl i c r ai l way, end publ i c
hi ghway dl at ancea ar e 50 f eet ; mogusi ac di al pne+e i s 35 f eet .
( r : ) Tot al Quant i t y of 1) yr ot er hnl e. or pyr ot " hnl c r oot cr i al a at any ona l oco" shoul d
Mot exeeed 50, 000 pounds and r oast mat axeeed 200, W
o pounds .
' Pur : t onnes i n st aodyr d kl w mage= : nee, pr oscdbed di st anc* p snay ba bpl ved f r om al l si des
- Cr pt
Ne dc. x 4141,
ah( exi mum quant i t y r anni t t ed of any ' wse l neat I ML ( except pyr ot echoi r s ar ks pyr ot ecbni e
r kl at edal p 1
' W
l uo r r pf essar y, 60- mmand B1- MAt mor t ar 1111Mt i not i og hr t ee11 may be st or ed Mt h Cl asp 4
I t ems,

TM 9- 1900

Par . 173
Car e, Hat wdl i nl Land Fr eser vat i on

CLAss 3. Al l l oaded f uses except f uzes conf ai r ung HE1oadt ad


( 3)
and ar t i l l er y
boost a' s; AT pr act i ce mi nes cont ai nng a smoke char ge;
pr i mer s, These usual l y expl ode pr ogr essi vel y, not mor e t han a box
or t wo at a t i me. Pr essur es whi ch wi l l cause st r uct ur al damage t o
adj acent magazi nes usual l y ar e not gener at ed. Mi ssi l es ar e smal l at i d
l i ght , and usual l y f al l wi t hi n 100 yar ds.

QUANTI TY- DI STANCE TABLE

CLASS 3.

M
I NI M
UMYN_OARRI CAQFD OI STAHCI

0UANTI TYI POU" 0S0FRXPl 9SI YF1


NwOV"r

I N FEET FR* M NEAREST

I aha6l t cd
bui l di n5

Pr hl l r
Roi l waY

pr 611X
HI yhW
QY

M
agpaha

so

400

400

400

60

200

400

400

400

1410

1, 000

400

400

400

180

400

400

400

3( 10

10, 000

' Bor r t or age i r i 94ondar d i al ao nbapZl . nna, pr escr i br d di gt ancer may


excspt t he duve 9aArM
axi wPm quant i t y vnf r al et Gd at

be

f Xal vCd f r om el l ol d- ) a

ooy vow l ocat i on .

( 4)
CLASS 4. W
hen packed i n accor dance wi t h or dnance dr awi ngs and speci f i cat i ons ; Fi xed and ser ni f i xed ar t i l l eey ammur r i t r on i ncl udi ng 20- mmHE- 1 ( compl et e r ounds) , wi t h al l t ypes cd pr oj e<t i f es
except pent ol i t e- l oaded shel f ; l i ght mor t ar Ammuni t i on ( 81- mm end
k 2; ant i per wr ur el
smal l er ) ; gr enades, i ncl udi ng pr act i ce gr enade M
mi r e M
2; bl ank amml mi t i or r f ar canmr i ; r ocket ammuni t i on assembl ed i n compl et e r ounds, except t hose wi t h HE- l oaded heads but i ncl udi ng 4. 3- i nch TNT- l oaded r ocket T22, and Locket mot or s ( see f oot noi e; ; , Cl ass 4 Quant i t y- Di st ance Tabl e, I t ems i n t hi s cl ass usual l y
expl ode pr ogr essi vel y, onl y a f ew boxes at a t i me, and many expl osi ons. of i ndi vi dual r ounds ar e of l ow or der . Pr essur es whi ch wi l l
cause st r uct ur al damage t o adj acent magazi nes usual l y ar e not gener at ed. Most mi ssi l es wi l l f al l wi t hi n 200 yar ds. Thi s cl ass i ncl udes
al l f i xed and semi f i xed chemi cal shel l ( compl et e r ounds) f or ar t i l l er y
except t hat i quent i t y l i mi t at i on does not appl y . I t al so i ncl udes 76- t r i m
and 3- i nch i l l umi nat i ng pr oj ect i l e, compl et e r ounds. Al t hough 60- mm
and 81- mmmor t ar i l l umi nat i ng i i he11 ar e Cl ass ? i t ems, t hey nt ay be
st ar r ed wi t h Cl ass 4 i t ems when necessar y,

( 5) CLAs5 S, Separ ai o- l oadi ng shel l , l oaded wi t h expl osi ve D,


and al l cal i ber s of shel f not assembl ed t o or packed wi t h car t r i dge
cases. These usual l y expl ode, one shel l at a t i me end, i n near l y al l
cases, wi t h l aw or der . The mi ssi l es ar e l i mi t ed as t o number and
r ange, and most of t hem f al l wi t hi n 400- yar ds.
( 6) Cuss 6. Fuzes cont ai ni ng HE- l oaded boost er s, adapt er boast er s, packed separ at el y i n boor eB. These i t ems usual l y expl ode
pr ogr essi vel y by st ack& St r uct ur al damage caused by t he pr essur es
i s usual l y l i mi t ed t o adj acent magazi nes. Mi ssi l es ar e l i ght and usual l y f al l wi t hi n 200 yar ds.

TM 9- 1400

Per . 172

Car e, Hondt i r i , and Pr eser vat i on


CLASS _4,
OI LLNTI TY f p" NDs OF .
EXPLOSI VEI

QUANTI TY- DI STANCE TABLE


MI NAMUI A Ut t 6" l 1t AGED Ot I TAXCF I N f i l i T FROM NEAI EST4a
I gl r at r i l ed
dwi I dI ng

Publ i c X
Xabl l r r
l el l vr a
NI 6' t t a

S4

1, 240

549

1, 200

1, 209
1, 290

1, Oi I 0

1, 100

S9, OG9

1, '. 09
1, 2VO

Mat Ovef

500, 94G'

1, 200

+Aaoaxf l w

60

1, 204
1, 2uu

140
180

1, 300

1, 200

225

1, 200

I , 204

300

) , zoo

' For St of 6m i n st ar r dt nt l i l w magasl Aes . pr escr i bt t di st or t ecz may be hal ved f r om al l ai d"
except t he dcor end.
O1&xi m
X quant i t y t xr mi t t ed at .
Am? car e l oeat l pn,
Ti Am1 r ocket p wi t h nsMDr a ai svi ubLed t o l opr dt d ur un1Xdyd heady, shoul d not be st or ed I t s
obvve- r r mund mogazmes l ocat ed 1. 1 I em t han t 1f q 1uLLowi ng r ol gal l e di st onr op f r om t he I i et ad
J xat i Ons=
LOCATI O
N

_ALNI M
UMM
I SVI LE
XDI STAD( CE

Nhabi t ed Hai l di nq
Publ i c Rai l way
Puhur. I - j l ghway

Maur nur a f l i ght r ange of f oeket or 4, 310 f eet , whi chever 1a l ose
60%of moui mum Bi ght r dhl e of r ocket ar 2, 590 f Xt r whi chover i s l ea
30%Xf maxi mum ALl I a Tangs of T ol . et ar 1, 300 f eet , w] r Lebeve i s l am

CLASS 3.

QUANTI TY- DI STANCE TABLE


MI MI OMUM UN&ARkj CADj O DI i TANCE I N 1: 11T FROM HEAMT'

CI I ANTI TY 4F0UHas9F(: XPLOSI VEI

Pvbl h
Xl yhwoy

I r t 6abl t ed
I al l dl ag

Tabl i c
Ral l wny

1, 200

1, 200

1, 200

100

25, 1m

1 . 200

1 . 700

650, 044X

1, 209

1, 200

1, 200
1, 200

200
300

Mat Over
1, 009

' For st " ' Fge i n st andar d ! t 1uv mopar i r wa, pr envi bed di af a( wX may be
except t he dom" nsd,
' MO: LM
" 4Uant i t y pgFM, t t ad at

Not Over

t r am al l pl d9b

any ou$ l ucui i an .

CLASS 6.
OUAKTI TY' [ FOUNDS OF EXPLOSI VE

hol vod

Jdayoal na

QUANTI TY- DI STANCE TABLE


MI NI MVM UH&AAMCADED DSI TANGE I H FI ET FROM NEAREf Ts
I hl r ahi Xd
Pobl l cXet r l l c Y
gWl l dl n
l aLl vvr e
HI hwsr

50
200

5, 090
104, 004

240
240
1, 34) 0
1, 50o

140

70

64

140

70

10

900
90 e

450
450

240
300

>.St P} wt t i t ems of t 6b cl ass mo W


M
AV i &LOO mogae4aen, t he quant i t y- di 4amm r eO
WI n OM
quLr caent s of CLeea 4, bul l s Xpl [ ai ves, wi l l wor n, er t " pt t hat no di st annt a l eas t han ano- hal f
t h$ di at num pr oscr i bed i n 111116 t abl e f r o Cl ar e 5 i t esmt si r e ant bor l st d . ' nu g4ont hy of
azpi vove mr al er WAi r mi n por aMph 171 r 15) smt y be si t ed when i n I I bovr gr nnnd mogai l t aa
i f t he mat er i al l e st et t ed and adgxcaot ed I t i nt zar danca wi t h Or dnanug dr wwi ngi
` Por Mot age i n at ander d i gl oo magar l r wa, pr cacr i bW di at mcsp t t t ny be bel vbd I r a al l ai daq
r mcept t he door end' Al momumquant i t y per mi t t ed at

=y ar w l ot at i an

20

TM 9- 1900

Par . 172
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eset vat i on

( 7) CLASS 7. Separ at e- l oadi ng HE sf l el l of al l cal i ber s, ezc&pt


shal l l oaded wi t h expt osi ve D. Al l i n a magazi ne may expl ode but
t he expl osi on may be l i mi t ed t o om pi l e by ar r angi ng t he mat er i al
i n accor dance wi t h i nst r uct i ons f ar pi l i ng separ at e- l oadi ng shel l gi ven
i n par agr aph 172 c ( 5) . St r uct ur al damage usual l y i s l i mi t ed t o
adj acent bui l di ngs. Most mi ssi l es wi l l f al l wi t hi n 500 yar ds.

CLASS T.
QLANTI TYUFbUNDSOFFxPI 6L 1+VEI

QUANTI TY- DI STANCE TAME


E4I NI JAUM yNl ARRI CADEQ DLI TANCF I N FRl T FROM NMAA! ] T;

No O~

I n6abl l . d
Bui l di ng

f bl l r
Rai l way

25, 000

1. B00

1, 840

500, 000 ,

l , sou

1, 1100

I >j 1JTl on i t ems

P" hl l c
1110- Y

1. 800
1, 500

, 10 avaguzi ae3,
Of t bi s CLMA Fr o st ar ed i d mnr set C W

J, Sayazi ne

t hi

20t 1
.I

300

quant i t y- di i r t aawc r e-

qui mhwni q of CLaw' 9, buLl t ew10al " N_ Wi 1L Caver n, cxecgt t hat uo di si oncea Lasr t baa osWhpi t
The quant i t y comuder ad
t he di at aXC* pr a=i i bed i 0 Ski s t abl e f ar Cl an 7 i t ems at , e out hor i azd .
WLL1 be i n acc* r dancr svl ds par ogr oph 132 11 CS ) , when dt ael ced dud pr aper U eeI VOl t at ed i n
ss, bove- ar auod rrX
- For . wr ap i n st aadat d i gl oo , nat AO an, pmsdl kPed di smXea may be hal ved t r cmal l si ded
e" apc t he dL4" gad.
Moxi mur d quant i t y pr r l l dt t ed at any u04 1Xt i on. W
I ' * " nmanzi aee A- Lt h max1mum capaci ,
a gvaot i t p or e i n use aQ t o be i awt aUed, r educed di at nmm may he
t i as svbawat i al i y Jeer t han W
obt ai r aud f r omt he 0I r r ce ni t he Croi ei Ot Or dr wnce .

Pr i mer pomusai on el ent et t t s, del onai or &, pr i mel ' ol or r i eni s, and bl ast i ng ceps, packed
i n accor dance wi t h or dnance dr awi nAs, Al l t he. cont ent s pf a maga
si ne may expl ode at one t i me. However , as t he t ot al amount of expl osi ves i s smal l and not cl osel y conf i ned, st r uct ur al damage usual l y
i s l i mi t ed t o adj acent magazi nes. Li ght mi ssi l es of ver y l i mi t ed r ange
ar e f or med.
( 8)

B.

CLAss

det onat or a t ot r bor kba, del onahng

CLASS S.
OUMTI TYW
CW
NOSOFEXPLOSI VI I I

QUANTI TY- DI STANCE TABLS

VLAI e2I " Eb DI STANCE I N FEET FI OM NEARkSTI


I MI NI MYM W
I nl , ab' I ed
I ul l dl ng

PXbl i <
2 I Lvr ay

2 1 000 1

980

590

300

3011

$, 004

1, 209

720

360

300

10, 000

1, 500

900

450

300

15, 000

1, 610

970

440

300

2o . oaol

1, 140

1, 040

510

300

Nor OVN

XX- Pwabl i t
i Wpl nvar .

Magozi , r "

1Fa# et oeaga i n zt oadur d I gl oo magat sl nea, pr escr i bed di st ar t oes m


ay be bal vnd f r om al L si des
eXapt t he dawn or d . Di st an0d f or abovr gf OUA( l magazi nes may be r adueed one- bel l by r ue
Of bar r i cades .
FFar goent i t i et l oss t han 2, 000 pounds or vol ) Lwi ve, di st ance 0wo I p t he t abl e f or CLeau 9
and Cur s 10 enl ot dvas may be I t Rad-

' Af e: i mamm quant i t y per mi t t ed at soy one 10CECU0 .


244

TM 9- 1900

Far . 172
Car e, Handl i n4and Pr eser vabou

( 9) CLAss 9. Bul k pr i r n4ng, i ni t i at i ng, and hi gh expl osi ves; f l ashl i ght powder ; phot of f ash compasi f i on; demol i t i on bl ocks- ` pr i f nacor d"
3
det onat i ng cor d; spott i ng char ges: bl ack powder ; dynami t e; M
k
of f ensi ve hat ed gr enades; t oo,, * pyr ot echni c mat er i al s bef or e
f i naf consol i dat i on, except Mar mat e and ot her sl ow bumi r 7g i ncendi ar y
compound%( f oot mt e` Cl ass 9 Quant i t y- Di st ance Tabl e) ; EC bl ank
f i r e powder oant ai ni ng l ess t hen 30 per cent wat er ; gt dckmat ch;
doubl e- base smokel ess po} vci er , and si ngl e- base smokel ess powder wi t h
Fveb t hi ckness l ess t han 0, 019 i nch. Expl osi ves i n t hi s gr oup i ncl ude
l ead azi de, mer cur y f ul mi nat e, PETN. pent oht e, t et r yt ol , RDX, Composi t i on A, Composi t i on B, Composi t i on B. -2 . Composi t i on C, Composi t i on C- 2, t or pex, and mi xt ur es of magnesi umand bl ack powder . I f
mor e t han 2, 5( 10 pounds of l ead azi de, mer cur y f ul mi nat e, or PETN
ar e t o be st or ed i n a si ngl e magazi ne, speci Rl per mi ssi on must be obt ai ned f r om t he of f i ce of t he Chi ef of Or dnance,
I n a f i r e, bl ack
powder bur ns wi t h expl osi ve r api di t y ; hi gh expl osi ves may bur n or
expl ode dependi ng upon t he mat er i al , quant i t y, and degr ee of conf i nement ,
CLASS 10.
Demol i t i on, f r agment at i on, - and phat of f ash
( l 0)
bombs; bombs l oaded wi t h Comp. B andt r i f onal ; bani al or e t or pedoes;
t or pedo war heads: HE at t t kank mi nes; ant i per sonnel mi nes M
3;
HE- l oaded AT gr ar l adm HE 4. 2- i nch mor t ar shel l ; Li vens HE shel l
bt r r sf er s f or chemi cal shel l or , bombs; auxi l i ar y boost er s; HE mor t ar
an7awni t i on ( 1dr ger t han 81- mm) ; HE r ocket shel l wi t h or wi t hout
mot or s assembl ed t her et o, except 4, 3- i nch TNT- l oaded r ocket T22,
and f i xes! and semi f zed ar t i l l er y amr nur yi t i on cont ai ni ng penf ol i t e,
assembl ed as compl et e r ouadW( f oot not e' , Cl awes 9 and 10 Quant i i yDi et ance Tabl e) . Al l t he cont ent s of a magazi ne may expl ode at one
t i me. I f t hi s happens, st r uct ur al damage caused by t he pr essur e
geneni t ed i s not l i kel y t o occur at t he di st ance gi ven i n t he t abl e.
Most mi ssi l es wi l l f al l wel l wi t hi n t hese di st ances. W
hen f r agmeot at i on bombs ar e concer ned, di st ances speci f i ed i n Cl asses 9 and 10
t abl e wi l l not be l ess t han t he di st ances as st at ed i n t he Cl ass 4 Qunnt i t y- Di st ance ' Fabl e, but may be one- hal f t t t e di st ance as st at ed i n t he
Ct ass 4 t abl e when st or ed i n concr et e i gl oo magazi nes, except f r om
t he door end.
( 11)
CLASS 11 . Chemi cal ar mmuni t i on except oompf ei e r ounds
and t hat cont ai ni ng whi t e phosphor us . Chemi cal shel l , bombs, and
gr enades st or ed and i ssued by t he Or dnance Depar t ment ar e not
245

TM 9- 1900

Eag. 172
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr e3er val i oxl
CLASSES 9 AND 10.

MI NI MUM I JNRARRI C- hEO DI STANCE I N FI ET FW


ht MEAI EST" " " t

9YANTI l r i i POUNGSf l FE1SPLOSI Vf i


4r r r

?l ot Owr
10

14
25
SO
100
2 017
300
400
Soo
600
900
S00
900
1, 000
1, 500
2, 000
3, 000
4, 000
5, 000
6, 000
7, 001)
8. 000
9, 000
f 0, 000
15, 000
20, 001)
25000
30, 000
35, ) 01)
40, 000
45, 000
50, 000
55, 000
b0, 000
65, 000
70, 000
75, 1) 00
80, 000
85, 000
90, 000
93, 000
100, 000
125, 000
150, 000
175, 000
200, 000
225, 000

25
50
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1, 000
1, 500
2, 000
3, 000
4 r O00
5, 000
6, 000
7, 000
8. 000
9, 000
10, 004)
15, 000
20, 000
25, ODO
30, OOQ
35, 000
40, 000
45, 000
50, 000
55, 000
60, 000
65, 000
99, 000
95, 000
80, 000
85, 000
9a, a0o
95, 000
100, wo

125, 000
150, 000
17$400
200, 000
225, 000
2sa, oo0' a

QUANTI TY- DI STANCE 7ABLE

L ehi t ad
Rvl l dl r , s

Ar hl k
hal l way

145

40
9' 0
90
140
0a
310
3110
430
480
520
550
590
610
670
72G
; 91)
$$0
901)
940
970
1, 000
1, 020
1, 040
1. 130
1, 2 uo
1, 310
1, 390
1, 470
1, 540
1 ' f s 10
1, 680
1, 750
1, 820
1, 880
1, 930
1, 990
2, 040
2, 080
2, 120
2, 150
2, 180
2, 250
2, 320
: , 3190
2 . 450
2, 520
1, 590

1145
l ay
240
390
520
640
720
800
1160
920
980
1, 020
1, 120
1, 100
1, 320
1, 420
1, 500
1, 560
1, 610
1, 660
1, 700
1, 740
1, 890
2, 040
2, 180
2 , 320
12, 450
2, $70
2 1 64)
2, 810
2, 920
3, 030
3, 130
3, 220
: 5, 310
13, 390
3, 460
3, 520
3, 580
a r s3a
3, 750
3, 870
3, 989
4, 000
4. 200
4, 310

I
I

f hl i c
hi ghway
45
4S

45
70
110
154
140
220
240
260
280
300
310
330
30
390

420
450
470
4A0
500
510
520
S6Q
600
650
690
731)
770
aoo
840
880
910
940
970
1, 000
1, 020
1, 040
1, 060
1, 080
1, 090
1, 124
1, 160
1, 190
1, 2: 1
1. 260
. _L1300

Megeel ne
60
60
r H)
RO
11) 0
120
130
140
150
158
l i b- 5
170

l au
210
130
260
2 s0
300
300
so0
Soa
300
300
300
300
300
300
; 00
300
300
300
400
400
400
40D

400
41) 0
400
400
400
400
Soo
800
Ban
So0
BOG
800

, Foe st or ci p of Cl ams 4 and 10 pyr at echni X or pyr at ecl t al r. mat er i al s, I ho t ot al quant i t y i d


haaer doUj mst ar i al et #dy 4oa l ocat i on ehokdd not exceed 50, 00 paunds end' mun not et cM?4
200, 000 MvodX
2F9r st or age ) d st andar d i sl oo mogedom, pr esr r LWd di r t aoaes nuy be hal ved f r om al l Bi des
e* capt t he 6OOr End. Di st sama I n sbove. gr aund m&Raei ot s may bo r adaeed t o 47 Xhaf t f by use
of bar r i caded .
a6l nst MUm per mi t t ed dt pay ooe l ocst bn,
of r acket swXi t h mot or s waem1Aad t o shel l not AI Led wi t h hi sh 6x00si ve ser a st ar ed i s above_
ehr Und mosa: t md, t he nh&R&An, . M shoul d be MPer at ad f r om each Ot her by CLam 4 di nt ar ' 4w.

TNT. I oaded r ocket s wi t h l oaded mot or s aadwbLad t o dt el l er a dosi gnet ed C] sas 10 scomwA"

TM 9- 190D

Par . 172
Car e, Har xh; n4g. and Pr eser vat i on

consi der ed t o be an expl osi ve hazar d, and no l i mi t has been pl aced


on t hi s t ype of ammuni t i on as f ar as quant i t y- di st ance l i mi t s ar e
concer ned. However , st or age must compl y wi t h t he r equi r ement s of
par agr aph 174 and t he Combi nat i on St or age Char ( , par agr aph 173.
CLAS$$ 12.
Expl osi ves sf i ch as ammoni um r i i t r al e, DNT,
( 12)
and wot ni f r ocef f ul ose, These mat er i al s ar e i nsensi t i ve and can be
det onat ed onl y by ver y st r ong i ni t i at i on_ W
hen st or ed i n an expl oay be pr oj ect ed
yi ues ar ea wher e t her e i s a possi bi l i t y t hat expl osi ves m
i nt o t hem. t hey wi l l be st or ed i n accor dance wi t h t he r egul i at i ons f or
Cl ass 9 expl osi ves, W
Len st or ed i n an ar ea of f i r e hazar ds onl y and
separ at ed by i nhabi t ed- bui l di ng di st ances f r om ar eas cont ai ni ng eapl uoi ves or ammuni t i on, t hese mat er i al s may be st or ed i n accor dance
wi t h t he r egul at i ons f or smokel ess powder ( see Cl ass ? Quant i t yDi st ance Tabl e) .
g. Qunnt i t y- t l i t Xt nnce I al r l e f or hi l l si de ni r l gaszi nes. Thi s t abl e
appl i es t o magazi nes so const r uct ed t hat t hey ar e cover ed by ear t h
at l east t o t he hi ghest poi nt r eached by expl osi ves st or ed wi t hi n t hem,
and separ at ed f r omeach ot her by cont i nuous gr ound i ts such manner
t hat t he l evel of t he separ at i ng mat er i al does not f al l bel ow t he l i sl e
j oi ni ng t he hi ghest poi nt s r eached by expl osi ves st or ed wi t hi n adj acent
magazi nes.
OUANTI Tf Of M
I " 106SI VES
( I n J. " Mds uR t ol
20, 000

R11r ANCE
IIh f. . l l

30, ( 300

l 00
110

4o, ( 30a

120

50. 000
K000
70, 000
80, 000
90, 000
100, 000
125, 440
130, 000
175, 000

130
135
140
145
150
155
165
175
V95
190
200

200, 000
25( ) , 000

t oa_ ' r ha 14t t l e &st ance i s t he t abl r h61ow A" Ld be oh. r . ad f or x11 r or kr t s wi t h t padpd
mot or s at t ached t o Joadod Ot Unl oaded shel l whoa ; t or 9d I n shove- gr vued M9l er i oe.
LOCATI ON

M
I NI MUMJMI SSME DM
TANCI E

I nhabi t ed Bui l di ng .

1. t axhnunt f l i ght r ange of FW


hsl oe 4, 3I O f r et , wl dcht vor i t l est

d4 4, % of maxunumf l i ght r a r a a r ocket OF 2, 540 f ast , whi ch.


ever i s Lsmt
30% of maxi mmM Mt l ht r ange of r odeo of t , 3oo f eet , whl ebsvaf i t l and
1 1f or r bwage of f ar ed and mmdr gad ar ; JI Lef y ammuni t i on gpgt al qi ne vmmUt o- . Cl an 9 and 18
yvaot i t y- dl at af w. t * Ppt Y wMept t hat di st anaaa Jog* t han t hose oppl I cobt a 10 Ci mm4 anonvoi "
t , 4r i ar r sot aut hoci r cd.
Publ i c Rai l way

PubLl c Hi ghway

247

Par .

TM 4- 1400

172

Car e, Het l dl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on


h.

I nt r upt ant quant i t y- di ei t t ucr , t. hl e,


QUANI I TY X
X
L1N
SFFARATE b1i I M
NO 09 W
I THI N
$URSTAM
I At oi VLDI NG W
ALLS
j i m POYI I m

D. w

Nvl

M
I N1M
UMUN6AER( CADED
DI STAFKR OETW
EEN
[ I N Fl i r t

L" 1=ar

10
10

X5

25
50

50
100

60
80

t Do

200

100

209

300

120

300

400

130

400

Saa

140

500

1050

160

750

1, OU0

1R0

1, 090

1, 500

210

1, 500
2, 000

J, 000
3, 000

3, 000

4, 000

4 . 000

S, 00o

5, 000

15, 00a

: X0u
a2q

6, 900

7, 000

340

7, 000
8, 000

8. 040
9, 000

360

4, 000

10, 000

4011

10, 000

12, SOO

470

12, 509

15, ooo

450

15, 000

17, 500

17, 500
20, 000

30, 000
25, OOo

4713
490

X$, Ooo

230
260
a 1i o

380

530

30, 000

560
s90

30, 000
35, 1100

' 35, 000


40, 000

40, 009

45 . 000

45, V011

50, 000

660

50, 000

55, 000

55, 000

50, 0oo

680
700

60, 0ou

65, 000

720

65, 000

70, 000

740

70, U0
15, 0( 10

35, 000

770

80_006

780

W
) , 000

790

( I S, 000

85, 000
911, 0"

40, 000

95, 000

$24)

95, 000

100, 000

R20

100, 000

12S, 000

900

125, 090

150, 000

950

150. 04( 1

175, 000

1, 000

110s, nO0
20( 1, 000

200, 000

1, 050

225, 0"

1, 300

225, 0 00

290, 0130 _,

I ADr Aas t o W
Rh expl ooLwi a or

i t er oe bodeei

620
'

640

800

1, 150

wi t h hi gh cxpLcvi r m
248

TM 4- 1900

Par . 173
Car e, Har t dl i nd, and Pr eser vat i on

173.

CONi RI NATI OX ( I 41I XEO) STORAGE OF AM14R. ' 11' 1TI Ol t i


AND EXPLOSI VES AT POSTS, CAM
PS, AND STATI ONS,

a. The f ol l owi ng t abl e and char t show t he ammuni t i on and expl o


si ves whi ch may be st or ed t oget her at post s, camps, and st at i ons . Al l
i t ems i n a gr oup may be st or ed t oget her . Wher e an " X appear s at
t he i nt er sect i on of a hor i zont al r ow and a ver t i cal col umn al l i t ems
i n t he t wo gr oups may be st or ed t oget her . Wher e an " C+" appear s at
t he i nt er sect i ons of ' 3a hor i zont al r ow and a ver t i cal col umn al l i t ems
i i i t hose t vw gr oups may be st or ed t oget her i f t he t ot al expl osi ves
cont ent of t he i t ems of t he t wo gr oups st or ed t oget her i n one r nsgazi ne or r evet ment does not exceed 1000 pounds,
h. Mi xed st or age as per mi t t ed by t hi s t abl e and char t does not
aut hor i ze vi ol at i on of t he quant i t y- di st ance t abl es f or t he st or age of
ammuni t i on and expl osi ves at post s, camps, ar i d st at i ons. Wher e t wo
or mor e quant i t y- di st ance cl asses of ammuni t i on and expl osi ves ar e
st or ed t oget her i n a magazi ne or r evet ment t he i nt er magazi ne di st ance and saf et y di st ances t o i nhabi t ed bui l di ngs, publ i c r ai l ways, and
publ i c hi ghways shal l be t hose speci f i ed f or t he most ' hazar dous cl ass
of mat er i al st or ed t her ei n.
e. Gr oup- m. Ammuni t i on and expl osi ves ar e cl assi f i ed i nt o gr oups
as f ol l ows and shown i n t he Combi nat i on St or age Char t bel ow;
I . CARTRI pGES I +OR SMALL ARWAND OTHER SI MI LAR CAR.
TRI DG>~S EXCEPT THOSE W
I TH EXPL09I Y$ BULLETS: I ncl uded

ar e bal l , t r acer , ar mor - pi er ci ng, i ncendi ar y, ar mor - pi er ci ngi xi cendi ar y, bl ank, f r angi bl e, gal l er y pr aCt i ae, guar d, hi ghpr essur e t est . and subcal i ber car t r i dges, cal i ber s . 22 t o . 60
i ncl usi ve; 20- mm car t r i dges, ar mor - pi er ci ng, hal l , and pr act i ce ; shot gun car t r i dges ; gr enade pr opel l i ng car t r i dges, t r ench
and f i el d mor t ar s i gni t i on car t r i dges, bl ank car t r i dges f or
mi ni at ur e bombs, and car t r i dges f ar bomb cl ust er adapt er s,
when st or ed separ at el y f r om t he compl et e Tounds of whi ch
t hey ar e component s, and car t r i dges packed wi t h gr enadepr oj ect i on adapt er s.

11.

MI LPTARY PYRoTECHN[ Cs : I ncl uded ar e al l t ypes


and gr auxi d si gnal s, f l ar es, and l i ght s .

of

ai r cr af t

III,

SMOKE AMAI UNI ' r i oN EXCRPT THAT LOADED W


I TH W
P: I ncl uded ar e al l f i xed, semi f i xed, and separ at e- l oadi ng shel l ,
mor t ar shel l , gr enades, r ocket s, bombe, - smoke pot s, and
dr ums, and cont ai ner s f i l l ed wi t h HC. FS, FM, and col or ed
smoke mi xt ur es.

I V,

I NCENb[ ARY AMMUNI TI ON,

and r ocket s .
Xsei al n - 48 - 16

249

I ncl uded ar e bombs, gr enades,

Par . 173

t M 9- 19d0
Car e, Handt i ng, and Pr cwr vai i on

X- Yvn

L
9wv .9
3e
u3 s
e

Y; `rX O O

OQ

?S

' r C k'

iS

`X,

OOO

O O

w
_ X A
C

ao

aX c
s

a7

0 W

u ' _.. , O

r XA . C

-;

X $

_q--

X
c y XX u

rA ..

t y 1H ; ;
F+ Fy

C
41

CV

a.

259

o
N

_ W

LX `X r .
CD C7
O, g

EC F X,

a
Xu X

3v

J ti H
X

CX
m
X

am z
X

xa
1 .4 w

ti+

m
cA
H

''

pay
FI H

Ad
4

TM 4- 14p0

Par . 773
Car e, Hat , dl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

V,

W
P AMMUNI TI ON: I ncl uded ar e f i xed, semi f i xed, and separ at e- l oadi ng shel l , mor t ar shel l , gr enades, r ocket s, and bombs,
l oaded wi t h whi t e phosphor us.
CHEMI CAL AMMUNI TI ON: I ncl uded ar e f i xed, semi f i xed, and
separ at e- l oadi ng shel l , mor t ar shel l , gr enades, r acket s, and
bombs, l oaded wi t h H, L, CG, PS, CNS, CN13, AC, CC, A- 1,
A- 2, C1i , E- 1, P- 1, CN, Ci t i 1- DM, DM, NC, and Cl chemi cal
composi t i ons.

VI I .

SEPARATE- LOADI NG PROPELLI NG CHARGES AND BULK PROPELLENT POW


DER$; I ncl uded ar e pr opel l i ng char ges f or cal i ber s

4. 5- i nch t o 1G- i nch i ncl usi ve. bul k pr opel l ent powder s of al l
cl asses, mor t ar i ncr ement s, and ot her pr opel l i ng char ges, when
packed separ at el y f r or n t he compl et e r ounds roc compl et e
char ges of whi ch t hey ar e a component .
VI I I .

FUZES, PRI NTERS, BOOSTERS, AND BURSTERS'


I ncl uded ar e
adapt er s, adapt er - boost er s, f uzes ( al l t ypes) , pr i mer s, pr i =er .
det onat or s, det onat or s, bl ast i ng caps, per cussi on caps, dest r t i ct or s, and bur st er s

I X. FI XED AND 5EMI FI XED AMMUNI TI ON, EXCEPT SMOKE, I NCENDI ARY, W
P, AND CHEMI CAL ;
I ncl uded ar e hi gh- expl osi ve,

hi gh- expl asi v" nt i t ank, shot , ar mor - pi er ci ng, pr act i ce, cani s
t er , shr apnel , and i l l umi nat i ng ammuni t i on f or - cal i beTs
37- mi n t o 120- mm; hi gh- expl osi ve, i ncendi ar y, and hi ghexpl osi ve- i ncendi ar y, 20- r nm ammuni t i on; al l car t r i dges l ot
40- mm: and 57- mmguns, and car t r i dges f or smal l ar ms vr i t h
expl osi ve bul l et s
31: .

MORTAR AMMUNI TI ON UP TO AND I NCLUDI NG 81- MM ( 3I NCH) AND HAND AND RI FLE GRI 3NADES EXCEPT SMOKE, I Nct r NbI ARY, W
P, AND CHEMI CAL : I ncl uded ar e hi gh- expl osi ve,

i l l umi nat i ng, and pr act i ce ammuni t i on ; ant i t ank, of f ensi ve,
f r agment at i on, and pr act i ce hand and r i f l e gr enades ; and
gr enade ki t s.
Xt . ROCKET- S, EXCEPr 5MOI t H, I NCEt 1D1ARY, W
p, AND CHEMi pAJ
I ncl uded ar e hi gh- expl osi ve, hi gh- expt asi ve- Wi t ank, i l l umi nat i ng, t ar get , and pr act i ce r ocket s; mot or s and al l l oaded
component s f or r ocket s .
XI I ,

LAND MI NES, FRAGMENTATI ON BOMaB ( FUZED) , AND MORTAR


SHELL 105- MM AND LARGER, EXCEPT W
OKE, I NCENDI ARY,
W
P, AND CHEMI CAL: I ncl uded ar e ant i t ank, ant i per sonnel ,

and pr act i ce mi nes ( wi t h f uzes) ; f r agment at i on bombs


( f used) ; bomb cl ust er s, hi gh- expl osi ve and pr act i ce; and hi gh_
expl osi ve and pr act i ce mor t ar shel l .
XI I L , SEPARATE- LOADI NG PRO, l ECTI LF$, EXCEPT WI ?, 9140118 AND
CHEMI CAL :
I ncl uded ar e hi gh- expl osi ve, ar mor - pi er ci ng,
25T

7M9- 1900

Par t . 173- - 174


Car e, Har xf l i r %and Pr eser vat i on

deck- pi er ci ng, and i l l ur ni nat i r ng shel l , and shr apnel f or cal i ber s 4. 5- i nch t o 16- i nch, i ncl usi ve.
XI V. Bor vi r l S,

DLPTH CHARGES, AERI AL MI NES AND AERI AL TORP, AND CHEMI CAL : I nPEDOES EXCEPT SMOKE, I NCENDI ARY, W

XV.

XVI .

cl uded ar e demol i t i on, gener al pur pose, ar mor - pi er ci ng, ser ni


ar r nor - pi er ci ng, hi gh capaci t y, l i ght case, and l eaf l et bombs;
dept h char ges ; aer i al mi nes; and aer i al t or pedoes.
I ncl uded
DEMOLI ' I ' t ON MATERI ALS AND HULK RXPLOSI V' ZS:
ar e bul k TNT, bul k expl osi ve " D, " pl ast i c expl osi ves, demol i t i on bl ocks, ni t r ost ar ch, cr at er i ng expl osi ves, bangel or e t or
pedoes, shaped char ges, snake char ges, pr i macor d and cor deau det onant _
DYNAMI TE, ALI , TYPES,

SP01" r I NG CHARGES,
XVI L BLANK A14MUNI TI ON FOR CANNON,
SMOKE PUFF CYI ARGES, HULK SLACK POW
I DER. I ncl uded ar e

al l component s l oaded wi t h bl ack powder ( except f uzes)


packed separ at el y f r om t he compl et e r ounds of whi ch t hey
ar e component s ; and al l f i r ewor ks i ncl udi ng si mul at ed gr enades, dago bombs, f i r ecr acker s, et c .
XV111 .

PH010FLASH BOMBS AND PHOTOFLASH POW


DE&

174, STORAGE or SPECI FI C TYPES.


a. Bl ack powder . Bl ack powder i n bul k. sal ut i ng, pr act i ce- bomb,
and smoke- puf f char ges shoul d be st or ed i n dr y and, i f pr act i cabl e,
bul l et pr oof magazi nes. Bl ack powder wi l l never be handl ed or st or ed
i n a bar r acks, gener al suppl y r oom, i nhabi t ed bui l di ng, or any bui l di ng heat ed by st oves or open f i r es, I n a magazi ne cont ai ni ng bl ack
powder , expl osi ves- oper at i ons saf et y ( nonspar ki ng) shoes wi l l be
wor n, and no wor k wi l l be done ot her t han t hat i nvol ved i n t he act ual
st or age and r emoval of t he powder f r om t he cont ai ner s and t he r emoval of spi l l ed gr ai ns. The f l oor of t he bui l di ng i n whi ch such
oper at i ons as r epacki ng of bl ack powder i s per f or med shoul d be cover ed wi t h a t ar paul i n or canvas . Sl ack powder does not det er i or at e
i n st or age i f kept dr y. Cont ai ner s of sal ut i ng, pr act i ce, and Smokepuf f char ges ar e st or ed wi t h t ops up. Cont ai ner s of bl ack powder
shoul d be car ef ul l y exami ned at t he t i me of r ecei pt f or weak spot s
and hol es, wi t h speci al at t ent i on t o exami nat i on f or smal l hol es, such
as t t i ai l punct ur es, whi ch ar e not i mmedi at el y evi dent . Damaged cont ai ner s ar e not r epai r ed ; t hei r cont ent s ar e t r ansf er r ed t o ser vi ceabl e
dr ums . Condensed moi st ur e may r ust t he cont ai ner or cor r ode t he
cap, W
hen cont ai ner s ar e pai nt ed, caps r epl aced, or cont ent s t r ansf er r ed, t he f Ql l owi ng condi t i ons must pr evai l ;
( 1) The wor k wi l l be done at l east 140 f eet f r om any t negar i ne
cont ai ni ng expl osi ves j Zr ammuni t i on.

TM 9- 1900

Par . 174
Car e, 1Yr i n4l i nd, and Pr eser vat i o n

( 2)
I f any powder i s spi l l ed, wor k wi l l st op unt i l t he spi l t sge i 3
car ef ul l y t aken up and t he spat washed wi t h wat er . The powder
t aken up wi l l be dest r oyed by dumpi ng i n wat er ,
( 3) I f t ool s ar e r equi r ed t o open a cont ai ner , onl y saf et y t ool s
wi l l be used, and t he oper at or wi l l be pr ot ect ed by a bar r i cade and
t he wor k wi l l be done i n st r i ct compl i ance wi t h i nst r uct i ons i ssued f or
t hi s pur pose by t he Chi ef of Or dnance.
( 4) The quant i t y of powder i n t he vi ci ni t y of oper at i ons wi l l be
kept t o a mi nhi num.
( S) Speci al car e wi l l be obser ved t o seo t hat al l i nf or mat i on
mar ked on t he or i gi nal cont ai ner i s r epr oduced when r epai nt i ng t he
ol d cont ai ner or t r ansf er r i ng t he cont ent s t o a new cont ai ner .
( 6) Empt y bl ack powder cont ai ner s wi l l be t hor oughl y washed
out wi t h wat er .
I P.
Hi gh expl nni ve, 6- TNf T, expl osi ve 1) , l et r yt , t r i t on bl ocks .
These , i r e st i bl e i n st or age and r equi r e onl y pr ot ect i on f r om moi st ur e
and, i f pr act i cabl e, f r omr i l l e bul l et s_ They ar e st or ed i n wax paper l i ned wooden boxes_ I n handl i ng l oose expl osi ves of t hi s cl ass, expl osi ves- oper at i onal saf et y ( nonspaWng) shoes shoul d be wor n. Nonspar ki ng t ool s shoul d be used i n openi ng boxes, Br oken cont ai ner s
may be r epai r ed or cont ent 3 t r ansf er r ed onl y at a di st ance of 100
f eet f r om a magazi ne cont ai ni ng expl osi ves or ammuni t i on,
e. Dynami t e. Dynami t e i s sensi t i ve t o host and shock. I t shoul d
be st or ed i n f i r epr oof , bul l et pr oof magazi nes. Nonspar ki ng t ool s wi l l
l i e used i n openi ng cases . >; mpt y cont ai ner s t hat have been used f or
dynami t e wi l l be dest r oyed by bur ni ng, Oi l y st ai ns of ni t r ogl ycer i n
wi l l be scr ubbed up wi t h a sol ut i on consi st i ng of SX gal l on of wat er ,
i,, gal l on of wood al cohol , and 2 pounds of sodi um sul f i t e or pot asXsl um sul f i t e_ St or e cases of dynami t e i ni t i al l y r i ght si de up, so car t r i dges wi l l l i e f l at , However , i n or der t o el i mi nat e t he possi bi l i t y of
exudat i on of ni t r ogl ycer i n f r omt he camr i dges, i t wi l l be necessar y t o
t ur n t he cases, based on aver age st or age t emper at ur es, i n accor dance
wi t h t he f ol l owi ng:
Aver og . 3r ar ogg Temper ol vr e

I nW
val

I Lf vr " a Tur ni ngs

Bel ow 30 1 F.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . Do not t ur n
6q`
30 t o
F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Si x weeks
64 t o 75" F. . . . .
. . . . . One mont h
Over 75' F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two weeks
The f i r st t ur ni ng wi l l r esul t i n t he cases bei ng bot t om si de up, wi t h
t he car t r i dges st i l l i n a hor i zont al posi t i on. Fr ozen dynami t e wi l l not
be t ur ned. Wher e dehni t e knowl edge as t o t he composi t i on of t he
dynami t e i s avai l abl e, st r ai ght ammoni umni t r at e dynami t es need not
be t ur ned
153

Par , 174

TM 9- 1900
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

d. Bul k t nkakel esK powder and r *epar at e- l oadi ng pr opeWi ng


.
C
har ges
( 1) These shoul d be st or ed i nsof ar as pr act i cabl e i n magazi nes
whi ch t i r e wel l - vent i l at ed and dr y. Si nce st nckel egs powder i s pr i nci pal l y a f i r e hazar d, a wel l - vent i l at ed f r ame st r uct ur e cover ed wi t h
cor r ugat ed sheet a4sbest os and bui l t on wel l - dr ai ned gr ound may he
used . Such bui l di ngs ar e of t en mor e easi l y kept dr y t hor n f i r epr oof
magazi nes. Sul k smokel ess powder i s packed i n al l st eel or i n nzet al l i ned wooden boxes, whi ch ar e st ar ed on t hei r si des wi t h dwi nage
enough t o i nsur e f r ee ci r cul at i on of ai r t hr ough al l par t s of t he pi l e,
( 2) The r net hod of st or i ng pr opel l i ng char ges i n f i ber or met al
cont ai ner s and bul k powder i n boxes i s 4hown on Qr dnance dr awi ngs.
W
hen cont ai ner s of char ges 10 i nches i n cal i ber and over ar e st or ed
on t hei r si des, pr o' Vi si on must be made t o pr event t he wei ght of t he
upper l ayer s cr ushi ng t he cont ai ner s i n t he l ower .
( 3) Eoxo%, cr at er , bundl es, and cont ai ner s shoul d be st or ed so
t hat t he cover s can be r eadi l y i nspect ed or r emoved and 9o t hat t he
cont ai ner s may he ai r t est ed i n st or age.
( 4) magar i nes i n whi ch smokel ess powder i s st or ed shoul d be
equi ppe( l wi t h a maxi mum- mi ni mum t her momet er whi ch shoul d be
r ead dai l y or as of t en as necessar y, I f t he t emper at ur e exceeds
10( 1' F f or 14 hour s car 85' F f or 72 hour s, t he magazi ne shoul d bn
cool ed by wet t i ng down t he ext er i or wi t h wat er ur by openi ng t he
door s end vent i l at or s at ni ght and cl osi ng t hem i n t he mor ni ng, I f
t hi s f ai l s t o r educe t he t emper at ur e, t he Cor nmancl i ng Of f i cer wi l l
deci de whet her t he st or es ar e t o be r emoved t o anot her magazi ne .
W
hen magazi nes ar e cool ed by such vent i l t t t i ost at ni gYr t , ef f ect i ve
measur es wi l l be t aken t o pr ot ect agai n&t f i r e a" d t o cl ose t he door s
i n case of r ui n,
( 5) Smokel ess powder . i n bul k or i n separ at e- l oadi ng char ges, i s
al wmys packed i n ai r t i ght cont ai ner s. I t i s i mpor t ant t hat such cont ai ner s r emai n Ai r t i ght unt i l t he powder i s umd. W
hen a shi pment
i s r ecei ved, ever y cont ai ner i s gi ven a vi sual i nspect i on t o see t hat i t
i s not damaged and t hat t he cover i s i n good condi t i on and t i ght ,
( 6) Met al cont ai ner s f ur pr opel l i ng char ges ar e f i t t ed wi t h a t est
hol e and pl ug i n t he cover so t hat t hey can be t est ed f or ai r t i ght ness
af t er t he cout ai ner s have been opened and cl osed, Ever y cont ai ner
i n whi ch a pr opel l i ng char ge i s st or ed wi l l be ai r t est ed when r ecei ved
and whenever i t i s subj ect t o handl i ng t hat mi ght cause i t t o l eak.
The t est i ng shoul d be done wi t h a t est i ng sel si mi l ar t o t he car - t r i dgest or age- case t est i ng set M1, 24- 12- 2 . However , a mot or dr i ven ai r
compr essor wi l l not be t aken i nt o a magazi ne i n whi ch expl osi ves or
kr nr nuni t i OSl ar e st ar ed_ I f t ho compr essor i s dr i ven by a gasol i ne
mot or , t he mot or shoul d be pl aced no cl oser t han 75 f act t o t he
magazi ne or at ny expl osi ve mat er i al . A pr vaf i um of 3 t o 5 pounds i s
254

TM 9- 1900

Por , 174
Car e, Han4l i ng, and Pr eser vef i on

used ; end i f r t o dr op i n pr essur e i s obser ved i n one mi nut e i t may be


assumed t he case i s not l eaki ng.
( 7) The nor mal odor i n a smokel es- i powder magazi ne i s a f ai nt
Odor of al cohol - et her . I f t hi s odor i s st r ong, i t pr obabl y i ndi cat es a
Ever y l eaki ng conuj i ner wi l l be r epai r ed or t he
l eaky cont ai ner .
cont ent s t r ansf er r ed t o an ai r t i ght cont ai ner . I f t he cemt ent s of any
cont ai ner show evi dence of dampness or moi st ur e, i t shoul d he segr egat ed and r epor t ed t o t he Ser vi ce Command or depar t r t t ent or dnance
of f i cer . Lei i ky due t o cover - , or gaskFl i , may be r epai r ed wi t hout
r emovi ng t he char ge f r om t he cont ai ner or t he cont ai ner f r om t he
magazi ne, pr ovi ded r ar e i s t aken t o guar d agai nst spar ks. Repai r of
l eaks i n ot her par t s of t he cont ai ner wi l l be under t aken onl y af t er
t he r emoval of t he char ge f r om t he cont ai ner and t hv. cont ai ner f r om
t he magasi na.
( 8) Per sonnel engaged i n ai r t est i ng must become r Hmi l i ar wi t h
t he odor and appear ance of decomposi ng powder , They shoul d exami ne each cont ai ner opened f or ai r t est f or t he char act er i st i c odor .
Ct ne of t he f i r st evi dences of danger ous det er i or at i on i s t he pr esence of
t he aci d odor of r i t Tous f umes i n pl ace of t he nor mal l y pr esent odor
of al cohol - et her , The odor or decomposi ng powder i s so char act er i st i c t hat i t shoul d not be mi 9t i ken.
( 9) Fi ber cont ai ner s or separ at e- l oadi ng pr opel l i ng char ges ar e
not usual l y opened unl ess t hey ar e damages ; t hen t he obar ge i s
t r ansf er r ed t o A ser vi ceabl e Met al cont ai ner . Fi ber cont ai ner s ar e
not r epai r ed.
( 10) Met al cont ai ner s may r ust . They may be r epai nt ed but
must be r emoved f r om t he magazi ne t o do wo. Car e r oust be t aken
t o r epr oduce f ai t hf ul l y t he or i gi nal mar ki ngs whenever cont ai ner s ar e
r epai nt ed or changed,
( 11) Soni c f i ne- gr ai n smokel ess powdi Xr s ar e al most as sensi t i ve
as bl ack powder and equal pr ecaut i ons shoul d be obser ved . The
pr i nci pal saf et y measur e i n r egar d t o smokel ess powder . however , i s
t he car ef ul wat ch f or det er i or at i on
e. Snt al t - ar mA annnuni t i t pr i .
( 1 ) Smal l - ar ms Nmmuni t i mi may be st or ed i n any magazi ne or
war ehuuye whi ch of f er s good pr ot ect i on agai nst t he weat her . W
hen
Magazi ne space i s hr ni t ed, i t may be st or ed i n a gener al war ehouse
by par t i t i oni ng or scr eeni ng of f a sect i on f or i t s excl usi ve use_ Thi s
r ef er s 14) smal l - ant es ammuni t i on onl y and not t o ot her t ypes wi t h
whi ch i t may t wx . st or ed i n s magazi ne. Good pr ot ect i on agai nst
moi st ur e and hi gl i t emper at ur c shoul d Mr-, pr ovi ded. Fr ee vent i l at i on
of al l par t s of t he Mi l e shoul d he i nsur ed, cl unnage bei ng used wher e
necessar y . Skyl i ght s and wi ncl ows near pi l es shoul d br : spaded so t hat
Ammuni t i on wi l l not l i e exposed t o di r oct sunl i ght . Car e shoul d be
t aken t ry avoi d pi l i ng ammuni t i on Mi er st eam 15 pes. Smal l - ar ms ami ss

Par . 174

TM 9- 1900
Car e, Handl i n$, and Pr csenvabar r

muni t i on packed i n boxes f i t t er s wi t h ai r t i ght met al l i ner s shoul d not


have t hese l i ner n opened unt i l t he ar nTTWni t i on i s about t o be used.
W
hen onl y a par t of a box i s used t he r emai ni ng ammuni t i on i n t he
box shoul d be pr ot ect ed r t gsi nst i naut hor i xei l handl i ng and use by
f i r ml y f ast eni ng t he cover i n pl ace. Ser vi ceabl e ammuni t i on t ur ned
i n by t r oops shoul d not be st or ed i n open boxes. I t shoul d be r e.
packed f or st or i ng and r ei ssued at t he f i r st oppor t uni t y, pr ovi ded i t
can be i dent i f i ed by l ot number . I f i t ear Mnt be i dent i f i ed b3- t ot , i t
Aut omat i c- f i l l y beCOMM gr adp 3 wi t h cer t ai n except i ons and shoul d
be di sposed of i n accor dance wi t h di r et - l i ons i n LTD 513 9- AMM4,
( 2) Tr acer end shot gun ammuni t i on shoul d al ways l i e st or ed
under t he best cover avai l abl e, pr ef er abl y i n a bui l di ng pr ovi di ng
pr at ei - t i on agai nst dampness and havi ng adequat e vent i l Ht i nn,
1 . Fi si vl and t , emi l i xi - d ani nt uni t i ar n, gr euml r . A ant i hcr aonnel
1i nr es. anal i nor t ar t +hel l .
( 1) These may be st omd i n any magazi ne wi t h good pr ot ect i on
f r om t he weat her but pr ef er abl y i n f r ppr oof or f i r e- r esi st ant maga
zi nes t o r edone t o a mi ni mum t he danger of f i r e or cxpl osi oi t i . MoRt
of t he st andar d boxes and bundl es i n whi 0i t hi s t ype of ammuni t i on
i s pr i cked ar e pr ovi ded wi t h cl eat s and t hose t hat ar e not may be
pi l ed wi t h dunnuge t o i n%ur u f r ee Ci r cul at i on of ai r . Except si nel l Ar ms ammuni t i on, f i xed ammuni t i on i s usual l y packed i n i ndi vi dual
f i ber cont ai ner s whi ch ar e t hen packed i n bundl es of t hr ee cont ai ner s.
I f t he ammuni t i on i s not r emoved f r om t hese seal ed cont ai ner s unt i l
i t i s used, i t shoul d r emai n i n good condi t i on . Ser vi ceabl e r ounds
whi ckr have been r emoved f r ont t hei r cont ai ner s, such " t hose t ur ned
i n by t r oops, shoul d be pl eccd i n cont ai ner s whi ch shoul d t hen be
scal ed wi t h f r i ct i on t ape and shel l ac bef or e t hey ar e agai n pl aced i n
st or age, Thi s pr ocedur e wi l l pr ot ect t he r ound agai nst det er i or at i on
and t he pr i mer agai nst acci dent al bl ows.
( 2) Assembl y of f uzes t o unf azed st ei ns i s f or bi dden wi t hi n 100
f eet of a magazi ne cont ai ni ng expl osi ves ur ammuni t i on,
( 3) I t i s sound pol i cy t o mi x quant i t i es of di f f er ent si zes and
t ypes i n each of 4ever al magazi nes r at her t han t o st or e onl y one ki nd
i n each magazi ne. For +; xempl e. t her e may be on hand a suf f i ci ent
quant i t y of 75- mi n hi gh- expl osi ve r ounds t o f i l l one magazi ne and
enough 7S- r nm ar mor - pi er ci ng r ounds f ar anot her , l at her t han st or e
al l hi gh- expl osi ve r ounds i n one magazi ne and al l ar mor - pi er ci ng
r oum.l s i n anot her , i t i s bct t er st or age pr act i ce t o st or e hal f of each
t ype i r , t"ach mag; i r i ne_ Thwi , i n case of acci dent t o one magazi ne,
t her e i s st i l l a suppl y of bot h t ypes of ammuni t i on do hand.
X. t i ci mr at e- l oadi ng shel l ,
( 1) Separ at e- l oadi ng and unf i xed xhel l shavl d be st or ed i n f i r epr oof magazi nes cont ai ni ng H mi ni mum of i nf l ammabl e mHt er i el s.
I r on or st eel dunnage i r pr ef er r ed t o wood and i t shoul d be connect ed
xsa

TM 9- 1900

Par , 174
Car e, Nami l i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

by el ect l i ( ' AI conduct or s and gr ounded_ I f i t i s necessar y t o use wood


f or dunnage, t he amount shoul d be kept t o an absol ut e mi ni mum_
Unf uzed shel l shoul d be f i t t ed wi t h an i r on or st eel f uze hol e pl ug.
I f i t i s necessar y t o r ol l f uzed shel l , i t shoul d be done car ef ul l y and
sl owl y i n or der t o avoi d t he r i sk of ar mi ng t he f uze.
i ' i ) I n or der t o conf i ne an expl osi on t o one st ack of shel l i n
ci hcj ve- gr ound magazi ne st or age, t he f ol l owi ng pr ecaut i ons wi l l be
obser ved ;
( a) Shel l shoul d be st or ed i n si ngl e st acks, nose t o nose and
base t o base ( f i g. 156) . Shel l up t o Hnd i ncl udi ng 10 i nches i n
di amet er shou) d he st acked i n accor dance wi t h f i gur e 156, and di st ances speci f i vd shoul d t oe ment t ai ned i f t he shel l ar e l oaded wi t h
TNT ne t i mat ol . I f t he she11 ar e l oaded wi t h expl osi ve D, t he di st anct X need be onl y l ar ge enough t o per mi t i nspect i on of t he shel l and
of t he f uze cavi t i es .
1. I n i gl oo- t ype r nagar i nes. shel l st or ed i n doubl e st ocks . baset u- base i n cont act , wi t h an i nspect i on ai sl e bet ween noses ( f i g. 125. 1) .
( b) The nose- t o- nme and base- t o- baee di st ances bet ween r ows
shoul d be equal ,
( c) The nose- t o- nosc di st ances f or each cal i ber shel l ( f i g. 158 and
or dnance dr awi ngs) shoul d be st r i ct l y obser ved and t he number of
shel l i n each st ack shoul d be kept i t a mi ni mumconsi st ent wi t h t he
st or age space avai l abl e,
( 3) Shel l over 10 i nche i n di amet er may be st or ed on t hei r
si des yr on t hei r bases. W
hen st or ed on t hei r bases, t her e shoul d be
a 1- i nch boar d bet ween t he shel l and t he f l oor t o pr oi ect t he shel l
f r om moi st ur e ; shel l l oaded wi t h expl osi ve D may be st ar ed i n i nt i mat e cont act but shel l l oaded wi t h TNT shoul d be separ at ed by a
di st ance equal t o t he cal i ber of t he shel l .
( 4) The r ot at i ng bands on al l pr oj ect i l es shoul d be car ef ul l y
pr ot ect ed by gr ommet s or some r at her ef f ect i ve means_ Dent s or cut s
i n t he band may cause t he shel l t o f unct i on i mpr oper l y i n t he gun.
1k .
Bombe. GP and SAP bombs have compar at i vel y t hi n wal l s
And ar e one of t he most hazar dot i s t ypes of ammuni t i on t o st or e because of t hei r t endency t o det onat e i n mass i f a f i r e occur s i n, or a
heat ed f r agment be pr oj ect ed i nt o, t he magazi ne i n whi ch t hey ar t
st or ed . Saf et y cat s be obt ai ned oi t l y by r educi ng t he possi bi l i t y of
f i r e t o t he absol ut e mi ni mum. Bombs shoul d be st or ed i n a f i r epr oof
magazi ne wi t h i r on or st eel dunnage. I f wood must be used f or
dunnage, t he amount shoul d be kept t o a mi ni mum. St eel dunnage
shoul d be connect ed by el ect r i cal connect or s and gr ounded . A gr ound
syst em separ at e f r om t he l i ght ni ng pr ot ect i ve syst em of t he magazi ne
shoul d be pr ovi ded. Bombs not i nt ended f or i mmedi at e shi pment
shoul d 1).e st or ed as above. Fuzes or pr i mer - det onat or s shoul d be
257

Par . 174

TM 9- 1404
Car e, Handl i nAand Pr eser vat i on

st or ed i n a separ at e magazi ne, Al l hor nbs shoul d be st acked so t hat


t he f uze cavi t y r eds be easi l y i nspect ed. Fr agment at i on bombs ar e
st ar ed i n t he same manner as GP and SAP bombs .
i . Fuzes, pr i n%er s, pr i ni er 4l r. l unat or s, t hg( Onat nr s, and hou3l r - r a,
These Component s am usual l y packed i n her met i cAl l y seal ed con
t ai ner s and boxes. Car e shoul d be i r ) ken i n packi ng t o see t hat t hey
ar e pr oper l y suppor t ed i n r acks or t r ays and pr ot ect ed agai nst shock
or r ough handl i ng. Even when pr oper l y packed, t hi s cl as9 of component s shoul d be handl ed wi t h gr eat car e. Par t l y f i l l ed boxes shoul d
be kept secur el y cl osed. Magazi nes f or t he st or age of f uzes shoul d
be smal l t o l i mi t t h(,. l oss of t hi s t ype of mat er i al , an<l t he quant i t y
of f uzes, pr i mer s, et c, . st or ed i n any one magazi ne shoul d be kept t o
a t ni ni mur i t i , con . 4i st ent wi t h t he st or age space avai l abl e. St or age of
al l on hand of any one t ype i n t t si ngl e magazi ne i s t o be avoi ded i f
possi bl e.
j , PsI r wc- el i ni ci _ Pyl l ot echTni cs r equi r e pr ot ect i on agai nst moi st ur e. d8Tr 3pness, and hi gh t emper at ur e. Dr y, wel l - vent i l at ed magazi nes of appr oved f i r e- r ei ar dant const r uct i on shal l be used f or st or age.
Maxi mumand mi ni mumt her momet er s wi l l be pl nced i n r epr esent at i ve magazi nes i n whi ch pyr ot echni cs ar e st or ed, i n gener al , t he
ni agazi nes shoul d nut be pr ovi ded wi t h heat ,
Except t hose used
sol el y f or st or age of Cl ass 1 mat er i al or f i ni shed boxed pyr ot echni c
ammuni t i on, magazi nes shoul d not be pr ovi ded wi t h i nt er i or i l i umi n 4t i on ot her t han t hr ough uae of por t abl e saf et y bat t er y l amps_ Pyr ot echni c i nat er i ul t hat has been wet i s hazar dous t o st or e, consequent l y
any boxes t hat show si gns of dampness wi l l be opened and i f t he
pyr at ec1mi c mat er i al i s wet . i t shoul d be dest r oyed chap. 4) . Pyr o.
t echni cs shoul d be handl ed wi t l f car e even when pr oper l y packed,
Cer t ai n ki nds of t hi s mat er i al det er i or at e wi t h age and have an
expi r at i on dat e on t he cont ai ner s, Car e shoul d be t aken t o obser ve
t he di r ect i on f or di sposal of t hi s mat er i al at t he t i me i ndi cat ed,
k. Cher r pi eal ai nni nni t i ct n.
( 1) Chemi cal ammuni t i on shoul d not be st or ed wi t h ot her cl asses,
pr i nci pal l y because of t he di f f i cul t y and r anger encount er ed i n f i ght i ng a f i r e i nvol vi ng chemi cal mat er i al s, Al l muni t i ons cont ai ni ng
chemi cal agent s ar e st or ed i n such a manner t hat each i t em i s accessi bl e f or i nspect i on and may be easi l y r emoved f r om st or age i n case
i t shoul d devel op a l eak. Thi s t ype of ammuni t i on must be i nspect ed
f or t eaks once a mont h, Any l eaki ng cont ai ner shoul d be r emoved
downwi nd t o awai t di sposal .
( 2) Whenever a magazi ne ennt ai r ni ng chemi cal ammuni t i on i s
opened, a r esponsi bl e of f i cer or For eman shoul d be pr esent t o det ect
t he odor of escapi ng gas. I t such an odor i s pr esent , ai l per sons
ent er i ng t he magazi ne wi l l wear t he pr ot ect i ve devi ces pr oper f or
259

TM 9- 4" 0

Par . 174
Car e,

Hd1xdI i ng, bl r gd

Pr eser vat t of !

t he gr oup, al l wi ncl ows and door s of t he magaxi ne wi l l be opened,


and t he l eaki ng cont ai ner sought out and r emoved,
( 3) Each t ype of chemi cal at nmuni t i or i i s pr ef er abl y st or ed al one,
but may be st ar ed wi t h ot her chemi cal s wi t hi n t he same st or age
gr oup. The speci al equi pment . as l i st ed f or each gr oup of 4". hemi cal
agent s, shoul d be avai l abl e i n t he vi ci ni t y, but not i n t he magazi ne.
The chemi cal agent s ar e gr ouped A5 f ol l ows ;
( " a) Gr oup A. per si si &t t t bl i st er casual l y gases, H, L, ED, and PS.
Magazi nes f or t hi s gr oup shoul d have sur f ace- har dened concr et e
f l oor s, Speci al equi pment shoul d i ncl ude gas mask, pr ot ect i ve sui t ,
boot s, and gl oves f or each of f i ci r , man; or f i r eman whose dut i es r equi r e hi s pr esence i n t he magazi ne ; chl or i de of l i me; ker osene and
f l annel cl ot hs ; sodi um bi car l ) onat e; bor i c aci d; soap; and ampl e wdshi ng f aci l i t i es.
( h) Gr oup 8: har assi ng and r aonper si yt et r t cAyi f ahy gases and
smoke- pr oduci nd eher r i i cal muni l i nns, except MVP. Magazi nes shoul d
have sur f ace- har dened concr et e f l oor s 9r nct f r ee vent i l at i on, Speci al
equi pment shoul d i ncl ude ges masks, gl oves, sat ur at ed sol ut i on of
sodi um sul f i t e. %at ur at ed al cohol i c sol ut i on of sodi um hydr oxi de, l i t t er s, And wool Bl anket s . Masks wi l l bi - . car r i ed t i t al l t i mes by per sonnel i n t he magazi ne .
( c) Gr oup C"= spont aneousl y i nRammabl e muni t i on, phosphor us
( l VP) . Thi s t ype magazi ne shoul d have concr et e f l oor s wi t h el evat ed
si l l s t o per mi t Hp0di ng, SJX" Ci al equi pment i ncl udes t uhI S or bar r el s
f i l l ed wi t h wat er and l Ar ge enough t o cont ai n t he l ar gest component
st or ed, I n addi t i on, t her e shoul d be avai l abl e r ul ) ber gl oves and
boot s, z: ponges, pai l s, and copper sul f at e sol ut i on, W
her e t emper at ur e
cannot be cont r ol l ed i n st or age, speci al r ar e must be t aken i n t he
st or i ng of shel l cont Hi t f i ng whi t e phosphor us_ Whi t e phosphor us wi l l
mel t at t emper at ur es ebuve 145' ' F. Upon cool i ng and sol i di f i cat i on
of t he whi t e phosphor us; a voi d i s f or med i n t he t op of t he shel l
hl l er ( i n t he base i f t he shel l i s st oz5c( l nose down ; on t he si de, i f
st or ed on t he si de) adver sel y af f ect i ng bal l i st i cs upon use, Wher e
l t XXmper at ur e cannot he mai nt ai ned hel uw t he mel t i ng poi nt , r aor oge
shoul d be ar r anged so t hat t he ammuni t i on i s st or ed on i l s base, even
i f t hi s r equi r es r ear r angi ng r ounds wi t hi n t hei r packi ng_ Wher e t hi s
i s i mpr act i cabl e, t he ammuni t i on shoul d be st or ed on i t s si de.
( d) Gr oup D; i ncendi ar y and r oar l i l y hvqSf nf nabf e subst ances,
TH, FS, HC, CN, CN- DMgr enades, No wat er i s t o be used i n t hi s
magazi ne. No specal pr ecaut i ons +i r e necessar y cxr . ept t o keep wat er
and f i r e away, and t o r emove l eaki ng Cont ai ner s t o pr event as accumul at i on of l oose mat er i al i n t he magazi ne .
( 4) Muni t i ons f r om t wo or mor e gr oups wi l l not be st or ed t agat her wi t hout t he speci f i c appr oval of t he Chi ef of Or dx3f +nce.
254

Par . 174

TM 9- 1900
cor e, Har xdl i ng, and

1.

Pr e&er Vat i on

Rockel s.

( 1) Rocket s shoul d be st or ed i n a dr y, cool pl ace, and never i n


t he di r ect r ays of t he sun. They shoul d not be st or ed wher e t emper at ur es exceed 120` F unl ess ot her wi se speci f i ed on t he packi ng cont ai ner , Rocket ammuni t i on whi ch i s st or ed wi t h mot or assembl ed t o
t he shel l shoul d be gi ven speci al at t ent i on f or saf et y, Rough handl i ng
must be avoi ded as t he mi ssi l e r ange of r ocket s gr eat l y ext ends
danger ar ea i n event of acci dent over t hat of or di nar y f i xed aenmuni t i on, St or age shoul d be wi t h nose down when possi bl e, or i f not
possi bl e, wi t h al l r ocket s i n a si ngl e magazi ne poi nt ed i n t he same
di r ect i on. I n above- gr ound r naga2i nes, t he di r ect i on sel ect ed f or
posi t i oni ng r ocket s shoul d of f er t he l east damage t o per sonnel and
pr oper t y i n case of zi cci dent at i gni t i on ; i n i gl oos, r ocket s shal l not
poi nt t owar d door ends, St or age i n above- gr ound magazi nes shoul d
be avoi ded whenever pr act i cabl e,
( 2) Si nce r ocket pr opel l i ng char ges ar e i gni t ed by el ect r i cal
means, car e must be t aken t o pr ot ect r ocket s f r om bei ng i gni t ed by
st r ay el ect r i cal cur r ent s such as mi ght wi se f r omcont act wi t h ext ensi on cor ds, l i ght s, or el ect r i cal t ool s. Thi s hgxar d exi st s chi ef l y i n
l oadi ng and assembl y oper at i ons. However , r ocket ammuni t i on
packed f or shi pment i s- not any mor e suscept i bl e t han ot her t ypes of
ammuni t i on nor i s i t suscept i bl e t o i gni t i on by ext er nal spar ks such
as t hose whi ch r ni ght be st r uck f r om st eel wheel s and r ai l s.
( 3) Rocket s shoul d be st or ed al one whenever possi bl e . However , when combi ned st or age i s necessar y, chemi cal - l oaded socket s
wi t h or wi t hout mr t or s may be st or ed wi t h si mi l ar chemi cal ammuni t i on. Pr act i ce or i ner t - l oaded r ocket s wi t h mot or s may be st or ed
wi t h f i xed and semi f i xed shel l and shr apnel , Rocket mot or s not
assembl ed t o t he head may he st or ed wi t h bl ank ammuni t i on f or
cannon or wi t h r ocket s t o whi ch t hey bel ang.
m. I ner t mat er i ul & I ner t mat er i al s or empt y component s of
ammuni t i on such as dr i l l car t r i dges. t ar get - pr L1Cl i ce pr oj ect i l es, or
empt y shel l shoul d be st or ed i n bui l di ngs whi ch af f or d good pr ot ect i on agai nst moi st ur e and dampness . Dummy or i ner t ammuni t i on
shoul d not be st or ed i n magazi nes wi t h l i ve or pr act i ce ammuni t i on
i f ot her st or age space i s avai l abl e. I f i t i s necessar y t o st or e such
i t ems wi t h l i ve or pr act i ce ammuni t i on, i t wi l l be segr egat ed end
i dent i f i ed cl ear l y_ They shoul d be cl eaned, r epai nt ed, and sl ushed
when necessar y and shoul d not be al l owed t o det er i or at e, Shel l
shoul d be car ef ul l y st or ed t o guar d agai nst damage t o t he r ot at i ng
hand,
260

7M 4- 1400

Par . 175
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser Yaf l on
5act i on I I I

STORAGE AT SUPPLY POI NTS AND DUMPS


1753.

SUPPLY POI NTS AND DI STRI BUTI NG POI NTS,

Gener al . The det ai l s concer ni ng ammuni t i on suppl y poi nt s,


9.
as di scussed i n t hi s sect i on, ar e pr i mar i l y appl i cabl e t o t hose i nst al l at i ons) i n t he Zone of t he I nt er i or and at post s, camps, and st at i ons, .
A compl et e di scussi on of t he subj ect f or appl i cat i on t ry t he Theat er of
Oper at i ons ( t he communi cat i on zone and t he combat zone) i s cont ai ned i n or dnance Fi el d Manual s .
I r, Locat i on. Suppl y poi nt s and di st r i but i ng poi nt s shoul d be
l ocat ed i n t he best avai l abl e net wor k of r oads and near a r ai l r oad.
c: - Lay- out , I n pl anni ng t he l ay- *ut of suppl y poi nt s and di st r i but i ng poi nt s, consi der at i on shoul d be gi ven t o t he f ol l owi ng.
{ 1) A14OUNTS AND KI NDS REQUI RED_ I t i s desi r abl e t hat a f i el d
uni t suppl y t r ai n be abl e t o t ake on i t s compl et e l oad f r om st acks i n
a st r ai ght l i ne or i n a si ngl e ar ea wi t hout havi ng t o ent er and congest
anot her ar ea of t he suppl y poi nt .
( 2) EASE OF ACCESS. They shoul d be on good r oads near , but
not on, mai n hi ghways . Conspi cuous si gns shoul d be post ed on r oads
l eadi ng i n, and mi l i t ar y pol i ce shoul d be not i f i ed of names and l ocat i ons of dumps wi t hi n t hei r ar eas,
( 3) TRAFFI C CONTROL. Roads shoul d pr ef er abl y be l ai r ) out i n
compl et e l oops i nst ead of t ur n- ar ounds. Thi s has an addi t i onal advant age i n t hat i t pr ovi des access t o pi l es f r omei t her of t wo di r ect i ons_ One- way t r af f i c shoul d be est abl i shed_
( 4) SEGREGATI ON BY LOTS- As a gener al r ul e, ammuni t i on shoul d
be pi l ed so t he l ot numben. ar e easi l y i nspect ed. Quant i t i ea i ssued
t o a si ngl e uni t shoul d be, i f pr act i cabl e. al l of one I nt .
H' i r r. Pr l i l t v' i l { t en,
The pr i nci pal hazar ds i l l t he st or age of ammuni t i on i n t he
f i el d i s f i r e, whi ch may be zxpr ead by hot mi ssi l es r esul t i ng f r om expl osi ons i n one st ack i gni t i ng packi ng mat er i al of near by st acks, or
by t r avel of t he f i r e t hr ough gr ass . weeds, dr y woods, et c. Ef f or t
shoul d be made, t her ef or e, t o pr ovi de pr ot ect i ve cover i ng f or st acks,
such as concr et e or met al shel t er s . Fi r ebr eaks shoul d be cl ear ed by
bur ni ng out br ush or by t ur ni ng t he soi l over , ur i l em t he under gr owt h
i s essent i al f or camouf l age,
( 2)
The commandi ng of f i cer wi l l appoi nt a f i r e mar shal who wi l l
be r esponsi hl e f or r i gi d enf or cement of f i r e- pr event i ve measur es. The
f i r e m$r shal wi l l pr epar e r ul es cover i ng al l l ocal condi t i ons and
speci al f i r e r i sks. He wi l l exer ci se st r i ct f i r e di sci pl i ne wi t hi n depot
car cl ump .
41.

( 1)

381

Par s . 175- - 176

TEA 4- 1940
Car e, N* mdf i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

X3) Fi r e ext i ngui sher s, wat er bAr r el s, sand boi ees . and ot her f i r ef i ght i ng equi pment shoul d he pr ovi ded. t 1 suppl y of r opes and hooks
shoul d be kept on hond t o t ear down pi l es of boxes shoul d t hey cat ch
f i r e. Spont aneous combust i on due t o pr esence of gr easy r ags or oi l y
wast e shoul d be guar ded agai nst . The di r ect r ays of t he sun on
ammuni t i on, especi al l y t hat cont ai ni ng smokel ess powder . i s l i kel y
t o cause spont aneous combust i on,
176. STORAGE OF AMl l i UNI TI ON AND EXPLOSI VES.
a. { : l asses. W
hen est abl i shi ng dumps, t he f ol l owi ng cl asses of
ammuni t i on ar e consi der ed .
Ant i t ank mi nes
Bombs ( cont ai ni ng expl osi ve 0)
Bombs, f r agment at i on
Bombs, t or pedoes, and aer i al mi nes ( not cont ai ni ng expl osi ve r 3)
Boxed ar t i l l er y ammuni t i on
Cher ni cal ammuni t i on
Fuzes, pr i mer s . det onat or s
Gr enades
Mor t ar shel l
Pr opel l ent char ges
Pyr ot echni cs
Separ at e- l oadi ng shel l
Sr nal l - ar ms ammuni t i on
I i . Quant i t y and di t +l mi ce. These t Xl uxses shoul d not be st ar ed
t oget her . Whenever pr act i cabl e, t he di st ance bet ween bt acks and
cl asses shoul d be i n accor dance wi t h par agr aph 172 .
c. Pr 4r put i uua.
( 1) Ammuni t i on and component s shoul d be st or ed so t hat t he
nei ghbor i ng pi l es wi l l not be det onat ed by t he expl osi on of one pi l e
and so t hat not al l of one t ype of component or compl et e r ound wi l l
be l ost i n any one expl osi on. Ther e shoul d be at l east t wo pi l es of
ever y t ype of ammuni t i on or component st or ed. I t i s par t i cul ar l y
i mpor t ant t hat f uzes, pr i mer s, det onat or s, et c., shoul d be di st r i but ed
as wi del y as st or age f aci l i t i es por i ni t ,
( 2) Ammuni t i on pi l ed i n t he open shoul d be r ai sed of f t he gr ound
at l east 6 i nches and pr ot ect ed f r om r ai n and di r ect sun by paul i ns .
I f dr ai nage i s not good, di t ches shoul d be sl ug ar ound pi l es. Al l pi l es,
i ndoor and out door , shoul d be made wi t h l i ber al use of dunnage and
away f r omcont act wi t h wal l s, bar r i cades, et c., t o i nsur e f r ee ci r cul a
t i on of ai r . Wher e t ar paul i ns ar e used, adequat e pr ovi si on shoul d be
made f or vent i l at i on . The t op of t he t ar paul i n shoul d not t est on
t he bop of t he st ock or i n cont act wi t h boxes but shoul d be r ai sed
f r omt he St ack at l east 6 i nches.
241

TM 9- 1900

Par s . 176- 177


Cl ot - , Handl l ng, and Pr eser vat i on

( 3) Dur i ng t he t i me ammuni t i on i s i n dumps, advant age shoul d


be t aken of ever y oppor t uni t y t o 1] l - we each r ound i n good condi t i on
f or f i r i n& Lost Fuze hol e pl ugs shoul d be r epl aced, bur s i n t hr eads
and r ot at i ng bamYs r emoved, and any ot her def ect t hat mi ght af f ect
t he ser vi ceabi l i t y of ammuni t i on shoul d be cor r ect ed . However , t he
' , eor k shoul d be done at x saf e di st ance f r om t he pi l es,
( 4 ) Al l a+t t r r auni t i on shoul d be st or ed out or t he di r ect r ays of
t hv sun,
d. Cl t ei ui val ami nt t ni t i on. Chemi cal ammuni t i on shoul d al ways
be st or ed away f r om ot her muni t i ons, and gas shel l shoul d al ways be
st or ed on t hei r bases_ The f ol l owi ng addi t i onal pr ecaut i ons shoul d
13e t aken i rl i st or i ng and handl i ng t hi s t ype :
( 1) Shel l shoul d he st or ed so t hat a l eaky cont ai ner can be r emoved i mmedi at el y upon det ect i on .
( ' 2) Evovy man wor ki ng near gay shel l shoul d be equi pped wi t h
9 gas m
ask,
( 3) Tubes of oxygen and f i r st - xi d equi pment shoul d be pl aced
i n conspi cuous pl aces i n char ge of a chemi cal noncomnt i %i oned of f i cer .
( 4) Shoul d an acci dent occur and a wor ker be over come, f i r st - ai d
r ef zt edy wi l l he appl i ed and d doct or cal l ed.
( S) Any t ypt X of ammuni t i on exposed t o gas must be cl eaned
wi t h an oi l y cl ot h at once,
( 6) Conspi cuous wi nd vanes shoul d be yet up i n 1xl aC&s wher e gas
shel l ar e handl ed,
( 7) Muni t i ons cont ai ni ng phosphor us shoul d al ways be st or ed
al one and v%, at er - f i l l ed t ubs kept avai l abl e. Phosphor us i gni t es spont aneousl y when exposed t o ai r , and submer gi ng i n wat er wi l l ext i n
gui sh t he f i r e onl y as l ong as t he mat er i al i s kept submer ged, Leaky
phosphor us sXLel l must be kept under wat er unt i l t hey can be dest r oyed,
( 8) Pyr ot echni c%, i ncendi ar i es, and HC, CN- DM_ ar <d CN gr er mdes shoul d be kept dr y,
( 9) Ful l use of dunnage shoul d be made i n st or i ng chemi cal ammuni t i on.
Sect i on I V
PACKI NG AND M
ARKI NG
177 .

6ENRRAL.
a. Pur pose. of [ backi ng.
( 1) I n or der t hat ammuni t i on may r each t he f i r i ng l i ne i n a
ser vi ceabl e condi t i on, i t i s essent i al t hat each uni t of i ssue be sui t abl y
263

TM 9- 1900

Par s. 177- 178


Car e, Handl i ng, encf Pr eser vat i on

packed t o wi t hst and handl i ng, st or age. and t r anspor t at i on, Once a
uni t of ammuni t i on has been r emoved f r om i t s appr oved cont ai ner ,
t her e i s no assur ance of i t s cont i nued ser vi ceabi l i t y, Ther ef or e, necessar y pr ecaut i ons shoul d be t aken i n i t s f ur t her handl i ng end st or age_
( 2) W
hen a wat er pr oof cont ai ner i s opened, t he cont ent s ar e
i mmedi at el y subj ect t o t he ef f ect s of moi st ur e whi ch i s t he agent
most act i ve i n causi ng t he det er i or at i on of ammuni t i on I f i mmedi at e use of t he ammuni t i on i s not cont empl at ed, t he cont ai ner sl soul d
be ef f ect i vel y r eseal ed.
1), Mar ki ng.
( 1) Mar ki ng i ncl udes pai nt i ng, st enci l i ng, and st ampi ng of cont ai ner s and of t he ammuni t i on i t sel f ( par . 7) .
( 2) Expl osi ves aced ot her hazar dous ar t i cl es of f er ed f or shi pment
uzti a common car r i er wi l l be mar ked t o compl y wi t h I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on r egul at i ons . The&e mar ki ngs i ncl ude t he I CC
shi ppi ng name at t i d danger ous commodi t y desi gnat i on, i n addi t i on.
on LCL shi pment s, cer t ai n l Ml >el s or e r equi r ed t o i ndi cat e t he mat ur e
of t he cont ent s.
( 0) Expl osi ves and ammuni t i on wi l l be mar ked i n accor dance
wi t h Ar my Regul at i on, speci f i cat i ons . and dr awi ngs. St andar d and
speci al mar ki ngs ar e l i st ed i n U_ S_ Ar my Speci f i cat i on Ne. 1t } 0- 2E
and ar e f ur t her descr i bed and expl ai ned i n Techni cal Manual s and i n
ot her sect i ons of t hi s manual , Mar ki ngs f ur ni sh essent i al i nf or mat i on, per mi t t i ng pr oper handl i ng, st or age, and i ssue of t he r ound or
component .
( 4) New pai nt i ng or r emar ki ng of ammuni t i on and component s
shoul d be a f acsi mi l e of t hat on t he or i gi nal cont ai ner or ammuni t i on
unl ess t he Chi ef of Or dnance i ssues speci f i c . i nst r uct i ons t o t he con
t r ar y. Expl osi ves and ammuni t i on obt ai ned f r om sal vage oper at i ons,
or mat er i el whose i dent i f i cat i on has been l ost , shoul d be mar ked
cl ear l y t o show t he nat ur e of t he goods and, i f of f er ed f or shi pment ,
t c compl y wi t h I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on r egul at i ons .
178.

PACKI NUS.

a. Ueai gt t 01241 cunei r u+- l i on. The cl esi gn and const r uct i on of
packi ng& depend upon t he hazar d i nvol ved, t he f aci l i t i es f or st or age
end t r anspor t at i on, sad t he pr ot ect i on r equi r ed f our t he i t em packed.
ooden boxes and cr at es ar e used mor e of t en t han
t r . Types . W
ot her t ypes, The t r end i n desi gn i s t owar d t he use of st andar d 1- i nch,
or heavi er , l umber . However , veneer boxes wi t h r ei nf or ci ng cl eat s
and enci r cl i ng wi r e have been adopt ed as st andar d i n sever al i nst ances. Wi r c- hound boxes cannot be r oused as of t en as t he heavi er
wooden boxes. but t hei r l ow cost i s an i mpor t ant f act or , par t i cul ar l y
wher e r euse of t he box i s not war r ant ed, Cyl i ndr i cal , wat er t i ght ,
364

TM9" 190

Par . 170
Car e, Handf i ng. and Pr eser vaf i on

t net yl cont ai ner s, hol di ng one or mor e r ounds or pr opel l i ng char ges,
a, ' o used f or packi ng ammuni t i on i nt ent l ed f or t r opi cal cl i mat es. The
ammuni t i on may or may not be pocked i n f i ber cont ai ner s bef or e
i nser t i on i n t he met al cont ai ner - Some xeper at e- l oadi ng pr opel l i ng
char ges ar e packed i n a wat er pr oof bag and t hen pl aced i n a f i ber
eont ai t , er . Four gener al t ypes of packi ng- boxes, cr at es, met al cont ai ner s, and f i ber cont ai ner s- ar e descr i bed bel ow.
( 1) BuxF- .
( a) Ear l openi ng, One r emovabl e end. per mi t t i ng boxes t o be
st acked on t hei r si des and opened wi t hout r emoval f r om t he st acked
pi l e.
( b) Che&f t ype cr hi nged l op. Per mi t s r epeat ed use and easy
, uTess t o t he cont ent s . Most r ecent t ypes have a t oggl e- t ype f ast ener ( c) Bol t +4r r d wi ngnuf . Bol t s and wi ngnut s hol d down t he t op
cm.er . These boxes ar e used f or smal l - ar ms car t r i dges.
( d) Met al - Used f or smal l - ar ms car t r i dge packi ngs and f or st or i ng 40- mm ammuni t i on. These sheet - st eel cont ai ner s ar e seal ed by
r ubber gasket s t ui der t he cover ,
( 3) CRATES. Used f or bombs, pr oj ect i l es, component s, and met al
powder cont ai ner s t o gi ve added st r engt h and pr ot ect i on, and wher e
packi ng i n a cl osed box i s not necessar y . For some t ypes of bombs,
onl y st eel ( - r at es ar e used i n shi pt nenl , Ot her cr at es ar e wooden,
soi r i t X of whi ch m
ay 1) e wi r e- bound.
( 3) METAL CONTAkNEas.
Car t r i dgl e- st or age cases ar e cyl i ndr i cal , moi st ur epr oof st eel
cont ai ner s f or packi ng separ at e- l or adi ng pr opel l i ng char ges . A t est
Lul e i i pr ovi ded i n t he cover f or ai r - pr essur e t est i ng,
( b) Met al cont ai ner s ar e used f or packi ng si ngl e r ounds of ar t i l l er y smmuni t i on, ei t her bar e or i n f i ber co, t t ai ner . Ei ght 60- men, or
f our or one F11- mm, r ounds ar e al so packed i n met al cont ai ner s. These
met al cont ai ner s ar e pr ovi ded as st andar d f or t hose t heat er s wher e
wat er pr oof i ng i s essent i al . The si ngl e- r ound met al cont ai ner s ar e
cyl i ndr i cal st eel t ubes wi t h a det achabl e scr ew- t ype cover . The st eel
cover i s pr ovi ded wi t h a r ubber gasket and i s cl amped t i ght t o t he
c'. unt ai r ner by means Of a gPLcl er r scr ew, and pr essur e pl at e. Cor k and
f el t pads ar a f umi shed t o pr ovi de a sot ug f i t f or t he r ound or f i ber
cont ai ner i n whi ch t he r uuncl i s packed . Some met al cont ai ner s ar e
pr ovi ded wi t h t est hol es f or ai r - pr essur e t est i ng,
( $) FI BER CONTAI NERS. A sl i p- cover f i ber cont ai ner of t he mai l i ng- t ube t ype t g u d f or t he packi ng of compl et e r ounds. separ at el oadi ng pr opel l i ng char ges f or ar t i l l er y weapons, hand gr enades, as
sembl i es of boost er s and f uzes, f uzes, and mor t ar ammuni t i on. These
f i ber cont ai ner s wer e f or mer l y shi pped i n bundl es of t hr ee, hel d t ogat her by t wo cl over - l eaf - shaped, met al , end cover s, Fi ber cont ai ner s
77t 321 0 - SI 3 - 14

20

TM 9- 1900

Par . 178
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

STENCI L
" GROSS W
FI CHT
" CVEI C CONTENT
;
I OC MARKI NG
Exr Xt XXI V[
PROJECT' LES '

STETI C .I . t " 7V: r %' EAS


A- DhLSS ON T+* G
SHELLS AT
' I AGONALJ }'
OPPOSI TE CURNi RS

RA PG 19311
m Shef !
Fl gvr e 159 - Pel f et i r at i on of 155- m
sas

TM 9- 1900

Par %. 179- 17g


Car e, Hand l i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

wi t h compl et e r ounds ( 5' 1` - mm t hr ough 105- mm) may be packed t wo


or f our per wooden box, i n cr at ed cl over l eaf 3- r ound bundl es, or i n
si ngl e- r ound met al cont ai ner s, Fi ber cont ai ner s f or cer t ai n r ounds of
f uzed semi f i xed ammuni t i on have cover s at each end; t he pr oj ect i l e
and car t r i dge case can t hen be i nser t ed at opposi t e ends, r el i evi ng t he
neck of t he car t r i dge case of excessi ve wei ght . I n bot h si ngl e- and
doubl e- end cont ai ner s, a U- shaped met al packi ng st op i s used f or
f uzed pr oj ect i l es.
( 5)

MI SCELLANZOU&

Met al cans made of t er nepl at e or t i n pl at e ar e used f or packi ng smal l - ar ms car t r i dges, smal l component s of ammuni t i on, f uzes,
r i f l e gr enades, et c ., i ndi vi dual l y or i n smal l quant i t i es, t o pr eser ve
t hemagai nst moi st ur e. Met al l i ner s f or wooden boxes ar e al so Used
i n many t ypes of packi ng of component s, f or cer t ai n smal l - cal i ber
compl et e r ounds wher e a moi st ur epr oof cont ai ner i s desi r ed, or f or
shi pment s cf smokel ess powder . St ai nl ess- st eel - l i ned pl ywood boxes
ar e gener al l y used f or st or age of ni t r ocel l ul ose cannon powder s,
( b) Al l - vt t el boxes of bot h Ar my- Navy desi gn ar e used f or st or i ng
ni t r ocel l ul ose cannon powder s havi ng a web of 0. 019 i nch and mor e,
Sheet - st eel cyl i ndr i cal dr ums ar e used f ar bl ack powder , whi ch i s
cont ai ned i n a cl ot h bag i nsi de t he dr um. The dr ums ar e cr at ed f or
over seas shi pment s.
( c) Fi ber car t ons ar e used f or packi ng pr i mer s or smal l f uzes, a
smal l number bei ng packed i n each Car t on. The car t on can be made
moi st ur epr oof by wr appi ng i n a gr ade C, t ype I paper , conf or mi ng t o
I T. S. Ar my No, 100- 15 ( JAN- P- 121) , and i mmer si on i n di p coat i ng
seal i ng compound conf or mi ng t o U. S, Ar my NoX 1{ 10- 34 ( JAN- P- 115) .
( d) Packi ngs known as " j ungl e- packs" cont ai n addi t i onal wat er pr oof cont ai ner s or envel opes so t hat t he ammuni t i on may bet t er
wi t hst and hot humi d cl i mat es.
( a)

c. Pal l et i zat i on ( f i g. 159) has been aut hor i zed t o r educe handl i ng t i me and save man hour s i ri st or age and shi pment of cer t ai n
t ypes of ammuni t i on. Pal l et s ar e const r uct ed of l umber i n accor dance wi t h or dnance dr awi ngs. W
hen pal l et i zed ammuni t i on i s
shi pped, a Not at i on t o t hat ef f ect wi l l appear on t he r epshi p.
179. REGULA' t 1Oh15,
a. Gener al r egul at i ons gover ni ng t he packi ng, mar ki ng, and shi p.
pi ng of expl osi ves and ammuni t i on ar e set f or t h i n AR55- 155. Al l
shi pment s of expl osi ves and ammuni t i on made by t he W
ar Depar t ment wi l l compl y wi t h appl i cabl e r equi r ement s of I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on, Bur eau of Expl osi ves Regul at i ons, Por t and
Har bor Regul at i ons, St at e and Muni ci pal l aws, and per t i nent Ar my
Regul at i ons .
767

Par s . 379- 181

Tel l 9- 1900
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

h. Expl osi ves and ot her danger ous ar t i cl es of f er ed f or shi pment


a common car r i er wi l l be packed t o compl y wi t h I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on r egul at i ons, but par agr aph 14 ( a) , sect i on I , of
t hese r egul at i ons st at es t hat " shi pment s, of expl osi ves of f er ed by or
consi gned t o t he W
ar and Navy Depar t ment s of t he Uni t ed St at es
Gover nment must he packer.!, i ncl udi ng l i mi t at i ons of wei ght , i n accor dance wi t h t hese r egul at i ons or as r equi r ed by t hei r r egul at i ons . "
Any pr oposed depar t ur e f r om t he r equi r ement s of I nt er st at e Comi uer ce Commi ssi on r egul at i ons must be submi t t ed t o t he Chi ef of
Or dnance f or deci si on,
of i

c, Mi l i t ar y expl osi ve and ammuni t i on ar e packed i n accor dance


wi t h U. S_ Ar my speci f i cat i ons and dr awi ngs . The met hods of packy r equi r ement s and
i ng speci f i ed ar e used not onl y t o meet mi l i W
pr ot ect t he ar t i cl es f r om damage i n t r ansi t but ar e al so desi gned t o
compl y wi t h I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on r egul at i ons,
41. W
hen shi pment s of expl osi ves and ot her danger ous ar t i cl es
Hr e t o be made and cont ai ner s whi ch compl y wi t h U, S. Ar my speci f i cat i ons f or t he par t i cul ar ar t i cl e t o be shi pped ar e not avai l abl e, cont ai ner s compl yi ng wi t h I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on r egul at i ons
wi l l be used. Thi s appl i es par t i cul ar l y t o t he shi pment of det er i or at ed
expl osi ves or ammuni t i on, and t o powder , expl osi ves, and l oaded component s of ammuni t i on obt ai ned f r om sal vage oper at i ons.
e. Ot her r egul at i ons concer ni ng packi ng wi l l be f ound i n t he
var i ous Techni cal Manual s, St andar d Nomencl at ur e Li st s, Or dnance
Saf et y Manual 0. 0, No, 7224, Or dnance Depar t ment Saf et y Bul l et i ns, and AR 55- 470 { shi pment s by wat er ) ,
180.

SEMANG.

a. Packi ng, ar e eal ed f or ai r t i ght ness by cl osi ng t he t est hol e of


ai r t i ght cont ai ner s or case& wi t h sol der or u pl ug. Fi ber cont ai ner s
ar e seal ed wi t h wat er - r esi st ant adhesi ve t ape. at t he j oi nt f or med by
t he body and cover , but t hey ar e not consi der ed compl et el y ai r t i ght .
h, Af t er t he cont ent s ar e pr oper l y packed, each cont ai ner i s seal ed
i n some manner whi ch wi l l i ndi cat e whet her or not t he cont ai ner has
been t amper ed wi t h. The met hod of seal i ng depends upon t he t ype
her e met al st r appi ng or wi r e
and const r uct i on of t he cont ai ner . W
i s used ar ound boxes, ot her sear ar e not necessar y and wi l l nut be
used i n t he f ut ur e.
181.

NI ARKI NG.

a. Get t er al . Thi s par agr aph cover s mar ki ngs f or i t ems as packed
and shi pped. For mar ki ng and pai nt i ng on ammuni t i on i t ems t hemsel ves, see basi c col or schemes gi ven i n par agr aph 7, , sect i ons i n

TM 9- 1900

Far ,

l ei

Car e, Handl i r r g, and Pr eser vat i on


chapt er 2 of t hi s manual ; and ot her Techni cal Manual s on Ammuni t i on.
1) . On anununi t i on. The mar ki ngs on uncr at ed bombs and uncr at ed shel l ser ve al so as a means of i dent i f i cat i on f or shi ppi ng
pur poses .
c . On cont ai ner a.
( 1) Cont ai ner s of ammuni t i on and expl osi ves ar e mar ked t o
pr ovi de a r eady means of i dent i f i cat i on as t o cont ent s. Packi ng cont ai ner s ar e al so mar ked i n accor dance wi t h Ar my Regul at i ons, speci f i cat i ons, and I CC r egul at i ons.
( 2) Wi t h cer t ai n except i ons gi ven i n AR 55- 155, each package
of suppl i es t ur ned over f or shi pment on a Gover nment bi l l of l adi ng
i s mar ked wi t h :
( a) Name and addr ess of dest i nat i on of por t of f i cer ( or code
desi gnat i on.
( b) Name and addr ess of ul t i mat e consi gnee.
( c) Li st and descr i pt i on of cont ent s .
( d) Ami nuni t i on code symbol , publ i shed i n { ) RD 11 SNL' s .
( e) Gr oss wei ght i n pounds, di spl acement i n cubi c f eet .
( f ) The number of t he package. il
( g) The l et t er " U. S. " i n sever al conspi cuous pl aces . '
( h) Or der number or cont r act number . "
(i )
Or dnance i nsi gni a,
Name or desi gnat i on of consi gnor pr e- ceded by t he wor d
( 1)
" Fr om."
( k) Lot number .
( I ) Mont h and yeav packed,
( m) I nspect or ' s st amp.
( 3) The adhesi ve seal i ng st r i ps on f i ber cont ai ner s ar e i n t he
same col or as ammuni t i on i t em, i n accor dance wi t h basi c col or
scheme. Thus, bl ank ammuni t i on has seal i ng st r i ps i n r ed, t o i ndi cat e l ow expl osi ve ( bl ack powder ) . I t wi l l be not ed, however , t hat
f or r ounds wi t h hi gh- expl osi ve pr oj ect i l es, t he st r i ps ar e yei l ow.
( 4) The t op of boxes cont ai xt i ng ammuni t i on used i n bot h Amer i can and Br i t i sh guns ( f or exampl e, some l ot s of 20- mmammuni t i on)
ar e mar ked " COM
M
ON AM
M
N."
( 5) For f ur t her i nf or mat i on on r egul at i ons gover ni ng mar ki ng
out cont ai ner s f or shi pment . con" t AR 55- 155 and AR 55- 470 ( shi pment s by wat er ) . Shi ppi ng names ar e publ i shed i n ORD 11 SNL' a.
( 6) Mar ki ngs on boxes, bar r el s, or cr at es ar e made i n st enci l
' Fw LC4 ahi pi neot a onl y_

264

TM 9- 1904

Par s. 181- - 183


Car e, Handhr r A, and Pr eser vaf i on

I ] l ack or st enci l whi t e. whi chever i s mor e appr opr i at e_ On boxes of


r i r nmuni t i on whi ch ar e st ai ned br own, t he mar ki ng i s i n yel l ow; r an
hen i t i s i mpr act i cabl e t o
unst ai ned boxes, t he nkar ki ng i s bl ack. W
st enci l or pai nt t he mar ki ngs on t he cont ai ner s, or when a cont ai ner
i s not used i n shi ppi ng, at l east t wo shi ppi ng t ags bear i ng mar ki ngs
shoul d be used. The shi ppi ng t ags may be of cl ot h, l eat her , met al ,
or wat er pr oof paper , and ar e at t ached t o t he ar t i cl e by wi r e. The use
of wr i t i ng i nk, chal k, or i nar ki ng mat er i al ot her t han wat er pr oof i nk
or pai nt i s pr ohi l } i t ed.
( i ) Met al cont ai ner s ar e pai nt ed ol i ve dr ab; mar ki ng i n yel l ow.
( t i ) Cont ai ner s f or gr een bag pr opel l i ng char ge, whi t e bag pr opel l i ng char ge, or sect i on of pr opel l i ng char ge cont ai ni ng t he bl ack
powder i gni t er ar e pai nt ed wi t h gr eer ., whi t e, or r ed st r i pes, r esp<<_t i vel y. Cont ai ner s cont ai r ung i gni t er s X) nl y ar e pai nt ed compl et el y
ned,
( 9) Cont ai ner s f or r ounds havi ng hi gh- expl osi ve shel l have a
yel l ow st r i p; havi ng chemi cal shel l , a gr ay st r i p ( super i mposed wi t h
yel l ow, r ed, ar gr een bands t o i ndi cat e smoke or gas f i l l er s) , or havi ng
i ner t shel l , a bl ack st r i p,
( 10) Cont ai ner s f or ammuni t i on assembl ed wi t h shel l whi ch
have t he suppl ement ar y bur st i ng char ge have st enci l ed t her eon
" W;` SUPPL, CHG_" and t he l et t er " P. "
41, On pal l ct w 5uxcs, Cunt ai neM, or uncr at ed spel t and bor nbs
ar e packed f or shi pment and st or age i n pal l et s . Wal l et s ar e mar ked
so t hat t he shi ppi ng name, wei ght . and cubi c f eet ar e st enci l ed on t he
t op sect i on of t he pal l et . The over seas addr ess, i f any, i s st enci l ed
on t wo boxes, cont ai ner s, shel l s, or bombs, bot h bei ng i n di agonal l y
opposi t e cor ner s of t he pal l et ( f i g, 159) .
182. LUT NUMBER. Lot number s ar e basi cal l y descr i bed i n chapt er 1, sect i on I I ,
Sect i on V

SHI PPI NG
1; 83, GENERM.- The i nf or mat i on cont ai ned i n t hi s sect i on out l i nes t he speci al r egul at i ons cont r ol l i ng t he shi ppi ng and t r anspor t at i on of expl osi ves wi d ammuni t i on, The gener al r egul at i ons ar e
cont ai ned i i i AR 55- 155 whi ch appl y t o gover nment as wel l as t o
cor nr ner ci xt l shi pment s . Shi pment s made by mi l i t ar y est abl i shment s
wi l l compl y wi t h appl i cabl e r equi r ement s of t hese r egul at i ons and
r ecommendat i ons_ W
hen any di f f i cul t i es ar e encount er ed i n compl yi ng wi t h t hese r egul at i ons, a r epor t i n det ai l wi l l be submi t t ed t o t he
Chi ef of Or dnance t hr ough appr opr i at e channel s.
270

Par s .

TM 9- 1900

184- 185

Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on


184.,

REGUT, ATI ON5 AND REFERENCES.

a. Mi l i t ar y . A l i st of pul al i cnt i ons cont r ol l i ng t r anspor t at i on of


expl osi ves i s pr ovi ded i n chapt er 5.
Li . hunmi l i i ur y. Regul at i ons f or t he t r anspor t at i on of expl osi ves,
i nf l ammabl e. and ot her danger ous ar t i cl es by r ai l , mot or vehi cl es, and
mer chant vessel s ar e pr escr i hed by t he I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on ( f or r ai l and mot or vehi cl es, see par . 185) and U. S. Coast
Guar d ( f or mer chant vessel s, see Regul at i ons Gover ni ng Tr anspor t at i on of Mi l i t er y Expl osi ves on Boar d Vessel s Dur i ng Pr esent Emer gency and Regul at i ons f or t he Secur i t y of Vessel s i n Por t ) .
v . St at e and t r nuni ci pal l aws, or di naner s, and r egul at i ons. I n
addi t i on t o t he Feder al l aws gover ni ng i nt er st at e t r anspor t at i on of
expl osi ves and ot her danger ous ar t i cl es, each st at e and near l y al l
muni ci pal i t i es have l aws or or di nances r egul at i ng t he t r anspor t at i on
of expl osi ves and ot her danger ous ar t i cl es wi t hi n t hei r j ur i sdi ct i on.
Shi pment s of expl osi ves and ammuni t i on wi l l compl y wi t h appl i cabl e
r equi r ement s of I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi ont r egul at i ons, Por t
and har bor r egul at i ons. St at e and Muni ci pal l aws . and r ecommendat i ons by Bur eau of Expl osi ves.
41 . Rai l mgul at i on . X- For t hese r egul at i ons, consul t " I nt er st at e
Commer ce Commi ssi on Regul at i ons f or Tr anspor t at i on of Expl osi ves
and ot her Danger ous Ar t i cl es by Fr ei ght , " publ i shed by t he Bur eau
k ; and see speci f i c
of Expl osi ves, 30 Vesey St r eet , New Yor k, NewYm
appl i cat i on by r ef er ence t o i t ems i nvol ved 131 i ndex of Consol i dat ed
Fr ei ght Cl assi f i cat i on,

1$a,

I NTFRSTATE COM
M
ERCE COMMI SSI ON REGULATI ONS.

u. The t r anspor t at i on of expl osi ves and ot her danger ous ar t i cl es


wi t hi n t he l i mi t s of t he j ur i sdi ct i on of t he Uni t ed St at es i s r egul at ed
by Feder ai l aw. Act of Mar ch 4, 1909. chapt er 321, sect i ons 232 and
234 ( 35 St at . 1134 ) , as amended by t he act of Mar ch 4, 1921, chapt er
172 ( 41 St ot . 1444- 1445) . and t he Danger ous Car go Act of Oct ober
9, 19411 ( Puhl i v. Nr , , spy, 76t h Cong. ) ,
Vi ol at i ons of t hi s act ar e
puni shabl e by vever e f i nes and i mpr i sonment .
6. Sect i on 233 of t he sbovt - N- ment i oned act , as al nendO, r eads i n
par t as f ol l ows ; " The I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on shal l f or mul st e r egul at i ons f or t he saf e t r anspor t at i on, wi t hi n t he l i mi t s of t he
j ur i sdi ct i on of t he Uni t ed St at es, of expl osi ves and ot her danger ous
ar t i cl es, ' : r ' ; whi ch shal l be bi ndi ng upon al l common car r i er s engaged i n i nt er st at e or f or ei gn coi nmor ce whi ch t r anspor t expl osi ves
or ot her danger ous ar t i cl es vi a any common car r i er engaged i n i nt er
st at e or f or ei gn commer ce by l and or wat er _" Sect i on 235 of t he Act
of Mar ch 4, 1921 r equi r es t he shi pper of expl osi ves and ot her danger ous ar t i cl es t o descr i be, pack, and mar k el l packages pr oper l y, and t o

TM 9- 1900

Par . 185
Car o, Handl i ng, and Pr oer vet i on

V
wN

~U
; 2t
v

a XX mr

C' a
dl X

n
=d

p
X

uj

L6

zw
' Q0
0

d
X6

ds

Ix

U>

917

r Jn

r nXX XDd
v5
w
<

XN

=
W
U
XS

G
cl

`'

wO

XXnvi

N
.
0

Lo

6 00

LL o

U.
LL

F eu d
li

Q 0W- O
SY

va

G
4
a3

m
m
S
3
D
41
b.
Q
a

U x :g 0

yT
4E , np

W, - a,
w
wQ
O Ox
a X u
as- 3v
UL

ca

h41 9. 1904

Par s, 185- 188


Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

i nf or m t he agency t r anspor t i ng t he packages of t he t r ue nat ur e of


cont ent s. Vi ol at i ons of t hi s act ar e puni shabl e by sever e f i nes and
i mpr i sonment I CC Fr ei ght Tar i f f No. 3 pr escr i bes t vgut at i ot f s f or
t r anspor t at i on by wat er .
e. Under t he aut hor i t y of t he above- quot ed act , as amended, t he
I nt er st at e Commer ce Cot nr ni esi on has publ i shed r egul at i ons gover ni ng t he t r anspcr r t Rt i on of expl osi ves and ot her danger ous ar t i cl es by
r ai l , mot or vehi cl e ( hi ghway) , and vessel .
186. L: . S. COAST GUARD. The U. S_ Coast Guar d pr escr i bes
r egul at i ons gov4ar ni ng t he st or age, st owage, and use of expl osi ves and
ammuni t i on on hoar d mer chant vessel s. I t i s r esponsi bl e f or secur i t y
and st i pet vi si on of vessel s, whi ch i ncl udes har ges, unl ess speci f i cal l y
exempt .
( See Regul at i ons Cover i ng Tr an9por t nt i an of Mi l i t ar y
Expl osi ves On Boar d Veunl $ Dur i ng Pr oSi ent Emer gency. )
187 .

COMBI NATI ON OF TYPES FOR SHI PPI NG MRAI L


OR M
OTOR VEHI CLE.
a. Regul at i ons of t hcr I ec r est r i ct t he shi ppi ng of di f f er ent t ypes
of expl osi ves and ammuni t i on i n t he same car or t r uck. These r est r i ct i ons ar e speci f i ed i n t he Loadi ng and St or age Char t of Expl osi ves
and Ot her Danger ous Ar t i cl es and publ i shed i n I CC Regul at i ons . The
r est r i ct i ons may he summar i zed as f ol l ows ,
( 1) Sul k i ni t i at i ng expl osi ves may not be shi pped dr y.
( 2) I ni t i at i ng component s such as det onat i ng f uzes, hl ast i ng caps,
boast er s, and bur st er s may not be shi pped wi t h any ot her hi ghexpl osi ve i t em except when assembl ed t her et o. A f ur t her except i on
i s per mi t t ed i n case of emer gency Cer t i f i ed by t he Of f i ce of t he Chi ef
of Or dnance, i n whi ch case i ni t i at i ng component s may be shi pped
wi t h hi gh- expl osi ve component s pr ovi ded t hey ar e separ at ed by a
3- f oot sand bar r i cade .
( 3) Fi r ev4- ar ks may not be shi pped wi t h hi gh expl osi ves or bl ack
powder .
( 4) Chemi cal agent s may not be shi pped wi t h hi gh expl osi ves or
bl ack powder .
188. RAI L SHI PMENT.
a. Loadi ng. W
hen l oadi ng f r ei ght car s f or shi pment ( f i gs. 160,
161, and 162) , Bur eau of Expl osi ves Pamphl et s No. 6 and 6A shoul d
be consul t ed, These pamphl et s gover n t he met hods of l oadi ng, st ayi ng, and br aci ng of car l oad and l ess t han car l oad ( LCL) shi pment s of
expl osi ves and ot her danger ous ar t i cl es, l oaded shel l s ( pr oj ect i l es) ,
and l oaded bombs not cover ed i rl or dnance dr awi ngs. Or dnance dr awi ngs, speci f i cat i ons, and st andar d pr act i ce sheet s cont ai n cer t ai n t echni cal i nf or mat i on r equi r ed i n t he car l oadi ng and st or age and mar ki ng

Par . TOO

TM 9- 1900
Cor e, Handr i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

274

Par . 188

TM 9- 1900
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

a
e
4
R` I
O
d
K

O
w0
Yn

4
F Z^X
O
FU
w0
0
Q0
Z

Z
Y
V
O
r
m

zz
as

C
"n
.a
E

D
O

11111
Z
Q
J
a
a
0

Il

AAl X'

V
z

i ce' ,

AAA

1! " W
W
X
I

275

TM 9- 1904

Par , 1$8
Car a, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

of ammuni t i on. They may be obt ai ned by appl yi ng di r ect l y t o t he


of f i ce of t he Chi ef of Or dnance. The Chi ef of Or dnance has compi l ed a ser i es of vol umed dr awi ngs, cover i ng ammuni t i on st or age,
l oadi ng, and bl ocki ng whi ch ar e i n cl ass and di vi si on 19- 48, I t ems
ar e l i st ed by Ammuni t i on I dent i f i cat i on Code Symbol , packi ng, dr awi ng, and abbr evi at ed nomencl at ur e. For i nf or mat i on on l egal r equi r ement s, consul t TCC r egul at i ons,
h . The car go shoul d be st udi ed and deci si on on appr opr i r i t e st owage made bef or ehand. The car best sui t ed f or t he needs at hand
hen t he ear ar r i ves, i t shoul d be gi ven a t hor ough
shoul d be or der ed. W
and
i
nspect
i on f or pr ot r udi ng nai l s and bol t heeds, whi ch
sweepi ng
must be r emoved or cover ed wi t h wood. The si des of t he car shoul d
be boar ded up wher e necessar y t o obt ai n an even bear i ng and pr oper
dunnage ( see Bur eau of Expl osi ves Pamphl et s) . Subst ant i al gangways shoul d be pr ovi ded; obst r uct i ons whi ch may pr event f r ee ent r y
t o t he car r emoved; t he i mmedi at e vi ci ni t y cl ear ed of l eaves, dr y
gr ass, and ot her i nf l ammabl e mat er i al s ; and t he br akes set and wheel s
chocked, Dur i ng l oadi ng oper at i ons, t he car and magazi ne door
shoul d be cl osed when engi neb nr speeder s ar e passi ng, Car s shoul d
not be l ef t par t l y l oaded unl ess i t i s i mpossi bl e t o f i ni sh l oadi ng at
one t i me, i n whi ch case car door s must be secur el y l acked, Af t er
l oadi ng, t he shi pment shoul d be pr oper l y br aced and st ayed, t he car
pr oper l y seal ed and pl acar ded ( see I CC r egul at i ons) , and a per manent r ecor d of car number s kept . Too much i mpor t ance cannot
be pl aced on pr oper bl ocki ng and st ayi ng, I n many cases t he br aci ng
may seem excessi ve f or t he packages i nvol ved; however , i f a car
l oaded wi t h packages of expl osi ves, movi ng at a r at e of 5 mi l es per
hour , shoul d bump e sol i d t r ai n of l oaded car s, t he packages may be
subj ect ed t o a pr essur e as hi gh us 5 t i mes t he t ot al wei ght of packages
i nvol ved. For exampl e, under t hese ci r cumst ances a 58- pound box
moment ar i l y appr oaches 290 pounds of pr essur e. I n unl oadi ng car s
t he same saf et y pr ecaut i ons t hat have been out l i ned above shoul d be
obser ved, An i nspect i on must be made of t he met hod of bl ocki ng,
st ayi ng, and condi t i on and ser vi ceabi l i t y of cont ent s bef or e r el easi ng
a car f or shi pment , Al l car s t hat have cont ai ned expl osi ves shoul d
be car ef ul l y swept and el l pl acar ds r emoved, Sweepi ngs shoul d be
t hr own i n r unni ng wat er , bur ned, or pl aced i n a met al r ecept acl e f or
l at er di sposi t i on. Al l shi pment s r ecei ved i n a badl y damaged condi t i on shoul d be r epor t ed t hr ough channel s t o t he Chi ef of Or dnance.
r . Cer t i f i ed r ams. I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on r egul at i ons
r equi r e t he use of a " cer t i f i ed car " f or shi pment of many expl osi ves ;
r ef er t o I CCFr ei ght Tar i f f No, 4 f or except i ons. A " car cer t i f i ed" f or
shi pment of cer t ai n expl osi ves ( see I CC r egul at i ons) must be si gned
i n dupl i cat e by a r epr r esent at i ve of t he car r i er and of t he shi pper af t er
shi pment i s l oaded and pr oper l y br aced_ Two of t hese must be
276

TM9- 1900

r ar e. 188- 199
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

at t ached out si de t he door s car t o t he si des of t he car , one on each si de,


i n addi t i on t o r equi r ed expl osi ve pl acar d.
d. Spot t i ng of l oaded car e. Loaded r ai l r oad car s wi l l not be l ef t
i n t he open ar ea bet ween magazi nes, wher e t hey may act as an i nt er medi at e st ep i n pr opagat i on of an expl osi on. Rai l r oad l oadi ng and
unl oadi ng f aci l i t i es f or ammuni t i on shoul d be separ at ed f r om i nhabi t ed bui l di ngs, publ i c hi ghways, and publ i c r ai l r oads i n accor dance
wi t h quant i t y- di st ance r equi r ement s, chapt er 3, sect i on I I . Car s
shoul d not r emai n at t he l oadi ng or unl oadi ng f aci l i t i es l onger t han
24 hour s. Not mor e t han one car shoul d be per mi t t ed at t he unl oadi ng f aci l i t i es at one t i me ( t hi s does not appl y t o Por t s of Embar ka.
t i on) . Addi t i onal car s shoul d be hel d on an i sol at ed spur . Car s
cont ai ni ng X; r nmuni t i on shoul d not be i n gr oups of mor e t han t hr ee
when spot t ed on t he spur , and t he gr oups shoul d be separ at ed by 400
f eet . Bef or e car s cont ai ni ng expl osi ves and ammuni t i on ar e moved
by a l ocomot i ve, t he ai r br ake coupl i ngs must be coupl ed and t est ed
hen
t o assur e t hat t he ai r br akes ar e i n pr oper wor ki ng condi t i on. W
car s ar e spot t ed and engi nes ar e det ached, t he hand br akes must be
set . Dur i ng t he movi ng of a car by pi nchbar , a man must be st at i oned
at t he hand br ake at al l t i mes . " Dr oppi ng, " " bumpi ng, ' " ki cki ng, " or
t he use of t he f l yi ng swi t ch wi t h car s l oaded wi t h expl osi ves and
ammuni t i on i s pr ohi bi t ed.
C. l nsPCC110ei j ai i nr ki mi ng ; ahi pment i %.
( 1) Al l r ai l way car s bef or e ent er i ng a mi l i t ar y i nst al l at i on, must
r ecei ve compl et e ext er i or i nspect i on. Thi s i ncl udes exami nat i on of
car seal s f or t amper i ng, and ver i f i cat i on of Pnt mber s agai nst shi ppi ng
paper s and bi l l of l adi ng t o i nsur e t hat car s have not been opened i n
t r ansi t . I f car seal s have been t amper ed wi t h or do not cor r espond
wi t h document s, or sabot age i s suspect ed, t he car Shoul d be i nspect ed
by aut hor i zed per sonnel at a speci al l ocat i on.
( 2) Compl et e i nt er i or i nspect i on i s made when t he car s ar e
opened. Check cont ent s f or condi t i ons and ser vi ceabi l i t y, and bl ocki ng and st ayi ng met hods i f damage i s pr eval ent .
1119. W
ATER SHI PMENTS.
a. Regi i l at i ons, Shi pment s of expl osi ves and ot her danger ous
ar t i cl es aboar d vessel s ( i ncl udi ng l i ght er s and bar ges) by commer ci al
ser vi ce shal l conf or mt o t he r egul at i ons pr escr i bed by t he U. S. Coast
Guar d Regul at i ons Gover ni ng Tr anspor t at i on of Mi l i t ar y Expl osi ves
on Boar d VesseI s dur i ng pr esent Emer gency, and I CC Tar i f f No. 3 .
These r egul at i ons per mi t t he t r anspor t at i on of mi l i t ar y expl osi ves and
ammuni t i on i n accor dance wi t h r equi r ement s of t he W
ar and Navy
Depar t ment s . AR55- 170 cont ai ns r egul at i ons gover ni ng t r anspor t at i on
of mi l i t ar y expl osi ves, i nf l ammabl es, and chemi cal mat er i al s. Al so
r egul at i ons of por t s and har bor s of t he ci t i es and st at es af f ect ed
shoul d he consul t ed and compl i ed wi t h.
977

TM9- 1940

par . 189
Car e, Handl i ng, and' Pr eser vat i on

b. Pr r cant i ons and saf e bxndbug.


X1) Tr anspor t at i on of expl osi ves, except smal l - ar r ns ammuni t i on,
on shi ps car r yi ng passenger s i s pr ohi bi t ed except f or combat l oadi ng
and ot her oper at i onal r equi r ement s whi ch may be except ed upon
deci si on by compet ent aut hor i t y. Equi pment t o be used f or shi pment shoul d be i nspect ed and decl ar ed as accept abl e by dul y aut hor
i zed por t aut hor i t i es . Regul at i ons cover i ng use of f i r es. st oves, gasol i r e, mat ches, smoki ng, f l ags, anchor s, l amps, hooks, et c ., shoul d be
consul t ed and st r i ct l y compl i ed wi t h. Per sons under t he i nf l uence of
l i quor or dr ugs shoul d not be per mi t t ed on boar d a vessel whi l e l oad.
i ng, unl oadi ng, or t r anspor t i ng of expl osi ves and ammuni t i on i s i n
pr ogr m. No r epai r s ot her t han emer gency r epai r s shal l be under t aken whi l e any expl osi ves ar e on boar d as car go, and oper at i ons wi t h
equi pment necessi t at i ng t he use of open f l ames or aci d i s pr ohi bi t ed
except upon speci al per mi ssi on% of por t aut hor i t i es . Expl osi ves shal l
be st owed and segr egat ed by gr oups accor di ng t o Coast Guar d r egul at i ons .
( 2) Ammuni t i on or expl osi ves i n bul k may be st owed i n a hol d
bef or e or af t er ot her car go. pr ovi ded al l pr ecaut i ons ar e made agai nst
t he hazar d of ar t i cl es bei ng dr opped f r omt he sl i ng. As f ar as pr act i cabl e al l wor k i n connect i on wi t h t he const r uct i on of a magazi ne,
or ot her condi t i oni ng of hol ds, decks, or hat ches, shal l be compl et ed
pr i or t o act ual l oadi ng of ammuni t i on or bul k expl osi ves.
( 3) The f l oor s of al l magazi nes and hol ds shal l be cl ear ed of al l
r ubbi sh, di scar ded dunnage, and spi l l ed expl osi ves, end swept br oom
cl ear s bef or e any ar mzvuni t i on or expl osi ves ar e l oaded ont o t he vessel .
Bui l di ngs shal l al so be exami ned and any r esi due of pr evi ous car go
r emoved t her ef r om.
( 4) The hat ches ; of t he vessel wi l l be kept cl osed except dur i ng
l oadi ng or unl oadi ng oper at i ons, and when so cl osed wi l l be cover ed
wi t h t ar paul i n and bat t ened,
( 5) I f l oadi ng ar unl oadi ng i s not compl et ed dur i ng oper at i onal
t i me, pr oper pr ecaut i ons wi l l be t aken t o guar d and pr ot ect t he car go
agai nst f i r e. and a suf f i ci ent cr ew wi l l be l ef t i n char ge t o handl e t he
vessel i n case of emer gency. Docks shoul d be kept cl ear of r ubbi sh,
et c. Ammuni t i on and expl osi ves shoul d not be l ef t on a dock or
el sewher e unl ess pr oper guar d i s pr ovi ded or del i ver y made t o aut hor i zed per sons. Expl osi ves and ammuni t i on wi l l not be l ef t on boar d
over ni ght unl ess such act i on i s necessar y i nci dent t o t hei r t r nnspor t at i on. Li ght er s shoul d Vi ol be t i ed up t o t hat par t of a vessel or dock.
wher e t he hr er oom or bai l er i s l ocat ed. Expl osi ves shoul d be kept as
f ar away f r omt he boi l er r oom and engi ne r oom as i s possi bl e.
( 6) The use of oi l or chemi cal bur ni ng l amps or l ant er ns i s pr ohi bi t ed when l oadi ng. onl y el ect r i c l ant er ns wi l l be used wbef a
movabl e ar t i f i ci al l i ght i s necessar y .
- 27s

TM 9- 1900

Par s. 199- 190


Car o, Handl i ng, and Pr eaer vat i on

( 7) Li ght er s, bar ges, scows, and t ugs engaged i n haul i ng vessel s


or vessel s ber t hed at an ammuni t i on l oadi ng pi er l oaded wi t h expl osi ves must have t hei r f unnel s or smoke st acks cover ed wi t h scr eeni ng
of sui t abl e si ze t o pr event t he escape of spar ks. Thi s scr eeni ng must
be r enewed whenever i t i s br oken.
( 8) Magazi nes ( car go spar e) f or expl osi ves and ammuni t i on and
al l met al obst r uct i ons and const r uct i ons must be l i ned ent i r el y wi t h
wood or aut hor i sed wood subst i t ut e not l egs t han 1 i nch t hi ck, nai l ed
wi t h cement - coat ed nai l s and count er sunk.
( 9) Expl osi ves awai t i ng r emoval or del i ver y shoul d be st or ed
out si de t he dock car whar f when pr act i cabl e and ever y possi bl e ef f or t
must be made t o r educe t he t i me of such st or age. St or age of t hese
mat er i al s must be i n a saf e pl ace and away f r om danger ous ar t i cl es,
( 10) Fackagos of oxpl oei ve and ammuni t i on must not be handl ed
r oughl y, i hr awn, dr opped, dr agged, or r ol l ed over each ot her or over
decks.
( 11) Met al hand books shal l not be used i n handl i ng packages of
expl osi vcm Cant hooks shel l not be used f or r ai si ng or l ower i ng
bar r el s, dr ums, or ot her cont ai ner s of expl osi ves,
( 12) Cont ai ner s of expl osi ves showi ng evi dence of damage or
l eakage shal l not be accept ed f or t r anspor t at i on or st or age on boar d
a vessel , Recooper i ng or r epacki ng of damaged or f aul t y cont ai ner s
shoul d be done at a saf e di st ance f r omt he vessel .
] ( A) . hl OTORTRUCK SHI PMENTS.
a. Regul at i ons.
( 1) Regul at i ons gover ni ng t r anspor t at i on of ammuni t i on and expl osi ves by t r uck i s f ul l y cover ed by I CC Mot or Car r i er Regul at i ons,
par t No. 7, f or commer ci al car r i er , and AR 55- 155 t ot gover nm" t oper at ed vehi cl es, and wi l l be st r i ct l y adher ed t o, Most st at es and
Ci t i es, t own&, vi l l ages, et c., have t hei r own l aws concer ni ng t he t r anspor t at i on of expl osi ves and ot her danger ous ar t i cl es wi t hi n t hei r
j ur i sdi ct i on . The l ocal aut hor i t i es of t hose sect i ons t hr ough whi ch
mot or shi pment s wi l l pass shoul d be consul t ed and t hei r r ul es, r egul at i ons, and r ecommendat i ons as t o t he best r out e t o f ol l ow i n or der
t o avoi d congest ed ar eas, be st r i ct l y adher ed t o. On r equest , l ocal
publ i c saf et y aut hor i t i es wi l l pr ovi de escor t s or guar ds f or movement
of expl osi ves t hr ough t hei r j ur i sdi ct i on. I f compl i ance wi t h t hese
r ul es i s i mpr act i cabl e, t he mat t er shal l be r ef er r ed t o t he Chi ef of
Or dnance i n det ai l .
( 2) Except i n cases of emer gency, shi pment s of ammuni t i on or
expl osi ve mat er i al s, except smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on, wi l l not be
shi pped by mot or t r uck wi t hout pr i or appr oval of t he W
ar Depar t
ment , Thi s does not appl y t o l ocal or near by haul i ng but i t i s i nt ended t o pr event t r uck shi pment wher e r ai l or wat er f aci l i t i es ar e
avai l abl e .

Par . 194

TM 9- 1940
Car e, Ha, i dl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

( 3) Expl osi ves and ot her danger ous ar t i cl es wi l l not be shi pped
by any commer ci al hi ghway car r i er nor wi l l l ocal dr ayage t her eof by
any commer ci al concer ns be engaged, unl ess t he car r i er or dr ayage
concer n f i l es A cer t i f i cat e wi t h t he cont r ol l i ng t r anspor t at i on of f i cer
st at i ng t hat sai d car r i er or dr ayage concer n wi l l compl y wi t h al l l aws
and r egul at i ons pr omul gat ed by f eder al , st at e, and l ocal gover nment s
and muni ci pal i t i es t hat may be appl i cabl e t o and gover n each par .
t i eul ar shi pment of expl osi ves and ot her danger ou' ar t i cl es. Mot or
car r i er s not l i censed by t he I CC may t r anspor t expl osi ves i n i nt er st at e
commer ce pr ovi ded par t s 2, 3 . 6, and 7 oaf t he Mot or Car r i er Saf et y
Regul at i ons ar e obser ved .
( 4) W
hen gover nment - oper at ed vehi cl es ar e used i n t r anspor t i ng
expl osi ve mat er i al , t he shi ppi ng of f i cer wi l l t ake al l necessar y and
r easonabl e pr ecaut i ons t o i nsur e saf e t r ansi t . Except i n t i me of
emer gency, t he shi ppi ng of f i cer wi l l be r esponsi bl e f or t he obser vat i on
of al l I CC r egul at i ons appl i cabl e . I f t he cr ymmandi ng of f i cer of an
ar aer i al or depot or a gener al or f i el d of f i cer of t he l i ne decl ar es t he
shi pment as an emer gency, t he shi ppi ng of f i cer wi l l t ake ever y r ea.
sonabl e pr ecaut i on t o i nsur e saf e movement of t he expl osi ves, t oxi c
gases, or ot her danger ous ar t i cl es whi l e i n t r ansi t on gover nment
r eser vat i ons and publ i c hi ghways.
( 5) W
hen t r ucks have been l oaded and r eady f or movement , t he
dr i ver s wi l l be i nf or med of t he t r ue nat ur e of t he expl osi ves on t he
t r ucks, t he f i r e hazar ds, t he r net hoda t o be used i n f i ght i ng f i r es i nvol vi ng t he t r uck or car go, t he mi sbi l e di st ance i n case of expl osi on, pr oper
di st ance t o mai nt ai n bet ween ot her t r ucks, and any ot her i nf or mat i on
t hat wi l l br i ng about saf e del i ver y of t he shi pment t o i t s dest i nat i on.
( 6) Any expl osi ve or ammuni t i on accept ed f or r ai l shi pment i s
equal l y accept abl e f or movement by t r uck ( par. 188) , and l oadi ng
and st or age char t f or i t ems t hat may be l oaded on mot or vehi cl es i s
oi r ni l ar t o t hat used on r ai l r oad car s . For f ur t her descr i pt i on, see I CC,
par t No. 7. I n passenger - car r yi ng vehi cl es, however , expl osi ves and
chemi cal agent s way not be t r anspor t ed, except smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on. l abor at or y sampl es, and cl ass B sol i d poi sons, or shi pment s
wei ghi ng l ess t han 100 pounds.
h. Pr ecaut i ons and ear s handl i ng.
( 1) Ever y pr ecaut i on agai nst f i r e must be obser ved. Tr ucks
shoul d be i nspect ed dai l y t o ascer t ai n t hat el ect r i c wi r i ng, l i ght s,
br akes, gasol i ne t anks, and l i nes ar e i n good wor ki ng or der , t he engi ne
cl ean of dust and oi l , and t he engi ne pan i s f r ee f r om accumul at i ons
of di r t and gr ease. Accumul at i ons of oi l or gr ease spl ashed f r om
t he uni ver sal j oi nt , t r ansmi ssi on, or ot her movi ng par t s, on t he under
si de of t he f out boar ds or body of t he car shoul d be cl eaned t hor oughl y
af t er each l ong t r i p or days wor k. Leaki ng gasol i ne t anks or l i nes
shoul d be r epai r ed i mmedi at el y, and l i ght ed ci gar et t es, ci gar s, pi pes,

1171

ear . i vu

7' 1 7L\ f

Car e, Ham' i ' l i ng. and Pr eser vat i on


and open f i ght s must be kept away f r om t he vi ci ni t y when f i l l i ng
gasol i ne t anks. W
hen necessar y t o use mat ches, onl y saf et y mat ches
must he kept i n a met al cont ai ner i n t he t ool
be
used.
They
m, , y
box, Usc- of " st r i ke anywher e" mat ches i s pr ohi bi t ed. The amount
of wast e i n a t r uck shoul d be kept t o a mi ni mum, and oi l y and cl ean
wast e shoul d be separ at ed. Tr ash , t houl d not be per mi t t ed t o accumul at e i n t he Loc) l box,
( 2) Al l t r ucks wi l l be pr ovi t l et l wi t h at l east one pr oper l y f i l l ed
f i r e ext i ngui sher _ ` Al l dr i ver s and ot her empl oyees shoul d he i nst r uct ed as t o t he best met hods of ext i ngui shi ng gasol i ne f i r es wi t h
Pyr enf , and shoul d be i mpr essed wi t h t he f act t hat i rl near l y al l cases
t her e i s t i me t o ext i ngui sh & f i r s, as i t t akes an appr eci abl e t i me t o
heat ani r nuni t i on t o t he poi nt wher e i t wi l l expl ode. A box cont ai i ) i ng 3 cubi c f eet of , and shoul d be car r i ed on Loch vehi cl e.
( 3) W
hen ammuni t i on ant i expl osi ves ar e bei ng t r anspor t ed i n a
convoy of t r ut hs, i t i s advi " bl e t hat t hey do not become wi del y
separ at ed but a saf e di st ance bet ween each t r uck be mai nt ai ned t ry
avoi d cl angor of col l i si on. The convoy st i oul d be st opped once each
hour dur i ng t he t r i p, t o i nap+: ct each t r uckl oad, i n a l ocat i on not
wi t hi n or cl ose t o l i mi t s of ci t i es, t ovms, or muai ci pal i t i es. Dr i vi ng
t hr ough congest ed ar eas shoul d be avoi ded when possi bl e. Tr ucks
shoul d m9i nt ai n a moder at e sped ai r ] mal ce a f ul l st op at r ai l r oad
cr ossi ngs. Unaut hor i sed pci suns wi l l not be per mi t t ed t o r i de an
t r ucks . I f a t r uck cat ches f i r e, t he ot her t r ucks wi l l pr oceed t o a
saf e di st ance i n cage an expl osi on may occur a, t i d guar ds post ed at a
di st ance of sever al hundr ed yar ds on each si de of t he t r uck t o st op
al l t r af f i c, . I n case a t r uck br eaks do&n and cannot be t owed t o i t s
dest i nat i on by one of t he ot her t r ucks, a t wo- man guar d shoul d he
st at i oned and t 1 post t o whi ch t he convoy i s pr oceedi ng shoul d be
not i f i ed so t hat a t r uck can be di spat ched at once wi t h l oadi ng per sonnel t o r el i eve t he di sabl ed t r uck of i t s l oad.
( 4) Fuzes or et her det onat i ng agent s shoul d not be t r anspor t ed
wi t h ot her expl osi ves. An except i on i s ammuni t i on f or cannon shi pped
wi t h f uzes or boost er s assembl ed_ The l oad shoul d be wel l br aced and
st ayed and t ar paul i n spr ead t o pr ot ect t he l oad f r om t he weat her
end f r om spar ks_ As an I CC W
ar Emer gency Regul at i on, f uzes may
be t r anspor t ed wi t h ot her expl osi ves of a 3- f oot sand bar r i er separ at es
t he f uzes f r om t he ot her expl osi ves,
( S) Expl osi ves and ammuni t i on shoul d not be unl oaded or pi l ed
i mmedi at el y back of t he exhaust Thi s r egul at i on i s i nt ended t o
appl y t o bul k shi pment s of ammuni t i on by mot or t r uck_ No r egul at i ons wi l l be const r ued t o pr ohi l ut t he car r yi ng of compl et e r ounds
of ar t i l l er y ammuni t i on, i ncl udi ng f uzes and pr i mer s, i n one vehi cl e
by combat uni t s_
( 6) W
hen t r ansj ) or t i ng ar t i l l er y ammuni t i on, al l pr oj ect i l es
shoul d be per Hl l 0 t o t he si de of t he t r uck so t hat t he pr oj ect i l e wi l l
; Mt 13 0

411

iX

2at

7M9- 1904

Par . 190
Car e, Nondl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

not r ol l back agai nst t he t ai l gat e of t he t r uck. I f i t i s necessar y t o


pl ace mor e t han one l ayer of pr oj ect i l es i n t he t r uck, st r i ps of pl anki ng shoul d be pl aced over t he f i r st l ayer of pr oj ect i l es t o pr ot ect t he
r ot at i ng bands f r om becomi ng def or med t hr ough cont act wi t h ot her
pr oj ect i l es when t he t r uck i s i n mot i on .
( 7) No cont ai ner of expl osi ves or ot her danger ous ar t i cl es may
be accept ed by a mot or car r i er i f damaged or i n a l eaki ng condi t i on.
Any cont ai ner f ound br oken or l eaki ngdur i ng t r ansi t may be r epai r ed
when pr act i cabl e and not danger ous. Repai r s shoul d be done i n
accor dance wi t h best and saf est pr act i ce known and at l east 140 f eet
f r om ot her expl osi ves or ammuni t i on, I f t he damaged cont ai ner
cannot be r epai r ed, i t shoul d be r ei nf or ced by heavy wr appi ng paper
and t wi ne. pl aced i n anot her st or age box, and sur r ounded by dr y f i ne
sawdust , dr y cl ean cot t on wast e, or wads made f r om dr y newspaper s
hen l eaki ng and d i maged conand box cover secur el y at t ached. W
t ai ner i s beyond r ecooper age, i t may not be t r anspor t ed beyond t he
mi ni mum di st ance necessar y t o r each a pl ace wher e t he expl osi ve
may be di sposed of wi t h saf et y.
( 8) Tr ucks must have pneumat i c r ubber t i r ea and br akes on al l
f our wheel s.
( 9) Al l ar t i f i ci al l i ght i ng must be el ect r i c.
( I 0) Puel t ank i nl et s and connect i ons shoul d be equi pped wi t h
a devi ce t o r el i eve i nt er nal pr essur e and pl aced so t hat no over f l ow
can spi l l on t he exhaust , and exhaust pi pes wi l l be pr ot ect ed by a
pr oper l y const r uct ed f l ame baf f l e.
( 11) The f l oor s of al l vehi cl es must be t i ght , and exposed met al
on t he body cover ed or pr ot ect ed wi t h wood or nonmet al l i c mat er i al .
( l 2) Li ght i ng equi pment on vehi cl es shoul d be i n conf or mance
wi t h t he st andar ds pr escr i bed by t he I CC or t he l aws of t he st at e
wi t hi n whi ch t he vehi cl e i s oper at i ng.
( 13) hl ot or t r ucks cont ai ni ng expl osi ves wi l l never be t aken i nt o
a gar age or r epai r shi p f or r epai r or st or age unl ess i t i s an open, sunshaded gar age wher e no open- f l ame l i ght er bur ner i s i n use.
( 14) W
hen possi bl e expl osi ves wi l l be t r anspor t ed dur i ng day .
l i ght .
( 15) I CCr ul es f or bi d t r anspor t at i on of expl osi ves on any f ul l or
pol e t r ai l er ,
( 16) I nt et i or s of t r ucks must be f r ee of bol t s, nai l s, or ot her
pr oj ect i ons whi ch may damage cont ai ner s.
( 17 ) The ent i r e l oad must be wi t hi n t he body of t he vehi cl e, and
t he t ai l boar d of gat e must be cl osed and secur ed dur i ng t r ansi t
( 1$) The engi nes of al l t r ucks must be st opped, al l br akes set ,
and wheel s chocked bef or e l oadi ng and unl oadi ng,
282

TM 9- 1900

Por s. 190- 19T


Car e,

1i t t g, ar bcT Pr eser vat i on

1YHnX
-X

( 19) Loaded t r ucks wi l l not be l ef t i n t he open ar ea bet ween


magazi nes as t hey may act as an i nt er medi at e st ep i n pr opagat i ng an
expl osi on .
( 20) Ref uel i ng shoul d be r educed t o a mi ni mum, The el ect r i c
i gni t i on syst em shoul d be t ur ned of f and t he engi ne st opped dur i ng
t he r ef uel i ng pr ocess . I f t he engi ne i s pr ovi ded wi t h a magnet o, i t
shoul d be gr ounded.
( 21) For any cont i nuous t r i p l onger t han 8 hour s, t he dr i ver
must be accompani ed by an assi st ant . Smoki ng wi l l not be per mi t t ed
i n t he cabs of vehi cl es t r anspor t i ng expl osi ves. The car wi l l not be
l ef t unat t ended on a pnbl i c st r eet or hi ghway.
( 22) Ever y shi pment of danger ous expl osi ve wi l l be del i ver ed
onl y t o a per son aut hor i zed t o t vcei ve i t . except such shi pment b as
ar e pl aced i n magazi nes whi ch ar e i mmedi at el y t her eaf t er l ocked,
( 23) Mot or vebi ci es car r yi ng expl osi ves or ammuni t i on wi l l have
t he pr escr i hf d pl acar di ng wi t h l et t er i ng no l ess t han 3 i nches hi gh on
a sui t abl e backgr ound, Sour ' Expl odve" si gns ar e r equi r ed, one on
t he r ear , f r ont , and on each si de . W
hen t r anspor t i ng mor e t han one
cl ass of expl osi ves or danger ous ar t i cl es, no mar e t han one ki nd of
si gn l et t er i ng or pl acar d need be di spl ayed and t hat one must be t he
one whi ch desi gnat es t he most danger ous ar t i cl e: bei ng t r anspor t ed.
( ' ' 4) I n case of acci dent , al l unbr oken packages and as much of
any br oken packages as possi bl e wi l l be car ef ul l y gat her ed and r emoved t o a pl ace of saf et y i n or der t o pr event t i r e or expl osi on.
Car e shoul d be t aken not t o pr oduce spar ks. I n t he event t hat a
mot or vehi cl e i s ent angl ed wi t h anot her or wi t h an obj ect or st r uct ur e, no at t empt wi l l be made t o di sent angl e t he vehi cl e unt i l t he l oad
i s r emoved t o a pl ace 300 f eet f r om t he vehi cl e or any habi t at i on,
I nhabi t ant s and ot her vehi cl es wi l l be war ned of t he danger ,
( 23) W
hen expl osi v" and ammuni t i on ar e bei ng t r anspor t er ) by
t r uck f r om r ai l r oad l oadi ng and unl oadi ng f aci l i t i es t o or f r om t he
magazi ne ar ea, a r out e shoul d he sel ect ed whi ch avoi ds t r avel t hr ough
congest ed ar eas of t he post .
Sect i on VI
I NSPECTI ON AND SURVEI LLANCE
191 . ) EFI NI TI ONS.
;a, I napr r t i un, Per i odi c and speci al vi sual exami nat i ons whi ch
may i ncl ude gagi ng, wei ghi ng, or i nvest i gat i on of component s as r equi r ed f ur t he pur poses of det er mi ni ng t he cur r ent ser vi ceabi l i t y of
t he st ocks on hand and det ect i ng evi dences of det er i or at i on,
h*
N
I ai nt enanec
. The car e t aken and wor k done t o keep t he ammuni t i on i n good condi t i on,

I Nt 9- t yw

Par s. 191- 193

Car e, Handl i ng, at xd Pr ese7Vaf l or 2


r . Sur vei l l ance.. Obser vat i on, i nspect i on, i nvest i gat i on, t est , st udy,
and cl assi f i cat i on of ammuni t i on and ammuni t i on component s and
expl osi ves i n movement , st or age, and use, wi t h r espect t o degr ee r_,f
ser vi ceabi l i t y and r at e of det er i or at i on.
d. { : r at t i ng, See chapt er 1, sect i on 11.
I NSPECTI ON O NUGAMNLS AND MAC: AEI NE AREAS.
a. Magazi nes and magazi ne ar eas shoul d be i nspect ed once a
mont h, or mor e f r equent l y as nt i ay be r equi r ed by r egul at i ons and
condi t i ons, t o see t hat al l condi t i ons er e nor mal , t hat nei t her humi di t y nor t emper at ur e i s or has been t oo hi gh wi t hi n t he magazi ne and
t i t i at cont ai ner s ar e i n a sat i sf act or y condi t i on.
lip.
The f ol l owi ng i s a sur nmar y of condi t i ons t hat shoul d appl y
when ammuni t i on i s i nspect ed :
( 1) Tl t e l ocat i on of magazi nes shoul d conf or m t o t he quar t i t i t ydi st ance t abl es i n r egar d t o di st ance f r om i nhabi t ed bui l di ngs, f r om
publ i c. hi ghways and r ai l r oads, and f r om each ot her ,
( 2) The magazi ne ar ea shoul d be wel l guar ded and pr ot ect ed
agai nst f i r e.
( 3) The r equi r ed f i r ebr eaks shoul d be pr ovi ded and f r ee f r om
r ubbi sh and i nf l ammabl e mat er i al.
( 4) The magazi nes shoul d be wel l and sui t abl y const r uct ed .
( 5) The magazi nes shoul d be i n good r epai r , dr y, and wel l vent i l at ed
( 6) The i nt er i or s of magazi nes shoul d be cl ean and neat wi t h
st or es ar r anged i n or der l y pi l es,
( 7) The r equi r ement s of t he Mi xed St or age Char t , par agr aph
173, shoul d be met .
{ g) The st or es shoul d be pr oper l y i dent i f i ed by l ot number and
pi l ed wi t h no mor e t han one t at i n each pi l e.
( 9) Out er cont ai ner s shoul d be secur el y cl osed.
( 10)
Loose r ounds, dai naged cont ai ner s, empt y cont ai ner s, pai nt ,
oi l , wast e, r ags, t ool s, and ot her pr ohi bi t ed ar t i cl es shoul d not be
pr esent i n t he magazi ne.
( 11) Al l ammuni t i on, expl osi ves, and l oad component s ( except
smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on) shoul d be st or ed i n segr egat ed magazi nes
and not i n bui l di ngs used f or ot her pur poses,
( l 2) ExuNt e shoul d be r emoved f r ommagazi nes pr ompt l y .
Fi l es of publ i cat i ons shoul d not be kept i n magazi ne&
( 13)
192.

193.

ShI OKELESS POW


DER.
i
a, Smokel ess powder n bul k and separ at e- l oadi ng pr opel l i ng
char ges shoul d be i nspect ed t o see t hat al l cont ai ner s have l i ds f as-

TM 9- 1904

Par s . 193- 194

Car e, Handl i ng, ar 7d Pr eser vat i on


t oned f i r ml y i n pl ace. t hat cont ai ner s ar e ai r t i ght and i n good condi t i <' i n. They shoul d be exami ned f or evi dence of havi ng been subj ect ed
t o moi st ur e and dampness and, i n wt i r m weat her and cl i mat es, t he
r e,col ' dS of t he me: : i mum- mi ni mum t her momet er exor ni ned. Met al
cont ai nem of separ at e- l oadi ng pr opel l i ng Char ges shoul d be ai r - t est ed.
Ai r - t est i ng per sonnel shoul d he f ami l i ar wi t h t he odor of decomposi ng
po, xder and shoul d i u3t e ear ef u) l y t he odor f r omeach cont ai ner as i t
opened f or ai r t est .
( 1) Wl i en sr t i oket ess powder r eaches an age at whi ch i t may be
expect ed t o det er i or at e wi t h i nr cr eesed r api di t y, each cont ai ner i s i nspect ed at l east ever y 1`? mont hs, Pr opel l i ng char ges of l ot s t hat
sat i sf act or i l y par sed pr evi ous i nspect i on shoul d be r ei nspect ed at
12- mont h i nt er val s, I f i t appear s t hat i t wi l l he nece9Sar y t o wi t hhol d i nspect i on so t hat t he el apsed t une wi l l be gr eat er t han 14
mont hs, pr i or aut hor i t y wi l l be obt ai ned f r omt he Chi ef of Or dnance.
N' I et hods of i nspect i on and t est s t o be per f or med ar e l ai d down each
year by t he Chi ef of Or dnance and publ i shed i n W
DSB 9- AMM7.
( 2) Wher e t he number of def ect i ve pr opel l i ng char ges i n any
one l ot r eaches 10 per cent , t he bal ance of t he l ot wi l l t her eaf t er be
i nspect ed at 6- mont h i nt er val s,
I t , Dur i ng i nspect i on. mi nor r epai r s such as t i ght eni ng f aci ngs and
r epl aci ng gasket s shoul d be ef f ect ed.
r . I n l ar ge magazi nes, i nst ead of dat i ng each met hyl - vi ol et t est
paper i ndi vi dual l y, a r ecor d may be kept i n t he magazi ne of t he dat e
of i nspect i on. I f any l ot s cont ai ni ng such undat ed paper s ar e shi pped
el sewher e, t he dat e of I SSL 3ngpect i on whi ch nor mal l y appear s an t he
t o-X-t paper wi l l be shown on t he shi ppi ng t i cket .
194,

M
, , EDANDSEARFI XEDAN1nT[ i y I TTONANDGRENADES.

a. Al l st ocks on hand shoul d be i nspect ed t o see t hat t hey can be


r eadi l y i dent i f i ed as t o ki nd and l ot number and t hat t he ammuni t i on
has nut been subj ect ed t o moi st ur e and dampness. Cont ai ner s shoul d
be exami ned t o see t hat t hey hove not been opened nor i ndi vi dual
r ounds r emoved f r om t hei r seal ed cont ai ner s. Ser vi ceabl e r ounds
t ur ned i n by t r oops shoul d be exami ned t o see t hat t hey have been
pr oper l y r epacked and seal ed. Unser vi ceabl e r ounds oi l hand shoul d
i ve exami ned t o see t hat t hey si v packed i n cl osed cont ai ner s and
i nqui r y made t o ascer t ai n t hat t hey 1s eve been r epor t ed f or di sposi t i on.
h. W
hen any l ar ge number of r ounds of f i xed or aer ni f i xed ar nMuni t i nn has been i n st or age 5 year s or mor e, pr ovi si on shoul d be
r uade f or t he i nspect i on of t he pr opel l i ng powder f r omr epr esent at i ve
l ot s of t he r ounds. Thi s r equi r es di sassembl y of t he r ound and
shoul d be done wi t h ext r eme car e by exper i enced per sonnel onl y.
Request may he made of t he appr opr i at e ser vi ce enr nr nt i nd f or shi ppi ng r epr esoI t t t at i ve r ounds o t he l ot s t o or di l ance est abl i shment s or
205

TM 9- 1900

Par s. 194- 195


Car e, Handl i ng and Pr eser vat i on

f or an ammuni t i on i nspect or t o super vi se t he di sassembl y and i nsp(: ct i on. These r epr esent at i ve r ounds shoul d be exami ned as f ol l ows :
( 1) Thr ee packages r epr esent i ng each l ot wi l l be r emoved f r om
t he magazi ne t o a l ocat i on i n accor dance wi t h saf et y r equi r ement s,
and one r ound of ammuni t i on wi l l be sel ect ed at r andom f r om each
package. These r ounds shoul d be r emoved f r om t he magazi ne and
4i sassembl ed wi t h car e, I mmedi at el y af t er t he shel l i s r emoved f r om
t he car t r i dge case, t he odor f r om t he powder wi l l be not ed . Al l i n
st ances of t he odor of ni t r ous f umes wi l l be r epor t ed. I n gener al , any
char ge cont ai ni ng an excess of one per cent det er i or at ed gr ai ns wi l l
have a mar ked odor of ni t r ous f umes. I f ni t r ous f umes ar e det ect ed,
t he smokel ess powder f f mn t hat r ound wi l l be dest r oyed, t he pr i mer
f i r ed, and t he bal ance of t he r ound ehi l i ped t o t he near est or dnance
depot , The ent i r e l ot wi l l t hen be hel d f or di sposi t i on.
( 2) Semi Xxed ammuni t i on wi l l I r e i nspect ed as descr i bed above
except t hat , when t he char ge i s cont ai ned i n bags, t he bags onl y wi l l
be i nspect ed f or par t i al or t ot al di scol or at i on and subj ect ed t o a
mai t i ual t est t o det er mi ne t he ser vi ceabi l i t y of t he car t r i dge case
cl ot h. Rounds cont ai ni ng bags whi ch ar e di scol or ed or spot t ed, i n
whi ch t he bags ar e weak due t o det er i or at ed smokel ess powder , wi l l
be di sposed of as descr i bed above.
( 3) Mor t ar shel l , gr enades, mi nes, ant i r ocket s ar e i nspect ed as
i n subpar agr aph a, above, except t hr i t ext r eme car e i s t aken t o see t hat
al l gr enades and gr enade f UZCS ar e i n cont ai ner s whi ch ar e so ef f ect i vel y cl osed t hat t he ar t i cl es cannot be eaf i i l y r emoved and handl ed.
( 4) A r epor t i n dupl i cat e f or each l ot i nspect ed wi l l be f or war ded, t hr ough channel s, t o t he Chi ef of Or dnance.
e. Car t r i dge cases shoul d be i nspect ed, as occasi onal l y bur s, pr oj ect i um, and sl i ght i mper f ect i ons ar e f or med on t he mout h of cases
dur i ng seat i ng or cr i mpi ng oper at i ons on an assembl i ng machi ne.
Such i r r egul ar i t i es must he r emoved so t hat t he r ounds may chamber
cor r ect l y . The use of power - dr i ven gr i ndi ng wheel s on l oaded ma
t er i al i s pr ohi bi t ed. Al t hough i t i s pr ef er abl e t hat no f i l i ng or gr i ndi ng be done on l oaded car t r i dge cases, t he car ef ul use of a f i l e f or t hi s
pur pose may be per mi t t ed when necessar y. W
hen f i l i ng, t he r at e
must be l i mi t ed so t hat t he heat gener at ed wi l l not be danger ous,
Pr ot ect i on shoul d be gi ven t he pr i mer .
195 . SRALL"AWNI S A, 1011 ; NI I TI ON,
a. TM9" 1990 and W
I DSB 9- AMM 4 shoul d be avai l abl e f or
r ef er ence.
b. An exami nat i on shoul d be made t o ver i f y t he f ol l owi ng :
( 1) That al l ammuni t i on on hand i s pr oper l y i dent i f i ed.
( 2) That out er cont ai ner seal s have not been br oken or l i ner s
opened.

T.ti t 9- 1900

Par s. 195 , - 198


Car e, l YaY] Cl 2i r t ( X, ar ea Pr e&Cr Vf l i i on

( : 3) That cover s of par t l y f i l l ed out er cont ai ner s ai v f i r ml y


f ast ened.
( 4) That an excessi ve quant i t y of gr ade 3 ammuni t i on has not
accumul at ed.
( 5) That gr ade 3 ammuni t i on has been r epor t ed ( per . $) ,
( 6) That t her e i s no gr eat accumul at i on of ser vi ceabl e r ounds of
Ammuni t i on not packed i l l cl i ps of bandol eer s or i n t he r egul ar l y
pr escr i bed manner .
( 7) That t her e i s no accumul at i on of ot her wi se ser vi ceabl e ammuni t i on not i dent i f i ed by l ot number .
e. The cont ent s of r epr esent at i ve cont ai ner s of l ot s t hat have
been i n st or age f or 1 year shoul d he i nspect ed f or cor r osi on, season
cr acki ng, dent s, or ot her def ect s of t he car t r i dge case, - and f or l oose
bul l et s or spl i t t r acer bul l et s_
d. Ser i ous def ect s shoul d be r epor t ed at once and, i f t he number
of def ect i ve car t r i dges i s gr eat er t han 20 per cent , t he l ot shoul d be
hel d f or i ni l r uct i or i 3 f r om t he Chi ef of Or dnance.
196.

BULK EXPLOSI VES.


a. Hi gh expl osi ves anal bl ack powder . Bl ack powder i n bul k,
pr act i ce bomb and smoke- puf f char ges, TNT i n bul l s and bl ocks, expl osi ve D, and dynar ni t e shoul d be exami ned t o see t hat t he cont Ai ner s ar e i n good condi t i on, t hat t her e ar e no open cont ai ner s, and
t hat expl osi ves ar e not si f t i ng f r om t he cont ai ner s- Bl ack powder
cont ai ner s shoul d be exami ned f or r ust and f or evi dence t hat cont ai ner s havv. been opened i n an i mpr oper manner . such as by t he use
of a col d chi sel , hat chet , or ot her unsui t abl e t ool , Dynami t e cont ai ner s shoul d be exami ned f or si gns of exudat i on and ot her evi dence
of ni t r ogl ycer i n on t he case or on t he Boor .
h. Bul b powder ( smohr l eAi , ) .
( 1) Sul k powder of l ot s t hat sat i sf act or i l y passed pr evi ous i nspect i ons shoul d be r ei nsl wt ed at 12- mont h i nt er val s, The act i on
pr ovi ded i n par agr aph 193 appl i es when i t appear s t he per i od wi l l
be gr eat er t han 14 mont hs .
( 2) Hul k powder f r om l ot s i n whi ch 10 per cent or mor e of t he
l ot was f ound def ect i ve wi l l 1>e r ei nspect ed at 6- mont h i nt er val s .
Each box wi l l be opci t ed . I f t he powder smel l s of ni t r ous f umes,
or i f t he N/ 10 met hyl - vi ol et paper has t ur ned whi t e, t hat box wi l l
i mmedi at el y be segr egat ed and subsequent l y di 3posad of . Bul k
powder segr egat ed wi l l be r epor t ed on Ammuni t i on Condi t i on Repor t
as gr ade I l l f or di sposi t i on by t he Chi ef of Or dnance, I f nei t her of
t he above def ect s ar e f ound, a new dat ed N/ 10 met hyl - vi ol et paper
wi l l be pl aced i n t he box, and t he box r et ur ned t o st or age. I f t he
amount of def ect i ve powchr i n any one l ot equal s 10 per cent of t he

TM 9- 1904

p a rs, 196- - 19a


Car e. N*r nd1i nA, ai u1 pr e. wr vat i on

l ot , t he bal ance of t he l ot wi l l be i nspect ed t her eaf t er at 6- mont h


i nt er val s.
( 3) For f ur t her i nf or mat i on, see W
DSE 9- AMNI 7.
197.

SEPARATE- LOA1) I I V4Y SI ULL.

a. separ at e and unf i xed Shel l shoul d be i nspect ed t o see t hat


t hey ar e pi l ed i n t he i nar ut i er , and wi t h t he cl ear szwe, pr escr i bed i n
chapt er 3: sect i on I I . Shel l shoul d be i nspect ed f or r ust ar cor r osi on
and some of t he f uze hol e pl ugs shoul d be r er naved t o see t hat t he
t hr eads ar e not bur r ed or r ust y and t hat t he cavi t y i s cl ear . Fuze
hol e pl ugs whi ch r equi r e excessi ve f or ce t o r emove Shoul d not be
hen necessar y t o r emove such pl ugs,
r emoved i n t he Magazi ne. W
bar r i caded pr ot et "t i on shoul d be l i r avi ded_ Sands 4houl d be pr ot ect ed
agai nst dent s, cut s, Hzul pr essur e f r om upper l ayer s of shel l , shel l
shoul d be exami ned t o seo t hat t hey ar e pr oper l y pai nt ed and mar ked
as r equi r ed_ TNT or ar nat ol shel l shoul d be exami ned f or exudat e.
Any exudat e f or med on shel l or t he f l oor shoul d be scr ubbed up wi t h
hot wat er or r 4cet ane. Exudi ng shel l shoul d be r epor t ed and hel d f or
di sposi t i on. Exudet e i s an oi l y br own l i qui d t hat oozes out ar ound
t he t hr ead i t s t he nose of a shel l . I t i s i nf l ammabl e and may car r y
smal l par t i cl es of TNT, I f t he exudat i on i s sl i ght , t he ser vi ce Ci unr nand or depar t ment or dn8nce of f i cer may per mi t t he shel l t o be used
af t er t he exudat e has been t hor oughl y cl eaned of f _ I f t he exudat i on
i s excessi ve and dr i b on t he ot her shel l or t he f l oor , t he Shel l wi l l not
be used_
l k,
W
hen i t becom
e:; necessar y t o r econdi t i on t he ext er i or sur f aces of pr oj ect i l es, t hey shoul d f ast be t hor oughl y cl eaned. Met al
does not st op r ust i ng unl ess al l si gns of r u4t ar e r emoved f r om t he
SJHel l _
Li ght engi ne oi l shoul d be appl i ed and cl eaned of f wi t h dr ycl eani ng sol vent af t er 2 or 3 weeks ; t hen pai nt , wi t h one coat of
pr i mer ant i one, or t wo i f necessar y, coat s of pai nt . Pr ovi si on must
t i e made f or st 4noi f i zt i g l ot number s and ot her i dent i f yi ng mar ks on
pr oj ect i l es and st or i ng t hemso t hat t he shel l may be r eadi l y i dent i f i ed
by l ot number ,

R1) i t RS,
The r equi r ement s f or t he i t i aspeet i on of f r agment a198.
t i on bor nbs ar p si mi l ar t o t hose f or f i xed ammunhi on,
Gener al pur pose bombs ar e i nspect ed t o see t hat t he r egul at i ons l ai d down f or
st or age ar e st r i ct l y compl i ed wi t h. Exami nat i on shoul d be made f or
exudat e, r ust , and cor r osi on. Fi n assembl i es shoul d be pr ot ect ed.
Fuze hol e pl ugs shoul d be r emoved f r omr epr esent at i ve sampl e t o see
t hat t hr eads and cavi t i es ar e i n good condi t i on. Pai nt i ng and mar ki ng shoul d be i n accor dance wi t h r egul at i ons. Exudi ng bombs ar e
cl eaned t he same as exudi ng shel f ( par , 197 a) , but t her e ar e t so
r est r i ct i ons as t o t hei r i ssue,
sea

TM 9- 1900

Pays, 199- 204


Car e, Handhr X, and Pr eser vat i on

199. SURMARTNE MI NE EXPLOSI VES. Al l submar i ne mi t r e


expl osb . es, i ncl udi ng bul k TNT And hl ast i ng caps, shoul d he i nspect ed annuaI l y The i nspect i on of TNT wi l l be made as r equi r ed
by par agr aph 196 and t he i nspect i on of ei oct r i c bl ast i ng caps as r equi r ed by par agi Nph 201:1. I n addi t i on, r epr esent at i ve sampl es wi l l he
t est ed wi t h an appr oved- t ype el ect r i c bl ast i ng cap ci r cui t t est er . Any
r l uost i onobl e bl ast i ng cal - A shoul d aI sn be t est ed wi t h t h( ! ci r cui t t est er .
240, FUZES - AND SMALL I TEMS. Fuzes and ot her smal l l oaded.
component s and 9mmuni t i on i t emf t shoul d be exami ned t o see t hat
t hey ar e st or ed i n seal ed cont ai ner s and wel l pr ot ect ed agai nst moi st ur e. hs4r t l y f i l l ed out er cont ai ner s ar e exami ned t o X: ee t hat t hey
have 1), --en pr oper t y r oeal ed. A check sI koul d be made t o see t hat t he
component s ar e sui t t i bl e f or uqa wi t h t he ammuni t i on on hand and
t hat t he r equi r ed number i s avai l abl e, Component s whi ch have been
i i i st or age mor e t han 7 year wi l l have a r epr esent at i ve out er cont ai ner
(31 each l ot opened mi d t he cont ent s exami ned f or r u4t , di scol or at i on,
and cor r osi on. Sat i sf act or y i t t Xms: ar e r eseal ed by r esol der i ng cont ai ner 9 or seal i ng kvi t h f r i ct i ov t ape and a coat of shel l ac, t<7uest i onahl c i t ems wi l l not be i ssued but wi l l be r epor t ed t o t he Chi ef
of Or dnance f or di sl x) , , d1i or L.
2111 . PYROTECI I NI C5. Pyr ot echni cs sI LO, ul d be exami ned t o see
t hat al l cont ai ner s ar e i n goad condi t i on, and t hat t hey ar e ef f ect i vel y
cl o8ed so t hat t he cut i t et nt s cannot be easi l y r emoved or handl ed.
2. CHFMI C: 1L AMMUNI TI ON. Chemi cal ammuni t i on shoul d
be i nspect ed t o see t hat i t i s st or ed So t hat any l eaky cont ai ner can
be r eadi l y r emoved ant i t hat f aci l i t i es f or handl i ng l eaky cont ai ner s
ar e avai l abl e. The ammuni t i on shoul d be exami ned mont hl y f or
l eaks and ever y 6 mont hs f or r ust or cor r osi on. Boxes shoul d be
exami ned t o see i f t her p. ar e any l nst r ut Xt i ons t her eon r equi r i ng t he
dest r uot i on or use of t he cont ent s by a cer t ai n dat e. Cont ai ner s
whi t a, devel op l eaks shoul d ho r epor t ed, t hr ough channel s, t o t he
Chi ef of Or dnance, Such r el kxr t s shoul d i ncl ude i nf or mat i on ay t o
t ype. l ot , dat e di scoveMI , nat ur e of l eak, Hnd whet her appar ent l y
caused by def ect i ve mat er i al. or i mpr oper handl i ng, and di sposi t i on
made of cont ai ner or di sposi t i on r ecommended.
' ?11: 3 . I NERT COMPONENTS. I ner t or empt y component s, of ami nuni t i on shoul d be i naper t ed t o see t hat t 1Lcy ar e pr oper l y pr ot ect ed
agai nst r ust and cor r mXXi on, or i f t hey need a r enewal of a pr ot ect i ve
coat i ng of pai nt or gr ease,
2104. OUTDOOR STORAGE. Ammuni t i on st or ed out door s shoul d
l i e f r equent l y i i r spect ed f ur si gns cXf det er i or at i on or l oose component s.
2es

TM 9- 1900

Po r s . 205- 207
Car e, Har ul l i xt g, and Pr eser vat i on

I t LNORT OF LN51"at VI CFAI i <LE AND DEFECTI VE Ahl MuNI Tl O: N.


a. W
hen t he mat er i al i n t he hands of t r oops i s i nspect ed, i nqui r y
shoul d be made as t o any ammuni t i on f ai l ur es exper i enced si nce t he
dat e of t he l ast i nspect i on and whet her suel t i f ai l ur es have been r epor t ed. I f no r epor t has been made t hr ough channel s t o t he Chi ef
of Or dnance, al l avai l abl e det ai l s of f ai l ur es wi l l be col l ect ed and so
r epor t ed.
I f t he i nspect or f i nds def ect s i n ammuni t i on whi ch wi l l r equi r e
I F.
t he expen( l i t ur e of l abor or f unds t o cor r ect , he shoul d t ake car e t o
exami ne a suf f i ci ent number of cont ai ner s or r ounds t o i nsur e a
r epor t on aver age condi t i ons and not i sol at ed cases, The exami nat i on
of f i r e cont ai ner s, sel ect ed at r andom, shoul d he suf f i ci ent f or a r epor t
t hat wi l l r ef l ect aver age condi t i ons.
265,

' ?0G. PUBLI CATI ON F11X.


a. A f i l e of per t i nent Techni cal Regul at i ons, Techni cal Manual s,
Fi el d Manual s, WDS13' s, Or dnance Fi el d Ser vi ce Bul l et i ns, and Or dnance Depar t ment Saf et y Bul l et i , t i s, t oget her wi t h a copy of t he
Or dnanco Saf et y Manual , 0. 0. For m No. 7274, wi l l be kept compl et e
and up- t o- dat e. The ser vi ce command or depar t ment or dnance of f i cer or hi s assi st ant Ahoul d det er mi ne. when i nspect i ng ammuni t i on
at a post , camp, or st at i on, t hat such f i l es ar e avai l abl e and t hei r
cont ei xt s t hor oughl y under st ood.
h. Addi t i onal i nf or mat i on r egar di ng i nspect i on and sur vei l l ance
may be f ound i n chapt er 5 .

Sect i on VI I

RENOVATI ON
207,

DEFI NI TI ONS.

a, Henoval i on denot es al l act i vi t i es. necessar y t o pl ace ammuni t i on i n a ser vi ceabl e condi t i on, whi ch i nvol ve di sassembl y of t he
i t em. Such di sasaci nbl y does not moan t hat whi ch i s i nvol ved i n .
or di nar y oper at i on such as t he f uzi ng and unf uzi ng t hat may be per f or med by a gun cr ew, but t hat whi ch i nvol ves t he openi ng of a j oi nt
whi ch or i gi nal l y was i nt ended t o be per manent , as shown by cr i mp
i ng, st aki ng, or cement i ng. ' Renovat i on may be necesmr y t o r epl ace
e component whi ch has; become unser vi ceabl e or undesi r abl e because
of det er i or at i on, damage, or change of desi gn . Renovat i on of ammuni t i on i ncl udes such r econdi t i oni ng, sal vage, and dest r uct i on of unusabl e eOMPonent s as may be r equi r ed.

TM 9- 1900

Pon . 207210
Car e, Handl f ng, and Pr esi er vat l ot r

b. Recondi t i oni ng denot es t hose mai nt enance and r epai r aCt i vi .


t i es whi ch do not i nvol ve r epl acement of unser vi ceabl e component s.
I t i ncl udes such oper at i ons as der u%I i ng, r epai nt i ng, r est enci l i ng, r epai r
of cont ai ner , , , and super f i ci al r epai r as r emovi ng dent s I r on; car t r i dge
cases and st r ai ght eni ng bor r xb f i ns, et c.
r . Xl ai r i t xnance i s an ai i - i ncl usi ve- t er m i nvol vi ng s- econdi t i oni ng
and r enavat i on as def i ned above . Mor e speci f i cal l y, mai nt enance i s
t he n%ai nt ai ni ng of st ocks of annnmi i t i on, ammuni t i on coi npot t ent s .
Hnd expl osi ves i n ser vi ceabl e condi t i on f or i mmedi at e uae.
{I . Sal vage i ncl udes opor at i ons necessar y t o di sassembl e or br eak
cl own ammuni t i on and ammuni t i on component s i n or der l o r ecovar
t her ef r om al l mat er i al s and cor npcnment s whi ch ar e or may be ser vi ceabl e or whi ch may have vf i l ue as scr ap.
208. DESTRUCTI ON OF UNFI T OR UNSALVAGE AMMUl t i i .
TI C1N. Ar r l r al l ni t i on or i t s component s whi ch ar e unf i t f or sal vage or
ar e unsaf e t o handl e ar e di sposecl Of b5. such met hods of desr t r uct i on
as det onzi t i on, bur ni ng. or dumpi ng at sea, as descr i bed i n chapt er 4.
2I Fd. AUTI I { l l CI T1r - FOR HEVCI VATI I } N.
a. Ri novaf : on of ammuni t i on, ammuni t i on component s, end expl osi ves wi l l be under t aken i n t he Zone of t he I nt er i or onl y upon
r ecei pt of speci f i c aut hor i t y and i nst r uct i ons f r om t he Chi ef of
Or dnance .
h. Tht . Chi ef of Ur duance i ssues or der s f or r enovat i on oper at i ons
ba" upon one of t l se f ol l owi ng :
1) Sur vei l l ance r epor t s f r om An or dnance act i vi t y t o whi ch am.
muni t i on i nspect or s Kr e assi gne( I , ei t her i n t he Uni t ed St at es or t he
over seas depar t ment s.
( 2) Repor t s of f unct i oni ng or ot her t est s . ei t her sur vei l l ance,
Accept ance, or speci al .
( 3) Repor t s f r omt he Losi ng ser Ui ces us: eal l y or i gi nat i ng f r omor dnance of f i cer s assi gned t o cl ass I , I t , or I I I i nst al l at i ons or wi t h command or gani zat i ons .
( 4) Repor t s of mal f unct i ons and acci dent s f r omt he usi ng ser vi ces, submi t t ed i n aecor daI We wi t h AR 750- 14. whi ch may di scl ose a
desi r si bl e engi neer i ng char ge,
210. SA1f 1; " f Y RE{ 1MREMEw' f I .
a. Renovat i on s1i mi l d be per f or med i n an i sol at ed ar ea or bui l di ng speci f i cal l y desi gnat ed f or t hat pur l ) use. The quant i t y of expl osi ves pr esent shoul d be t he mi ni mum necessar y t o car r y out t he
oper at i on, These oper at i ons shoul d be car r i ed out i n conf ont t i t y wi t h
t he quant i t y- di st ance r equi r ement s of chapt er 3, sect i oh I I , based
upon t he t ot al quant i t y at t he oper at i on . The number of per sons
241

TM 9- 190&

Par %. 210- 111


Car e, Har dl f r 4, ar ed Pr awr vaf i on

per mi t t ed ot or near t he oper at i ons shoul d be i nept t o a mi ni mum.


The ar ea or bui l di ngs shoul d be f r ee of l oose expl osi ves, ws st e paper ,
and ot her combust i bl e mat er i al , Al l wor k wi l l be per f or med under t he
di r ect and compet ent super vi si on of exper i enced per sonnel .
1) . Renovat i on oper at i ons ar e hazar dous and r equi r e a t hor ough
knowl edge of t he act i vi t i es i nvol ved, t he hazar ds t o be guar ded
agai nst , and t he pr ecaut i onar y met hods necessar y f or gr eat est pr ot ect i on t o per sonnel and pr oper t y . The equi pment used must be desi gned wi t h t hi s i n mi nd and, i n many i nst ances, oper at i ons must be
conduct ed i n wor kr ooms bar r i caded f or t he pr ot ect i on of per sonnel
and pr oper t y i n t he vi ci ni t y of t he hazar dous oper at i ons_ Bar r i cocl es
may be of t hr ee gener al t ypes ; r ei nf or ced concr et e, met al , or ear t h,
or any accept abl e combi nat i on t her eof . The hei ght and t hi ckness of
t he bar r i cade ar e gover ned by t he r enovat i on r equi r ement s . The
deci si on os t o t he number and t ype of oper at i ons t o be conduc' t er l
behi nd a bar r i cade shoul d be based on t he hazar ds. i nvol ved, and t he
bar r i cade, equi pment , ; ant i t ool s t o be used shoul d be desi gnet 9 t o
make t he best and most et l i ci ent use of t he pr ot ect i on af f or deX3 by t he
i nst al l at i on.
S. UETY REGLl 1 . ATI ONS FOR MAI NTENANCE AND SALVAGE OF E?LPLOSI Y' ES OR AMMUNI TI ON,
a. Ammuni t i on or expl osi ves shal l not be r enovat ed or sal vaged
wi t hi n a magazi ne wher e ot her ammuni t i on or expl osi ves ar e st or ed.
These oper at i ons &hal l not be car r i ed on wi t hi n t he magazi ne ar ea
unl ess t he si t e, empt y magazi ne, bui l di ngs . or car s i n whi ch t he wor k
i s done ar e devot ed excl usi vel y t o such wor k, and ar e speci f i cal l y
appr oved by t he Chi ef of Or dnance, Such oper at i ons may be car r i ed
out i n an empt y magazi ne or i n t he open at i nt r apl ant quant i t ydi st ance r equi r ement s, but i n no case at l ess t han 100 f eet f r om t he
near est l ocat i on of cxpl osi vee,
h. The quant i t y of expl osi ves or ammuni t i on i nvol ved or pr esent
i n any oper at i on at une t i me i n one l ocat i on shal l be l i mi t ed t o t he
mi ni mun) quant i t y necessar y t o car r y out t he oper at i on, t hus ,
( 1) Bl ack powder , 100 pounds,
Separ ot e` l oadi ng pr opel l i ng char ges- 1 open cont ai ner , and
f our cl osed cont ai ner s.
( 3) Hi gh expl osi ves ar e l i mi t ed t o one open cont ai ner of 100
pounds and f our cl osed cont ai ner s.
( 4) Smokel ess powder l i mi t s shah be one open cont ai ner and
ni ne cl osed cont ai ner s.
r . Mwear dous oper at i on, such as t hose i nvol vi ng t he r emoval of
boost er s f r omshel l s, end t he di sassembl y of f uzes and gr enades . shal l
be bar r i caded t o r educe oper at i ng hazar ds . Di sassembl y of amt nvni 21 l .

1292

TM 9- 1900

Par s, 21 T- 212
Car e, Har Tdl i ng, and Pr eaer vat i on

t i on and bur nbs and ot her si mi l ar di sasser nbI y oper at i ons shal l 1), e
per f or med behi nd an adequst x? bar r i cakl l e. Exampl es ar e ;
( 1) Di sass&
. i nbl y of l oaded boost er s, bur st er s . l oaded f uzes, l oaded

pr i mer s, and bl ank ammuni t i on,


( 2) Removal of buogt er y end f uze seat l i ner s f r oml oaded bombs,
base pl ugs f r om l oaded pr oj ect i l es, and l oaded boost er s f r om l oaded
shel l &
d- Thf i f ol l owi ng and ver y si mi l ar di sassembl i ng oper at i ons may
be per f or med wi t hout a bar r i cade pr ovi ded t he aswmbl y has been
usual and t ho or di nar y cqui l ) r r l er l t , t ool q, and met hods used i n t he
a : $ser nbl y ar e suf f i ci ent t o accompl i sh t he di sassembl y wi t hout t he
appl i cat i on of undue f or ce. Car e must be t aken t o ascer t ; An t hat t he
sur f aces t o he separ at ed ar e not cor r ncl ca, cont ai n no h&r dened gl ue
or ot her bi ndi ng aget i t s r and ct r e not seal ed wi t h met al l i c cal ki ng. I f
wi due f or ce i s necessar y, t hese oper at i ons must be accompl i shed behi nd a bar r i cade,
( 1) Removal of l oaded f uzes and f ar e wel l cups and i gni t i on
car t r i dges f r om l oaded shel l s, 60- i nnand 81- non pr i mer s . and di sa+smbl y of pr oj ect i l es and car t r i dge cased i n f i xed ammuni t i on, and
t he r emoval of set scr ews f r om l oaded pr oj ect i l es,
( 2) W
hen st ake punch mar ks musk l ; e r emoved wi t h dr i l l i ng
equi pment , t he equi pment must be pr ovi ded wi t h a posi t i ve sl op t o
pj vvent t he cont act of t he (f ri l l wi t h t he f u2e or boost er par t s, or wi t h
t he expl osi ves i n t he shel l or i t s conl ent s.
( 3) The r emoval of hand gr enade f uzes f r om l oaded gr enades
nYust be per f or at ed i mmedi at el y i n f r ont of a sui t abl e pr ot ect i ve t ank
equi pped wi t h ar i ef f ect i ve baf f l e, i nt o whi ch t he gr enade can be
deposi t ed shoul d a pr emat ur e i gni t i on of t he t i r i ng medi um occur ,
e, W
hen sol der i ng oper at i ons ar e per f or med upon met al cont ai ner s, pr ecaut i ons shal l he t aken t o i nsur e t hat t hey cont ai n no l oose
gr ai ns of powder or expl osi ves ( l ust ,
f . Al l sal vage component s must he kept separ at e unt i l di sposed
of hi accor dance wi t h Ar my Regul at i ons or di r ect i ons of t he Chi ef of
Or dnance.
212,

1Cl Xl l 1PhTh; V' I ' FOI t RARKI i : AI WS.

u, Nor mal l y t he equi pment r equi r ed f or bar r i caded oper at i ons


consi st s of a sui t abl e bar r i cade, hol di ng devi ces, oper at i ng devi ce,
means of f ol l owi ng t he oper At i on, and met hod of saf el y t r ansmi t t i ng
power r equi r ed f or t he oper at i on,
( 1 ) A sui t abl e bar r i cade i s one t hat wi l l af f or d t he necessar y
pr ot ect i on t o per sonnel and pr oper t y_ The l ocat i on of t he bar r i cade
shoul d be such t hat i t wi l l equal or exceed t he mi ni mum saf et y di s-

7M 9- 1900

Pa r s. 212- 214
Car e, Handl i ng, at ul Fr emr vef i on

t ances r equi r ed by t he cl ass and quant i t y of expl osi ve i nvol ved, as


shown i n par agr aph 172.
( 2) A sui t abl e hol di ng devi ce, l ocat ed t o t he r ear of t he bar r i cade, may consi st of some f or m of a vi se or j i g on ei t her a f i xed or
al l adj ust abl e base, pl aced i n such a manner as t o hol d t he i t em i n
a cent er ed posi t i on so as t o per mi t t he pr oper appl i cat i on of t he oper at i ng devi ce.
( 3) A sui t abl e oper at i ng devi ce may be a wr ench or ot her t ool
desi gned t o f i t t he i t em f or t he wor k t o be per f or med.
( 4) A sui t abl e meann f or obser vat i on may be f ur ni shed by v
mi r r or or ser i es of mi r r or s l ocat ed so as t o keep t he per sonnel at a
saf e di st ance f r omt he oper at i on.
( 5) A sui t abl e met hod of t r ansmi t t i ng power t o t he oper at i ng
devi ce nor mal l y consi st n of a shaf t ext endi ng t hr ough t he bar r i cade
and shoul d have a posi t i ve st op on t he oper at i ng si de t o pr event i t s
bei ng bl own f or war d t hr ough t he wal l . i n event of an expl osi on. Per sonnel shoul d not be exposed i n a di r ect l i ne wi t h a shop whi ch
ext ends t hr ough a bar r i cade.
PPLI ES. Tool s and suppl i es f or ammuni .
213. T( 1<I LS AND W
t i on r enovat i on ar e l i st ed i n ORD 10 SI N N- 500- CA and descr i bed
i n TM9=1905, Ot her t ool s ki nd equi pment t hat have t o be desi gned
shoul d meet st r engt h r equi r ement s and guar d agai nst t he i nt r oduct i on
of chemi cal , mechani cal , or el ect r i c hazar ds over and above t he nor mal hazar d of t he ammuni t i on and expl osi ves i nvol ved. W
hen ex.
pogeci expl osi ves ar e i nvol ved, t he use of saf et y t ool s end equi pment ,
whi ch enay be made of nonsper ki ng met al s, wood. or f i ber , i s r equi r ed.
The use of cer t ai n t ypes of nonspar ki ng t ook must be j udi ci ous, however , because cer t ai n t ypes of nonspar ki ng met al s may f or m sensi t i ve
sal t compounds wi t h cer t ai n t ypes of expl osi ves; f or exampl e, t he use
of any copper - begAng met al wi t h expl osi ves cont ai ni ng ni t r at es,
214.

PLANNI NG OPFRATI ONS.

, y, I n pl anni ng nor mal oper at i ons, t he sequence of oper at i ons


shoul d be consi der ed i n f oul separ at e phases ( not consi der i ng movement t o and f r om st or age) !
( 1) Di sAssEmnLy GROUP. Removi ng packi ng mat er i al s, and di sassembl i ng ammuni t i on pr epar at or y t o r enovat i on,
( 2) REASSEMBLY GROUP. Al l pr epar at i on f ar and pr oper r easser r r bl y of t he i t em.
( 3) FI NI SH GROup. Al l necessar y r econdi t i oni ng and r et ur ni ng
of t he i t ems t o t hei r packages, wi t h necessar y package mar ki ng and
r epai r .
( 4) Dt spnsAL Gaovr =. Di sposi ng of al l unser vi ceabl e or unusabl e
component par t s, wast e expl osi ves, et c, t hat may accumul at e dur i ng
r enovat i on oper at i ons.
294

TM 9- 1900

Par s . 215- 216


Car e, Har i df i r ng, ar t d

Pr eser vaf i or :

Sect i on Vi l l
PRECAUTI ONS FOR PRACTI CE FI RI NG
CFf 1Fl l AL. Speci f i cat i ons, st andar ds, and l i mi t s of pr eci si on
215,
ar e pr escr i bQd f or t he i nanuf ect ur e sr t i d pr epar at i on of ammuni t i on_
I n spi t e of t hi s, i nher ent l i mi t at i ons exi st and mal f ui nct i ons of ammuni t i on may occur , The i mmedi at e pr obl em i s t o pr event t he occur r ence of mal f unct i ons wher ever possi bl e, t o mi ni mi ze t he ef f ect when
t hoy do occur , and t o aver t , t hr ough exper i ence, si mi l ar mal f unct i ons
i n t he f ut ur e, The gener al saf et y pr ecaut i o" s r chapt er 3, sect i on 1,
shoul d be obser ved wher ever appl i cabl e. The speci f i c r egul at i ons
and pr ecaut i ons f or I l l e use of each t ype of ammuni t i on gi ven i n
t hi s sect i on and i n chapt er 2 wi l l be obser ved.
". x. 16.

GENERAL PRECAUTI ONS HEF01R1: F1RI NC.

a.
St at us of ammuni t i on l ut s.
A check shoul d be made t o
det er mi ne t he st at us of t he l ot of ammuni t i on i nt ended f or i ssue,
Ammuni t i on shoul d not be f i r ed i f t he l ot number i s not posi t i vel y
known.
I f def ect s whi ch may af f eci t he saf et y and f unct i oni ng of
t he ammuni t i on ar e f ound i n a l ot gr aded as svi t abl e f or f i r i ng, a
pi ' CTnpt r epor t of t he cozt i dki ox, wi l l he submi t t ed t o t he ser vi ce
command or depar t ment or dnance of f i cer .
Fi r i ng of t hat l ot of
ammuni t i on wi l l be suspended pendi ng i nst r uct i ons f r om t he pr oper
or dnance of f i cer .
I f mal f unct i oni ng occur s dur i ng f i r i ng, a pr ompt
r epor t on t he ammuni t i on l ot wi l l he made as pr escr i bed i n AR751} - 10.
Al l er buns anal ARl l mt i i ut i ur nm. Any al t er at i on of l oaded am1),
muni t i on except i n accor dance wi t h speci f i c i nst r uct i ons f r om t he
Chi ef of Or dnance i s hazar dous and t her ef or e pr ohi bi t t ! d,
ser i ous
and f at al acci dent s have r esul t ed f r cr n subst i t ut i on of pr opel l i ng
char ges, f uzes, pr i mer s, and pr oj ect i l es, aTl ( l f r cr n t he l ocal pr epar a.
t i on and l oadi ng of PJACt i CE a1nmuni t i ot 3, i ncl udi ng gr enades, pyr ot echI Yi cs, et c .
c.
Pl aci ng ammuni t i on. ALL ammuni t i on at t he f i r i ng poi nt wi l l
be so pl aced as t o nt i i ni mi ze I N: possi bi l i t y of i gni t i on . expl osi on, or
det onat i on i n case of z4cci der i t at t he gun posi t i on. I t shoul d be
i n a dr y pl ace xr 3f. I pr ot ect ed f r om t he di r ect r ays of t he sun by
t ar paul i n or ot her cover i ng. Ther e shoul d be ampl e ci r cul at i on of
ai r t hr ough and on al l si des of t he st ack Er r at i c r anges and danger ousl y hi gh pr essur es may r esul t f r om over het at ed ammuni t i on.
Whi t e- phosphor us shel l wi l l bu gt acked ( pr ef er abl y wi t h t he base
of t he pr oj ect i l e down, al t hough i f t he t emper at ur e i s not expect ed
t o exceed 105 F, t hi e pr ecaut i on i s not necessar y) i n a space cl ear ed
of al l combust i bl e mat er i al , away f r omper sonnel and ot her ar nmuni hon . Al l component s i n t he f i el d shoul d he st or ed separ at el y and
i n smal l amount s t o mi ni mi ze danger f r om acci dent al bur ni ng of
295

Par s. 21 6- 217

TM 9- 11900
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vaf i an

powder or det onat i on of pt ' oj ect i l es . l ur es, And pr i mer s. Chemi cal
ammuni t i on i s st os- ed away f r om ot her t ypes of ammuni t i on
, I , Saf et y zui ws. Dat a f or del i mi t i ng saf et y 2nnes f or r Angt . s i n
t i r i ng smal l ar ms, ar t i l l er y weapons, wnd chemi cal - war t ar e weapons
wi l l be f ound i n AR 750- 10e, Smoki ng. Smoki ng by anyone ] ] ai ( ( ( l i ng, or i n t he vi ci ni t y of ,
expl osi ves or ammuni t i on i s pr ohi bi t ed.
f , Li ghl w. Use of any l i ght & ot her t han appr oved l ant er ns or
f l ashl i ght s i n t he vi ci ni t y of expt wi i ves or ammuni t i on i s pr ohi bi t ed,

r . l l and i nr , Car e shoul d he t aken not t o r l mp pr oj ect i l es,


powder cont ai ner s, or f uze or pr i mer cont ai ner s. Pr aJecf i l ey shoul d
pot he al l owed t o st r i ke f nget her . Al l saf et y pr ecaut i ons f or har t dl i nd
ammuni t i on gi ver ] i n Techni cal Manual s gr i d i r) t hi s manual t i vi l l
be r i gi dl y obser ved_
h . Mar ki ngs. Moi st ur e- r esi st ant seal s of packed ammuni t i on
shoul d not be br oken unt i l t he ammuni t i on i s r eady t o be used .
Rounds shoul d not be wi t hdr awn f r om cont ai ner s unt i l t hey ar e
r eady t o be 6r ed unl ess t he ammuni t i on i s t o be 1ol l ( l el l di r ect l y
Saf et y devi ces on f uzes wi l l be r emoved j ust
i T31u t he cai sson_
W
or e f i r i ng and at T1o Ot her t i me . Car nI ) Oncr nt s of r ounds pr epa, ' r; i l
f or f i r i ng but not f i r ed wi l l he r et ur ned t o ( hei r or i gi nal condi t i on
and packi ng& and appr opr i at el y mor l wd and r eseal er j , Such cam.
por t ent s wi l l be used f i r st i n subsequent f i r i ngs i n or der t hat st ocks
of opened packi ng may be kept at a mi ni mum,
i . Ci vanl i m- i Rs . The compl et e r ound or each component Shoul d
he i nspect ed by a member of t he gun cr aw f or bur s, dent s, gr avel ,
di r t , gr ease. and ol der mat er i al s bef or e i oadi ng i nt o t he gun. A cl ot h
shoul d be kept near by i nn >i pi ng of f gr ease, di r t . ar i d f or i i gn 1nat t er .
Ar l l Muni t i on must be cl ean And t r ee f r om dent s . whi ch wi l l i nt i : r f er o
wi t h gr ope<r seat i ng of t he r ound, l x"f rj rc! i t i s pl aced i n t he weapon,
317_ GENBRAI . 111cl ' , CAl " r l ON DURI NG AND AFFEl t HI UNG.
a. 1) cCr c ( X st ud 111al f l l nl ' t 1Ur 1i n. s . AR 750- 10 pr ovi des t hat al l
of f i cer s havi ng char ge of f i r i ng must make a r epor t t o t he l ocal
or dnance of f i cer of aT3y or dnance mat er i el i ssued t o t } 1e t r oops wbi cb
mal f unct i ons i n f i r i ng Or r ci veal s def oct s ei t her i n f i r i ng or i n st or age,
i ncl udi ng such mal f unct i ons and dof ect y as r ar e not ed i n t ar get - pr act i ce
r epor t s. I t i s t he dut y of t he l ocal or dnance of f i cer t o i nvemi gat c.
al I cases of MH11UTi ut i nni ng and def ect s obser ved by hi m or r epor t ed
t o hi ni , and t o r epor t ser i nus cases t c t he Chi ef of Or dnance t hr ough
t he ser vi ce command or dnar LC1' of f i cer , Whr never an acci dent occur s
whi ch r esul t s i n i nj ur y t o per sonnel or dar mi ge t o mat er i el , t i l e l ot
of ar nr r l l l ni t i un wi l l be suspended Fr omuse and an i mmedi at e r epor t
wi l l be made di r ect l y t o t he Chi ef of Or dnance by t he or dnance
296

Par t . 117- 210

TM 9- 1900
Car e, Hst Ol i ng, and ?' r eser vat i on

f ) f l i cer under whose super vi si on t he mat er i el i s mai nt ai ned or i ssued.


One copy of t hi s r epor t wi l l be sent t o t he ser vi ce command Dr dnanca
of f i cer _ Acci dent s of a ser i ous or pot ent i al l y ser i ous nat ur e r equi r e a
r epor t by t he qui ckest means of communi cat i on avai l abl e. I nsof ar
es pr act i cabl e al l evi dence wi l l be pr eser ved and not be di st ur bed
unt i l t he Ar r i val of an i nvest i gat i ng of f i cer .
b. Pr t ) t ect i on of per sant i el . AR 750- 117 gi ves t he r egul at i ons
and det ai l s f or pr ot ect i on of per sons i n t he vi ci ni t y of t he f i r i ng poi nt .
Any i ndi vi duAl i n t he mi l i t ar y Qer vi ce who obser ves a condi t i on
whi ch makes f i r i ng obvi ousl y unsaf e wi l l i mmedi at el y command
" CEASE FI RI NG- " 11 at a di st ance f r om t he uni t f i r i ng, he wi l l
make t he pr escr i bed si gnal t o hal t f i r i ng, W
hen chemi cal ammuni .
l i on ot her t han smoke i s f i r ed, al l per sons Wi l l be pr ovi ded wi t h
gay masks_ Consul t AR 730- 10 f or r egul at i ons gover ni ng t he use
of ser vi ce ammuni t i on f or t r ai ni ng pur poses,
c, 1' ' i r i Ti g t hr ough t r ees. W
hen f i r i ng ammuni t i on f r oma mask
of t r ees, a pr emat ur e bui vt may r esul t i f a f i r ed shel l or shr apnel
st r i kes t he br anch of a t i ve. The st r i ki ng of even a t wi g by a shel l
f i t t ed wi t h a t i me f use may der ange t he set t i ng or def or m t he t i me
r i ng and cause a pr emat ur e bur st .
d. DRdpi , Adud i s d di schar ged but unexpl oded bomb, pr oj ect i l e,
car gr enade_, I t may r esul t f r omdef ect s i n t he f uze, boost er . or char ge :
f r om t he unscr ewi ng of f uzes i n f l i ght ; or f r om t he char act er of t he
gr ound at t he poi nt of i mpact . Whenever a dud can be r eadi l y
l ocat ed and exami ned wi t hout movi ng i t , an ef f or t shoul d be made
t o det er mi ne t he cauf i e of t he f ai l ur e. A dud i s a sour ce of danger
mi d i f i mpr oper l y handl ed mAy expl ode and i nj ur e per sonnel . A compar at i vel y sl i ght bl ow or di st ur bance may cause i t t o expl ode. Duds
shoul d he dest r oyed i n pl ace ( f or met hods of dest r oyi ng we chapt er 4) .
'. ' 18.

SAI ALL- ARAI S A3i h1umr r I ON.

a. I nspect i on. Smal l - ar i zi s ammuni t i on wi l l be exami ned bef or e


i ssue. The pr ocedur e f or exami nat i on and t he def ect s t o l ook f or
ar e descr i bed i n TM9- 1990. W
DS13 9- AMM 4 cont ai ns essent i al
i nf oTmat l on coTwer ni ng t he gr adi ng of smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on and
t he di spcAi t i on of f i r ed component s and unser vi ceabl e r ounds i n
accor dance wi t h AR 775- 111, Lot s havi ng mor e t han 5 per cent of
def ect i ve car t r i dges wi l l be subj ect ed t o 100- per cent ; i nspect i on, def ect i ve r ounds cul l ed out , t he ser vi ceabl e car t r i dges r epacked pr i or t o
i ssue, and r epor t made t o t he Chi ef of Or dnance. Nor mal l y, smal l ar ms ammuni t i on wi l l have no vi sual def ect s unl ess i t has been st or ed
f ai r a consi der abl e per i od ; ammuni t i on wi t h l ess t han 5 per cent
vi si bl y def ect i ve r oundss may be i ssued wi t hout 100- per cent i nspec
t i on. I f 20 per cent or mor e ar e def ect i ve, t he l ot i s wi t hdr awn f r om
- 78 1 27 0

0 . 1s

29 7

Par . 219

TM9- 1900
Car e, I f andl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

ser vi ce and hel d f or di sposi t i on . The post or dnance of f i cer shoul d


nee t hat t he t r oops ar e i nst r uct ed as t o t he ki nds of vi si bl e def ect s
whi ch can be r eadi l y det ect ed and t he cor r ect manner i n whi ch t o
cul l ammuni t i on. Par t i cul ar at t ent i on shoul d be pai d t o i nci pi ent
cr acks whi ch ar e not easi l y det ect ed unl ess t he t humb i s pr essed
agai nst t he bul l et , t hus exposi ng t he cr ack i n t he car t r i dge case.
Def ect i ve car t r i dges wi l l be consi der ed as gr ade 3 ammuni t i on,
l j , I dent i f i r at i on . Si nce di f f er ent t ypes of smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on ar e of si mi l ar appear ance, t he ki nd of ammuni t i on bei ng i ssued
wi l l be st r i ct l y checked f r om t he mar ki ngs on t he packi ng,
e . Fi r i ng bi at t k ear t r ' i dpes- St ank car t r i dges shoul d not be f i r ed
at a r epr esent at i ve enemy at di st ances t ens+ t han 20 yar ds ; as t he
wad or paper cup may f ai l t o br eak up.
51. Mi sf i r es and l i angf i r e@,
( 1) For pr ocedur e i n t he event of an appar eot t ni sf i r e, see chapt er 2, sect i on 1,
( 1! ) W
hen a haogf i r e occur s, i n any l ot , i t s use shoul d be suspended and a r epor t wi l l be made as pr escr i bed i n AR 750- 1t 1 t o
t he post or dnance of f i cer , gi vi ng t he number of t he l ot i nvol ved.
The ammuni t i on l ot t hus af f ect ed wi l l be wi t hdr awn and r epl aced
by ser vi ceabl e ammuni t i on.
c . Ludgl - d bul l ew. W
hen a bul l et l odges i n t he bor e of a r i f l e,
pi st ol , or machi ne gun, i t shoul d be r emoved by t he appl i cat i on of
pr essur e f r om t he muzzl e end of t he weapon, To at t empt t o shoot
t he bul l et out wi t h anot her car t r i dge i s ext r emel y danger ous and
t her ef or e pr ohi bi t ed.
f , Def ect i ve eouncl s. Dent ed car t r i dges, car t r i dges wi t h l oose
buhot s- or ot her wi se def ect i ve r ounds shoul d not be f i r ed.
g. Ni f i r ess i n bl ank Fi r i ng. Mi sf i r es i n whi ch t he pr i mer expl odes but f ai l s t o i gni t e t he powder char ge have pr oved danger ous
i n f i r i ng aut omat i c ar ms wi t h bl ank- f i r i ng at t achment s. Some of t he
powder i s bl own i nt o t he bor e and becomes l odged i n t he bl ankf i r i ng at t achment s. A ser i es of such r ounds wi l l cause an accumul at i on of powder suf f i ci ent t o r esul t i n ser i ous damage when i gni t ed
by a nor mal car t r i dge. W
hen mi sf i r es i n excess of 5 per cent occur
i n f i r i ng bl ank car t r i dgee, t he f i r i ng of t hat l ot of ammuni t i ons wi l l
be suspended and r epor t ed t o t he Chi ef of Or dnance,
h, Ar mor - pi er ci ng ammuni t i on. The use of ar mor - pi er ci ng
car t r i dges i s pr ohi bi t ed i n demonst r at i ons i n whi ch t anks t ake par t ,
W
hen usi ng ar mor - pi er ci ng ammuni t i on, t he cor es of bul l et s whi ch
f ai l t o penet r at e wi l l r ebound. The r adi us of r ebound depends on
sever al f act or s but may be est i mat ed as a maxi mum of 100 yar ds
f or cal i ber . 30 and 200 yar ds f or cal i ber , 50 ar mor - pi er ci ng
ammuni t i on,
291

Poor . 218

Car es, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i ur i


i . Pr ot ect i on of ammuni t i on. Af t er a cont ai ner of ar r nmuni t i on
i s opened and car t r i dges i ssued, each man shoul d t ake car e of hi s
own ammuni t i on. The pr i mer shoul d be pr ot ect ed f r om bl ows by
shar p i nst r ument s, as such a bl ow mi ght expl ode t he car t r i dge.
j . Use of ni l or gr eaNe. The use of oi l or gr ease on car t r i dges i s
pr ohi bi t ed, These agent s cause i nj ur i ous abr asi ves t o col l ect i n
aut omat i c weapons and pr oduce excessi ve and hazar dous pr essur es
on t he r i f l e bol t s when nonaut omat i c r i f l es ar e f i r ed. NOTE: Thi s
r est r i ct i on i s ot appl i cabl e t o 20- mr r r. ammuni t i on.
219.

A11T1I I ERY AMMUNI TI ON.

a. Exami nat i on . Bef or e f i r i ng, r epr eaent at i ve sampl es f r omeach


l ot of ammuni t i on shoul d be exami ned f or vi si bl e def ect s such as
exudat i on, cor r oded f uzes, l ooseness of pr oj ect i l es i n car t r i dge cases,
damaged r ot at i ng bands, and excessi ve moi st ur e and dampness, et c.
I f t hese def ect s ar e l i kel y t o cause di f f i cul t y when t he f uze i s set
or t he r ound i y l oaded i nt o t he gun, or quest i on exi st s as t o t he
saf et y and f unct i oni ng of t he ammuni t i on, i t shoul d not be used
unt i l i t has been exami ned by t he ser vi ce command or dnance of f i cer
or hi s assi st ant s . Car e shoul d be user ) i n condemni ng ammuni t i on
f r om use, as shel l whi ch ar e exudi ng sl i ght l y can be made ser vi ceabl e as pr escr i bed i n W
ar Depar t ment Suppl y Bul l et i ns. Of t en,
f uzes whi ch ar e onl y sl i ght l y cor r oded or di scol or ed ar e ser vi ceabl e
and can be used,
b. Facki ngs . I f t he ammuni t i on i s packed i n i ndi vi dual t i n or
f i ber cont ai ner s, t he cont ai ner s shoul d be opened by means of t he
t ear st r i p pr ovi ded ; t he r ound Rhoul d not be wi t hdr awn f r om t he
cont ai ner unt i l i t i s t o be f i r ed unl ess t he ammuni t i on i s l oaded
di r ect l y i nt o t he cai sson . Al l powder char ges except t he char ge t o
be ser ved t o t he pi ece f or t he next succeedi ng r ound wi l l be kept
l et t hei r cont ai ner s.
C,
PI Rci ng of ammuni t i on. At t he f i r i ng, poi nt , ant muni t i oI i
whi ch i s not car r i ed i n cai ssons shoul d be l ocat ed t o t he l ef t of t he
cai sson, and not di r ect l y t o t he r ear of t he gun. I t shoul d be
pr ot ect ed f r om moi st ur e, dampness, and t he di r ect r ays of t he sun
by a t ar paul i n so pl aced t hat ai r can ci r cul at e t hr ough t he pi l e.
d . Pr opel l i ng char geo.
( 1) PREMATvi m mmTi oN. The powder char ge f or a r ound wi l l
not be br ought near t he br eech of t he gun unt i l t he pr ecedi ng r ound
has been f i l ed, t he powder chamber car ef ul l y sponged wi t h a wet
sponge or cl ear ed of any passi bl e smol der i ng r emai ns by use of t he
gas ej ect or s, and t he f ace of t he mushr oom head has been wi ped.
hen t he br eechbl ock i s wi t hdr awn, t he gases
( 2) FLAREBACK3. W
r emai ni ng i n t he bor e somet i mes pass t o t he r ear and i gni t e upon
st r i ki ng t he ai r , r egar dl ess of t he di r ect i on of t he wi nd. Fl ames of

TM 4- 1900

Por . 219
Car e, Hundl i ng: and Pr e ser vat i on

var yi ng l engt h and i nt ensi t y r esul t . Pr ecaut i ons must be t aken t o


pr event t he f l ame f r om r eachi ng a new pr opel l i ng char ge, as wel l as
t o pr event ser i ous hur ns t o t he br eech det ai l .
( 3) i f 3LENDl NG. Pr opel l i ng char ges wi l l be f i r ed as r ecei ved
Bl endi ng wi l l not be r et or t ed t o except i n speci al cases wher e t he
necessi t y t her ef or has been appr oved by t he Chi ef of Or dnance,
who wi l l f ur ni sh t he necessar y i nSt r uct i ons .
( 4) ERRATI C AND EXCESSI VE PRESSURES. Er r at i c pr essur es or
r anges may be due t o det er i or at i ng pr opel l i ng char ges, i mpr op- er
i gni t i on of t he pr opel l i ng char ges, def ect i ve or l oose r ot at i ng bands,
and, i n t he, case 4f separ at e- l oadi ng ammuni t i on, i mpr oper wr appi ng
or l aci ng of t he char ge. Excessi ve pr essur es ar e l i kel y t o devel op
i f t he di ami t t er of t he pr opel l i ng char ge i s al t er ed so as t o pr event
t he pr oj ect i on of t he Fl ame f r om t he i gi l i t er t o t he f r ont of t he
l xow&r char ge. For f ur t her i nf or mat i on, see AR7SQ- 10, Al l powder
l ot s gi vi ng exci as pr essur es shoul d be i mmedi at el y suspended f r om
use, pendi ng i nst r uct i on; f r omt he Chi ef of Or dnance.
( 5) MAXI MUM RANGES. The t er m " super char ge" i s pur posel y
used i n r ef er r i ng t o t he pr opel l i ng char ge r equi r ed t o gi ve maxi mum
r ange. I t cam%ot be t oo st r ongl y emphasi zed t hat t he ' nor mal char ge"
shoul d be used al ways wi t hi n t he r anges obt ai nabl e, and t hat t he
use of super char ges must be avoi ded except wher e maxi mum r anges
ar e necessar y. J: f t hi s i s not compl i ed wi t h, excessi ve wear of t he
guns wi l l r esul t . Wi t h mul t i sect i vn pr opel l i ng char ges, t he compl et e
char ge i s used when super char ge i s desi r ed ; onl y t he base sect i on
and such l ower zone 4scr emezl t s as may be r equi r ed ar e used i n t he
l ower an( ) i nt er medi at e r anges. Wher e t he char ge i s of base and
i no ement t ype, onl y t he base char ge i s used when t he nor mal char ge
i s desi r ed,
( 6) I GNi TExS,
( a)
W
hen l oadi ng t he separ at e- l oadi ng pr opel l i ng char ge i nt o
t he guh, be sur e t hat ar e i gni t er i s al ways on t he end of t he char ge
t owar d t he br eech. The cl ot h used f or asnembl i ng i gni t er s i s d5ned
r ed and i ndi cat es cl ear l y t he end whi ch shoul d be at t he r ear of
t he chamber . The r ed dye al so i ndi cat es t hat t he i gni t er cont ai ns
bl ack powder . Undyed i gni t er cl ot h has been used, however , f or
some pr opel l i ng char ges now i n t he ser vi ce, I n t hi s case t he i gni t er
end can be i dent i f i ed by t he qui l t i ng used t o hol d t he bl ack powder
i n posi t i on and by t he wor ds " I GNI TI NG POW
DER" st enci l ed on
t he i gni t er .
f i b)
Pr opel l i ng char ges shoul d met be pl aced i n t he gun wi t h t he
i gni t er f ast ened t o t hem by saf et y Di ns. Bef or e f i r i ng, t he saf et y
pi ns shoul d be r emoved and t he i gni t er } l ad at t ached t o t he char ge
by sewi ng" t he st i t chi ng bei ng caught i n ot l east t hr ee pl aces, 120
degr ees apar t .
aoa

TM 9- 1900

Par . 219
Car e, Handl i ng, and Pr eser vat i on

( c) I t i s t he pr act i ce t o pack one i gni t er i n each car t r i dge- st or age


case. Sur pl us i gni t er s r emai ni ng af t er f i r i ng shoul d be dest r oyed
i n accor dance wi t h chapt er 4.
( 7) TAGS AND PROTECTOR CAPS.
I gni t er - pr ot ect or caps and
f
r
om
dat a t ags wi l l be r emoved
pr opel l i ng char ges bef or e l oadi ng
i nt o t he gun.
e.

Di f f i cul t i es i n l oadi ng or ext r act i ng ammuni t i on.

( 1)
Di f f i cul t i es i n l oadi ng or ext r act i ng ammuni t i on may be due
t o dent ed or bul ged car t r i dge cases, or t o f or ei gn mat er i al i n t he
chamber or bor e of t he gun. W
hen t he car t r i dge case i s har d t o
ext r act , an i nspect i on of t he chamber shoul d be made t o det er mi ne
whet her t he chamber i s f oul ed, scor ed, or pi t t ed. I f i t i s f oul ed, i t
can be r eadi l y cl eaned; but i f i t i s pi t t ed or scor ed, a r epor t shoul d
be made t o ' t he post or dnance of f i cer . The use of a t ool t o st r i ke
t he base of a car t r i dge case t o chamber r ounds i s pr ohi bi t ed. Per sonnel shoul d be pr ot ect ed i n case a r ound i s par t i al l y chamber ed
and t he br eechbl ock i s compl et el y cl osed. I n a heat er chamber ,
i gni t i on of t he pr opel l ent powder may occur .
( 2) I f a pr oj ect i l e cannot be r eadi l y ext r act ed f r om t he gun or i f
a pr oj ect i l e becomes separ at ed f r om t he car t r i dge case when t he
br eech i s opened, i t shoul d be f i r ed out , i f possi bl e, par t i cul ar l y i f
t he car t r i dge case wi l l sl i p over t he base of t he pr oj ect i l e and wi l l
chamber i n t he nor mal posi t i on. I t he car t r i dge case wi l l not sl i p
over t he base of t he pr oj ect i l e, t he car t r i dge case shoul d be shor t ened
t he necessar y mi ni mumamount , when t hi s i s done, a r educed char ge
shoul d be used ( appr oxi mat el y hal f of a nor mal char ge) because of
t he r educed obt ur at i on, par t i cul ar car e bei ng t aken t hat t he poi nt
of i mpact of t he pr oj ect i l e i s such as not t o endanger per sonnel or
pr oper t y. I f t hi s i s not possi bl e, t he pr oj ect i l e shoul d be r emoved
under t he di r ect super vi si on of an of f i cer , usi ng a r ammer whi ch
bear s onl y on t he pr oj ect i l e and pr ovi des f or cl ear ance ar ound t he
f uze.
( 3) I f a r ammer i s used, ext r eme car e shoul d be exer ci sed t o
pr event any f or ce f r om bei ng appl i ed agai nst t he f uze. The Edwar ds
r ammer , desi gnat ed as RAM
M
ER, unl oadi ng, M1, i s pr ovi ded f or
t hi s pur pose f or use wi t h 75- mm poi nt - f uzed pr oj ect i l es ( f i g. 163) .
( 4)
The r emoval of t he pr oj ect i l e, whet her by f i r i ng out or by
r ammi ng, shoul d be done under t he di r ect super vi si on of an of f i cer .
f . Mi sf i r es. W
hen a mi sf i r e occur s, t he f ol l owi ng pr ecaut i ons
wi l l be obser ved:
( 1) FI XED OR SEMI FI XED AMMUNI TI ON. Two at t empt s wi l l be
made t o f i r e, except i n t he case of guns whi ch cannot be r ecocked
wi t hout openi ng t he br eech. Upon f ai l ur e t o f i r e f or 30 seconds,
t he mi sf i r ed r ound wi l l be r emoved. I f i t i s not possi bl e t o r emove
301

, Fm 9- 1904
Far . 219

Pr e&er vAHon
Car e, Handl i ng, ar i d

4
oe

F
N

C
5
O

t
E
E

a
v.

302

TM 9- 1900

Par . 219
Car e, Handl i ng, and Fr e$er vat i on

t he r ound f r om a hot t uhe wi t hi n 45 seconds af t er t he or i gi nal


mi sf i r e, wat er shoul d be pl ayed on t he bar r el unt i l i t i s cool , The
saf est t i me t o r emove a mi sf i r ed r ound of f i xed ammuni t i on i s
bet ween 30 and 45 seconds af t er i t s occur r ence,
( ' 2) SEPARATE- LDAPI NG AMMUNI TI ON.
Two at t empt s wi l l be made t o f i r e t he pr i mer bef or e i t may
( d)
be r emoved. I f t he pr i mer i s hear d t o f i r e, a mi ni mum of 60 seconds
wi l l be al l owed bef or e t he br eech may be opened a7nd t he f aul t y
char ge r emoved. The f aul t y char ge must be st or ed separ at el y f r om
ot beT char ges.
( b) , 1f t he pr i mer i s not hear d t o f i r e, t wo mor e at t empt s t o
f i r e wi l l be made. Then pr oceed as f ol l ows :
1 . I f t he pr i mer can be r emoved by a per son st andi ng cl ear of
t he pat h of r ecoi l , af t er 2 mi nut es have el apsed, t he pr i mer may
be r emoved and a new one i nser t ed, I f t he second pr i mer f ai l s, 14
mi nut es shoul d be al l owed t o pass and t hen t he br eech may be
upi ned .
y1 .
I f t he pr i mer cannot be r emoved saf el y as descr i bed above, no
ht t empt wi l l be made t o open t he br eech or r epl ace t he pr i mer f or 10
mi nut es.
( c) Mi sf i r e pr i mer s shoul d be handl ed car ef ul l y and di Rposed
of qui ckl y, owi ng t o t he chance o a pr i mer hangf i r e. Fur t her i nf or mat i on wi l l he f ound i n AR750- 10 and t he Techni cal Manual s and
Fi el d Manual s per t ai ni ng t o t he pi ece.
FU7. UPX .

Ext r eme car e must ba t aken i n handl i ng and assembl i ng


f uzes t o $hel l or bombs. Al l l azes must be t r eat ed as del i cat e mechar d3r r w, _The f or ces whi ch ar m a f uze on f i r i ng a w" pon can be si mul at ed r by r ol l i ng or dr oppi ng, and a f uze so ar med may be f unct i oned
by t he i mpact of a bl ow or by dr oppi ng.
( 2) I n t he assembl y of f uzes and pr oj ect i l es, t he f uze body,
t hr eads, adapt er , a, nd f uze cavi t y must be i nspect ed 0 i nsur e t hat
gr i t , gr ease, or ot her f or ei gn mat er i al i s not pr esent , Thi s i s necessar y
f or pr oper seat i ng of t he f uze wi t hout t he use of excessi ve f or ce,
Meani ng of t he f uze cavi t y shoul d be accompl i shed wi t h a pi ece of
r l ot h and a smal l st i ck whi ch can be i nser t ed i nt o t he cavi t y, Fuzehol e l i f t i ng pl ugs shoul d not be r emoved except f or i nspect i on or
when t he f uze i s about t o be i nser t ed.
( 3) W
hen ammuni t i on or pr oj ect i l es ar e i ssued f uzed, no at t empt
wi l l he made t o r emove t he f uzes wi t hout speci f i c aut hor i t y and
i nst r uct i ons f r om t he Chi ef of Or dnance,
( 4) Fuzes wi l l not be al t er ed, Any at t empt t o al t er or di sassembl e f uzes i n t he f i el d i s danger ous and i s pr ohi bi t ed except under
speci f i c di r ect i on of t he Chi ef of Or dnance. The onl y aut hor i zed
assembl i ng or di sassembl y oper at i ons ar e scr ewi ng t he f uze i nt o t he
( 1)

303

TM 4- T900

Par s. 214- 221


Car e, Hsndl i ng, and Pr ewr vat l on

pr oj ect i l e i f t he r ound vr as not i sgued f uzed, or unscr ewi ng t he f uze


f r om t he pr oj ect i l e i f r ) ot f i r ed
( 5) 1~ver y pr ecaut i on shoul d be t aken t o keep moi st ar e away
f r om ponvder - t r ai n t i me f uses_
( t i ) Ti me f uses ar e al ways i ssued set " sor e, " and i f not used
af t er maki ng a set t i ng, t hey shoul d be r eset t o saf e bef or e st or i ng,
( 7) W
hen r eady t o be l oaded i nt o t he gun, each r ound whi ch
cont ai ns a t i me f uze or poi nt - det onat i ng f uze shoul d be kept out
of t he pat h of r ecoi l unt i l r ecoi l of t he pr evi ous r ound has t aken
pace; t hi s pr act i ce wi l l pr event a heavy bl ow on t he f uze, I f
f uzed r ounds ar e acci dent al l y st r uck i n t hi s. manner , t hey wi l l not be
f i r ed under any ci r cumst ances but wi l l be i mmedi at el y pl aced i n a
segr egaECA l ocat i OT3 and r epor t ed t o t he post or dnance of f i cer f or
exami nat i un and necessar y act i on.
( $) W
hen cheoki si g t he accur acy of f uze set t i ng by cut t i ng t r i al
f uzes, no f u2e shoul d 1x- cut mor e t han t wi ce.
HI ANl f t AA1Ml 1VI TI ON.
Onl y bl ank ammuni t i on f ur ni shed by t he Or dnance Depar t ment wi l l be used. Bl ank ar n, nuni t i on i s i ssued t o t he usi ng ser vi ces
i n campl et r t : r ounds onl y . Smoke- puf f char ges or bl ank ammuni t i on
wi l l nut be i mpr ovi Lwd when t hey ar e not pr ovi ded.
b, I f kept i nt act . handl ed wi t h car e, and vr ut ect ed f r om heat *
t he compl ei i : r ound of bl ank ammuni t i on i s compar at i vel y saf e. The
f ol l owi ng pr ecaut i ons, however , shoul d he obser ved ,
( 1) Under no ci r cur nut ances wi l l r ounds of bl ank ammuni t i on
be t amper ed wi t h i n t he f i el d.
( 2) Bl ank ammuni t i on shoul d not be r emoved f r om t he f i ber
cont ai ner sooner t han i s necessar y bef or e f i r i ng. Remai ni ng r ounds
shoul d be kept away f r om t he gun,
( 3) I dent i f i cat i on of t he ammuni t i on bef or e f i r i ng must be
posi t i ve. and no at l emot shoul d be mach: t o use i t i n a gun ot her
t han t hat f or whi ch i t i s i nt ended.
( 4) Any r ound i n whi ch t he chi pboar d ci vsi ng cup i s not f i r ml y
i n pl ace shoul d not be f i r ed and shoul d be handl ed wi t h car e unt i l
di %poser ! of as di r ect ed i n chapt er 4.

220.
u.

221 .

PYROTECHNI CS, CRNAADE5 . AND CEEMI CAL AM14I UNI TI ON.


a . Pyr ot echni cs and gr enades shoul d be l ocat ed some di st ance
ei t her t o t he Hi ght or l ef t of t he f i r i ng poi nt s, never di r ect l y bk' hi nd.
Pr ot ect i ve measur es agai nst gr ass f i r es shoul d be pr ovi ded, and ext r eme car e shoul d be t aken t o pr event a gr t Yl sde or pi ece of bur ni ng
pyr ot echni c mat er i al f r om dr oppi ng i nt o boxes of ammuni t i on.
304

TM 9- 1900

F ar s. 221- 223
Car e, , F, f andhng. and Pr eser vat i on

Pyr ot echni cs whi ch have br an unseal ed shoul d be di sposed of as


pi uvi ded i n OFSB 3- 9,
h. I n nr der t o pr event acci dent s f r om t he use of l et hal or t oxi c
c'. hemi cal j Ar nmuni t i on, no l i ar. ( : her ni cal ammuni t i on ot her t han nont oxi c smoke and nont oxi c l aChr ymat or y gas wi l l be f used f or t r ai ni ng
pur poses, i ncl udi ng t ar get pr act i ce, demonst r at i ons, and t act i cal exer ci ses, except undt r t he per sonal and di r c, ct super vi si on of a commi ssi oned ct ?i cer of t he Chemi cal War f ar e Ser vi ce. Thi s l i mi t at i on does
not appl y t o t he use of i nst r uct i onal gas i dent i f i cat i on set s or det onat i on gas i dent i f i cat i on set s, Smoke- pr oduci ng mat er i al s wi l l not he
r el eased i n t r ai ni ng V; i t hi n 300 yar ds of per sonnel , l i vest ock, bui l di ngs,
equi pment , car ot her obj ect s whi ch may be damaged. Equi pment
cont ai ni nat t d wi t h cor r osi ve aci ds pr oduced by l i qui d smokes wi l l
be washed wi t h wat er as sor es as possi bl e except when ot her met hods
of pr ot ect i on or cl eani ng ar e pr escr i bed i n t he appr opr i at e Techni cal
Manual s .
e. Bur ni ng- t ype gr enades, smoke pot s, and t wo- compar t ment
candl es uhoul d be st or ed i n a cool , dr y pl ace, They , y1) uul d not be
i gni t ed wi t hi n 5 f eet of dr y gr ass or ot her i nf l ammabl e mat er i al s .
Bur ni ng- t ype gr enades wi l l not be f i r ed cl oser t han 20 f eet f 1Vm
per sonnel , becauhe gr enades occasi onal l y f l ash. W
hen f i r i ng si noke
pot s, car e shoul d be t aken not t o have t he f ace di r ect l y above t he
smoke pot ,
, 1, kl nf uzed gr enades wi l l not be f uzed i n ammuni t i on dumps
or st or age magazi nes : car i n gr eat er quant i t i es t han ar e neoded f or
i mmedi at e we,
222, 13OAMA. Al t i t udes and di st ances saf e f r om f r agr nent at i ot t
ar 3cl bl ast ef f ect wi l l be speci f i ed by t he Commandi ng Gener al , Ar my
Ai r For ces ( pay" , 21, AR 750- 10, 22 Januar y 1944) , Saf et y pr ecaut i ons and met hods of unf u2i ng, di sassembl y, and handl i ng bomhf i
ar e cont ai ner s i n TM9- 19811, Al l l i ve bombs wi l l be car r i ed saf e
and wi l l not be ar med unt i l r el eased,
223. T110RTAI t AMAI UPi 2T>I Cf n . The same saf et y pr ecaut i ons wi l l
be obser ved i n t he f i el d i n t he Handl i ng and use of mor t ar ammuni t i on as appl y t o ar t i l l er y shel l ( par . 219) _ Fur t her i nf or mat i on wi l l .
be f ound i n FM23- 85 and FM23- 90.

305

TM9- 1900

Par . 220
CHAPTER d

M
UNI TI ON I N ZONE
DESTRUCTI ON OF AM
OF THE I NTERI OR
GENERAL.
a. Gener al .
{ 1) The i nst r uct i ons set f or t h i n t hi s sect i on ar e f or dest r oyi ng
l i mi t ed quant i t i es of expl osi ves and ammuni t i on. The t er m " l i mi t ed"
i s def i ned i n subpar agr aph d, bel ow. W
hen l ar ger quant i t i es ar e t o
be dest r oyed or t he i nst r uct i ons set f or t h cannot be compl i ed wi t h,
speci al i nst r uct i ons wi l l I x f ur ni shed by t he Chi ef of Or dnance.
( 2) Unser vi ceabl e ammuni t i on, ammuni t i on component v, and expl osi ves whi ch const i t ut e a hazar d, cannot be sa- vaged, or ar e unf i t
f or t hei r i nt ended pur pose and cannot be used t o advant age f or any
ot her pur pose shoul d be d" t r oyed i n accor dance wi t h exi st i ng r egul a
t i ons. As a gener al r ul e at Cl ass 1, 11, or I I I i r i st al l at i on, t he onl y
ammuni t i on i t ems r equi r i ng dest r uct i on ar e obsol et e or det er i or at ed
anununi t i on ( Kr hi ch r i i ay be consi der ed t oget her ) and duds,
( 3) Lumber whi ch has been exposed t o expl osi ves and whi ch
cannot be r eadi l y decont ami nat ed shoul d be dest r oyed by bur ni ng
onl y under condi t i ons appr oved f or saf et y. Exampl es of such l umber
ar e wooden sect i ons of t anks, vat s, hoods, pi pe l i nes, et c., i n whi ch
hazar dous mat er i al i s i mpr egnat ed. However , i f wood has been exposed t o expl osi ve mat er i el t o a l i mi t ed ext ent , i t map be possi bl e t o
decont ami nat e i t compl et el y by washi ng or st eami ng.
h. ReKponai hi l i l y and l r r ocr dur e. Pr i or t o dest r uct i on, an Ammuni t i on Condi t i on Depor t . ( O. p_ For m 517- - f or mer l y O. G. 7235)
wi l l be submi t t ed t o t he Chi ef of Or dnance i n or der t hat t he di sposi t i on may be appr oved. Thi s r epor t wi l l be pr epar ed i n accor dance
wi t h i nst r uct i ons on t he r ever se si de of t he f or m. An except i on i s
det er i or at ed expl osi ves or Ammuni t i on whi ch i s f ound t o be i mmedi at el y danger ous t o l i f e or pr oper t y ; i n such i nst ances, di sposi t i on may
be made by or der of t he l ocal commandi ng of f i cer . The r esponsi bi l i t y f or di sposi t i on i s a f unct i on of t he i nspect or : t he r esponsi bi l i t y
her e
f or dest r uct i on i s t i f unct i on of t he post or dnance of f i cer . W
l ocal br eak- down of unser vi ceabl e ammuni t i on i s or der ed, t echni cal
i nst r uct i ons f or t he wor k wi l l be f ur ni shed by t he Chi ef of Or dnance.
r. . Met hods . Dest r uct i on of expl osi ve mat er i al wi l l he accompl i shed by bur ni ng, expl odi ng, or dumpi ng at sea, as speci f i ed bel ow,
Bur yi ng of expl osi ves or ammuni t i on or dumpi ng t hem i nt o wast e
pl aces, pi t s, wel l s, mar shes, shal l ow st r eams, or i nl and wat er ways i s
absol ur el y pr ohi bi t ed ; except t hat l oose bl ack powder ( par . 227)
may be di sposed of by dumpi ng i nt o a st r eam or body of wat er .
Met hods f or dest r uct i on ar e gener al l y based on t he number of uni t s
t o be dest r oyed, t he si ze and nat ur e of each uni t . t he f aci l i t i es avai l abl e, and t he t opogr aphy of t he l and.
224.

aoa

TM 9- 1900

Par $ . 214- 225

Dest r ucf i nr n of Ammur dt i on i n Zono of

t he i nt er i or

d. { Quant i t y of ammuni t i on and expl o$i ves. By a ` l i mi t ed"


quvnt i t y of ammuni t i on and expl osi ves, t hi s sect i on r ef er s t o t he
number of unexpl oded &hel l and ot her ammuni t i on nor mal l y f ound
on a t ar get r ange or i n t he f i el d as an accumul at i on f r om f i r i ngs or
ot her peacet i me maneuver s_ Lar ger quant i t i es, gener al l y r ef er r i ng t o
ammuni t i on r esul t i ng f r om det er i or at i on i n st or age or f r om obsol escence, ar e t o be dest r oyed accor di ng t o speci f i c i nst r uct i ons f r omt he
Chi ef of Or dnance,
e. Mat er i at s ut . Xl i n dest r oyi ng by expl osi on.
Char ges of
- pound bl ocks of TNT or st i cks of dynar t ut e ar e used. These ar e
set of f ei t her by t i me f use ( saf et y f use) and a bl ast i ng cap, or by a
magnet o and an el ect r i c bl ast i ng cap. I n no case wi l l " i nst ant aneous"
f use be used. For demol i t i on pur poses r 3i t r ost ar ch bl ocks have been
aut hor i zed as a subst i t ut e f or TNT bl ocks . Ni t r ost ar ch i s a har d
dense subst ance consi der abl y mor e sensi t i ve t o f r i ct i on and i mpact
t han TNT. The cr ushi ng ar br eaki ng of t he vi f r ost ar ch Wocl r s i s
hazar dous. Dynami t e i s not t o he used i n t he dest r uct i on of duds .

f . Mat er i al s uNt t i l i n dest r oyi ng by f i r e. Fi r es used i n dest r oyi ng


smal l ammuni t i on component s may be made f r om scr ap l umber ,
wood, or such mat er i al et c excel si or . W
hen component s t o be dest r oyed ar e l ai d on t he pi l e bef or e l i ght i ng, t he f i r e wi l l be l i t f r om
a di st ance by mesas of a t r ai n of i nf l ammabl e mat er i al or by a char ge
of bl ack po%vder i gni t ed wi t h an el ect r i c squi b,
g. Speci f i c t ypes . I nf or mat i on deal i ng wi t h t he par t i cul ar t ype
t o be dest r oyed wi l l be f ound i n t he par agr aphs f ol t owi ng,
h . DE' - nl ol i t i on met hods . For det ai l s of met hods and pr ocedur e
of demol i t i on wor k, consul t F 5- 25 .
225.

CLUMPI NG AT yEA,

a. W
hen bur ni ng or det onat i on of expl osi ves or ammuni t i on i s
i mpr act i cal , dumpi ng at sea at dept hs not l ess t han 900 f eet and not
l ess t han 10 mi l esf r om shor e i s per mi t t ed . Bef or e di sposal , by dumpi ng i n t he sea, of any ATYI muni t i on, ever y ef f or t wi l l be mer l e t o
sal vage i t f or f ur t her use or r ecl amat i on of compoae0 par t s. Dumpi ng i n t he sea wi l l . i n ever y i nst ance, 1] e done onl y upon W
ar Depar t .
ment or der .
h. Navy, Coast Guar d, and por t aut hor i t i es must be consul t ed
and t hei r r egul at i ons r egar di ng t r ansf er and di sposal of mat er i al of
t hi s nat ur e must he obser ved, Ammuni t i o, t i t ems must be r emoved
f r om cont ai ner s bef or e bei ng dumped Over boar d. The l ocat i on sel ect ed f or dumpi ng shoul d be appr eci abl y deeper t han sur r oundi ng
l ocat i ons t o pr ecl ude t he possi bi l i t y of ammuni t i on bei ng washed
t owar d t he shar e by t i dal act i on.
307

Par s, 225- 226

TM9- 1900

Dest r uct i on of Ammuni t i on i n Zone of t he I nt er i or


c . 1n t r ansi t , t he boat or bar ge wi l l di spl ay a l ar ge r ed f l ag at
l east 10 f eet 2bove t he deck and a compet ent per son wi l l be const ant l y on t he al er t t o war n appr oachi ng cr af t of danger . Wl t ar s
necessar y, a W
ar Depar t ment r epr esent at i ve . who i s f ami l i ar wi t h t he
hazar ds i nvol ved i n handl i ng ammuni t i on, wi l l accompany cor t t t ner ci al vessel s cont r act ed t o dump such mat er i al i n t he capaci t y of a
saf et y advi ser .
2261.

SAFETY PRECAh' FI ONS,


a. Cener aL Saf et y i s t he maj or consi der at i on i n dest r oyi ng
ammuni t i on and expl osi ves . I t i s hi ghl y advi sabl e t o t est al l saf et y
devi ces bef or ehand by subj ect i ng t hem t o t he sever est t est t hey may
be cal l ed upon t o wi t hst and, pr ovi ded t hat such t est i s r easunabl e and
pr act i cabl e. Onl y af t er saf et y r equi r ement s have been met shoul d
sal vage and economy be consi der ed, I t may be necessar y t o i mpr ovi se appar at us t o accompl i sh t he desi r ed r esul t s, and i t i s essent i al
t hat t he dest r i t ct i osx pr ocedur e be anal yzed and pl anned i n det ai l f or
compl i ance wi t h t he gener al saf et y pr ecaut i ons i n chapt er 3, sect i on 1. The gener al saf et y pr ecaut i ons t hat must al ways be compl i ed
wi t h i n dest r oyi ng ammuni t i on ar e descr i bed bel ow.
h.

Sel ect i on of

Si t e.

The sel ect i on of a si t e f or


dest r uct i on of expl osi ves by bur ni ng shoul d be based on t he pr i nci pl e
of obt ai ni ng t he maxi mum pr act i cabl e di st ance f r om al l magazi nes,
i nhabi t ed bui l di ngr 4 oper at i ng bui l di ngs, publ i c hi ghways, and r ai l ways . Consi der at i on shoul d be gi ven t o t he di r ect i on of pr evai l i ng
wi nds. Wher ever possi bl e, nat ur al bar r i cades shoul d be ut i l i zed bet ween t he bur ni ng si t e and oper at i ng bui l di ngs and magazi nes. The
bur st i ng si t e shoul d be appr oxi mat el y i nhabi t ed- bui l di ng di st ances
f r omal l st r uct ur es a. nd publ i c t hor oughf ar es.
( 2) FOR DESTRUCTI ON BY ] DETONATI ON. The Se1eCt i Ol l Of a si t e
f or dest r uct i on of ammuni t i on by det onat i on i s based on t he same
pr i nci pl es as i n st ep ( 1) , above. Such a si t e shoul d be 3, 600 f eet
f r ompubl i c hi ghways, publ i c r ai l ways, i nhabi t ed bui l di ngs, magazi nes,
and oper at i ng bui l di ngs. Wher e t hi s di st ance cannot be obt ai ned, a
pi t or t r ench r houl d be used t o l i mi t t he r ange of mi ssi l es. The 3, 600f oot l i mi t at i on does not appl y wher e subst ant i al l y const r uct ed dest r uct i on chamber s ar e used. Pi t s wi l l not be r equi r ed when t he
dest r uct i on t akes pl ace on an ar t i l l er y r ange or si mi l ar si t e wher e a
cover of ear t h 2 f eet t hi ck shoul d be used t o l i mi t t he r ange of f r agment s. Combust i bl e r ubbi sh shoul d be dest r oyed at a l ocat i on r emoved
f r om t hose pl aces wher e expl osi ves and expl osi ve- cont ami nat ed mat er i al ar e dest r oyed . Wher e l i mi t ed space does not per mi t separ at e
bur ni ng gr ounds. a par t of t he expl osi ve dest r uct i on may be r eser ved
f or bur ni ng r ubbi sh, pr ovi ded t he t wo ar eas ar e not oper at ed si mol ( 1)

FOR DESTRUCTI ON BY BURNI NG.

TM 9- 1900
Par . 226
Desf r uct i on of At nmvnf i on i n Zone of gl ee I nf er i or
t aneousl y. Such an ar ea shoul d be encl osed by a subst ant i al wi r e
mesh, not over ' / a- i nch mesh.
C.
Mai nt enance of gr ot andes. Al l dr y gr ass, l eaves, and ot her
i nf l ammabl e mat er i al s wi t hi n a r adi us of 200 f eet f r om t he poi nt of
dest r uct i on wi l l be r emoved. Fi r e- l i ght i ng f aci l i t i es f or combat i ng
gr ass f i r es shoul d be kept r ec+di l y avai l abl e and, i f pr act i cabl e, t he
gr ound at t he poi nt of dest r uct i on shoul d be wet down wi t h wat er
at t he cl ose of each day' s oper at i ons. The use of concr et e mat s f or
bur ni ng or det onat i on i s not per mi t t ed.
cl . Pr ot ect i on f or hr r aonnel . Per sonnel engaged i n demol i t i on
wor k shoul d al ways have ampl e t i me t o r each shel t et af f or di ng sub
st ant i al over head cover and spl i nt er - pr oof 1) r ot uct i ur i . The si gnal f or
det onat i on shoul d be gi ven by t he i ndi vi dual set t i ng t he bl ast i ngs,
and onl y af t er al l per sonnel i n t he vi ci ni t y ar e pr ot ect ed by subst ant i al cover or have r eached a saf e di st ance. I f an el ect r i c bl ast i ng
machi ne i s used. t he wi r es wi l l not be connect ed t o t he t er mi nal s
unt i l al l per sons have r eached cover mi d t he per son i n char ge of t he
bl ast i ng i s assur ed t hat t he ar ea i s pr oper l y cl ear ed of al l per sonnel _
Dependent upon l ocal condi t i ons, t empor ar y or per manent bar r i cades
wi l l be pr ovi ded end saf et y di st ances wi l l be obser ved by al l per sons,
e. Saf el y di M" i mr c r equi r ement s f or pr epar at i on of pr i mer M
mai l , l emul i t i un char geLL. I t i s ext r emel y i mpor t ant t hat per sonnel
t ake adequat e pr ecaut i ons t o pr event acci dent al expl osi ons whi l e
pr epar i ng pr i mer s f or demol i t i on act i vi t i es . I n addi t i on t o t he gener al . saf et y pr ecaut i ons cur r ent l y i n f or ce, t he f ol l awi ng saf et y r ul es
f or t he pr epar at i on of pr i mer s and demol i t i on char geXz wi l l be 3f r r ct l y
obser ved.
( 1) Test - bur ni ng of t i me f use ( saf et y f use) , f or det er mi nat i on of
r at e of bur ni ng of t he r ol l , wi l l be dome at a mi ni mum saf et y di st ance o 25 f eet f r om exposed bl ast i ng caps or expl osi ves i n t he
di r ect i on t owar d whi ch t he ai r cur r ent i s movi ng.
( 2) Cut t i ng squar e acr oss end of t i me f use ( saf et y f use) , r emove
and di scar d 2 or 3 i nches of f use f r om each r ol l ,
( 3) Cut of f and t est a 1- f oot l engt h f r omeach r ol l f or det er mi nat i on of bur ni ng t i me- Al l f use i r 3 t i r e sam
e f al l shoul d bur t i at a uni f or m f et e, t hough r ot e of hor ni ng mr t y vf t r ; ' f r om appr oxi mat el y 30
t o 43 seconds per f oot i n di f 7er ent r ol l s.
( 4) The suppl y of bl ast i ng caps f or t he r equi r ed oper at i on wi l l
be at mi ni mumof 25 f eet f r omt he suppl y of expl osi ves,
( 5) The pr epar at i on of nonel ect r i c pr i mer s wi l l be per f or med not
l ess t han 25 f eet f r om t he suppl y of bl ast i ng caps car expl osi ves.
( 6) Cut suf f i ci ent t i me f use ( saf et y f use) t o per mi t f i r er t o r each
a pl ace of saf et y bef or e t he char ge expl odes,
( 7) Sel ect one nonel ect r i c bl ast i ng cap, bal d i t open end down,
309

Par . 226

TM V- I VVR

Dest r uct i on of Ar nmuni t i ot t i n ZOt w of t he I t t t er i ur

and shake gent l y t o r emove di r t or ot her f or ei gn mat t er , Hol d t he


desi r ed l engt h of t i me f use ( saf et y f use) ver t i cal and gent l y sl i p t he
cap down ovet - t hc f use unt i l t he expl osi ve i s i n cont act wi t h t he end
of t he f use. I f t he f use appear s t oo l ar ge t o ent er t he bl ast i ng cap
easi l y, t he end t o ent er t he cap may be r ol l ed bet ween t he f i nger s,
CAUTI ON: Do r r od use f or ce .
( S) W
hen t he f use i s pr oper l y seat ed wi t hi n t he cap, pl ace a
st andar d- t ype cap cr i mper over t he cat ) at t he f use end; hol d by t he
Pur e and cr i mp cap t o f use.
( 9) No mar e t han si x bl ast i ng caps wi l l be per mi t t ed at t he si t e
sel ect ed f or pr epar at i on of pr i mer s at any one t i me,
( 10) The pr i mi ng of expl osi ves wi l l be per f or med at A di st ance
of not l esr t han 25 f eet f r omt he si t e of any ot her per mi ssi bl e st or age
or oper at i on poi nt i nvol ved i n connect i on wi t h t he pr epar at i on of
pr i mer s and demol i t i on char ges.
{ 11) Not mor e t han one pr i med char ge of expl osi ves wi l l be
per mi t t ed at any si t e at any one t i me.
( 12) The pr epar at i on of pr i mer s and t he pr i mi ng of expl osi ves
wi l l not be per f or med i n advat l ce of r equi r ement s f or use of s&me,
i n vi ew of possi bl e at mospher i c ef f er - t 3.
( 13) Br i ng t o t he si t e of t he oper at i on onl y suf f i ci ent expl osi ves
t o meet t he r equi r ement of t he oper at i on i nvol ved.
f . Removal f r om cont ai nem. Expl osi ves or ammuni t i on t o be
dest r oyed by bur ni ng wi l l be r emoved f r om cont ai ner s, as any at t empt
t o bur n expl osi ves or ammuni t i on under even sl i ght conf i nement may
r esul t i n an expl osi on or det onat i on .
g. T1r i r ' xmi ui ng r l t eaut i t 3 t o he dest r oyed . The quant i t y of
mat er i al t o ba dest r oyed at one t i me wi l l depend upon l ocal condi t i ons_ Thi s quant i t y wi l l be car ef ul l y det er mi ned by st ar t i ng wi t h a
l i mi t ed number and t hen gr adual l y i ncr easi ng t hat number unt i l t he
maxi mum whi ch can be dest r oyed wi t hout damage t o sur r oundi ng
pr oper t y or causi ng di st ur bance t o ci vi l i an ar eas i s det er mi ned. The
t espon. si bl e i ndi vi dual wi l l make sur e bef or e he gi ves t he si gnal f or
det onat i on t hat t her e i 3 no unaut hor i zed per son i n t he danger ar ea
and t hat al l aut hor i zed per sons ar e pr ot ect ed by adequat e di st ance
and cover .
h. Col l e4' . 11on of unexpl oded ar ni ekuni t i on. As some t ypes of
ammuni t i on ar t ! compar at i vel y di f f i cul t t o expl ode, a sear ch of t he
sur r oundi ng gr ounds shoul d be made af t er each bl ast and any ma.
t er i al whi ch has been t hr own f r omt he pi t and not det onat ed shoul d
be col l ect ed and i ncl uded wi t h t he next char ge t o be dest r oyed .
i . Segr egat i on of mal e- r i al awai t i ng dest r uct i on. Expl osi ves or
ammuni t i on awai t i ng dest r uct i on wi l l not be pi l ed wi t hi n 2401 f eet of
t he poi nt of dest r uct i on and wi l l I ) e pr ot ect ed f r om gr ass f i r es, bur n310

TM 9- 1900

Por s . 226- 227

Dest r uct i on of Ammuni t i on i n Zone of t he I nf er i or

i ng ember s, and f l yi ng f r agment s. Al l dr y gr ass, l eaves, and ot her


i nf l ammabl e mat er i al wi l l be r emoved f r om t he ar ea wi t hi n a r adi us
of 50 f eet of t he pi l e,
j . Caut i on agai nst r e- i gni t i un. I n r epeat i ng bur ni ng oper at i ons,
car e wi l l be t aken t o guar d agai nst mat er j aI bei ng i gni t ed f r ombur ni ng r esi due or heat i n t he gr ound,
k. I mpr ovi si ng. The use of i mpr ovi sed met hods f or expl odi ng
bl ast i ng cabs i s pr ohi bi t ed,
1. Mi sf i r e& I n case of a mi sf i r e, per sonnel wi l l not appr oach t he
pi t , t r ench, or pai nt of det onat i on unt i l a per i od of 30 mi nut es has
el apsed,
m. U" of t r ai ned her aonnel . Dest r uct i on of ammuni t i on wi l l
never be at t empt ed by i nexper i enced or unt r ai ned per sonnel _ The
number of per sonnel engaged i n such oper at i ons wi l l be kept at a
mi ni mum consi st ent wi t h saf et y, but no per son wi l l be per mi t t ed t o
wor k al one.
n. Guar di ng demol i t i on ar ea. Guar ds, saf et y si gnal s, and war ni ng si gns wi l l be used as r equi r ed t o keep unaut hor i zed per sonnel
f r om danger ar eas dur i ng dest r uct i on oper at i ons .
n. Addi t i onal i nst r uct i onR. I n t he absence of speci f i c r egul at i ons
or i nf or mat i on cover i ng any phase of t he dest r uct i on of expl osi ve
mat er i al , i nst r uct i ons wi l l be r equest ed f r om t he Chi ef of Or dnance.
227 .

BULK EXPLOSI VES.

a. Bl ack powder , The saf est met hod of dest r oyi ng bl ack powder
i s t o dump i t i n a st r eam or body of - wat er ; i f no sui t abl e body of
wat er k conveni ent , i t may be bur ned. Onl y t ool s of wood or non.
spar ki ng met al wi l l be used i n openi ng t he cont ai ner s, The cont ent s
of one cont ai ner onl y wi l l bo bur ned at one t i mo pr ovi ded t hat quant i t y does not exceed 50 pounds. The powder must be r emoved f r om
t he cont ai ner and st ) r esd out on t he gr ound i r % a t r ai n about 2 i nches
wi de, car e bei ng t aken t hat no par t of t he t r ai n par al l el s an[ r t her
par t except at a di st ance of mor e t han 10 f eet . A t r ai n of i nf l ammabl e mat er i al , such ss excel si or , about 25 f eet l ong and ext endi ng
t o wi ndwar d must be ugM t o i gni t e t he powder , Hs t he r esul t i ng f l ar e
of expl osi on i s su qui ck t hat t her e wi l l be no oppor t uni t y t o wi t hdr aw.
The empt i ed cont ai ner s wi l l be t hor oughl y washed on t he i nsi de
wi t h wat er , as ser i ous expl ar i ons have occur r ed wi t h supposedl y
empt y bl ack- powder cans, Saf et y pr ecaut i ons, par t i cul ar l y t hose i n
par agr aph 226, zhuul d be obser ved. W
et bl ack powder on dr yi ng
may r esume i t s expl osi ve pr oper t i es,
h. TNT. expl osi ve 1) . and t et r yl wi l l be dest r oyed by bur ni ng.
They must not be dumped i nt o ur at er , as t hey poi son i t , The expl o-

Par s. 227- 228

I M V- I

Dest r uct i on of Ammuni t i on

in

Zonc of t he

vuu

MI Cr i or

l i ve t o be bur ned wi l l be r emoved f r om cont ai ner s aci d spr ead i n i


t hi n l ayer . not mor e t han 3 or ' 4 i nches t hi ck, on unot l l er l ayer of
i nf l ammabl e mat er i al , such as excel t i i nr , A t r ai n of i nf l amTr t abl e
mat er i al wi l l b= used t v i gni t e t he expl osi ve_ $t t f et y pr ecaut i cync i n
par agr aph 226 Xi houi d be ol j cer vod. Hur l , expl osi ve "; shoul d not be
bur ned i n l ump f or m. I f expl osi v&s must be bur ned i n l t urt t l i f or m,
t he qumi t i t i es shoul d N! l ess t han st i pul ot ed bel ow f or par se expl osi ves, and an oxpi osi on r nay occur , I nt i t ances ar e oat r ecor d of expl osi ves bel ow ( Whi ch i n most i nst ances bur n) , det onat i ng whi l e bei ng
bur ned . The maxi nnum amount s of l oose hi gh i _xpl osi ves whi ch m.Ay
be bur ned at oci e bol e shal l he l i mi t ed mf ol l ows :
( 1) DNT, TNT, expl osi ve D- 500 pounds,
( 2) Pent oht e. t et r yr t ol - 250 r ounds,
( 3) Tet r yl . composi t i on A. B. and C, RDX, hal ei t c- 50 pounds .
t i r nukel es, powder . Smal l quant i t i wi of smokel ess powder ( a
f ew boxes) up t o 500 pounds may be dest r oyed wi t h saf et y i f t he
l xr wder i s r emoved f r om t he cont ai ner s and spr ead out on hdr e
gr ound i n a t r ai n of l i mi t ed wi dt h and t hi ckness dependent t i p( m t he
gr anul at i on of t he powder . A t r ai n of i r , f l an) mabl e mat er i al about
25 f eet l ong on t he wi ndwar d si de, shoul d be used t o i gni t e t he
powder ; t hi s al l ows per Ai nnel suf f i ci ent t une t o get away f r om t he
i nt ense ! t eat wbkl c i s gener at ed when smokel ess powder bur ns. Saf et y
pr ecaut i ons i n par agr al yh 236 shoul i t be obser ved.
d. Dynaekt i l e. Not i nur e t han 100 pounds ar p t o be dest r oyed by
bur ni ng at one t i me, To dest r oy by bur ni ng, dynami t e car t r i dges,
except f r ozen car t r i dges, shoul d be sl i t l engt hwi se i nt o hal ves wi t h an
or di nar y kni f e; kni veq wi t h cl osi ng bl ades shoul d not be. used . The
sl i t car t r i dges ar e pl aced i n a si ngl e %yer , not gr eat er i n vt , i dt h t han
t he l engt h of one t . a3' t r i dge, on hay, excel st i nr , or at ner combust i bl e
mat er i al . Tht combust i bl e t r ai n shoul d be of suf f i ci ent l engt h t o
al l ow per sonnel t i t r each cover or a saf e di st ance bef or e t he dynami t e
begi ns t o bur n. The dynami t e cont ai ner s shoul d be bur ned at t he
same t i me. Dynami t e awai t i ng dest r uct i on shoul d be shi el ded f r om
t he di r ect r ays of t he sui t . Fr o7ct t car t r i dges! shal l be car ef ul l y
t hawed, i n accor dhncc wi t h i nst r uct i ons cont ai ned i n FM5- 25. pr i or
t o bur ni ng,
e. Ot her P. Xpl ghl Yf : p . I f i t i s necc! ysr y t o dest r oy ot her cxpl car ; i VCB! such as m
er cur y f ul mi nat e, l ead ar . i rl e, pi cr i c aci d, et c. . speci al
i nst r uct i ons wi l l be r equci i r t cd f r ont t he Chi ef of Chdr i ance.
228. SEFARNTF- 1MADI NG YI t OPEMI NGCHARGES. Ext r eme
pr ecaut i ons wi l l be t aken agoi nst spar ks, The smokel e_" powder
char ges wi l l be r emoved t o t he bur ni ng gr ound bef or e bei ng opened .
Ther e t he powder wi l l be r emoved f r omt he bag I ) y cut t i ng one of t he
seams, car e bei ng t aken not t o di st ur b t he bl ack- powder i gni t i ng
char ge, - The empt y bag and i gni t er shoul d be i mmedi at el y and com312

TM 9- 1900

Par s. 226- 229

Dest r uct i on of Ammuni t i on i n Zone of t f i e I r ct er l or


pl et el y SUI ) Mer ged i n wat er and t he i gni t er cut open under wat er .
The smokel ess powder %vi l l be hur t l ed as f l escr i bed i n par agr aph
227 c . The i gni t er and car t r i dge bags, af t er havi ng hear , t hor oughl y
soaked i n , eat er f or ot l east 72 hour s, shoul d be r emoved and al l owed
t o dr y i n t he Upon : t hey may t hen be hor ned i n a pi t or t r ench- Soaki ng i n wat er i s absol ut el y necessar y because t he conf i nement of t he
bl ack powder by t he povr der bag, sl i ght as i f may be, i s suf f i ci ent t o
cause expl osi on si l t ! pr oj ect i on of t he bur ni ng bags* And i gni t es t o
di st ances of 200 f eet or mor e. Bags and i gni t er s awai t i ng dest r uct i on
by f i r F must he kept i n a sscur el y cl osed cont ai ner , I t i s per mi ssi bl e,
when pr act i cabl e, t o dest r oy hags and i gnt mby dumpi ng t hemi n a
body of t i vat er af t er t he pr opel l ent powder has been r emoved and
t he var i ous sect i ons of t he qui l t ed i gni t er ar e cut open whi l e t he bag
end i gni t er ar e st i l l submer ged i n wat er . Thi s cut t i ng i s necessar y
t ci r el ease ai r t r apped i n t he qui l t ed i gni t er sect i ons, whi ch woul d
cat f se t he bags and i gni t er s t o f l oat on l op of t he wat er .
229. ARTI LLERY SHELL.
a. The f ol l owi ng gener al i nst r uct i ons f or dest r oyi ng ar t i l l er y Shel l
by det onat i on al so appl y t o bombs, mor t ar Shel l , r ocket shel l separ at ed f r om t hei r mot or s, and ot her r el at i vel y l or ge component s cont ai ni ng hi gh expl osi ve- However . i t must I >e kept i n mi nd t hat bombs,
mor t ar shel l , r ocket shel l , and ant i t ank mi nes ar e composed of as
t ouch as 60 per cent by wei ght of expl osi ve and hi ve r el at i vel y t hi n
wal l s, as compar ed wi t h t he 10 t o 15 per cent of expl osi ve and t he r el a
t i vel y heavy wal l s of ar t i l l er y shel l . Ther ef oec, t he number of uni t s of
hoi nbs, mor t ar shel l . r acket shel l , and mi nes dest r oyed i n one oper Ht i on
shoul d be r educed accor di ngl y. Shapef l char ges r equi r e ext r eme Car e
i n dest r uct i on and shoul d be accompl i shed i n smal l quant i t i es or
si ngl y Fi xed shel l and r ocket shel l ( heads) wi l l be di sawer abl ed
f r omcompl et e r ounds and dest r oyed i n t he same meaner as separ at el oadi ng shel l ( see bel ow) . Bef or e under t aki ng any demol i t i on oper at i on t he pr oposed pr ocedur e wi l l be checked agai nst t he saf et y pr ecaut i ons pr escr i bed i n par agr aph 226.
h. The f ol l owi ng gener al i nst r uct i ons cont empl at e t he use of a pi t
or bombpr oof hui . , An ar t i l l er y r ange or si mi l ar si t e, whamavai l abl e,
may be used. Not e especi al l y par agr aph 226 h ( 2 ) .
c- "I ' he pr oj ect i l e t o be dest r oyed wi l l be pl aced on i t s si de i n a
t r ench or pi t about q f eet deep. The number of TNT bl ocks ( or
t hei r equi val ent ) speci f i ed i n t he f ol l owi ng t abl e wi l l be pl aced i n
cont act wi t h t he si de of t he pr oj ect i l e and hel d i n posi t i on by ear t h
packed ar ound t he pr oj ect i l e, The TNT bl ock i s pl aced on i t s si de ;
i f t wo bl ocks ar e used, one i s pl aced on t op of t he ot her . I f t hr oe
bl ocks ar e used, t wo ar e pl aced cl ose t oget her on t he shel l and t he
t hi r d on t op of t hese . I f f i ve bl ocks or e used, t her e wi l l be t wo l ayer s
of t wo bl ocks each, wi t h a f i f t h on t op. The demol i t i on bl acks ar e
448121 0 - 9e- 30

213

TM 9- 1900

Par s . 229- 230

DoAr ucf f or r of Ammuni t i on t o Zone of t he I nt er i or


det onat ed by means of an el ect r i c bl ast i ng cap or t ni ncr ' s saf et y f use
and cep.
p" TRUCTI ON OF SHELL BY DETONAT10 k
r sl i 6"

{l

517pl ` To Be VSFi Xl t ' 2d

No . sF X' T- pound SHY ! ! ar t s


or Thei r Fqui val ml

37- r um, 57- ni m

75- mi n, 76- mm, 3 i nch

120- MUL, 155- mm, 4- i nch

S- i i i ch, 240- Tr i m

10- i nCFL, 12- i nch

14 - i nch, 16 - i nch

c3. One ei i d of t he r equi r ed l engt h of t i me f use ( saf et y f use)


( par , 226 e) wi l l be cut and i nser t ed i n a C of E speci al bl ast i ng
cap unt i l i t j ust t ouches t he char ge. The cap wi l l t hen be l i ght l y
cr i mped t o t he f use wi t h a f use cr i mper or sui t abl e t ool , car e bei ng
t aken not t o pvc<m t he f use t oo t i ght l y agai nst t he f ul mi nat e char ge
of t he bl ast i ng cap. A No. $ el ect r i c bl ast i ng cap wi t h t he necessar y
l engt h of l ead wi r e and a hand expl oder may be used i nst ead of t he
bl ast i ng cap wi t h mi ner ' s saf et y f use. The bl ast i ng cap wi l l be pl ace 3
i n t he hol e dr i l l ed i n t he TNT bl ock. ( t he t op bl ock when mor e t han
one bl ock i s used) , and i f necessar y t i ed ar ound i t t o hol d i t secur el y
i n pl ace. To no case shoul d a cap weaker t han t he or di nar y commer ci al No. 8 bl ast i ng cap be used .
e,
I n case of a mi sf i r e, t he pr ecaut i on i n par agr aph 2261 shoul d
be obser ved . Af t er t he bl ast , compl y wi t h par agr aph 226 h,
f , Poi nt - f uzed shel l f i t t ed wi t h Mar k wi l es adapt er s and boost er s
can be det onat ed wi t hout t he use of TNT bl ocks. A No. 8 bl ast i ng
cap secur el y hel d i n pl ace i n t he f uze cavi t y wi t h a smal l amount
of mud packed ar ound t he t op of t he cap wi l l usual l y i nsur e cor 11pl et e det onat i on of l oaded shel l .
230,
BLANK AM
M1NM
ON FOR CANNON. Rounds of bl ank
ammuni t i on whi ch have mi sf i r ed wi l l be dest r oyed l ocal l y under t he
super vi si on of a commi ssi oned of f i cer or per apnnel desi gnat ed f or
t hi s pur pose by t he ser vi ce command or dnance of f i cer . Al l pr ecaut i ons f or handl i ng bl ack powder , chapt er 1, sect i on I V, and f or dest r oyi ng ammuni t i on, par agr aphs 226 and 227, shoul d be . obser ved. An
ext r act or ( br ass) havi ng a wood- acr ew t hr ead can . be used t o r emove
t he cl osi ng cap and wad; t he bl ack powder pel l et s may be r emoved
by t i ppi ng t he car t r i dge case f or war d and cat chi ng t hemi n t he hand;
and t he pr i mer may be r emoved by . means of a pr en . havi ng a hol l ow
gui de and/ or r amt o Car r y f or ce of possi bl e pr i mer f unct i oni ng away
f r om t he oper at or . Bef or e r emovi ng t he pr i mer wi t h a pr ess, be
sur e t hat cpr r o4i on wi l l t r ot bi nd t he pr i mer and cause t he appl i cat i on
of t oo much pr essur e. Al so, be sur e t o t ake al l possi bl e pr ecaut i ons
t o see t hat no powder dust adher es t o t he pr i mer .

Por s, 231- 235


TM 9- 1900
of
A
m
m
uni
t
i
on
i
n
Zon
of
the
I
nf
er i or
Dest r uct i on
e
231, BObI BS. Bombs shoul d be dest r oyed i n accor dance wi t h
par agr aph 229, However , bombs have such t hi n wal l s and cont ai n
so much mor e expl osi ve t han shel l of cor r espondi ng wei ght and
usual l y det onat e so compl et el y i hst ext r eme pr ecaut i ons must be
t aken t o avoi d st r uct ur al damage t o bui l di ngs and i nj ur i es t o per sonnel . The dest r uct i on of bombs l ar ger l hen 100 pounds shoul d
not be t ui der t aken wi t hout t he speci f i c appr oval of t he Chi ef of
Or dnance, Bombs awai t i ng dest r uct i on shoul d be segr egat ed i n
smal l pi l es 100 f eet or mor e apar t and at l east 300 f eet f r om t he
det onat i ng pi t . Ext r eme pr ecaut i ons must be t aken t o pr ot ect bombs
awai t i ng dest r uct i on agai nst acci dent al det onat i on by f i r e, f r agment s,
or sympat het i c det onat i on,
232. MORTAR SHELF,
Mor t ar shel l shoul d be dest r oyed i n
accor dance wi t h t he i nst r uct i ons i n par agr aph 229, Car e wi l l be
t aken t o l i mi t t he number dest r oyed at any one t i me and t o pr ot ect
shel l awai t i ng dest r uct i on f r om f l yi ng f r agment s_
.' : 33, ROCKET SHELL. Rocket shel l : whi ch ar e separ at ed f r om
t hei r mot or s, shoul d be dest r oyed i n accor dance wi t h t he i nst r uct i ons
i n par agr aph 229, Car e wi l l be t aken t o l i mi t t he number dest r oyed
at one t i me and t o pr ot ect shel l awai t i ng dest r uct i on f r om f l yi ng
f r agment s. Rocket s havi ng mot or s at t ached t her et o wi l l be dest r oyed
i n accor dance wi t h i r mt r uct i ons f r om t he Chi ef of Or dnance,
23- 1 PENr r OL1TE- AND TETHYTOI r FI LL1ED AMHUNI T10N,
a. Ammuni t i on f i l l ed wi t h pent ol i t e or t et r yt ol have shaped
char ges, These i ncl ude hi gh- expl osi ve ant i t ank shel l , gr enades, and
r ocket shel l , and demol i t i on shaped char ges. Ext r eme car e shoul d
be obser ved i n dest r oyi ng t hi s t ype of ammuni t i on, and t he f ol l owi ng
pr ecaut i ons shoul d be obser ved ;
( 1) Onl y smal l quant i t i es or si ngl e i t ems shoul d be dest r oyed
a t one t i me,
( 2) Fr agment at i on as wel l as bl ast ef f ect shoul d be expevt ed
and guar ded agai nst :
235, SMALI .. ARI f S AMi } 1UVf 1' 10N,
: 4, Al l unser vi ceabl e cal i ber , 22 and shot gun ammuni t i on wi l l he
dest r oyed l ocal l y. Or dnance f i el d r epr esent at i ves, wi t hi n t hei r j ur i sdi ct i on, si r e char ged wi t h t he di sposi t i on of al l ot her unser vi ceabl e
smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on and accumul at i ons f r om ( r i ngs. Ref er ence
to W
I C SB 9- AMM4 shoul d be r nade f or pr ocedur e t o be f ol l owed
i n di sposi t i oi i ,
h. Smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on shoul d be dest r oyer ! i n a pi t whi ch
i s appr oxi mat el y G Feet squar e and 4 f eet deep, Ar t i ncl i ned chut e
such em a pi ece of 2- i nch pi pe shoul d be pr ovi ded, and t hi s chut e
shoul d be pl aced so t hat one end i s over t he cent er of t he pi t and t he
316

Par s. 235- - 236


Dest r uct i on of Ammauni l l on i re Zone of

TM 9- t " G
t ho

I nt er i or

ot her behi nd t he bar r i cade_ Pr ecaut i ons shoul d be t aken t o baf f l e


t he open end behi nd t he bar r i cade so t hat t he oper at or cannot l ook
down t he pi pe, A hot f i r e shoul d be bui l t i n t he pi t , and t hen t he
pi t shoul d be cover ed wi t h i pi ece of sheet i r on or ot her sui t abl e
mat er i al t o conf i ne f l yi ng f r agment s. The car t r i dges shoul d be f e( 1
i nt o t he f i r e t hr ough t he pi pe, and car e shoul d be t t i ken t ry pr event
an accumul at i on of unexpl oded ammuni t i on i n t he pi t , A f ur nace
or bur ni ng ket t l e desi gned t o accompl i sh t he above dest r uct i on by
bur ni ng i s al so sat i sf act or y . Appr oved equi pment end bui l di ng
dr awi ngs showi ng bar r i cades wi l l be suppl i ed by t he Chi ef of Or dnance on r equest .
236. SMALL COhI PONFNTS EXCFP-1 - PRMI ERS.
a, These component s, ar t i l l er y and gr enade f uzes, boost er s, det er
nat or s, f i nd si mi l ar mat er i al , may be dest r oyed ei t her by bur ni ng
or by det onat i ng. For dest r uct i on of pr i mer s see par agr aph 239.
b, I n dest r uct i on by bur ni ng, t he same i nst r uct i ons gi ven i n
par agr aph 235 t o f or t he dest r uct i on of smr t l l - ar ms ammuni t i on shoul d
be f ol l owed. Caut i on shoul d be exer ci sed i n i nt r oduci ng component s
i nt o t he t i r e because nar msl act i on cannot be expect ed under i nt ense
heat . The expl osi on of a pr evi ousl y i nt r oduced component shoul d
be hear d bef or e i nt r oduci ng anot her .
r. W
hen dest r oyi ng t hese component s by det onat i on, a smal l
number of component s, dependi ng upon t he t ype and ki nd, shoul d
be pl aced i n cont act wi t h one anot her i n an open cont ai ner . Thi s
cont ai ner shoul d t hen be pl aced ) i n a pi t or t r ench appr oxi mat el y
f eet deep. On t op of each cont ai ner and i n cont act wi t h t he
component s, one or mor e TNT bl ocks f i t t ed wi t h an el ect r i c bl aot i og
cap or wi t h a C of Especi al bl ast i ng cap and t i me f use ( saf et y Fuse)
shoul d be pl aced_ The pi t shoul d t hen be cover ed wi t h a l ayer
sui t abl e cover , and t he component s
of l ogs and ear t h or ot her
shoul d t hen be det onat ed i n accor dance wi t h t he saf et y pr ecaut i ons
out l i ned i n par agr aphs 224 and 228.
41 .
The f ol l owi ng met hod of dest r uct i on of onver vi ceabi e HE
axt t i t ank mi ne f uxas shoul d be f ol l owed :
( 1)
The avai l abl e saf et y di st ances wi l l det er mi ne t he number of
f uzes t hat may be dest r oyed at one t i me ( based on act ual f r agment _
di st ances r epor t ed f r om dest r uct i on of f uzes i n quant i t i es) t oget her
wi t h r ecommended mi ni mum saf et y di st ances f or each, as set f or t h
bel ow:
h ear t h ( 2 f eet )
( a) Wher e pi l e i s cover ed wi t _
No . of Nr 9f

.,

Fr upmesr f Di oanse
Aawm
m
ended Sof sXy O: r l Pnu
ar dsFX
I ml nl nwi n yar d s]
I PPP' r I MeI a Y

aoo

Xa

i an

56

350

525

t 52

535
525

800

702 .

316

., .

800

r nf l 9- 1900

oar s . 236- 227

Desdr uct i on of Ammuni t i on i n Zone of t he I nt er i or


( b)

W
her e pi l e i s not cover ed wi t h ear t h ;
No . of Fut on,

f r eya. unt uW
ance
{ oppr oxl mot o yar day

I t at ommended Saf et y Dl sl pnt e


( MLni , MVt n Ynr ds)

r r 0r *
oot ber t i 7ueu6t aes w
. y 1m XLr ct cd f or dnm" I I q, L Ht Doe t i me_ 0Ft hmSEF, 9( Y1 was adopt ed x
sr t , r hi ng t he upper Li vni t of cf ci e. i Xy 1, 6
( 2)
Bet ween st or agf e poi nt and dest r uct i on ar ea, handl e ai l f uzes
wi t h st r i ker end up; exer ci se ext r eme car e and caut i on,
Make a doubl e pyr ami d pi l e of t he quant i t y sel ect ed f or
( 3)
dest r uct i oni , t he bot t om r ow shoul d be on l evel gr ound or on a
wooden l i nr i r t l of suf f i ci ent l engt h t o car r y t he bot t or n r ow of t he
Pl ace t he f uzes on t he si de wi t h t he r ows base t o base, i n
pi l e.
i nt i mat e cont act , and wi t h t he pr oj ect i ng por t i ons of t he saf et y f or k
f i t t ed i nt o t he gr onvt s car r yi ng t he same component i n t he adj acent
f uzes. The f uzes must be kepi i n cont act wi t h each ot her ,
( 4)
Pl ace t wo No. 6 or No. 8 bl ast i ng caps ( l i ght l y t aped i f
necessar y t o hol d t hem i n posi t i on) si de by si de bet ween t he bases
of t he t wo t op f uzes of cr ach pyr ami d so t hat t he end of t he cap i s
at t he appr oxi mat e cent er of t he base of t he f uze . A Bl i ght " mudcappi ng" of t he caps i p desi r abl e i f car ef ul l y appl i ed,
The pi l e i s
t hem r eady f or det onat i un.

237 .

PRI NTERS.

a. Lar ge pr i mer s, 104- gr ai n or mor e, may be, dest r oyed by bur ni ng


accor di ng t o t he i nst r ucl i uns f or dest r uct i on of smal l - ar m=; ammuni t i on
i n par agr aph 235 l o . ' Pr i mer s, Ot her t han smal l - anns pr i mer s, ar e
dr opped one at a t i me i nt o t he f i r e. Lar ge pr i mer s wi l l be dest r oyed
onl y i n t hi s manner because t hey ar e subj ect t o expl osi on i n ni a"
i f dest r oyed t oy bur ni ng i n l ar ge quant i t i es .
l i p.
Pr i mer s, except t he 1Mgr ai r t or l ar ger pr i mer s, may be bur ned
i n a t r ench appr oxi mat el y 2 f eet deep, 1 f oot wi de. and of suf f i ci ent
l engt h t o accommodat e t he number of pr i mer s t o be bur ned at one
t i me . The t r ench shoul d be pr epar ed wi t h a quant i t y of excel si or or
si mi l ar combust i bl e mat er i al suf f i ci ent t o i nsur e a hot f i r e t hr oughout
i t s l engt h. The pr i mer s shoul d be r emoved f r om boxes and pl acecl
on t he excel si or bef or e t he f i r e i s l i ght ed. Past eboar d car t ons: need
not be opened bei one t hey ar e pl aced i n t 11e t r ench. ' 1' o conf i ne
f r abmh: i t s as much as possi bl e, a pi ece of sheet mewl shoul d be
pl aced over t he t r ench. Af t er t he pr i mer s and covet ar e i n pl ace,
x t r ai n Of cor t l bust i bl e mat er i al l eadi ng i nt o t he pi t shoul d he pr epar ed and l i ght ed. Per sonnel shoul d t hen t ake cover or wi t hdr aw
t o A saf e di st ance,
C
.
I f a sui t abl e t ank or ket t l e i s
number of pr i mer s may The pl aced i n
pl aced over t he t op, 13y bui l di ng a f i r e
be " pl oded. A conveni ent r ecept acl e

avai l abl e f or use, a sf nal l er


i i end a smal l - mesh scr eed
under neat h, t he pr i mer s wi l l
i s an i r on t ank cut i n hal f

TM 9- 1900

Par s, 237- 238

Dest r uct i on of Ammuni t i on i n Zone of t he 7nl er i or


l ongi t udi nal l y al t i d t he open si de pl acer ; on r ai l r oad i r on or ot her
sui t abl e gr at i ng t hat wi l l not l et t he pr i mer dr op i nt o t he f i r e. A
l ar ge hol e, appr oxi mat el y 12 i nches i n di amet er , wi t h a pi pe l ocat ed
above t he hei ght of a r nSr i s head, shoul d be pr ovi ded and about
50 pr i mer s put i n at one t i me. The boi l er shoul d be equi pped wi t h
a smokest ack so t hat a dr af t wi l l be f or med t hr ough t he gr at i ngr
Packi ng mat er i al , i f i nf l ammabl e, need not be r emoved f r ont t he
pr i mer s .
d. I f a bur ni ng pi t const r uct ed of r ai l r oad i r on or si mi l ar mat er i al
i s avai l abl e, a f i r e may he bui l t i n i t and a box of pr i mer s dest r oyed
8t one t i me ( pr ovi ded t he packi ng i s i nf l ammabl e) by t hr owi ng t he
box i nt o t he pi t and t aki ng cover .
e. The smal l er end vent pr i mem may be dest r oyed by bui l di ng
a f i r ebox, over whi ch a basket of pr i mer s may be pul l ed on r ai l r oad
i r on f r ombehi nd a bar r i cade. The f i r e shoul d be st ar t ed bef or e t he
hen al l pr i mer s have been f i r ed, t he
pr i mer s ar e pul l ed over i t . W
basket shoul d be pul l ed of f , empt i ed; cool ed, r el oaded, and agai n
pul l ed over t he f i r e .
f . The st ack of pr i mer s awai t i ng dest r uct i on wi l l not be al l owed
wi t hi n 300 f eet of t he bur ni ng oper at i ons, wad gr eat car e wi l l be
t aken t o pr ot ect t he pi l e f r omacci dent al i gni t i on by f l yi ng f r agment s
or spar ks, ' ' Thi s st ock wi l l be l i mi t ed t o a day' s suppl y. Ot her
appl i cabl e r egul at i ons cont ai ned i n par agr aph 226 wi l l he st r i ct l y
obser ved.
238, GRENADES.
a. Gener al . Gr enades may be dest r oyed by bur ni ng or det onat i on i n accor dance wi t h t he f ol l owi ng i nst r uct i ons. St r i ct coi npbancc-.
wi t h appl i cabl e r egul at i ons of par agr aph 226 i s essent i al f or t he
pr ot ect i on of per sonnel and pr oper t y. Dest r uct i on by det onat i on
shoul d gener al l y be appl i ed t o hi gh- expl osi ve gr enades, wher eas
dest r uct i on by bur ni ng i s appl i ed gener al l y t o ot her t ypes of gr enades,
h. Dest r uct i on I"xy det onat i on . Not mor e t han t went y gr enades
shoul d be pl aced i n a pi t about 4 f eet deep. They shoul d be pi l ed
so t hat t hey come i n v" e cont act wi t h each ot her , on t op of t he
pi l e shoul d be pl aced, i n i nt i mat e cont act , t hr ee ?A- pound TNT
bl ocks, one of whi ch i s pr ovi ded wi t h an el ect r i c bl ast i ng cap or
C of E speci al bl ast i ng cap f i t t ed wi t h sever al f eet of t i me f use
( saf et y f use) . The gr enades and TNT bl cxks shoul d be cover ed
wi t h a l ayer of ear t h about 1 f oot t hi ck whi ch i s t amped l i ght l y t o
obt ai n t he maxi mum ef f i ci ency of t he TNT bl ocks, and t he pi t
shoul d be cover ed as pr escr i bed i n par agr aph 225.
c . Deet i t r uct i on by bur ni ng. A pi t 2 f eet squar e by 3 f eet deep
f i t t ed l oosel y wi t h an i r on pl at e or heavy boar d cover i s used
Gr enades shoul d be put i n t he f i r e one at a t i me. Anot her shoul d
319

Pans. 338- 240


Dest r uct i on of Ammuni t i on . i n Zone of t he i nt er i or

TM 9- 1900

pot be put i n unt i l t he pr evi ous gr enade i s det onat ed. Car e shoul d
be t aken i n i ni voduci ng oxpl osi ves i nt o t he f i r e, as nor mal act i on
cannot bn expect ed under i nt ense heat , The onl y t i me t o i nvest i gat e
an unusual del ay i n t he expl osi on of a gr enade i s when t he f i r e
has bur ned out and i l ae pi t i s col d. I nst ead of dr oppi ng gr enades
si ngl y and cover i ng each t i me, an i ncl i n" chut e whi ch i s baf f l ed at
t he open end may be used,
239.

PY1{ ( hr ECHNI CS,

a. Gener al * Pyr ot echnh>, except phot of l ash bombs and par Hchut e f l ar es, wi l l be dest r oyed i n accor dance wi t h t he i nst r uct i ons
f or bur ni ng of pr i mer s ( par . 2371) ) , Loose pyr ot echni c mat er i al s
shoul d be bur ned under t he ) dame condi t i ons as bl ack powder and
t he same pr ecaut i ons shoul d be obser ved ( par . 227a) . Wat er - wet
pyr ot echni c mat er i al s may be bur ned i n smal l quant i t i es i n f ur naces
desi gned f or t hat pur pose and appr oved by t he Chi ef of Or dnance.
h. Par ocl hut e Rams . Par achut e f l ar es wi l l he dest r oyed by bur ni ng i n t he open and i n a ver t i cal posi t i on on t he gr ound_ The i ndi .
vi ct ual f l ar es mut t be l ocat ed at l east 4 f eet apar t and pl aced on
t op of a l ayer of combust i bl e mat er i al , Af t er l i ght i ng t he t r ai n of
combust i bl e mat er i al , per sonnel shoul d t ake cover and obser ve
saf et y dWt al nces.
e. Yhat of l aeh hamh& Phot of l ash bombs ar e danger ous and
shoul d be handl ed wi t h car e. They shoul d be dest r oyed by t he use
of TNT bl ocks, si mi l ar t o t he pr ocedur e f or ar t i l l er y shel l ( par _ 229) ,
Duds of phot of l ash bombs shoul d not be handl ed or moved but
dest r oyed i n pl ace i n accor dance wi t h i nst r uct i ons i n par agr aph 242.
Due t o t he t hi nness of t he case, a si ngl e bl ock of TNT i s suf f i ci ent
t o accompl i sh dest r uct i on, A st r i ct compl i ance wi t h t he appl i cabl e
r egul at i ons of par agr aph 226 i s essent i al .
NOTE- Dud t o t he br i l l i ance of t he f l ash, i t i s i nj ur i ous t o vi si on
i o wat ch t he dest r uct i on of phot of l ash bombs . even at di st ances pr escr i bed i n t hi s manual as saf e agai nst f r agment s.
2- 1U. CHEMI CAL 1i uMMl l NI TI ON.
a. I n gener al , gr enades, bombs, and shel l l oaded wi t h chemi cal
f i l l er shoul d be dest r oyed i n a manner si mi l ar t o t hat pr escr i bed i n
par agr aph 229 f or dest r oyi ng ar t i l l er y shel l , Bef or e dest r oyi ng
chemi cal ammuni t i on, however , speci al i nst r uct i ons shoul d be obt ai ned
f r om t he Chi ef of Or dnance concer ni ng any except i onal hazar ds.
W
hen a l eaki ng shel l or component i s l ocat ed, t he i ndi vi dual i n char ge
of t he magazi ne wi l l be not i f i ed i n or der t hat he may di r ect t he
di sposi t i on of t he shel l . As chemi cal shel l cont ai ns a compar at i vel y
smal l amount of expl osi ves, t he char ge of TNT bl ocks t o be used
f or demol i t i on shoul d be as f ol l ows ;
319

TM 4- 19DO

Par s. 244- 241


Dest r uct i on of Ammuni t i on

i n Zone of t ha I r der i or
TNT I l
" Equl vol ant

. 0 I A- pound
CL. mi cal Shel l

ac

Compor nW

QC 11ei

5- m
nt ahch
155- mm shr 11
R- i nch E] ' el l
60- me, and 81- Tr i mmor t ar
4, Z- ; ar h chemi cal nt or t uF s] i cl l I
8- i nch chor ni cal r r j or t a* shcf 4

4
!i
6

5- 1b bomb
25- , 30- , Knd 50- 16 bomb
19 0- 1b Lxu, t h

t
2

acki

2
.3

I r, Ll at 4pr ous ci ; mi c) ammuni 00u.


{ 1) I mmedi at el y hazar dous unser vi ceabl e chemi cal amr t uni t i on
may be d
ayed by expl odi ng i n t he open i f a suf f i ci ent l y i sol at ed
ar ea i s avai l abl e. The poi nt wher e t he shel l i s expl oded shoul d be
chosen so t hat f or a per i od of appr oxi mat el y 48 hour s per sonnel can
be excl uded f r omt he ar ea 1 mi l e downwi nd f r omt he poi nt wher e t he
shel l i s expl oded. For a per i od of about 2 weeks, al l per sonnel mi nt
be pr event ed f r om passi ng wi t hi n a di st ance of 150 yar ds f 1Vm t he
poi nt wher e t he shel l i i i expl oded, Wher e a suf f i ci ent l y i sol at ed ar ea
i s not avai l abl e, si ngl e unser vi ceabl e gas- f i l l ed shel l may be dest r uyed
i n a pi t 6 f eet deep. The shel l wi t h i t s bur st i ng char ge i s pl aced
at t he bot t om of t he pi t , t he pi t i s back- f i l l ed, and t he shel l expl oded.
Fi ve gal l ons of f r eshl y pr epar ed bl eachi ng sol ut i on shoul d be pour ed
on t he f i l l , and suf f i ci ent dr y bl each ( chl or i de of l i me) shoul d t hen
he scat t er ed over t he f t l l t o cover t he di st ur bed gr ound t o a dept h
of 2 i nches . Aper manent si gn shoul d be pl aced on t he f i l l , pr ohi bi t i ng di ggi ng i n t he vi ci ni t y,
( 2) Wher e a suf f i ci ent l y i sol at ed ar ea i s not avai l abl e, chemi cal
ammuni t i on may be dest r oyed by pl aci ng i n a pi t , appr oxi mat el y
20 f eet i n di amet er and 4 f eet deep, on t op of a wool l en pl at f or m
At -r ange demol i t i on char ges
and sur r ounded by dr y scr ap wood,
and cover t he ammuni t i on wi t h about 2 f eet of ear t h; t he char ges ar e
t o he so ar r anged t hat t hey wi l l f unct i on af t er t he scr ap wood has
been i gni t ed 8nd t he f i r e has st ai ned headway ; i n t hi s way t he chemi cal
f i l l er wi l l be bur ned as i t comes f r omt he i t em wi t hout undue cont ami nat i on of t he sur r oundi ng ar ea. Under nor mal condi t i ons, t he
chemi cal f i l l er wi l l bur n cl ean and no shel l f r agment s wi l l l eave
t he pi t - As a mat t er of gener al saf et y, no per sonnel shoul d appr oach
t he pi t f or 48 hour s~
241 . - Ai t i TT' i ANK MI NFS. I f mar ks on t he mi ne or on t he gr ound
i ndi cat e t hat i t has been r un over by a vehi cl e, t he mi ne shoul d
be consi der ed as a dud and shoul d not be handl ed or j ar r ed, and
shoul d be dest r oyed i n pl ace by det onat i on wi t h a TNT or ni t r ost ar ch
bl ock ( par - 242) . Onl y mi nes t hat have not been t amper ed wi t h,
handl ed, or di st ur bed i n any manner may have t he saf et y f or k
r epl aced and t hen t aken up. The saf et y f or k must be r epl aced

7M 9- 19170
Par s . 241- 242
Dest r uct i on of Ammuni t i on i n Zone of t ha I nt er i or
bef or e t he mi ne i s handl ed or t he f uze r emoved. Unser vi ceabl e
ant i t ank mi nes wi l l be dest r oyed i n t he same manner and wi t h t he
same pr ecaut i ons as bombs ( l am. 229 and 231) .
242.

TMI GET RANGES.


Ccnur al . Expl osi ve mi ssi l es whi ch have f ai l ed t o f unct i on af t er
f i r i ng ar e t er med " duds_" AR 750- 10 pr escr i bes t hat , af t er f i r i ng on
a r ange has been compl et ed and bef or e f r ee access t o i t i s al l owed
t o per sonnel i n gener al . t he r ange wi l l be t hor oughl y pol i ced and al l
duct s dest r oyed by compet ent per sonnel . Duds of phot of l ash bombs
or ai r cr af t f l ar es r el eased dur i ng f l i ght over l and ar eas ot her t han
t ar get r anges wi l l be r ecover ed and dest r oyed, See par agr aph 239.
b. Saf et y pr ecuut i ot uL- Tar get r anges ar e denger ous because of
f l yi ng mi ssi l es dur i ng t ar get pr act i ce and unexpl oded ammuni t i on
whi ch may r emai n on t he r ange af t er t ar get pr act i ce. Saf et y pr ecaut i ons shoul d t her ef or e i ncl ude mean; f or pr event i ng t r espA" upon t he
t ar get r ange by unaut hor i zed or car el ess per sons and f or r emovi ng
f r omt he r ange al l unexpl oded ammuni t i on whi ch bas been f i r ed. I n
addi t i on t o t he saf et y measur es empl oyed at and near t he f i r i ng l i ne,
such as r ai l f l ags, mar ker s, or f ences, t he boundar y or t er r ai n whi ch
i s l i kel y t o r ecei ve mi ssi l es f r om t he f i r i ng l i ne shoul d t * pl acar ded
wi t h si gns whi ch i ndi cat e t he danger zone and t hi e hazar ds at t endant
upon ent er i ng such zones at speci f i ed t i mes. The si gns shoul d al so
emphasi ze t he danger s connect ed wi t h pi cki ng up unexpl oded amr nuni t i or l and shoul d pr ohi bi t ei t her t r espass on t he r ange or t he r emoval
of souveni r s f r om al vas, under penal t i es pr ovi ded by l aw. The
pl acar di ng of t he t ar get r anges i s a mat t er of publ i c saf et y and must
never be negl ect ed.
c. Dest r oyi ng duds,
( 1) The pol i ci ng of a t ar get r ange and saf eguar di ng t he command ar e f unct i ons of t he commandi ng of f i cer . I mmedi at el y af t er
t ar get pr act i ce i s compl et ed, t he ent i r e r ange shoul d be car ef ul l y
pol i ced f or unexpl oded ammuni t i on, under t he super vi si on of an
aut hor i zed i ndi vi dual who i s t hor oughl y f ami l i ar wi t h t he dangom
i nci dent t o such oper st i onq. Unexpl oded pr oj ect i l es and ot her component s of ammuni t i on whi ch have been f i r ed ar e danger ous t o handl e
and shoul d not be t ouched or j ar r ed wher e i t i s pr act i cabl e t o dest r oy
t hem by t he use of TNT bl ocks . However , unf uzed duds may be
handl ed wi t h compar at i ve saf et y .
( 2) I n t hose r ar e cases i n whi ch i t i s necessar y t o r emove a dud
f r om any l ocat i on bef or e dest r cl yi ng i t , al l oper at i ons connect ed wi t h
t hi s pr ocedur e shoul d be done ei t her by or under t he di r ect super "
vi si on of per sonnel who ar e t hor oughl y f ami l i ar wi t h t he danger s of
such an oper at i on and who ar e qual i f i ed t o do t hi s wor k_
{ 3) To move or r oi l an unexpl oded f i r ed pr oj ect i l e i s t o i nvi t e
di sast er , as such an oper at i on may cause movement of t he i nt er nal
a.

Par .

TM9- 1904

242

Dest r uct i on of Ammuni f i cm hi Zone of f he I nt er i or

f uze par t s and may cause t he pr oj ect i l e t o expkt 1o No at t empt wi l l


be made t o di sassembl e a r ound of unexpl oded ammuni t i on except by
per sonnel of t he Or dnance Depar t r nent who sr e speci f i cal l y assi gned
t o such wor k,
( 4) Dudg on t he t ar get r ange, such as unexl ) bat ed pr oj evt des,
Fuses, gr enades, ct c ., ca' n usual l y be dest r oyed i n p1Hce wi t h TNT or
ni t r ost ar ch bl ocky . The dud shoul d be appr oached onl y by kl xpLi r i enced
per sonnel and, wi t hout di st ur bi ng t he dud, t he expl osi ve bl ocks car ef ul l y l ai d i n i nt i mat e cor i t Act wi t h i t _ I f possi bl e, t he bl ocks shoul d
be pl aced on t up of t he dud because t he wave of det onat i on t ends t o
be pr opagat ed downwar d. The bl ocks shoul d t hen be car , - f ul l y mudpacked or ear t h- cover ed t o di r ect t he expl v4i ot n t owar d t he dud as
much as po! sni bl e. For ar t i l l er y shel l , t he number of TNT bl ocks ( or
aqui val enl } t o be used shoul d f ol l ow t he t abl e speci f i ed i n par agr aph
; 129 t' , Af t er p4i ci ng t he char ge, t he duel shoul d t hen i >e cover ed wi t h
sandbags or ear t h t o l i mi t t he r ange of t he f r agment s .
( 5)
Shel l expl oded on t he Fr ound sur f ace wi t hout an ear t h cover
of at l east 2 f eet , may send f r agment s 1, 400 yar ds, and al l wi t hi n t hi s
danger zone wi l l t ake cover when t he char ge i s f i r ed. Per sonnel shoul d
never be wi t hi n 300 f eet of a pr oj ect i l e when i t expl odes, even i f
sui t abl e pr ot e+: t i on i s at hand . The get *Val i nst r uct i ons f or dest r oyi ng
duct s on t he t ar get r ange ar e si mi l ar so f ar as possi bl e t o t hose descr i bed f or dest r oyi ng ar t i l l er y ammuni t i on { par _ 229) . Duds of
phat ol i ash bombs ar e dest r oyed i n accor dance wi t h t hi s par agr aph and
par agr aph 239. The saf et y pr ecaut i ons i n par agr aph 226 wi l l l i e
car ef ul l y obser ved_
( 6) Gas shel l s or bombs shoul d be handl ed i n t he same manner
as ot her pr oj ect i l es. I - Tol er , or t r enches i n whi ch gas shel l s have been
expl oded must he f i l l ed or decont ar ni nat ed and gas masks wor n dur i ng
t he wont . W
or k shoul d al ways be done on t he wi ndwar d si de of t he
ar ea wher e gas shel l s ar e expl oded .
( 7) Dest r uct i on of duds of spot t i ng- char gc assembl i es, f or t he
100- pound l ) i ' Act i ce bomb M38A2 ( bl ack powder ) wi l l be accot npl i sbi ` d by det onat i on i n pl ace. Thi s can be done by t he use of
der nDl i t i on bl t wl ss or a 15- i nX. h l engt h of pr i mact i or d whi ch i s coi l ed,
pl aced can t op of t he. char ge, t aped i n pl ace, and det onat ed wi t h a
bl ast i ng cap, Dest r ut i on of i ndi vi dual unser vi ceabl e spet t i ng char ges
of t hi s t ype can r eadi l y be accompl i shed by wi ndi ng a 20- i nch l engt h
of pr i mecor d t wi ce ar ound t he char ge, t api ng i t i n pmi t i on, and
i ni t i at i ng det onat l ml by means of a bl ast i ng cap as above.
( 8) Af t er t he dest r uct i on of duds has been compl et ed, t he
of f i cer i n char ge of t he wor k wi l l per sonal l y super i nt end a t hor ough
sear ch of t he ar ea t o i nsur e t hat no duds have been over l ooked.
( 9) Addi t i onal i nf or mat i on on dest r uct i on of unexpl oded l ar oj ect i l es and bombs may be f ound i n FM9- 44 and FM5- 25,
322

TM9- 1900

Par s. 243- 244


CHAPTER S

REFERENCES
293. PUBI , I CA' r i ONS TNDJ . XES, The f ol l owi ng publ i cat i pr , s i ndexes sht Kf l d be cr ynsul t ed f r equent l y f or l at est changes or r evi si ons
of r ef er ences gi ven i n t hi s chapt er and f or new publ i cat i ons r el at i ng
t o mat er i el cover ed i n t hi s manu; d ;
v.
ll.
r.
rl .
e.
1' .
g.
244.
a.

I nt r oduct i QT7 t o Or dnance Cat al og ( expl ai ni ng


SNL syst em)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ask' Cat , ORD I
01- dnance SUPl j l y Cat al og Thdex . . . . . . . . . . . ASF CHt . ORD 2
Or dnance Maj or I t ems mi d Combi nal i ons, and
Per t i nent Publ i cat i ons . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W
DSB 9- 1
Li st and I ndex of W
ar Depar t ment Publ i cat i r ) ns FM21- 6
Li st of W
ar Depat t i neut Fi l nvX, Fi l m St r i ps, and
Recogni t i on Fi l m Sl i des . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . FM21- 7
Mi l i t ar y Tr ai ni ng Ai ds . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FM21- 8
I ndex l o Bombi ng Tabl es (l i , ; t i ng cur r ent bombi ng t abl es f or bombs, cl ust er s, anr t l l ur es) . . . . . . I i l t j ex t o BT' s
STANDARD NOM
ENCLATURE LI STS. T
Ar nmuni t i an f or t onwnl l ar ms .

Ament i ni t i un. r evol ver , eut omal i c pi st oI , And sub.


machi ne guns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASP Cat , ORD 11
Ammuni t i on, r i f l e, car bi ne, and aut omat i c gun
ASP Cat . ORD 11
Ammuni t i on, smal l - ar ms, obsol et e and nonst and,
and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . ASF Cat ORD 11
Mi scel l aneous ser vi ce component s of i mNI " r ms
ar t 1MUr l i t i on abd i nst r uct i on mat ( - r i al f or Fi el d
Ser vi ce Account
ASP Cal , O12D 11
Fi
el
d Ser vi ce f or
Packi ng mat er i al s used by
smal l - ar ms ser vi co ani r mi nl t l on
ASF Cat , ORD 11
Shel l s, shot gun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASP Cat , ORD 11
16,

SNI . ' I `-2


SNL T- 1
SNL T- 6

SNL T- 4

SNL T- 5
SNL T- 3

f hr mbs, gr enades, pyr ot echni cs, Anr l r ocket s.

Ammuni t i on i nst r uct i on mal ar i al f or gr enar l es,


pyr ot echni r q, end ai r cr af t bombs
ASF Cat . ORD 11 SNL S- 6
Bombs, ai r cr af t , al l t ypes . . . . ASP Cat . ORD 11 S L S- 1
* An up- t odat e hal i ng of
ORU 2 .

r usr r nt St Xdar d Namcoal at or p L : l s i s mr , l nt ai ned i n AbF .


. *t
:
323

TM9- 1900

Par . 244
Ref er ences

Fi nes and mi scel l aneous expl osi ve component s


f or ai r cr af t bombs . . . . . . . . . . ASF Cat . ORD 11
Fi n asst - mbl i es and mi scel l aneous i ner t compoASF Cot , ORD 11
nent s f or ai r cr af t bombs .
Gr enades, hand and r i f l e, send f usi ng coznponent o
ASF Cat . ORD 11
Pyr ot echni cs, mi l i t ar y, al l t ypes
ASF Cat . ORD 11
Rocket s, al l t ypes, ant i component s
ASP Cat . ORD 11
Tor pedoes and mi nes . . .
. . . . . . ASF Cat . ORD 11
r.

SNL S- ?
SNL S- 3
SNL S- 4
SNL S- 5
SNL S- 9
SNL S- 1

Cl eani ng, pr eser vi ng, and l ubr i cat i ng mat er i al s ;


r ecoi l f l ui ds, speci al oi l s, and mi scel l aneous
ASF Cat . ORD 5 SNI " K- 1
r el at ed i t ems . . . . . . . . . . .

el . Ammuni t on f ar aui i ai r cr uf l , har hur def ense, heavy f i el d,


and r ai l wi t y ar t i l l er yAmmuni t i on, f i xed, i ncl udi ng , i ubcal i ber ar nmuni t i on f or har bor def ense. heavy hel d, and
r ai l way ar t i l l er y . . . .
. . . . ASF Cat . ORD 11 SNL P- 6
Ammuni t i on f or ant i ai r cr af t ar t i l l er y
ASF Cat . ORD 11 SNL P- 5
Ar nmani t i on nest r uct i on mat er i al f or ant i ai r cr af t ,
har bor def ense, heavy f i el d and r ai l way ar t i l l er y, i ncl udi ng compl et e r ound dat a
ASF Cat . ORD 11. SNL P- 8
Ammuni t i on. obsol et e and nonst andar d, f or
har bor def ense, heavy f i el d, al t i d r ai l way ar t i l l er y .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASP Cat ORD 11 SNL l a- 9
Char ges, pr opel l i ng, separ at e- l oadi ng, G- i r 3, t o
240- mm i ncl usi ve, f or har bor def ense, heavy
f i e. I r1, and r ai l way ar t i l l er y . . ASF Cat . ORD 11 SNL P- 2
Char ges, pr opel l i ng, separ at e l oadi ng, 10- i n, t o
1G- i n, i ncl usi ve . f or har bor def ense, and r ai l
way ar t i l l er y. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASF Cat . ORD 11 SNL P- 4
Fuzes. pr i mer s. bl ank ammuni t i on, and i ni scel l aneovs i t ems f or ant i ai r cr af t , har bor def ense,
heavy f i el d, and r oi i way ar t i l l er y
ASF Cat . ORD 11 SNL P- ' 7
used
by
f
i
el
d
ser vi ce f or ant i Packi ng mat er i al s
ai r cr af t , har bor def ense, heavy f i el d, and r gi l way ar t i l l er y ser vi ce ammuni t i on
ASF Cat , ORD 11 SNL P- 10
424

TM 4- 1900

Par . 244
Ref er ences

Pr oj ect i l e, separ at e- l oadi ng, 6- i r . t o 240- mm i ncl usi ve . . . . . . . . . . .


ASF Cat . OI 2D 11 SNL F- 1
Pr oj ect i l e, separ at e- l oadi ng, 10- i n, t o 16- i n- i n, . . . . ASF Cat _ ORD 11 SNL P- 3
cl usi ve . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
t ".
. Ar r 111LI i ni t l un f or par k,
l i ght ant l medi um f i el d, ai r cr af t ,
t ank, and ant i t ank ar t i l l er y .

Ammuni t i on, bl ank . . . . .


ASP Cat . ORD 11
Ar nr nuni t i on, f i xed and semi f i xed, al l t ypes
ASF Cat , OI 2D 11
Ammuni t i on i nst r uct i on mat er i al s
ASF Cat ORD 11
Ammuni t i on, t nor i ar , i ncl udi ng f uzes, pr opel l i ng
char ges and ot her component s
ASF Cat . ORD 11
Ammuni t i on, obsol et e and nnast wl dar d
ASF Cat . ORT) 11
Lxnd mi nes and f uzes . demol i t i on mat er i al , and
ammuni t i on f ur yi r Tl ul at ed ar t i l l er y and . gr enade f i r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASF Cat . ORD 11
Packi ng I nat or i o- l l s used by f i el d ser vi ce
ASF Cnt , ORD I 1
Pr oj cr i des xnd pr opel l i ng char ges, separ at e
l oadi ng, f or medi um f i c! l d Hr t i l l er y, i ncl udi ng
compl et e r ound Js9t a. . . . . . . . . ASF Cat . ORD 11
Ser vi ce f uzes and pr i mer s . ASF Cat . ORD 11
f.

SNL R- 5
SNL R- 1
SNL R- 6

SNL R- 4
SNL R- 8
SNL R- 7
SNL R- 10
SNL R- 2
SNL 123

Tool s " 1111 Hu1x1Fl i es .


Ammuni t i on sur vei l l ance, i e, 4l i ng, and i nspect i on
nqui pl t wyt t and suppl i es_ . . ASF Cat ORD 5 SNL 1V- 10
Gener al t ool s and suppl i es f or orAS
dnance
al t i t t nuP
ni t i on company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cal . ORD 10 SNL N- 17
Tool s and suppl i es f or or dnance ammuni l i ( l n r enovat i on pl at oon .
. ASF Cut . ORD 10 SNL N- 5000A
Tool s end t ool set s f or or dnance 1>on, h di sposal

quad ( separ at e)

ASP Cat . ORD 10 SNL N- 500EB

Ot her ser vi eesChemi ct d War f ar e Ser vi ce Suppl y Cat al og. Li st


. ..
ASF Cat . CW3
of I t ems f or Tr oop I ssue . . .
Engi neer Suppl y Cet el og_ St ack Li st of Al l
I t er ns .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ASF Cat . ENG 5
375

Par . 245

TM 9- 1900
Rei er encEX

245 .
a.

EXPLAkNATORY PUBLI CATI ONS.


Rc" ul al i ons .
post s, campq, and st at i on; . . . .
Fi r f ' gr ot ect i an e1t d f i r e f t i ght i Tng . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Honor s t o per sons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Li st of cur r ent pamphl et s Hn+l changes : di s1r i hut i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lost . dest r oyed, dar nAged, or unser vi ceabl e pr oper t y
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
pr ecaut i ons i n hnadl i ng gawl i nw . . . . . ._. . . . . , . .
Qual i f i cat i ons i n ar ms and ei nr nuni t i on ( r ei ni ng
al l awenceg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . .
Range r egul at i ons f or f i r i ng ammuni t i on f or
t r ai ni ng at 3d t er get pr act i ce
.. .. .. .
Sal ut es and Cer emoni es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , ,
Suppl i es, st or age and i ssue . . . . . . . . . . .
Tr anspor t at i on by commer ci al means : gener al
Tr anspor t at i on by wat er of nxpl osi ves, i nf l amTnshl es . and chemi cal Nvar f ar e mat er i al s . . . . . . .
Tr anspor t at i on of publ i c pr oper t y ( except ani mal s) and r emai ns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adn1111i St FOt l ' j T1 .,

lr .

AR 210- 10
AR 30- 1580
AR 600- 30
AR 1- 10
AR 35- 6640
AR 850- 20
AR 775- 10
AR 750- 10
AR 60025
AR 700- 10
AR 55- 105
AR 55- 470
AR 55- 155

Ammuni t i on, H11 I vpes .


Ammuni t i on : Gener al . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .W
DSS 9- AMM 1
An-i muni t i or s Suppl y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
FM9- 6
Ai r i mut i i t i on : Suppl y wi t hi n Cont i nent al Uni t ed
.. .. .. .. . . .. .. W
DSS 9- AMM 6
St at e : . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O_O. For m No. 517
Ammuni t i on Condi t i on Repor t . . .
D513 9- AMM 5
Ammuni t i on I dent i f i cat i on Code ( AI C) W
Appl i cat i on of Suspensi ons and Rel eases on
DSS 9- AMM 11
Ar nmuni 6on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W
Ar t i l l er y Ammuni t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TM9- 1901
Compl et e Round Char t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0, 0. For mNo. 5981
Decont ami nat i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TM 3- 224
Decont ami nat i on of Ar mor ed For ce Vehi cl es. . . FM 17- 59
Def ense Agai nst Chemi cal At t ack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FM 21- 40
Expl osi ves and Demol i t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . FM 5- 25
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . FM21- 11
Fi r st Ai d f or Sol di er s . . . . . . . .
I dent i f i cat i on of ammuni t i on l ot number pr ef i xes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFSB 3- 16
I nspect i on Gui de, Ammuni t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TM 9- 1904

TM 9- 1900

Par . 245
Ref er ences

I nspect i on of Pr opc11i ng Char ges t end l 3Ti l k


Powder
. ... . ... .... . W
DSB 9- AMM 7
I ] t i spct: t i on of Or dnance Mat er i el . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TM9- 1100
Magazi ne pl acar d
0. 0, For m No. 5991
Mi l i t ar y Cl l er ni st r y aci d Chemi cal Agent s . . . . . . . . TM3- 215
Mi l i t ar y Expl oi Xi ves .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TM9- 2900
Mi l i t ar y Sani t at i un and Fi r st Ai d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FM' I , 1- 10
Mi scel l aneous Chemi cal Muni t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TI 41 . 1- 300
Ani f nuni l i an: Nct Pr i ces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W
DSB 9- AMM 3
Or d: i ar i ce Anki nui t i t i on Company, Or dnance Ammuni t i on Bat t al i on
FM 9- 20
Or dnance Company, Depot . . . . . . . .
, . FM 9. 2. 5
Or dnance Fi el d Mai nt enance . . . . . . . . . .
. . FI VI 9- 10
Or dnance Ser vi ce i n t he Fi el d. . . . .
YRI I 9- 5
Or dnance Saf et y Manual . . . . . . . .
. .
No. 7224
Repor t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W
DSB 9- AMM 8
St or age and Shi pment of Danger ous CI I CET) i r hl s TNI 3- 250
Sur vei l l ance Manual
. . . .. ... .. .. . .
OFSF3 3- 20
Unexpl oded Bombs, Or gani zat i on and Oper at i on
f or Di sposal
. .
. . . . . . FM9- 40
Unsaf e Ammuni t i on
. . . . . . . .. . . . W
DSB 9- AMM 2
Use of Chemi cal Agent s and Muni t i ons i n Tr ai ni ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TM3- 305
Ammuni t i vn . t i hevi al t ype.Y.
Ai r r r af t Ar mament and Pyr ot echni cs
. .. .
Ai r cr af t 13umbs and Bnmh Componr ut s . .
Ammuni t i on : Ant i ai r cr af t , Heavy Fi el d, Sea. .. .
coast , and RHi l wHy Ar t i l l er y . . . . .
Bombs f ar Ai r cr af t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coast Ar t i l l er y Ammuni t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cont r ol l ed Submar i ne Mi ne Mat er i el . . . . . . . . . . .
Cor ps of Engi neer s Ref er ence Dat a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fi el d Ar t i l l er y and Fi el d Mor t ar Ar nmur dt i on
Fi el d Ar t i l l er y Tr ai ner , M3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gr enades . Hand and Ri f l e .
Hand and Ri f l e Gr enades, RUt X. ket , AT, HE,
2_36- i nch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I ncendi ar y Bombs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I nst r uct i ons f or Use of Rocket Tar get , MX by
Ant i ai r cr af t T) ni t s
.. . ... ..
327

TM 1- 409
OFSB 3- 8
OFSB 3- 2
TI f I 9- 1980
TM4- 205
TM4- 220
FM 5- 35
Ql ' SB 3- 3
TM6- 225
TM9- 1085
FM23- 30
TM3- 330
TM 4- 136

TM9- 1900

Par . 245
Ref er ences

I nst r uct i on Gui de, Smal l Ar ms Acci dent s, Mal . . . . . . . . . . T 9- 2210


f unct i ons and Thei r Causes . . .
Land Mi nes . . . . . . . . . .
. .. .. .. .. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . TM9- 1944
M
i
nes
and
R
w
hy
Tr
aps
FM 5- 31
Land
mi l i t ar y Pyr ot echni cs . . . . . . .
TM 9- 1981
Mi l i t ar y Pyr ot echni cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFS13 3- 9
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FM 23- 85
60- mr a Mor t ar M2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
81- mm Mor t ar M1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FM23- 90
Pyr ot echni c Pr oj ect or s, Al l Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TM9- 290
Repai r of Submar i ne Mi ne Cases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TM9- 1401
4. 5- i n- Ai r cr af t Racket Mat er i el . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TM 9- 393
Si gnal Communi cat i on .
. .. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . Vi A 1- 45
Si gnal Cvmr nuni cat i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FM24- 5
Smal l - Ai , i ns Ammuni t i on . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . TM 9- 1990
Smal l - Anne Ammuni t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W
DSB 9- AMM h
Smal l Ar ms . Li ght Fi el d Mor t ar s, al %d 20- mm
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . ..
. . . . . TM9- 2200
Ai TCTAN. Guns .
St andar d Ar t i l l er y and Fi r e Cont r ol Mat er i el . . . TM9- 2300
rl .

Cl eani ng, t an" er vi ug, and l ahr i eat i ug mat er i al s.


Cl eani ng, Pr eser vi ng, Seal i ng, Lubr i cat i ng and
Rel at ed Mat er i al s I ssued f or Or dnance Ma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TM9- 850
t er i el . . . . . . .
Sol vent : dr y cl eani ng . . . . . Feder al Speci f i cat i on 1P- S- 661 a

e.

Tr anHpor t at i on .
Expl osi ves or ot her danger ous ar t i cl es on boar d
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. S. Dept , of Commer ce
vessel s . . . . . .
Regul at i ons f or t r anspor t at i on of expl osi ves and
ot her danger ous ar t i cl es by l end and wat er
i n r ai l Fr ei ght , expr ess, and baggage ser vi ces,
and by mot or vehi cl e ( hi ghway) and wat er
I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on
Met hods f or l oadi ng and sl ayi ng car l oad and
l ess t han car l oad shi pment s of expl osi ves and
ot her danger ous ar t i cl es ( Pamphl et No. 6)
Bur eau of Expl osi ves
30 Vesey St r eet , New Yor k Ci t y
321

Par . 245

TM 9- 1900
Ref er ences

f.

Met hods f or l oadi ng and br a6ng car l oad and


l ess t han car l oad shi pment s of l oaded pr oj ect i l es; l or ded bombs, et c, { Pamphl et No. 6A)
Bur eau of Expl osi ves
30 Vr - sey St r eet , New Yor k Ci t y
Mot or car r i er saf et y r egul at i ons ( Per t 7) t r anspor t at i on of expl osi ves and ot her danger ous
ar t i cl es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on
I . C. C. Fr ei ght Tar i f f No. 3 . . . I T) t ef st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on
LC. C. Fr ei ght Tar i f f No. 4 . . I nt er st at e Commer ce Commi ssi on
I nt er st at e Comt nel ' ce Commi ssi on r egul at i ons f or
t r anspor t at i on of expl o3i ves and ot her danger
ous ar t i cl es by f r ei ght . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bur eau of Expl osi ves
30 V" ey St r eet , New Yor k Ci t y
Regul at i ons gover ni ng t r anspor t at i on of mi l i t ar y
expl osi ves on boar d vessel s dur i ng pr esent
emKr gt Xncy
. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . U. S. Coast Guar d
l Regul al i at t s f or t he secur i t y of vessel s i n
por t . . . . . . . . .
.. .. .
. .
V. S. Coast Guar d
St andar d speci f i cat i on f or mar ki ng shi pment s by
cant r act ur s
. U. S. Ar my Speci f i cat i on No. 104- 2E
Tr anspor t at i on i n t ho Zone of t he I nt er i or . . . . . TM55- 205
Fi r e- f i ght i ng.
Cr osby "Fi ske- For . i t er Handbook of Fl r o Pr ot ect i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Not i onal Fi r e Pr ot ect i on Associ at i on
Fi r e- f i ght i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jul i n J . McCar t hy . Asst _,
Chi ef of Dept . i n Command, N. Y. Fi r e DeVt .
Fi r e Pr ot ect i on by Tr oop Or gani zat i ons i n
Tl i cat ei s of Oper at i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FM 5- 315
I ndust r i al Fi r e Br i gades. 1st Edi t i on
Nat i onal Fi r e Pr ot ect i on Associ at i on
Suggest i ons f ar Fi r e Fi ght i ng and Fi r e Ext i ngui shment . . . . . . Navy Dept _ Bur eau of Yar ds and Docks
mi r wel l s" cous .
Abhr evi at ed Fi r i ng Tabl es . .
, . . . .. .. .
Gr aphi cal Fi r i ng Tabl es
. . . . . . . . .. . . . .
Di ct i onar y of Uni t es! St at es Ar my Ter ms . . . . . . .
Bomb Racks, Tow Tar get Equi pment , and Fl ar e
. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .... . . . .. .. ..
Racks
Tact i t - s of Chemi cal War f ar e. . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
Chemi cal War f ar e Ser vi ce : Suppl y and Fi el d
. . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . .
Ser vi ce
. .
' nat n 0 - 46 - 21
329

TM 6- 215
TM9- 526
TM 20- 2115
TM 1- 500
FM3- 5
FM 3- 15

TM 9- 1400

I NDEX
A

Pays

Aci amsi ke { 171h] , LLc- xpi hl i i ) r e . .. . . .. . .

Peso

52

. .. . ill

Adapt er - boast er s . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .

Ada151l : Rx, dew. r i pt i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 111


Acr i H1 r ni r l r x

XX .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 252

Ai r cr af t si gnal s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

170

...

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .

. 10

AmmcmFl , Cl r ar ac' t r nxl i i : x . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

44

AmMot

Ai l t r noni ur n pi cr at e ( Sec F- 010 ,


si vc 1} )
Ai umuni t i on
r ar e, handl i ng. and pr eser vat i on . 213
cl asses_ quant i t y and di st Rr LUL. . . 262
3
cl assi f i cat i on and i dr nt i f i cRt i { , n . .,
2
code symbol s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .
combi nat i on st or age of ammuni 249
t i on and expl osi ves . . . . . . . . . .
dr sr mcki on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 291 . af 16
L1, l 1t t pi ng 3t sea . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 30'
i i r c hazar d gr oups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 221
gcncr 3l di sr ccsxi on of smsL1- ar ms

S4

gr adi ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
guar d pi o1cct i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
i nx Fsnct i ryn
i ner t component s . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2R9
smal l : I r mS ., , . , ., . . . . . . a86
l u1 nnr nl 7Cr f l ni j dat a C*t r d . . . . . . . . . . . .
mar k

Mel nci ; 3l % V%
t J i n dr 3" T00nk4 . . . . . . .

307

OE enndx". l . . . . . . . . . . .

.. . . ..

Ami t 1f l 3xr r l ) Uel

mi TH"

descr i pt i on al bnl al xl i l l g, c, r st .
i u, Or i , and pr 0aai r r. . . . . . . . . . . . .
241
packi ng and mar ki ng . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Ant i t ank mi nes
descr i pt i on
mct 3l i i X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
r uonr nn! t i l bC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pr act i ce . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
dest r uct i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

196
. 32i 1
. . 198

I mcki nk and mar ki ng . . . . . . .

A1' n3or - pi t i i ei ng aenr r ur i i t i on . . . . . . . . . ; i qX


Ar mor - r , i t r ci ng bambs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13f i
Ar mi i r . yi Gr l - i ut < l ar t r i t i p, C ( S( cf
car t r i d&ea)
Ar l i l l er y MMUnt i ni ki on
cl Nxsi Ecat i on and i dcnt i l i cat i on . . 95
Compl et e Round% ( f i xed and semi f i xc` d) . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
dr 3r t r r t i : i i nn Ri f - , hr i 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
di f t i cul ci cs i n l nal ui g or eAl r act i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , I . . . . . . . . . . . 301
r xer ni nat i on, packi ng, nr i d hl aCi n1;
. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
nr i kr l r er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

Bal l car t r i dge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .


B3r r i t t adn3, Hgl ci l cni r nt f i r . . . .

..

P. I nck l i oWdr r ( S . PowdCC, b) ack)

I t ni r t t ui g . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
l or i e, r i t y of i ssue . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 25
pr ot ect i on ( sms11- 3OWN) . . . . . . . . . . ., 299

Bl ank ammuni t i on
t - ur r., l 5Rnr l l i ng, hr i ! xf : cvl l i i i n 120 .
r ol abi uat i on st or age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
campl et C TOl l r cd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dcat r uct i an . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3ni l

cn; kr l ci ng

r r nocel i ni l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . 290
st nr agc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .

..

. . . . 215

t ct r yt ol - Ll 1cd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
( See al so Ar mor - pi er ci ng ammuni t i on, Acdl i cr y ammuni t i on,
Smal kar ms ammuni t i on and
Mor t ar ammuni t i on)

293

304
252
117
314

Bl enk car t r i dgr a


dcscr i pi i nr l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 61
f i r i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 248
Bl i st er gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
13100( 1 a1Lt ndr Vo

330

CI O

LaangaLocc Xor pcdocs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

. . . 121, 263

p3cki 11q

194
195

I i Ui EVn . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

51

TM 9- 1900

Pogo

B - Cant d-

Bor nbs
combi nat i on st r r r ahe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
descr i pt i on
chcmi csl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
cr pl osi vc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . , . .
] ncent l i Hr y . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . .
pr act i o6 and dr i l l . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
pyr 4, l r r i r ni r and t ar get - i dent i RCwt i nn . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . ., . . .
dO.st , ut l i n .
. . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . .,
Ecucr al di *ct j wxi us, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i dent i f i cat i on an+i r l assi f caLi go . .
i nspL: ct i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
pai nt i ng ar , d mar ki ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
j , r r GU1r 1i i mx f ur [ 33- Ur l i eC f i r kTLg . . . .
xl zsr : XaF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
( - S- s1so Phut oHash bnr r l xs}
1300St Cr s
dCECr i pt i i , n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
et t 1r al Kc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . ., .
Bour r cl ct , dt f i i t i l m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bsor r i bcnzyl cyan, de ( BBC) . . ., . . . .. . . .
1Svl l r t s, t l t wr i pl i i i f l , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .

252
141
135
151
153
15.1
315
131
133
2S8
b
3( 15
257

111
I .iR

..
..

4:
16

. . 251
. . . 319
i 1Ap cI i 0o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . Zd9
Pai r Oi ug : 21{i r oaskul g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
] r r r r aai i or bs Ct i r I nact i cc r ui ng. . . . 301
Nt 41r " Kv.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258, 263
Chemi cal r ocket s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
C. hl 03sr r t Ophenonr ( Cl t i ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
L' hl nr i r i r . ( Cl ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Chl or pi cr i n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., 51
Choki ng gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Su
Combi nat i on st t , r ugr cl u) r t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15n
Composi t i on A- A- 2, Hod A- 3 . . . . . . . . . 45
composi t i on B . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Cumposi t i on C, C- 2, and C- 3. . . . . . . . . 45
Cyanogen cl 0mi dv ( CK) . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . S1

l nl

52
54

FSi l r At cr 4
combi nat i on st or age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Xst
d4XSXL`. r i pt i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . l ] i

Cani st er , gl escr i p1i of t . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .


Cni [ r i dge case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . . ., . . . . . . . .
Car l r i Mar s
cr i m1, i na6o, sl or oge . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .
dc' or r i ] >r i nn
KMi pr - [ r i dr ci r LK; hal l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ar r nr n- hi nn, X. i ng i nCndi ar y ;
Kr mr r c- pi r r c" ng- 6l r eci Cl i 3r yt r act r . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
bl ank . . . . . ., . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. t sur P t CBt , and
dummy, 6i Xh- ] 1TP
gal l t r y pr act i ce . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
gr enade: shot ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
guar d ; subcal i bar . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
f i r i ng bl ank .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .
gener al di sct l ssi cm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
psi nt i ne, and r nar ki TI K . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
t r acer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .
t yl ) Gs . ., . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . . .

CI 1r. 311i r af agr nt s


d[ s Yi pt i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dcl i ni t i on and cl assi l i at i on . . . . .
ChcMi - S] ai ur nuni t i on
r - r l mhi nat i oi i st or age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
di . 9t I I Ji - Li on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .

60
249
64

6l
6t
62
66
63
299
54
7
61
60

Demol i t l un r nal r ` t i al x
combi nt t Li ur , sl or sge
demol i t i on bl ocks
MA and 143 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
M4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dt sl r scLoi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20- 1, 2Uf i ,
gener al di , cussi on . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dent ] , 1wi Ynhs, dcsr r i pt i on . . . .. . . . . . . .,
Dept h C1, ar kr X , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dmi r uct or s
AN- M]
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .
AN- M
2 and AN- 7, 43M . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .,
M4 and M5 . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .
Det onat or s
st or age . . . . . X.X. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
use of t ct r yl i n . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .
L?i phcny1chi or ar si nt ( DA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,
Di phoagcnc ( DP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . , ., . . . . . . .
T) i xt r i k, ut u1g pai nt s ._ . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
Duds, dcat r uct i un . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298,
Dunsmy car t r i dbca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .-- . . . . . ..
Dynanl i l e
VI mTACt $r i sl i OX and use , .
. , ..
ei Xmhi ugl i i ] ] , st or age . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
r I CSt r 4LGt i Xi r i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
at vr ao . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

252
310
211
110
244
136
252
204
206
210
258
: 34
52
50
261
321
62
43
2V
312
253

TM 9- 1900

E
Ednat ol .

Pwaq

char uX- t r r i 5t i r. . and use . . . . . .

Expl osi vr

Faga

44

l 3 u zr x

car e,

41
char uct t : r i St i c% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
l 1C' st r l 1Ct i m,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
st or age

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- 253

, .,

155

.. . . . ...

. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 311

demol i t i on . . . .

. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 214, 212

r Cgt 6r t r ne : r t l 5

1X

hi gh

e11ar act ef i st i cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43, ' l a


44
det onat i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gener al di scussi on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 47
i nspect i on . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287

and mar ki ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ass

( : a11i . 3y Fee. W
l i r. C t: r l t l r i dgu . . . . . . . . . . . .

tit

hand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

Gr Cnf t dr , C- f u: ni i Cai r i f l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cr emade,

expl osi ve hand

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .,

i P,

Gr t nade,

r xpJt mi vr r i f l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

81)

. .... . ...

.... . . .

215

216
220

. . . 221

i l rI f ri l i l i rm
dest r uct i on

298

i i t spcX- t i aXn

11Sr t

.. . . .

251,

256

75

. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
. . . . . . . ..

Cr uar d car t r i dges

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .

. . . . . . . . 251

. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 104
76

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

153
36

H
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

S1

Hexachl omt hanv- xi ne mi xt ur e . . . . . . .

52

Hi gh

descr i pt i on . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

285

. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Har a95i ng f a9Cs


Fi agr m. r oat i r m bom
bs

M
12

.... . . . . . . . .... ... . , , .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 175

Fl ash si gnal s ( See Si enal s)

ce, r nbi ni +t i on st or uge . . . .

83
82

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 162

Kn, und t ype . . . .

66

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . .

and f uzi nst

Guncot t on . . . .

. . . . . .....

8( I

C: , i i i nd xi pSa15 ( Ser. Ri gr t Ul x)

descr i pt i on

rrt l ,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . .. . . . . . .

t 73f c3i i t i - i 5 f or JI r at l i ce f ar i ng. . . .

st or age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fv' . Sr r ,

. .

Gr enades

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155
i nq, r ct i on
mi %f i r r
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302

i dent i f i cat i on Land pecki ng . . .


descr i pt i on

Fi xasd dml r I t nl t i i l l t

Kr nr r : : l

. . ...

CPr r Pr t r l l , X, C( I 1di nr t ; i n hanal l i nr i

214

. . . . . . . . . 245

; 7CCS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Gr ewi dr pmj e. t ai on : r dAl ar r

at suppl y and di st r i but i ng l t ei i r ds 261

Fl ar es,

...

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

Gr enade Car t r i dke

Fi r e pr ot ect i on

Pi r i nK i l i 1s) Ugl i

..

Gr el ) adc . sr aoLc

: dr r 31i f i eat i an of m
a. r azi nr a

1150

. , . . . . ., . . . . 107

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .

ri f l e . . .

Fi r i ng, pr ac : i cc

. .,

Gr e. r 3adr. , pr act i r c and t r ai ni ng

f i r es . . . , .
.. . . . ..... .
f i r e- l i ght i ng . . . . . . . . .
.
f i r . pr cvcnt i on r a: KUl l +t i , mx . . . . . .. . . .
f r ont f i r es i nvol vi ng r . xl , l r nXi vr x . .

. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 153

and concussi on. . . . . . 155

Cr onadc, chemi cal

r ouses of

saf et y f eat ur es . . . . . . . .
st t ; : as1-

.. . . .... ..

Expl osi ves,

I A, mb, nKi sr. , Mend 1ai 1 . , . . . . . . . . . . . .

Jt 3i : hi ag

26

dest r uct i on

mi l i t ar y

2S1

i nsPr ci ; r m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

cl as9r s ; quanr i t y- Xl i xt , t r a : r . . . 240, 207,


comhmat i on st nr age u( hul k . . . . . . . . 252

hul k

107

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . - . . .

kl Or aggi..

hydr ost at i c

1' XXp] a?Sj VC9

dchni t i on t t nr J cl uxsi f i t - ; ) 1i or t . . . . . . ..

303

S: t r enl , i , i : 11i . nt

KCTI Cr gl

' 24

Rxt , l i i 6vt ; t t ai t t x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

and l t r t sEr cat i or i

descr i pt i on

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

Expl osi ve r ocket s . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

handl i nx,

r f ami r i r at i on . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

expl osi ve

( Soe

Expl osl vr x,

hi Kh)

1315

Hi os t , r t ` Xsur t 1r xt Car f r l l [ KC . . .. . . . .

q2

119

Hydr ocyani c aci d ( AC)

51

331

. . . . . . . . . . . -- . . . . .

I M 9- 7900
I ndex
I

POUF

Tl l uni ui : Lt i np XheXi i s
I nccndi 3r i cs

. . . . , . , . . . 105, 177

... . . . . . .... .... . .. . .. . . ..

r nr l r i dX,, c

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .

i ner t mat er i al s, %163 . Lj &. .


I nsxl i t SL- t i

tm

Tnt CT: St at c

and

...

BUTVCj Ll anl : C . . . .

Com
m
er t c

n,. gul ai i or a

. . . .. . .

i t COBt af dl e

Page

...

. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

26U
..

183

Con) i ni ssi ur t t

. . ...

Ox : di r i nJ4 agr nt s

P
Fai nt i ng ; i r Ld r r : ur ki nK. .
Pcnt ol i t X

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . t

. ..

6,

, ' . 9,

4: i

ch ; i r ut ' t vr i at l cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

assi hcat i an . . . . . . .

( See . 1sr r

194, 201
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2S1

Ant i - pcr eonnc[

r n i ncs

sr t d Ant i t Knk mi nes)


LaW
) ( - hcr s

. . . . , . . . . 31 . 5

PFTI +f ( Pr nt vXr yt hr i t e 1ar ani r r At e)

Land mi nes
combi nat i on xi ol x&

. . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lead asi de " .

. . . . . . . 189

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .

Lr hi ai t e ( L) . . . . . .. . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . .
Li ght - cW
l hnr nl i 8

47, 53

...

f Cnt ol i t c- l i l LCd ' i nnn, Lni t I on

Cl

42

53

. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 249

Tnct ndi ar y ar nmuni don


r 1x- CoLl i 3r y

. 47,

+{

. . .. ..... .

Li 4r s .

... .

92

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

phoskenc ( CC)

, .... . ... . . .... ..... ..

50

Phasl dmr u- , i r e hazar ds . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

42' 1

P1, r r t ot t ash bombs .

.. ....

. . . . .,

161

Pi ef at uf

. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42

... . . .

..

.. .

:ix

Pi L : r i r M- i d ( t r i ni t f opl ) cnOL) . .

54

Powder
t haf 3cr Ni st i r x

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Mi

3r l Ll

zi t

hni i Xkr f e" ' ss

. .,

SI

doubl e . bast
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. 36

i mj xct i on i r f amokcl ess . . . . . . . . 284, 287


?4l ar azI nc

ar eas

..... .. . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

MnKgxi nC5

Li wvs . . . .

Ar r on?CMCnt ,

Car e, and mui r , t C. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

nancc

kNJ3} 5t r uct i on . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231


1r Lkl i Pr t i r ni
. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
284
yuanr i t y- di st ance cl ai ; r 5 aci d
1, 1151e*
Kr TLr r al

st or age . . . . . . . . . . . .

Powder ,

] cl ack

r af t , hon, I Li nr , and pr cser vvt i on,

di scussi on . . . . . . .

mpai r s

. l 3 -1
242

. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233

MAi 1L4CTi WTt CC- dcf i ni i i r m .


hr r , r cur y f uf mi nal r . . . . . .
ALi r as ( Si r Aer i al

..

290

......... ... . . .

39

ci r st r uct i on . .

. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .

mi nes and Land

.
%5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 315

fir

pr act i ce Car i ng . . . .

l i ng, t ) ar ki r nk and mar ki ng. . . .

I VLLI l i l t l c Jal t nCf l er s . . . . . .


MLt at ar d g3k . . . .

..

S$

..

. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. . ,. . . .

115
1116

Pr oj ect i l e- L". 7r r i st cr . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106


42

Pr uj uLl i l t , dr i l l of

. . . . 279

. .. .

Pl ' i [ TI r r mi xt ur es . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

t yp[ a

. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1"

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

37

Pr aet i eL: r L- knt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

Pr uj r r f i l e- a[ r nor - pi r r i : i nk

. i ns

pr ui cc6on. pr ccaut i ans i r & l i ancJ-

7dat or 1r n<- k %hi pni cnt s . . . . . . . . . . . ..

. ..... . .. . .... . .

i ndi cat or s . . . . . . 711

dcxi ai 311i f m . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . 115


desl cur t i pn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; i 17
Var , ge . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -- . . . . . . . . . . 251, LSR

251

descr i pt i on at t i l r 1aaai f i cat i on . . . .


pr ecaki l i onr

... . . ....... .
1r nLl ucr nt ur c

Pr i mr t e

Mor t ar amamni t i on

dcst r ucl i ar i

er r s
Pow&r

. . . . . : . . . 311

. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 259

Pr l nl cr - dCt an3Lr i r %. at ar a e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

t t l i rt r ; )
comhi nar i on st ompc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

X52

Char act er i st i cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304

" Lar 3gc . . . . . . . . . ., . .

t abl es . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 . M
,

. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 254

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35, 3f i

5( t

dr LOt my , .

I V

Pr oj cct i l c,

169h- vr l oci t y ar mor pi e : r L : i nk , hot . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

186

Fr aj cr t i l r. , 1 : Lr pet pr ac : i cc . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
333

TM 9- 1904
I ndex

Fogs

POUN

P ^ Cant d.

. f oi l shi pment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , .

Pr ( i j e- l i l ex
COMV; ni 1r , ( j t 7 9Wl Age ( xP. 173, ' 3t e251
l oadi r 7g)
gXncr al dj S, - USai r vr X ,, t ) d con, por l et 7t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:
t ypr s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ., ., . . . . ., 105

RDX ( oycl oni t e) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .


Repor t

Pr oPal l r r 1t powder , bul k

Saf et y pr ecaut i ons i n dest r oyi ng


ammuni t i on . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . 3011
$af r l y r e ul ; r t i t ms , ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
r t f.L?,7i rfr' ,' Rr et okr r , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ao: cahng
. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 368

294
154
11- 3
29

PTX- 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

a6

PTX- 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .

46

Sr nt i . a, nu, r . l X; cr xi nx bombs . . . . . . . .. .
SC17l i f i kCd u- ni r ni t i on
i T, x7Mct i Un . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .X .
mi sf i r es . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
st or age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2D1,
Shaped r har gcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .

Publ i cst t i on f i l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 290


Pyr nLP
. Ol Ul i c composi t i ons

Shel l , ar t i l l cl y
SI , r I l , chr mi r al

.- . .- . . . . .. 162

PYr ot et ' I mi 4 " si gnal s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

181
186
196

Pr ecaut i ons . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 190


at 4j r RRC ., . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 251, 260

251
184
312
111
13U

Pr opel l i ng- char ( t o expl osi ve t r ai ns ..

. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

191

r l r. 5t r ut ' t i ML . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315
i dent i f i cat i on and component s. . . . 196
1 . . Cki
. . 193
i ( an, l el r i p3, i " V . . . . .,

300
125

.
. . . . .. . . . . . . . .

TYTW
X

44

of r msel vi r eabl c and dcf ect , vC " MI TI Mi l , t i Ot l . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 290

Rocket s
cl u, xi 6cat . i nt l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
dc&cr i pt i on
expl r Ai vr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
pr uaa, Ce . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .
t ar gel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1' r npr 11ant 9


vCnr r ol di sr usai nn . . . . . . . .
smal l - am, s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pp, l , " Xl hr l g Ol l ar gce
er r at i c and CXCE95; Vr .
bl endi ng ; .
pr essur es ; maxi mumr at i vcs
car e and pr ecaut i ons i re bundl i ng
combi l , ut i o, 7 st or age ( ar l , a, 37el 45n4r l i r 6g)
dcj Cr i pt i nn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34,
d, Xst r uct i on ( z, t. par 3t c- l oadi ng) . . . .
gener al dACUSSI Ur r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packi r np, . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
pr emat ur e i gni t i on and Aa, cbacks . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
at nr agc ( scpar al c- l r 1adi ug) . . . . . . .,

. . . . .. . . . 2 : 3

. . . . . 1r , 2

Pyr ot vr hr Xi cs
ccar r , t - ndl i ng, and pr eger vat i nn 1R0
cl assi f i cat i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
dr xt r r , Ct i r , [ i . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 x1
l i r e hazar ds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
i CJCt j t i 6Cat ; I m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 179
1n . qpCCi j Dr l
. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JSY
packi ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
l i ai nt i t 7g and mar ki ng . . . . . . . . ., . . . . . . . .
8
pr ecaut i ons f or pr act i ce ( f i r i ng. . . 304
st or age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249, 258

136
265
301
25G

' 3 L3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,

Shr f t , hi gh- expt oei vc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., . . 105


Shel l , hi gh- expl osi ve- a' nt i t a, 1k
( HF, AT) . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 105
She] 1, i l l umi nat i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . , ., , I US, 17i
Shc] l , i nol t ar . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
, , Mi l l , separ at e l oadi ng
1nSPCet } n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Mr l r f l ge . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Shel l . shot gun . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 66
Shi ppi ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Shr apnel , at eWr i pt i un . . ., ., . , . . .. . . 106

334

I ndex
T

t d.
S - Ccm

?Poe

Tar get r anges , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

Si gnal s, descr i pt i on
ei MYSf t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
di st r csb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . 177

Tar get r acket s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . 186


Tct r yl

--------- . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . I N
gr ound, sound, and [ l ash . . ., .. . . . .. . . . 177
dr i f t

char set er i St i CS, det VMat i 9n, and


use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . , . ,

Sl i ck mar ker . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 1 : 5

dest r uct i on

39

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 311

st or age . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

Smal l - ar ms ammuni t i on
dest r uct i on . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 315

Toi r yt ol , char act er i st i cs ar ul

f i r e haxar +13 . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222

Tct r yt ol - f i l l ed 4TTLr oani t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . 315

KYPf l el j C9. r P at nd } 7r nCaut i OAI s i n

handl i ng . . . .. . . . . . ., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
i dent i f i cat i on

Ti t ani um t et r g. Cl i l or i de ( FM) . . . . . . . .
67

. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
69

pr ecaut i ons i n f i r i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64

char act er i st i cs
dest r uct i on

36

St amp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 253

t i on . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
Tor pedoes

Smoke l t i <<F CI ) ar gcs . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .., ., . 252

CQwbi nal i on st or age ( aer i al )

5mokcl cm ponder

descr i pt i on ( bangsl or e)

char act er i st i cs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 33, 36


i nspect i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284, Z87
st or age . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . 254
uses . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 35, 36

61

bl i x: ks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 253
. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

153

44

Submar i ne mul e expl osi ves . . . . . . . . . . . . 289


t r i oxi de- chl or sul f oni c aced
mi xt ur e ( FS) . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44

. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Tr aCCE car t r i dge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Tr l t Gnel

Sl ot t i ng char ges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

. . . . 2S2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2( 14

Ta r pex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . . . . .
Tr a" r

Tr i t 0i

Sound si gnal s ( Sae Si gnal s)

Subml i t er Car t r i dgr s . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4D

Tool s f or r enovat i on of ammuni -

Smoke ammuni t i on . . . . . . . . . ., . . . . ., . . . .. . . . . 249

Sul f ur

. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31l

exudat i on, det onat i on, and use .,

st ar agc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , ., . . . . . ., . . 255
..

5?

i wspecl i on . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 289

vr nt cct i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Smal l - ar ms pr opel l ant s . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

TNT ( t r i ni t r ot ol a* ne)

i Mal wxt i on .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 286, 297


par ki ng and mar ki ng . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

use. . . .

W
at er sl i i 1mt i pnt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 277
52

Suppl y Voi nt s . . . ._ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2J61

W
hi t e phoaphvr us ( W
P)

. . . . . .. .

52

W
P ammuni t i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

49

335
u. 4. W
. ' 1RNMFt l r

Pf r mpr ; nmcr . u

I' m